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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Prevalence of oral manifestations in soft tissues during early childhood in Brazilian children.
Braz Oral Res
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of soft tissue oral manifestations in children during early childhood, according to age group, gender, and site in the oral cavity, and at correlating these oral manifestations with systemic alterations. A cross-sectional study was conducted involving 586 children from 0 to 3 years of age (12.4 ± 11.8 months), 316 (53.9%) male and 270 (46.1%) female, in the city of Mauá, SP, Brazil. Examination was performed by a single examiner (Kappa Index = 0.90) according to World Health Organization criteria (WHO, 1997).The prevalence of oral manifestations in the soft tissues of children during early childhood was 34.8%. The age group showing statistical significance was 0-1 months old (56.4%). Epstein's pearls were significantly present (43.2%) in 0-1-month-old babies, and gingivitis in 12-24-month-olds (15.9%). The palate was the most affected region (16.7%). Infectious alterations were the most prevalent systemic alteration (20%). An association was observed between the presence of systemic alterations and the occurrence of oral manifestations. The prevalence of oral manifestations was 34.8%, regardless of gender, and was manifested mostly in 0-1-month-old babies. The palate was the most prevalent region, and the majority of oral manifestations were associated with systemic alterations.
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Assessment of cardiovascular disease risk using immunosensors for determination of C-reactive protein levels in serum and saliva: a pilot study.
Bioanalysis
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Disposable immunosensors based on field effect transistors with single-walled carbon nanotubes (NTFET) were applied for the first time to clinical samples of undiluted blood serum and saliva for the determination of C-reactive protein (CRP), and validated by comparison with ELISA.
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Clinical and epidemiological profile of cases of deaths from stomach cancer in the National Cancer Institute, Brazil.
Ecancermedicalscience
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Stomach cancer is the third most common cause of death worldwide, mainly affecting people with low socioeconomic status. In Brazil, we expect 20,390 new cases of stomach cancer in 2014, in both sexes, and according to the proportional distribution of the ten most prevalent types of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) expected for 2014, this type of cancer was estimated to be the fourth most common in men and sixth in women.
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Expression of porcine fusion protein IRF7/3(5D) efficiently controls foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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Several studies have demonstrated that the delivery of type I, II, or III interferons (IFNs) by inoculation of a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 (Ad5) vector expressing IFNs can effectively control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and swine during experimental infections. However, relatively high doses are required to achieve protection. In this study, we identified the functional properties of a porcine fusion protein, poIRF7/3(5D), as a biotherapeutic and enhancer of IFN activity against FMD virus (FMDV). We showed that poIRF7/3(5D) is a potent inducer of type I IFNs, including alpha IFN (IFN-?), IFN-?, and IFN-? but not type III IFN (interleukin-28B), without inducing cytotoxicity. Expression of poIRF7/3(5D) significantly and steadily reduced FMDV titers by up to 6 log10 units in swine and bovine cell lines. Treatment with an IFN receptor inhibitor (B18R) combined with an anti-IFN-? antibody neutralized the antiviral activity in the supernatants of cells transduced with an Ad5 vector expressing poIRF7/3(5D) [Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D)]. However, several transcripts with known antiviral function, including type I IFNs, were still highly upregulated (range of increase, 8-fold to over 500-fold) by poIRF7/3(5D) in the presence of B18R. Furthermore, the sera of mice treated with Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) showed antiviral activity that was associated with the induction of high levels of IFN-? and resulted in complete protection against FMDV challenge at 6, 24, or 48 h posttreatment. This study highlights for the first time the antiviral potential of Ad5-poIRF7/3(5D) in vitro and in vivo against FMDV.
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Aromatic aldehydes at the active site of aldehyde oxidoreductase from Desulfovibrio gigas: reactivity and molecular details of the enzyme-substrate and enzyme-product interaction.
J. Biol. Inorg. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Desulfovibrio gigas aldehyde oxidoreductase (DgAOR) is a mononuclear molybdenum-containing enzyme from the xanthine oxidase (XO) family, a group of enzymes capable of catalyzing the oxidative hydroxylation of aldehydes and heterocyclic compounds. The kinetic studies reported in this work showed that DgAOR catalyzes the oxidative hydroxylation of aromatic aldehydes, but not heterocyclic compounds. NMR spectroscopy studies using (13)C-labeled benzaldehyde confirmed that DgAOR catalyzes the conversion of aldehydes to the respective carboxylic acids. Steady-state kinetics in solution showed that high concentrations of the aromatic aldehydes produce substrate inhibition and in the case of 3-phenyl propionaldehyde a suicide substrate behavior. Hydroxyl-substituted aromatic aldehydes present none of these behaviors but the kinetic parameters are largely affected by the position of the OH group. High-resolution crystallographic structures obtained from single crystals of active-DgAOR soaked with benzaldehyde showed that the side chains of Phe425 and Tyr535 are important for the stabilization of the substrate in the active site. On the other hand, the X-ray data of DgAOR soaked with trans-cinnamaldehyde showed a cinnamic acid molecule in the substrate channel. The X-ray data of DgAOR soaked with 3-phenyl propionaldehyde showed clearly how high substrate concentrations inactivate the enzyme by binding covalently at the surface of the enzyme and blocking the substrate channel. The different reactivity of DgAOR versus aldehyde oxidase and XO towards aromatic aldehydes and N-heterocyclic compounds is explained on the basis of the present kinetic and structural data.
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Poly ICLC increases the potency of a replication-defective human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. We have previously demonstrated that a replication-defective human adenovirus 5 vector carrying the FMDV capsid coding region of serotype A24 Cruzeiro (Ad5-CI-A24-2B) protects swine and cattle against FMDV challenge by 7 days post-vaccination. However, since relatively large amounts of Ad5-CI-A24-2B are required to induce protection this strategy could be costly for livestock production. Poly ICLC is a synthetic double stranded RNA that activates multiple innate and adaptive immune pathways. In this study, we have tested for the first time, the adjuvant effect of poly ICLC in combination with Ad5-CI-A24-2B in swine. We found that the combination resulted in a reduction of the vaccine protective dose by 80-fold. Interestingly, the lowest dose of Ad5-CI-A24-2B plus 1mg of poly ICLC protected animals against challenge even in the absence of detectable FMDV-specific neutralizing antibodies at the time of challenge.
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Type III interferon protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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In recent years, we have developed novel strategies to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), including the use of biotherapeutics such as interferons (IFN) delivered by a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 (Ad5). Swine can be sterilely protected after vaccination with an Ad5 that encodes porcine type I IFN (poIFN-?), and cattle can be similarly protected or develop significantly reduced disease when treated with an Ad5 delivering bovine type III IFN (boIFN-?3). Here, we have evaluated the efficacy of porcine IFN-?3 (poIFN-?3) against FMD virus in vivo. Swine inoculated with different doses of Ad5-poIFN-?3 were protected against disease in a dose-dependent manner. Despite the absence of systemic antiviral activity, 7 out of 10 Ad5-poIFN-?3 inoculated animals did not develop disease or viremia, and the other 3 inoculated animals displayed delayed and milder disease by 7 days postchallenge as compared with control animals inoculated with an Ad5 control vector. While analysis of gene expression showed significant induction of IFN and IFN-stimulated genes in Ad5-poIFN-?3-treated cultured porcine epithelial kidney cells, there was limited gene induction in peripheral blood monocytes isolated from treated swine. These results suggest that treatment with Ad5-poIFN-?3 is an effective biotherapeutic strategy against FMD in swine.
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Heparanase expression and localization in different types of human lung cancer.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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Heparanase is the only known mammalian glycosidase capable of cleaving heparan sulfate chains. The expression of this enzyme has been associated with tumor development because of its ability to degrade extracellular matrix and promote cell invasion.
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TupA: a tungstate binding protein in the periplasm of Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The TupABC system is involved in the cellular uptake of tungsten and belongs to the ABC (ATP binding cassette)-type transporter systems. The TupA component is a periplasmic protein that binds tungstate anions, which are then transported through the membrane by the TupB component using ATP hydrolysis as the energy source (the reaction catalyzed by the ModC component). We report the heterologous expression, purification, determination of affinity binding constants and crystallization of the Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20 TupA. The tupA gene (locus tag Dde_0234) was cloned in the pET46 Enterokinase/Ligation-Independent Cloning (LIC) expression vector, and the construct was used to transform BL21 (DE3) cells. TupA expression and purification were optimized to a final yield of 10 mg of soluble pure protein per liter of culture medium. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was carried out showing that TupA binds both tungstate and molybdate ions and has no significant interaction with sulfate, phosphate or perchlorate. Quantitative analysis of metal binding by isothermal titration calorimetry was in agreement with these results, but in addition, shows that TupA has higher affinity to tungstate than molybdate. The protein crystallizes in the presence of 30% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 using the hanging-drop vapor diffusion method. The crystals diffract X-rays beyond 1.4 Å resolution and belong to the P21 space group, with cell parameters a = 52.25 Å, b = 42.50 Å, c = 54.71 Å, ? = 95.43°. A molecular replacement solution was found, and the structure is currently under refinement.
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Differential activation of dendritic cells by Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype.
Immunol. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) inhibits dendritric cells (DC) function in order to delay T cell response. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that genetic diversity of Mtb strains can affect their interaction with the immune system. Beijing genotype has attracted attention because of its high prevalence and multi-drug resistance. Although it is known that this genotype is hypervirulent and differentially activates macrophages when compared to other genotypes, little is known about its interaction with DC. In order to address this issue, murine bone marrow derived DC (BMDC) were stimulated with soluble extracts (SE) from BCG, H37Rv, Canetti and Beijing genotypes. We observed that unlike other mycobacteria strains, SE-Beijing was unable to induce maturation of DC as assessed by cell surface MHC-II expression. DC stimulated with SE-Beijing failed to produce IL-12 and TNF-?, but did secrete IL-10. Interestingly, SE-Beijing induced CCR7 and PDL-1 on BMDC, but did not induce the expression of CD86. When BMDC stimulated with SE-Beijing were used to activate CD4+ cells they were unable to induce a Th1 response when compared with less virulent genotypes. These results indicate that Beijing is able to modulate DC activation and function, which may be related to the pathogenesis induced by this genotype.
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Transcriptional and translational control through the 5'-leader region of the dmpR master regulatory gene of phenol metabolism.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Expression of pathways for dissimilation of toxic aromatic compounds such as (methyl)phenols interfaces both stress-response and carbon catabolite repression control cascades. In Pseudomonas putida, carbon catabolite repression is mediated by the protein Crc - a translational repressor that counteracts utilization of less-preferred carbon sources as growth substrates until they are needed. In this work we dissect the regulatory role of the 5'-leader region (5'-LR) of the dmpR gene that encodes the master regulator of (methyl)phenol catabolism. Using deletion and substitution mutants combined with artificial manipulations of Crc availability in P.?putida, we present evidence that a DNA motif within the 5'-leader region is critical for inhibition of the output from the Pr promoter that drives transcription of dmpR, while the RNA chaperone Hfq facilitates Crc-mediated translation repression through the 5'-leader region of the dmpR mRNA. The results are discussed in the light of a model in which Hfq assists Crc to target a sequence within a loop formed by secondary structure of the 5'-LR mRNA. Our results support the idea that Crc functions as a global translational inhibitor to co-ordinate hierarchical carbon utilization in Pseudomonads.
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[Economic evaluation of cases of dengue fever attributed to the disaster of 2011 in Nova Friburgo (State of Rio de Janeiro/Brazil)].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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The prospects outlined in climate scenarios produced for Brazil indicate a probable increase in the number of extreme hydrometeorological events in the coming years. Therefore, a study of the health scourges that may intensify due to these events is important. The scope of this article is to estimate the cost represented by the cases of dengue fever attributed to the 2011 disaster in Nova Friburgo (RJ). There were 1,356 suspected cases of dengue fever, 937 of which were confirmed. The total cost of the disease may have been between R$66,000 and R$499,000 taking the minimum salary as a benchmark, with approximately 70% of this amount being among the confirmed cases. The disaster caused extensive changes in the city's environment which, together with the urban sanitation and clearing up process that occurred in the post-event period, led to an increase in the number of potential mosquito breeding sites, facilitating their proliferation and increasing the number of cases of dengue fever. This was a disease that in the decade prior to the disaster recorded few cases of the disease in the municipality. This illustrates the potential of events like the one that occurred in 2011 in Nova Friburgo may have on the increase in the number of cases, and consequently on the cost of the disease.
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Chronic condition and risk behaviours in Portuguese adolescents.
Glob J Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that adolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health/education professionals, more than considering risk behaviours as dangerous in themselves, should offer adolescents with a CC an opportunity to reflect on their own decisions. Educational programs would benefit from looking at risk behaviors more from an experimentation perspective, focusing on constructive ways to help adolescents with CC to proceed into adulthood in a more appropriate developmental way.
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Low amounts of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species define human sperm quality.
Reproduction
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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We have applied the mitochondria-specific superoxide fluorescent probe MitoSOX Red (MitoSOX) to detect mitochondria-specific reactive oxygen species (mROS) production in human sperm samples using flow cytometry. We show that human ejaculates are heterogeneous in terms of mROS production, with three subpopulations clearly detectable, comprising sperm that produce increasing amounts of mROS (MitoSOX-, MitoSOX+, and MitoSOX++). The sperm subpopulation producing the lowest amount of mROS represented the most functional subset of male gametes within the ejaculate, as it was correlated with the highest amount of live and non-apoptotic sperm and increased both in samples with better semen parameters and in samples processed by both density-gradient centrifugation and swim-up, both known to select for higher quality sperm. Importantly, the MitoSOX- subpopulation was clearly more prevalent in samples that gave rise to pregnancies following assisted reproduction. Our work, therefore, not only describe discreet human sperm heterogeneity at the mROS level but also suggests that mROS may represent a strategy to both evaluate sperm samples and isolate the most functional gametes for assisted reproduction.
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The impact of uranium mine contamination of soils on plant litter decomposition.
Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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As part of a tier 3 risk assessment performed for a uranium mining area, the ability of soils with different degrees of metal contamination to degrade organic matter was assessed using litter bags filled with leaves of Quercus robur, Pinus pinaster, Salix atrocinerea, or a mixture of the three species. Litter bags were exposed at different sites within the mine area and at a reference area for 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Biomass loss, nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), carbon (C) and total fatty acid, total phenolic, and ergosterol contents were assessed for each litter bag retrieved from the field. The decomposition of litter at each site seemed to be governed by a complex interaction of many different factors. After 12 months of exposure, leaves from the most contaminated sites were distinguishable from those from the reference site. In the reference site, the greatest percentages of biomass loss were attained by Q. robur and P. pinaster leaves. These species displayed the second highest and the lowest C-to-N ratios, respectively. In addition, the high P content of the litter from these two species may have favored microbial colonization. The results suggest that the decomposition of P. pinaster and Q. robur leaves may have been favored at the reference site by the high abundance of both species at this site and the subsequent adaptation of the microbial community to their litter. Our study shows that different species of leaf litter should be used to discriminate between contaminated sites with different levels of contamination.
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[Success in maintaining weight loss in Portugal: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The scope of this article is to describe the Portuguese Weight Control Registry (PWCR) methodology and the participants currently enrolled specifically with respect to their individual and family weight history, previous weight loss attempts, and psychosocial characteristics. One hundred and ninety-eight adults (age: 39.7±11.1 years; BMI: 26.0±3.9 kg/m2), 59% women, filled out a questionnaire about demographics, health-related behaviors and motivation, and methods and strategies used to lose and/or maintain weight loss. Participants reported an average weight loss of 17.4 kg for an average of 29 months. Concerning the number of weight loss attempts, 73% of participants reported a maximum of three attempts of going on a diet, and 34% indicated only one attempt to lose weight in the past. The PWCR now features a considerable number of successful long-term weight loss maintainers in Portugal. Participants will be followed over the next years to learn about their characteristics and weight loss strategies in further detail, as well as to identify predictors of continued weight loss maintenance.
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Risk of drug-induced liver injury with the new oral anticoagulants: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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In recent years, safety alerts have been made warning of the risk of serious drug-induced liver injury (DILI) caused by cardiovascular drugs. The new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) have now reached the market. However, safety concerns have been raised about their hepatic safety. Therefore we aimed to evaluate NOAC liver-related safety.
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Structural data on the periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli: SAXS and preliminary X-ray crystallography analysis.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC from Escherichia coli is a molybdenum enzyme involved in detoxification of aldehydes in the cell. It is an example of an ??? heterotrimeric enzyme of the xanthine oxidase family of enzymes which does not dimerize via its molybdenum cofactor binding domain. In order to structurally characterize PaoABC, X-ray crystallography and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) have been carried out. The protein crystallizes in the presence of 20% (w/v) polyethylene glycol 3350 using the hanging-drop vapour diffusion method. Although crystals were initially twinned, several experiments were done to overcome twinning and lowering the crystallization temperature (293 K to 277 K) was the solution to the problem. The non-twinned crystals used to solve the structure diffract X-rays to beyond 1.80 Å and belong to the C2 space group, with cell parameters a = 109.42 Å, b = 78.08 Å, c = 151.77 Å, ? = 99.77°, and one molecule in the asymmetric unit. A molecular replacement solution was found for each subunit separately, using several proteins as search models. SAXS data of PaoABC were also collected showing that, in solution, the protein is also an ??? heterotrimer.
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Relation of cumulus cell status with single oocyte maturity, fertilization capability and patient age.
J Reprod Infertil
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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The production of competent oocytes depends on a bi-directional communication between the oocyte and cumulus cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether simple parameters monitored in cumulus cells from individual human oocytes have any predictive value, and thus correlate with clinically relevant parameters.
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Prospective study evaluating oncological safety of axillary reverse mapping.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Axillary reverse mapping (ARM) is a new technique developed with the aim of reducing lymphedema rates by preserving lymphatic drainage of the upper limbs during sentinel lymph node biopsy and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). However, it is unclear whether preservation of these lymph nodes affects oncological risk. The present study evaluated the presence of metastases in ARM nodes.
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Clinicopathologic analysis and syndecan-1 and Ki-67 expression in calcifying cystic odontogenic tumors, dentinogenic ghost cell tumor, and ghost cell odontogenic carcinoma.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Benign and malignant tumor cells can express altered adhesion properties, and these features can be associated with their proliferative and invasive characteristics. This study aimed to evaluate syndecan-1 and Ki-67 expression in ghost cell-containing odontogenic tumors.
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Patients With Mucopolysaccharidosis Have Tendencies Towards Vertical Facial Growth.
J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Studies addressing the changes in craniofacial morphology of patients with mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) are important for a better understanding of the progression of this disease. The present objective was to identify major cephalometric abnormalities in these patients.
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Carriers for metal complexes on tumour cells: the effect of cyclodextrins vs CNTs on the model guest phenanthroline-5,6-dione trithiacyclononane ruthenium(II) chloride.
Biometals
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The complex [Ru[9]aneS3(pdon)Cl]Cl (pdon = 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione) was readily obtained from the stoichiometric reaction of Ru[9]aneS3(dmso)Cl2 with pdon. Recrystallisation in ethanol using salicylic acid as a co-crystallisation helper afforded single-crystals suitable for the collection of X-ray diffraction data which afforded a reasonable structural description. Two different kinds of molecular carriers were tested as vehicles for this complex: carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and cyclodextrins. CNTs had an insufficient loading rate for the ruthenium complex at CNT concentrations deemed non-cytotoxic on cultured cells. The cyclodextrin (CD) carriers, ?-CD and TRIMEB (standing for permethylated ?-CD), were able to form two adducts, studied by powder X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), (13)C{(1)H} CP/MAS NMR and FT-IR spectroscopies. The DNA thermal denaturation studies showed that the complex 1 is able to intercalate with DNA. The in vitro cytotoxicity of the free complex [Ru[9]aneS3(pdon)Cl]Cl (1) and of its two CD adducts (2 and 3) was assessed on both rodent and human cell lines. By using the mouse K1735-M2 melanoma cell line and the non-tumour rat H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, the results showed that 1 and 2 significantly inhibited the growth of the tumour cell line while displaying a good safety profile on cardiomyoblasts. Compound 3 at 100 ?M inhibited the proliferation of both cell lines, with a higher activity towards the melanoma cell line. The cytotoxicity of the compounds 1-3 was further assessed on human breast cancer cell lines. Against the MDA-MB-231 line, growth inhibition occurred only with 1 and 3 at the incubation time of 96 h, both with approximate inhibition rates of 50 %; against the MCF-7 line, mild cytotoxicity was observed at 48 h of incubation, with IC50 values calculated above 100 ?M for 1, 2 and 3.
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Foot-and-mouth disease virus virulence in cattle is co-determined by viral replication dynamics and route of infection.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Early events in the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection in cattle were investigated through aerosol and intraepithelial lingual (IEL) inoculations of a cDNA-derived FMDV-A24 wild type virus (FMDV-WT) or a mutant derived from the same clone (FMDV-Mut). After aerosolization of FMDV-WT, primary infection sites had significantly greater quantities of FMDV, viral RNA, and type I/III interferon (IFN) activity compared to corresponding tissues from cattle infected with FMDV-Mut. Additionally, FMDV-WT-infected cattle had marked induction of systemic IFN activity in serum. In contrast, FMDV-Mut aerosol-infected cattle did not manifest systemic IFN response nor had viremia. Interestingly, IEL inoculation of FMDV-Mut in cattle restored the virulent phenotype and systemic IFN response. These data indicate that the attenuated phenotype in cattle is associated with decreased replicative efficiency, reflected by decreased innate response. However, attenuation is abrogated by bypassing the common primary infection sites, inducing accelerated viral replication at the inoculation site.
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Biochemical, stabilization and crystallization studies on a molecular chaperone (PaoD) involved in the maturation of molybdoenzymes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Molybdenum and tungsten enzymes require specific chaperones for folding and cofactor insertion. PaoD is the chaperone of the periplasmic aldehyde oxidoreductase PaoABC. It is the last gene in the paoABCD operon in Escherichia coli and its presence is crucial for obtaining mature enzyme. PaoD is an unstable, 35 kDa, protein. Our biochemical studies showed that it is a dimer in solution with a tendency to form large aggregates, especially after freezing/thawing cycles. In order to improve stability, PaoD was thawed in the presence of two ionic liquids [C4mim]Cl and [C2OHmim]PF6 and no protein precipitation was observed. This allowed protein concentration and crystallization using polyethylene glycol or ammonium sulfate as precipitating agents. Saturation transfer difference - nuclear magnetic resonance (STD-NMR) experiments have also been performed in order to investigate the effect of the ionic liquids in the stabilization process, showing a clear interaction between the acidic ring protons of the cation and, most likely, negatively charged residues at the protein surface. DLS assays also show a reduction of the overall size of the protein aggregates in presence of ionic liquids. Furthermore, cofactor binding studies on PaoD showed that the protein is able to discriminate between molybdenum and tungsten bound to the molybdenum cofactor, since only a Mo-MPT form of the cofactor remained bound to PaoD.
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Characterization of a versatile organometallic pro-drug (CORM) for experimental CO based therapeutics.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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The complex fac-[Mo(CO)(3)(histidinate)]Na has been reported to be an effective CO-Releasing Molecule in vivo, eliciting therapeutic effects in several animal models of disease. The CO releasing profile of this complex in different settings both in vitro and in vivo reveals that the compound can readily liberate all of its three CO equivalents under biological conditions. The compound has low toxicity and cytotoxicity and is not hemolytic. CO release is accompanied by a decrease in arterial blood pressure following administration in vivo. We studied its behavior in solution and upon the interaction with proteins. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation upon exposure to air and polyoxomolybdate formation in soaks with lysozyme crystals were observed as processes ensuing from the decomposition of the complex and the release of CO.
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Occurrence of weak mutators among avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates causing salpingitis and peritonitis in broiler breeders.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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A collection of 46 avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) isolates was examined for the presence of mutators by determining the rate of mutation to rifampicin resistance. The collection included 34 E. coli isolates obtained in pure culture from chronic lesions of salpingitis and peritonitis in 34 broiler breeders, of which 12 were associated with the development of secondary septicemia. Twelve additional isolates were obtained from a clonal outbreak (ST95) of E. coli peritonitis syndrome (EPS), the lesions of which changed gradually over time into a subacute/chronic form. The hypothesis of the present study was that mutation rates would be higher for chronic infection isolates than for isolates from acute infections/exacerbations. The distribution of mutation rates followed a pattern similar to that found for other clinical isolates of E. coli, with a modal/median value of 1.47×10(-8). Of the 46 isolates, 24% (n=11) were weakly hypermutable (2.00×10(-8)??<2.00×10(-7)), however, no strong mutators were detected (??2.00×10(-7)). Chronic salpingitis isolates had the highest proportion (45%, P=0.001) of weak mutators and also, significantly higher mutation rates (P=0.003) compared to isolates that caused septicemia (4%). In addition, mutation rates were significantly lower among ST95 isolates (P<0.0005), and among isolates from the same clonal group as ST95 (P=0.027), when compared to isolates from other groups. Although a clear association with the time phase of infection (as lesions of EPS became more chronic) could not be observed (?=0.523, P=0.081), a higher frequency of weak mutators among chronic infection isolates suggests that increased mutation rates play a role in adaptation of APEC to long-term persistence in an infected host environment.
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The administration of a loading dose of aspirin to patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction while receiving chronic aspirin treatment reduces thromboxane A2-dependent platelet reactivity.
Platelets
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Abstract The optimal dose of aspirin for patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) while receiving chronic aspirin therapy has not been clearly established. We evaluated whether continued treatment with 100?mg of aspirin or a loading dose (200-500?mg) influences thromboxane A2 (TX) suppression or platelet reactivity. Sixty-four consecutive patients with AMI and 98 healthy subjects (82 aspirin-free and 16 receiving 100?mg daily for a week) were evaluated. Treatment was at the discretion of the attending physician. Collagen (1?µg/ml)-induced TX synthesis, (14)C-serotonin-release, platelet aggregation, and the PFA-100 assay were evaluated. The platelet TX synthesis of patients receiving a loading dose of aspirin was sixfold lower than that of patients receiving 100?mg of aspirin (p?
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Oral motor assessment in individuals with Moebius syndrome.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Moebius syndrome (MS) is a rare congenital condition that is characterised by facial hypomimia and congenital strabismus caused by complete or partial impairment of the 6th and 7th cranial nerves. MS may be further associated with other nerves or malformations, mainly involving the extremities. The objective of this study was to quantify the decrease in oral motor performance in people with MS compared with normoreactive individuals using the Oral Motor Assessment Scale (OMAS).
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Tinnitus and normal hearing: a study on contralateral acoustic reflex.
Am J Audiol
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference of the contralateral acoustic reflex (AR) threshold between adult subjects with hearing within clinically normal limits, with and without tinnitus.
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Oral manifestations of systemic alterations in early childhood.
J Contemp Dent Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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This study aimed to describe certain common oral manifestations during early childhood that should be known by the pediatric dental surgeon.
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[Correlation between serum Ca-125 levels and surgical findings in women with symptoms evocative of endometriosis].
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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To correlate preoperative serum cancer antigen 125 (Ca-125) levels and laparoscopic findings in women with pelvic pain symptoms suggestive of endometriosis.
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Anterior positioning of sex chromosomes on the head of human sperm sorted using visible wavelengths.
Syst Biol Reprod Med
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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The human ejaculate contains subpopulations of sperm with distinct properties. Human X- and Y-bearing sperm were separated with fluorescence activated cell sorting. To avoid the use of UV light the quantitative DNA dyes DRAQ5® and Dyecycle™ Vybrant® Violet were used. Sorting efficiency was similar for both dyes, but lower than what is usually obtained with the classical method involving Hoechst 33342 and UV light (60-70% enrichment, versus 80-90%). A total of 2,739 spermatozoa were evaluated, from seven distinct samples using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) chromosomal probes. No differences were found in sorted and unsorted populations in terms of chromosome positioning, and numeric chromosomal anomalies were not more evident following cell sorting. Furthermore in both sorted and unsorted populations the sex chromosomes were clearly located in the anterior portion of the sperm head, while a control autosome (chromosome 18) showed no such tendency, confirming previous findings. These results suggest that other quantitative DNA dyes may be used for sex chromosome-based human sperm sorting, but with lower efficiency than the standard UV-Hoechst based assay.
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Assessing salivary osmolality as a caries risk indicator in cerebral palsy children.
Int J Paediatr Dent
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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BACKGROUND: Salivary osmolality reflects the hydration status of individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) necessary for an adequate unstimulated salivary flow rate. AIM: To investigate whether salivary osmolality could serve as a potential indicator of caries risk in children with spastic CP by displaying a stronger association with caries occurrence than salivary flow rate. DESIGN: The convenience sample consisted of 65 children with CP aged 6-13 years old. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected using cotton roll, and salivary osmolality was measured using a freezing point depression osmometer. The childrens oral motor performance was evaluated during the feeding process using the Oral Motor Assessment Scale. Caries occurrence was also evaluated according the World Health Organization criteria. RESULTS: Motor skills were significantly associated with caries experience. Regarding the salivary parameters, osmolality presented a stronger association with caries experience than did the salivary flow rate. Children with worse oral motor performance presented a higher rate of caries occurrence. CONCLUSION: Osmolality exhibited a stronger association with caries occurrence than did salivary flow rate. This parameter, therefore, could be a potential caries risk indicator for spastic cerebral palsy children.
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Serine/threonine phosphatases regulate platelet ?IIb?3 integrin receptor outside-in signaling mechanisms and clot retraction.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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We studied the role of serine/threonine phosphatases (PSTPs) on ?IIb?3 signaling and the potential selectivity of the level of PSTP inhibition with okadaic acid (OA) on ?IIb?3 signaling for regulation of platelet aggregation and clot retraction.
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Strategies based on silica monoliths for removing pollutants from wastewater effluents: a review.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Silica monoliths have been used for more than half a century in a wide variety of applications, such as stationary phases for microextraction fibers, capillary columns for chromatography, in the encapsulation of biomolecules for affinity chromatography and for microfluidic or microarray chips and, more recently, and less well known for wastewater treatment. The main objective of this review article is to specifically overview the strategies that use silica monoliths for the removal of chemical pollutants from wastewater effluents or prepared solutions. The discussion of advantages and drawbacks of such strategies will be supported with the main studies carried out so far which have been performed in laboratory environment only. The application and potential research interest in several strategies using composites and biocomposites based silica monoliths as cleaning systems are also discussed.
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Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicon particles can induce rapid protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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We have previously shown that delivery of the porcine type I interferon gene (poIFN-?/?) with a replication-defective human adenovirus vector (adenovirus 5 [Ad5]) can sterilely protect swine challenged with foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 1 day later. However, the need of relatively high doses of Ad5 limits the applicability of such a control strategy in the livestock industry. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) empty replicon particles (VRPs) can induce rapid protection of mice against either homologous or, in some cases, heterologous virus challenge. As an alternative approach to induce rapid protection against FMDV, we have examined the ability of VRPs containing either the gene for green fluorescent protein (VRP-GFP) or poIFN-? (VRP-poIFN-?) to block FMDV replication in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment of swine or bovine cell lines with either VRP significantly inhibited subsequent infection with FMDV as early as 6 h after treatment and for at least 120 h posttreatment. Furthermore, mice pretreated with either 10(7) or 10(8) infectious units of VRP-GFP and challenged with a lethal dose of FMDV 24 h later were protected from death. Protection was induced as early as 6 h after treatment and lasted for at least 48 h and correlated with induction of an antiviral response and production of IFN-?. By 6 h after treatment several genes were upregulated, and the number of genes and the level of induction increased at 24 h. Finally, we demonstrated that the chemokine IP-10, which is induced by IFN-? and VRP-GFP, is directly involved in protection against FMDV.
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Removal of the organic content from a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by a treatment with silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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This study attempts a treatment strategy of a bleached kraft pulp mill effluent with Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju encapsulated on silica-alginate (biocomposite of silica-alginate-fungi, with the purpose of reducing its potential impact in the environment. Active (alive) or inactive (death by sterilization) Rhizopus oryzae or Pleurotus sajor caju was encapsulated in alginate beads. Five beads containing active and inactive fungus were placed in a mold and filled with silica hydrogel (biocomposites). The biocomposites were added to batch reactors containing the bleached kraft pulp mill effluent. The treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active and inactive biocomposites was performed throughout 29 days at 28°C. The efficiency of treatment was evaluated by measuring the removal of organic compounds, chemical oxygen demand and the relative absorbance ratio over time. Both fungi species showed potential for removal of organic compounds, colour and chemical oxygen demand. Maximum values of reduction in terms of colour (56%), chemical oxygen demand (65%) and organic compounds (72-79%) were attained after 29 days of treatment of bleached kraft pulp mill effluent by active Rhizopus oryzae biocomposites. The immobilization of fungi, the need for low fungal biomass, and the possibility of reutlization of the biocomposites clearly demonstrate the industrial and environmental interest in bleached kraft pulp mill effluent treatment by silica-alginate-fungi biocomposites.
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Disposable immunosensors for C-reactive protein based on carbon nanotubes field effect transistors.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Label-free immunosensors based on single-walled carbon nanotubes field effect transistor (NTFET) devices were developed for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) which is currently the best validated inflammatory biomarker associated with cardiovascular diseases. The immunoreaction principle consists in the direct adsorption of CRP specific antibodies (anti-CRP) to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) networks. Such anti-CRP are the molecular receptors of CRP antigens which, in turn, can be detected by the developed NTFET devices in a linear dynamic range of 10(-4)-10(2) ?g/mL. Thus, typical values of CRP (in blood serum) for healthy persons (<1 ?g/mL), and higher levels (>5 ?g/mL) corresponding to pathological states, can be both detected with the NTFET immunosensors, becoming an advantageous alternative as the basis for the development of analytical instrumentation for assessment of risk of occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. A log-log linear regression was applied to the experimental data with a correlation coefficient of r=0.9962 (p<0.001), and there is no statistical difference (from ANOVA) between individual NTFET devices (p=0.9582), demonstrating acceptable reproducibility. According to the experimental results, the estimate of detection limit (LOD, 10(-4)?g/mL) is 3-fold lower than that of some conventional immunoassay techniques for blood serum (e.g., LOD of 0.2 ?g/mL for high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), and the dynamic range (10(-4)-10(2)?g/mL) is about 6-fold higher. Furthermore, this simple and low-cost methodology allows the use of sample volumes as low as 1 ?L for the label-free detection of CRP.
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Pharmacological inhibition of platelet reactivity. Clinical and pharmacodynamic effects.
Curr Vasc Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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Platelets play an important role in both normal hemostasis and pathological thrombus formation. The key role of platelets in thrombosis is highlighted by the clinical benefit of treatment with antiplatelet drugs. Aspirin, either alone or in combination with clopidogrel in high-risk patients, is the most widely used antiplatelet agent. However, there is an individual response to these agents that may reduce the cardiovascular protection in patients who achieve a lower antiplatelet effect. Recently, P2Y12 receptor antagonists more potent than clopidogrel (e.g., prasugrel and ticagrelor) have been approved for patients with acute coronary syndromes and those undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions; these drugs provide greater platelet inhibition than clopidogrel. However, the increased effectiveness of these treatments has underscored the importance of carefully balancing the risks of ischemia and bleeding to achieve the best clinical outcomes. The increased knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of platelet activation has prompted a search for novel pharmacological targets for the inhibition of platelet reactivity. This article reviews the molecular mechanisms of action and limitations of use of current and emerging antiplatelet agents for treatment of cardiovascular disease.
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Interaction of vanadium(IV) with human serum apo-transferrin.
J. Inorg. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The interaction of V(IV)O-salts as well as of a few V(IV)O(carrier)n complexes with human serum transferrin (hTF) is studied focusing on the determination of the nature and stoichiometry of the binding of V(IV)O(2+) to hTF, as well as whether the conformation of hTF upon binding to V(IV)O(2+) or to its complexes is changed. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra measured for solutions containing V(IV)O(2+) and apo-hTF, and V(IV)O-maltol and apo-hTF, clearly indicate that hTF-V(IV)O-maltol ternary species form with a V(IV)O:maltol stoichiometry of 1:1. For V(IV)O salts and several V(IV)O(carrier)n complexes (carrier ligand=maltolato, dhp, picolinato and dipicolinato) (Hdhp=1,2-dimethyl-3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone) the maximum number of V(IV)O(2+) bound per mole of hTF is determined to be ~2 or lower in all cases. The binding of V(IV)O to apo-hTF most certainly involves several amino acid residues of the Fe-binding site, and as concluded by urea gel electrophoresis experiments, the formation of (V(IV)O)2hTF species may occur with the closing of the hTF conformation as is the case in (Fe(III))2hTF, which is an essential feature for the transferrin receptor recognition.
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Increased salivary immunoglobulin A and reduced ?-amylase activity in whole saliva from spastic cerebral palsy individuals.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Salivary immunoglobulin A (SIgA) together with innate defenses such as ?-amylase, provides the first line of defense against pathogens present at mucosal surfaces. This study aimed to evaluate salivary ?-amylase and immunoglobulin A (IgA) in whole saliva of spastic cerebral palsy (CP) individuals.
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Reduction of platelet cytosolic phospholipase A2 activity by atorvastatin and simvastatin: biochemical regulatory mechanisms.
Thromb. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Statins have demonstrated effects beyond reducing cholesterol level that may contribute to their clinical benefit, including effects on platelet biochemistry and function.
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Protein clustering and RNA phylogenetic reconstruction of the influenza a virus NS1 protein allow an update in classification and identification of motif conservation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The non-structural protein 1 (NS1) of influenza A virus (IAV), coded by its third most diverse gene, interacts with multiple molecules within infected cells. NS1 is involved in host immune response regulation and is a potential contributor to the virus host range. Early phylogenetic analyses using 50 sequences led to the classification of NS1 gene variants into groups (alleles) A and B. We reanalyzed NS1 diversity using 14,716 complete NS IAV sequences, downloaded from public databases, without host bias. Removal of sequence redundancy and further structured clustering at 96.8% amino acid similarity produced 415 clusters that enhanced our capability to detect distinct subgroups and lineages, which were assigned a numerical nomenclature. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic reconstruction using RNA sequences indicated the previously identified deep branching separating group A from group B, with five distinct subgroups within A as well as two and five lineages within the A4 and A5 subgroups, respectively. Our classification model proposes that sequence patterns in thirteen amino acid positions are sufficient to fit >99.9% of all currently available NS1 sequences into the A subgroups/lineages or the B group. This classification reduces host and virus bias through the prioritization of NS1 RNA phylogenetics over host or virus phenetics. We found significant sequence conservation within the subgroups and lineages with characteristic patterns of functional motifs, such as the differential binding of CPSF30 and crk/crkL or the availability of a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. To understand selection pressures and evolution acting on NS1, it is necessary to organize the available data. This updated classification may help to clarify and organize the study of NS1 interactions and pathogenic differences and allow the drawing of further functional inferences on sequences in each group, subgroup and lineage rather than on a strain-by-strain basis.
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Inoculation of swine with foot-and-mouth disease SAP-mutant virus induces early protection against disease.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) leader proteinase (L(pro)) cleaves itself from the viral polyprotein and cleaves the translation initiation factor eIF4G. As a result, host cell translation is inhibited, affecting the host innate immune response. We have demonstrated that L(pro) is also associated with degradation of nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B), a process that requires L(pro) nuclear localization. Additionally, we reported that disruption of a conserved protein domain within the L(pro) coding sequence, SAP mutation, prevented L(pro) nuclear retention and degradation of NF-?B, resulting in in vitro attenuation. Here we report that inoculation of swine with this SAP-mutant virus does not cause clinical signs of disease, viremia, or virus shedding even when inoculated at doses 100-fold higher than those required to cause disease with wild-type (WT) virus. Remarkably, SAP-mutant virus-inoculated animals developed a strong neutralizing antibody response and were completely protected against challenge with WT FMDV as early as 2 days postinoculation and for at least 21 days postinoculation. Early protection correlated with a distinct pattern in the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines in comparison to the levels detected in animals inoculated with WT FMDV that developed disease. In addition, animals inoculated with the FMDV SAP mutant displayed a memory T cell response that resembled infection with WT virus. Our results suggest that L(pro) plays a pivotal role in modulating several pathways of the immune response. Furthermore, manipulation of the L(pro) coding region may serve as a viable strategy to derive live attenuated strains with potential for development as effective vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease.
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Histopathological features of keratocystic odontogenic tumor: a descriptive study of 177 cases from a Brazilian population.
Int. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2011
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The aim of this study was to describe the clinicopathologic features of 177 keratocystic odontogenic tumors (KCOTs) diagnosed in a Brazilian population. A total of 177 KCOTs were reviewed and affected 158 patients with ages ranging from 5 to 79 years (mean age = 32 years) with a slight female predominance. Mandible was the most common affected site (69.3%), and a unilocular radiolucency was the most common radiographic image. Microscopically, all cases showed at least focal areas of classic KCOT, but several histological aspects were also observed, including diffuse and focal epithelial lining hyperplasia (48.6%), epithelial budding (12.4%), reactive cytological alterations (11.3%), dystrophic calcification (7.9%), daughter cysts (7.8%), odontogenic epithelial remnants (4.5%), focal areas of orthokeratinization (2.8%), and ameloblastomatous epithelium (1.7%). These variations may make KCOT diagnosis challenging in some cases, so careful full-sample analysis and knowledge of these uncommon histological features associated with KCOT are essential for correct diagnosis.
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Diacylglycerol kinase ?: at the crossroads of lipid signaling and protein complex organization.
Prog. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2011
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Diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphatidic acid (PA) are lipids with unique functions as metabolic intermediates, basic membrane constituents, and second-signal components. Diacylglycerol kinases (DGK) regulate the levels of these two lipids, catalyzing the interconversion of one to the other. The DGK family of enzymes is composed of 10 isoforms, grouped into five subfamilies based on the presence of distinct regulatory domains. From its initial characterization as a type IV DGK to the generation of mouse models showing its importance in cardiac dysfunction and immune pathologies, diacylglycerol kinase ? (DGK?) has proved an excellent example of the critical role of lipid-metabolizing enzymes in the control of cell responses. Although the mechanism that regulates this enzyme is not well known, many studies demonstrate its subtle regulation and its strategic function in specific signaling and as part of adaptor protein complexes. These data suggest that DGK? offers new opportunities for therapeutic manipulation of lipid metabolism.
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Screening of single-walled carbon nanotubes by optical fiber sensing.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2011
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A methodology based on optical fiber (OF) sensing was developed to screen single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) in aqueous solutions. This method was validated by the comparison of its analytical performance with that of an ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) technique by monitoring the absorbance intensities at 500 nm, and no significant difference (p=0.854) was observed between such two methods. The results obtained by the OF sensor were encouraging in what concerns a new approach for detection and quantification of SWCNT in solutions due to its compact design, less expensive materials and equipment, as well as a requirement of low volume of sample. Additionally, it was concluded that the nonlinear calibration model observed for the analytical response with the OF probe follows the general cumulative symmetric double sigmoidal (SDS) model (R(2)=0.9999), once adapted for the analytical region of interest.
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Olive oil mill wastewaters before and after treatment: a critical review from the ecotoxicological point of view.
Ecotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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The olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a problematic and polluting effluent which may degrade the soil and water quality, with critical negative impacts on ecosystems functions and services provided. The main purpose of this review paper is presenting the state of the art of OMW treatments focusing on their efficiency to reduce OMW toxicity, and emphasizing the role of ecotoxicological tests on the evaluation of such efficiency before the up-scale of treatment methodologies being considered. In the majority of research works, the reduction of OMW toxicity is related to the degradation of phenolic compounds (considered as the main responsible for the toxic effects of OMW on seed germination, on bacteria, and on different species of soil and aquatic invertebrates) or the decrease of chemical oxygen demand content, which is not scientifically sound. Batteries of ecotoxicological tests are not applied before and after OMW treatments as they should be, thus leading to knowledge gaps in terms of accurate and real assessment of OMW toxicity. Although the toxicity of OMW is usually high, the evaluation of effects on sub-lethal endpoints, on individual and multispecies test systems, are currently lacking, and the real impacts yielded by its dilution, in freshwater trophic chains of receiving systems can not be assessed. As far as the terrestrial compartment is considered, ecotoxicological data available include tests only with plants and the evaluation of soil microbial parameters, reflecting concerns with the impacts on crops when using OMW for irrigation purposes. The evaluation of its ecotoxicity to other edaphic species were not performed giving rise to a completely lack of knowledge about the consequences of such practice on other soil functions. OMW production is a great environmental problem in Mediterranean countries; hence, engineers, chemists and ecotoxicologists should face this problem together to find an ecologically friend solution.
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Oral motor performance in spastic cerebral palsy individuals: are hydration and nutritional status associated?
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2011
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Previous studies reported alterations in salivary parameters in cerebral palsy (CP) individuals; however, none of these considered oral motor performance as possibly responsible for these conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of oral motor performance on the nutritional status and salivary parameters in individuals with CP.
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Regulation of alternative sigma factor use.
Annu. Rev. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Alternative bacterial sigma factors bind the catalytic core RNA polymerase to confer promoter selectivity on the holoenzyme. The different holoenzymes are thus programmed to recognize the distinct promoter classes in the genome to allow coordinated activation of discrete sets of genes needed for adaptive responses. To form the holoenzymes, the different sigma factors must be available to compete for their common substrate (core RNA polymerase). This review highlights (a) the roles of antisigma factors in controlling the availability of alternative sigma factors and (b) the involvement of diverse regulatory molecules that promote the use of alternative sigma factors through subversion of the domineering housekeeping ?(70). The latter include the nucleotide alarmone ppGpp and small proteins (DksA, Rsd, and Crl), which directly target the transcriptional machinery to mediate their effects.
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Sterols and fatty acid biomarkers as indicators of changes in soil microbial communities in a uranium mine area.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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Included in the 2nd tier of a site specific risk assessment that is being carried out in an abandoned uranium mine (Cunha Baixa uranium mine, Central Portugal), fatty acids biomarkers and sterols were analyzed to assess the impact of soil contamination with metals and radionuclides in the structure of the microbial community in seven sampling sites located at different distances from the mine. Surface soil samples were collected in those sampling sites in the four different seasons of the year. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed on fatty acid biomarkers and sterols. Subsequently PCA scores obtained for both components were used to test the effect of sites and seasons, on soil samples collected in the Cunha Baixa uranium mine, through bi-factorial ANOVAs. Through PCA analysis, two distinct groups were set apart along the first two components. One group included sites at a great distance from the mine which were negatively correlated with higher contents of iC15:0 and iC17:0, both indicators of Gram-positive bacteria, as well as with ergosterol, cholestanol and cholesterol. The second group, in turn, was composed of the sampling sites most impacted by ore exploration, in situ leaching of poor ore, and spread of sludge from the effluent treatment pond. These sites were positively correlated with higher levels of iC16:0 (Gram-positive bacteria indicator), cyC17:0 (generally common in gram negative bacteria) and C18:0 and C17:0 biomarkers of non-specific bacteria. The profile of fatty acids obtained in the sampling sites revealed variable predominance of groups of bacteria which are a clear indication of differences in the soil microbial communities that are directly related to the environmental conditions prevailing in the uranium mine area.
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Changes associated with percutaneous ethanol injection in the treatment of thyroid nodules.
Endocr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) is an alternative therapy for thyroid nodules (TN). However, some concern is raised on its carcinogenic effects. To evaluate the cytological and clinical changes caused by PEI in patients with benign TN. Thirty-nine patients with TN (23.1% hyperfunctioning) were submitted to a median of three PEI sessions. After a median of 17 months, patients were reassessed. A new ultrasound-guided fine needle biopsy (US-FNB) was performed, and the smears were analyzed after May-Grünwald-Giemsa staining. The diagnostic findings and the cellular characteristics were compared before and after treatment. There was an increase in the proportion of nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory results (from 2.5% to 18.9%). No malignant cases were observed. The proportion of moderate/intense macrophage infiltration decreased from 60% to 15%. Before treatment, 23.1% patients had hyperthyroidism, which was completely or partially resolved in 66.7%. By ultrasound, the percentage of homogeneous nodules decreased from 64.0% to 38.4% (p=0.0235), and the mean nodule volume decreased from 13.4 ± 12.2 to 5.3 ± 5.1 cm(3). We demonstrate that PEI increases the proportion of nondiagnostic/unsatisfactory results from US-FNB. Therefore, cytological findings after PEI must be evaluated with caution. Our results also suggest that PEI is an efficacious and safe therapeutic option, with no carcinogenic effects observed on cytological evaluations. Safety and efficacy must be evaluated in larger studies with longer follow-up periods.
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Optical fiber based methodology for assessment of thiocyanate in seawater.
J Environ Monit
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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A new methodology for the assessment of thiocyanate (SCN(-)) is proposed based on optical fiber (OF) detection coupled to a liquid chromatography system (LC). The developed methodology showed an adequate performance for the analysis of SCN(-) comparable to a high performance liquid chromatography with UV detector (HPLC-UV) methodology: a detection limit of 3 µg L(-1), a linear range from 4 to 400 µg L(-1), and an analytical time of less than 6 min. The OF based methodology was of compact design and easy operation. This simple system has the potential to be used as a sensing approach for SCN(-) in seawater.
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[Rhabdomyolysis. A descriptive study of 449 patients].
Med Clin (Barc)
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Rhabdomyolysis is a clinical syndrome characterized by acute necrosis of skeletal muscles along with the release of breakdown products into the bloodstream. Rhabdomyolysis is potentially lethal and its most serious complication is acute renal failure (ARF). Diagnosis is established by the 5-times elevation (975 UI/l) over the upper limit of creatine-kinase (CK).
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Metabolic profiling of potential probiotic or synbiotic cheeses by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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To assess ripening of potential probiotic cheeses (containing either Lactobacillus casei -01 or Bifidobacterium lactis B94) or synbiotic cheeses with fructooligosaccharides (FOS) or a 50:50 mix of FOS/inulin, metabolic profiles have been obtained via classical biochemical analyses and by NMR spectroscopy. The addition of prebiotics to the cheeses resulted in lower proteolysis indices, especially in those synbiotic cheeses inoculated with B. lactis B94. Among synbiotic cheeses the combination of FOS and inulin resulted in an increase in lipolytic activity. The metabolic profiles of the cheeses analyzed by NMR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate statistics, allowed profiles to be distinguished by maturation time, added probiotic bacteria, or, in the case of B. lactis B94 cheese, added prebiotic. The NMR results are in agreement with the biochemical analyses and demonstrate the potential of NMR for the study of metabolic processes in probiotic/synbiotic food matrices.
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A hyper-mutant of the unusual sigma70-Pr promoter bypasses synergistic ppGpp/DksA co-stimulation.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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The activities of promoters can be temporally and conditionally regulated by mechanisms other than classical DNA-binding repressors and activators. One example is the inherently weak ?(70)-dependent Pr promoter that ultimately controls catabolism of phenolic compounds. The activity of Pr is up-regulated through the joint action of ppGpp and DksA that enhance the performance of RNA polymerase at this promoter. Here, we report a mutagenesis analysis that revealed substantial differences between Pr and other ppGpp/DksA co-stimulated promoters. In vitro transcription and RNA polymerase binding assays show that it is the T at the -11 position of the extremely suboptimal -10 element of Pr that underlies both poor binding of ?(70)-RNAP and a slow rate of open complex formation--the process that is accelerated by ppGpp and DksA. Our findings support the idea that collaborative action of ppGpp and DksA lowers the rate-limiting transition energy required for conversion between intermediates on the road to open complex formation.
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Gas chromatography - optical fiber detector for assessment of fatty acids in urban soils.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2011
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Fatty acids have been used as biomarkers of the microbial community composition of soils and they are usually separated and quantified by gas-chromatography coupled to a flame ionization detector (GC-FID). The aim of this study was to develop, validate and apply a methodology based on gas chromatography coupled to optical fiber detection (GC-OF) for screening five fatty acids used as indicators of fungal and bacterial communities in urban soils. The performance of the GC-OF methodology (optical fiber detector at 1,550 nm) was evaluated by comparison with the GC-FID methodology and it was found that they were comparable in terms of linear range, detection limit and analytical errors. Besides these similar analytical characteristics, the GC-OF is much cheaper than the GC-FID methodology. Different concentrations were determined for each fatty acid indicator which in turn varied significantly between the soil samples analyzed from Lisbon ornamental gardens. Additionally, the GC-OF showed a great potential as alternative for determination of eleven or more fatty acids in urban soils.
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Salivary osmolality and hydration status in children with cerebral palsy.
J. Oral Pathol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2011
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Unstimulated whole salivary parameters have been identified as potential markers of hydration status. Reduced salivary flow rate and increased salivary osmolality have been shown to be useful to identify dehydration, even when minimal loss of body water occurs. This study aimed to evaluate whether unstimulated salivary flow rate and salivary osmolality from individuals with cerebral palsy correlate with plasma and urine osmolality.
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Characterization of the electrocardiographic pattern of individuals with cerebral palsy.
J Electrocardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Dentists of Lar São Francisco observed during dental treatment that children with cerebral palsy (CP) had increased heart rate (HR) and lower production of saliva. Despite the high prevalence of CP found in the literature (2.08-3.6/1000 individuals), little is known about the electrocardiographic (ECG) characteristics, especially HR, of individuals with CP.
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Not all sperm are equal: functional mitochondria characterize a subpopulation of human sperm with better fertilization potential.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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Human sperm samples are very heterogeneous and include a low amount of truly functional gametes. Distinct strategies have been developed to characterize and isolate this specific subpopulation. In this study we have used fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting to determine if mitochondrial function, as assessed using mitochondrial-sensitive probes, could be employed as a criterion to obtain more functional sperm from a given ejaculate. We first determined that mitochondrial activity correlated with the quality of distinct human samples, from healthy donors to patients with decreased semen quality. Furthermore, using fluorescence-activated cell sorting to separate sperm with active and inactive mitochondria we found that this was also true within samples. Indeed, sperm with active mitochondria defined a more functional subpopulation, which contained more capacitated and acrosome intact cells, sperm with lower chromatin damage, and, crucially, sperm more able to decondense and participate in early development using both chemical induction and injection into mature bovine oocytes. Furthermore, cell sorting using mitochondrial activity produced a more functional sperm subpopulation than classic swim-up, both in terms of improvement in a variety of functional sperm parameters and in statistical significance. In conclusion, whatever the true biological role of sperm mitochondria in fertilization, mitochondrial activity is a clear hallmark of human sperm functionality.
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Influence of COX-inhibiting analgesics on the platelet function of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Platelet function of patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) may play an important part in both rebleeding and delayed cerebral ischemia, but little is known about aggregation pathways during the acute phase of stroke. Analgesics are used regularly in the first days after bleeding, and some can potentially inhibit the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme. We examined the platelet function of patients with SAH in order to describe their basal situation and determine whether the administration of intravenous nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) affected platelet aggregation.
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Residual cyclooxygenase-1 activity and epinephrine reduce the antiplatelet effect of aspirin in patients with acute myocardial infarction.
Thromb. Haemost.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Aspirin treatment is essential in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) to block platelet thromboxane (TXA)? synthesis. Epinephrine is known to enhance platelet reactivity induced by other agonists and to be elevated in patients with AMI due to stress. Our objective was to study the influence of epinephrine on platelet TXA? synthesis in patients treated with aspirin for AMI at early onset (within 48 hours) and the potential biochemical mechanisms involved in the functional response. Washed platelets from 45 patients with AMI and 10 aspirin-free controls were stimulated with arachidonic acid (AA) or AA + epinephrine, and aggregation and TXA? synthesis were evaluated. Full platelet aggregation was recorded in 8/45 patients (18%) with a partial TXA? inhibition (86%) vs. the aspirin-free controls. Platelets from the remaining 37 patients did not aggregate to AA and had TXA? inhibition >95%. However, when platelets were simultaneously stimulated with AA + epinephrine, in 25/37 patients a large intensity of aggregation (73%) was observed and a 5.5-fold increase in TXA? synthesis, although this remained residual (<5% of aspirin-free controls). This residual-TXA? was critical in the functional response, as demonstrated by the complete inhibition by TXA? receptor blockade or additional aspirin in vitro. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase activity and the cytosolic calcium levels participated in this platelet response elicited by a receptor cooperation mechanism, while the Rho/p160(ROCK) pathway or the blockade of the ADP receptors (P2Y1, P2Y12) were without effect. Residual-cyclooxygenase -1 activity and epinephrine enhance TXA?-dependent platelet function, which may reduce the clinical benefit of aspirin in patients with AMI.
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(2,2-Bipyridine-?N,N)bromido(1,4,7-trithia-cyclo-nonane-?S,S,S)ruthenium(II) hexa-fluoridophosphate.
Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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The title compound, [RuBr(C(10)H(8)N(2))(C(6)H(12)S(3))]PF(6) or [RuBr(bpy)([9]aneS(3))]PF(6) ([9]aneS(3) is 1,4,7-trithia-cyclo-nonane and bpy is 2,2-bipyridine), exhibits a very similar octahedral coordination geometry for the Ru(2+) atom to that of its [RuCl(bpy)([9]aneS(3))](+) analogue, with only the chloride ligand being substituted by a bromide ligand. The presence of a PF(6) (-) anion (alongside with the coordinated bromide ligand) promotes the existence of an extensive network of weak C-H?X (X = F, Br) inter-actions.
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Antiviral activity of bovine type III interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2011
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Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is one of the most serious threats to the livestock industry. Despite the availability of a vaccine, recent outbreaks in disease-free countries have demonstrated that development of novel FMD control strategies is imperative. Here we report the identification and characterization of bovine (bo) interferon lambda 3 (IFN-?3), a member of the type III IFN family. Expression of boIFN-?3 using a replication-defective human adenovirus type 5 vector (Ad5-boIFN-?3) yielded a glycosylated secreted protein with antiviral activity against FMD virus (FMDV) and vesicular stomatitis virus in bovine cell culture. Inoculation of cattle with Ad5-boIFN-?3 induced systemic antiviral activity and up-regulation of IFN stimulated gene expression in multiple tissues susceptible to FMDV infection. Our results demonstrate that the type III IFN family is conserved in bovines and boIFN-?3 has potential for further development as a biotherapeutic candidate to inhibit FMDV or other viruses in cattle.
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CORM-3 reactivity toward proteins: the crystal structure of a Ru(II) dicarbonyl-lysozyme complex.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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CORM-3, [fac-Ru(CO)(3)Cl(?(2)-H(2)NCH(2)CO(2))], is a well-known carbon monoxide releasing molecule (CORM) capable of delivering CO in vivo. Herein we show for the first time that the interactions of CORM-3 with proteins result in the loss of a chloride ion, glycinate, and one CO ligand. The rapid formation of stable adducts between the protein and the remaining cis-Ru(II)(CO)(2) fragments was confirmed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES), Liquid-Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR), and X-ray crystallography. Three Ru coordination sites are observed in the structure of hen egg white lysozyme crystals soaked with CORM-3. The site with highest Ru occupancy (80%) shows a fac-[(His15)Ru(CO)(2)(H(2)O)(3)] structure.
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Prevalence of dental trauma in individuals with special needs.
Dent Traumatol
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2010
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Individuals with special needs exist throughout the world. The last demographic census (IBGE, 2002) in Brazil indicated that 14.5% of the total population (24.5 million) present some type of impairment. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of dental trauma (DT) in individuals with special needs and the first attendance by a dental surgeon of patients admitted to the special care clinic of the School of Dentistry of Universidade Paulista (UNIP), Brazil, between 2001 and 2005.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.