The mechanisms contributing to multiorgan dysfunction during cardiogenic shock are poorly understood. Our goal was to characterize the microcirculatory and mitochondrial responses following ? 10 hours of severe left ventricular failure and cardiogenic shock. We employed a closed-chest porcine model of cardiogenic shock induced by left coronary microembolization (n = 12) and a time-matched control group (n = 6). Hemodynamics and metabolism were measured hourly by intravascular pressure catheters, thermodilution, arterial and organ specific blood gases. Echocardiography and assessment of the sublingual microcirculation by sidestream darkfield imaging were performed at baseline, 2 ± 1 and 13 ± 3 (mean ± SD) hours after coronary microembolization. Upon hemodynamic decompensation, cardiac, renal and hepatic mitochondria were isolated and evaluated by high-resolution respirometry. Low cardiac output, hypotension, oliguria and severe reductions in mixed-venous and hepatic O2 saturations were evident in cardiogenic shock. The sublingual total and perfused vessel densities were fully preserved throughout the experiments. Cardiac mitochondrial respiration was unaltered, whereas state 2, 3 and 4 respiration of renal and hepatic mitochondria were increased in cardiogenic shock. Mitochondrial viability (RCR; state 3/state 4) and efficiency (ADP/O ratio) were unaffected. Our study demonstrates that the microcirculation is preserved in a porcine model of untreated cardiogenic shock despite vital organ hypoperfusion. Renal and hepatic mitochondrial respiration is upregulated, possibly through demand-related adaptations, and the endogenous shock response is thus compensatory and protective, even after several hours of global hypoperfusion.
Interventions to reduce the cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin are clinically relevant. Pharmacological preconditioning mimicking ischemic preconditioning has been demonstrated with morphine and represents an acceptable clinical intervention. The purpose of this study was to examine if pretreatment in vivo with morphine could reduce doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity ex vivo in a rat model. Wistar rats were divided into six groups and pretreated with an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 3 or 10 mg/kg morphine, 1 mg/kg naloxone and saline, 1 mg/kg naloxone and 3 mg/kg morphine or saline, 60 min before excision of the heart. Biochemical indices such as troponin T (TnT) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in effluate were measured together with physiological parameters in Langendorff hearts before and after doxorubicin infusion (2 mg/mL 0.05 mL/min for 45 min). Myocardial content of doxorubicin was measured at the end of infusion. Pretreatment with morphine, irrespective of dosage, produced a significant loss in left ventricular-developed pressure and an increase of TnT and H2O2 in effluate before doxorubicin infusion (p < 0.05). Morphine also produced a significant increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and an increase of TnT and H2O2 in effluate (p < 0.05) at the end of doxorubicin infusion. Naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, abolished the effects of morphine both before and after doxorubicin infusion. Morphine, irrespective of dosage, increased myocardial content of doxorubicin compared to pretreatment with saline (p < 0.05). Pretreatment with morphine is associated with a cardiodepressive effect and enhances cardiotoxicity of doxorubicin measured by increased myocardial accumulation of doxorubicin and physiological and biochemical indices. The negative effects observed in our rat model are abolished by naloxone.
Chemotherapy with doxorubicin is limited by cardiotoxicity. Free radical generation and mitochondrial dysfunction are thought to contribute to doxorubicin-induced cardiac failure. In this study we wanted to investigate if opening of mitochondrial KATP-channels by diazoxide is protective against doxorubicin cardiotoxicity, and if 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), a selective mitochondrial KATP-channel antagonist, abolished any protection by this intervention.
We showed previously that dietary supplementation with oil from the marine zooplankton Calanus finmarchicus (Calanus oil) attenuates obesity, inflammation, and glucose intolerance in mice. More than 80% of Calanus oil consists of wax esters, i.e., long-chain fatty alcohols linked to long-chain fatty acids. In the present study, we compared the metabolic effects of Calanus oil-derived wax esters (WE) with those of purified eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) + docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl esters (E/D) in a mouse model of diet-induced obesity. C57BL/6J mice received a high-fat diet [(HFD), 45% energy from fat]. After 7 wk, the diet was supplemented with either 1% (wt:wt) WE or 0.2% (wt:wt) E/D. The amount of EPA + DHA in the E/D diet was matched to the total amount of n-3 (?-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in the WE diet. A third group was given an unsupplemented HFD throughout the entire 27-wk feeding period. WE reduced body weight gain, abdominal fat, and liver triacylglycerol by 21%, 34%, and 52%, respectively, and significantly improved glucose tolerance and aerobic capacity. In abdominal fat depots, WE reduced macrophage infiltration by 74% and downregulated expression of proinflammatory genes (tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin-6, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), whereas adiponectin expression was significantly upregulated. By comparison, E/D primarily suppressed the expression of proinflammatory genes but had less influence on glucose tolerance than WE. E/D affected obesity parameters, aerobic capacity, or adiponectin expression by <10%. These results show that the wax ester component of Calanus oil can account for the biologic effects shown previously for the crude oil. However, these effects cannot exclusively be ascribed to the content of n-3 PUFAs in the wax ester fraction.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of oil extracted from the zooplankton Calanus finmarchicus (Calanus oil) on diet-induced obesity and obesity-related disorders in mice. C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD, 45 % energy from fat) exhibited increased body weight and abdominal fat accumulation as well as impaired glucose tolerance compared with mice fed a normal chow diet (10 % energy from fat). Supplementing the HFD with 1·5 % (w/w) Calanus oil reduced body-weight gain, abdominal fat accumulation and hepatic steatosis by 16, 27 and 41 %, respectively, and improved glucose tolerance by 16 %. Calanus oil supplementation reduced adipocyte size and increased the mRNA expression of adiponectin in adipose tissue. It also reduced macrophage infiltration by more than 70 %, accompanied by reduced mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-?, IL-6 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1). The effects of Calanus oil were not only preventive, but also therapeutic, as the oil proved to be beneficial, regardless of whether the supplementation was started before or after the onset of obesity and glucose intolerance. Although the present study cannot pinpoint the active component(s) of the oil, there is reason to believe that the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA and/or antioxidants are responsible for its beneficial effects. It should be noted that the concentration of n-3 fatty acids in the Calanus oil diet was considerably lower than the concentrations used in similar studies reporting beneficial effects on obesity and obesity-related abnormalities.
Short-time models (STM) to study the cardiotoxicity (acute or chronic) of doxorubicin in rats are of interest to assess protective interventions and pathways. STM promotes more ethical animal treatment with less stress, and at a lower cost compared to established long-time models (LTM). We wanted to investigate if an STM of 9?d yields the same information regarding cardiotoxicity as an LTM of 9 weeks.
Although exercise reduces several cardiovascular risk factors associated with obesity/diabetes, the metabolic effects of exercise on the heart are not well-known. This study was designed to investigate whether high-intensity interval training (HIT) is superior to moderate-intensity training (MIT) in counteracting obesity-induced impairment of left ventricular (LV) mechanoenergetics and function. C57BL/6J mice with diet-induced obesity (DIO mice) displaying a cardiac phenotype with altered substrate utilization and impaired mechanoenergetics were subjected to a sedentary lifestyle or 8-10 weeks of isocaloric HIT or MIT. Although both modes of exercise equally improved aerobic capacity and reduced obesity, only HIT improved glucose tolerance. Hearts from sedentary DIO mice developed concentric LV remodeling with diastolic and systolic dysfunction, which was prevented by both HIT and MIT. Both modes of exercise also normalized LV mechanical efficiency and mechanoenergetics. These changes were associated with altered myocardial substrate utilization and improved mitochondrial capacity and efficiency, as well as reduced oxidative stress, fibrosis, and intracellular matrix metalloproteinase 2 content. As both modes of exercise equally ameliorated the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy by preventing LV remodeling and mechanoenergetic impairment, this study advocates the therapeutic potential of physical activity in obesity-related cardiac disorders.
Ischemic stroke in young adults is a major health problem being associated with a higher vascular morbidity and mortality compared to controls, and a stroke recurrence rate of 25% during the first decade. The assumed cause of infarction and the detected risk factors determine the early- and long-term treatment. However, for many patients the cause of stroke remains unknown. Risk factor profile and etiology differ in young and elderly ischemic stroke patients, and atherosclerosis is the determined underlying condition in 10 to 15%. However, subclinical atherosclerosis is probably more prevalent and may go unrecognized.Ultrasound imaging is a sensitive method for the detection of arterial disease and for measurement of adipose tissue. The relationship between intima-media thickness (IMT), plaques, cardiovascular risk factors including visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and ischemic events has repeatedly been shown.We have established The Norwegian Stroke in the Young Study (NOR-SYS) as a three-generation research program with the goal to increase our knowledge on heredity and the development of arterial disease and ischemic stroke. Extended standardized ultrasound examinations are done in order to find subclinical vessel disease for early and better prophylaxis.Methods/design: NOR-SYS is a prospective long-term research program. Standardized methods are used for anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, imaging, and ultrasound data collection in ischemic stroke patients aged <=60 years, their partners and joint adult offspring. The ultrasound protocol includes the assessment of intracranial, carotid and femoral arteries, abdominal aorta, and the estimation of VAT. To date, the study is a single centre study with approximately 400 patients, 250 partners and 350 adult offspring expected to be recruited at our site.
Ventricular arrhythmias arising from the fibrous rings have been demonstrated, but knowledge about the aortomitral continuity (AMC) as a source of the arrhytmias is still limited. The objective is to describe the characteristics of ventricular arrhythmias originating from the AMC in patients without structural heart disease.
This study aimed to evaluate CFR by assessing blood flow in the coronary sinus and systemic endothelial function measured by FMD of the brachial artery in an open prospective study of 10 control subjects and 10 patients (ages, 15-25 years) who have undergone surgical TOF repair. Reduced ventricular function, impaired exercise capacity, and ventricular arrhythmia have been proposed as risk factors for sudden cardiac death after surgical repair of TOF. Some of this may be related to impaired myocardial perfusion. A 3.0T GE Signa Excite scanner was used to achieve phase-contrast, velocity-encoding cine magnetic resonance imaging in the coronary sinus before and during infusion with adenosine (0.14 mg/kg/min). FMD was measured in the brachial artery before arterial occlusion and 5 min afterward. The TOF group demonstrated significantly higher volumetric blood flow in the coronary sinus (282 ± 63 ml/min) than the normal control subjects at rest (184 ± 57 ml/min) (P = 0.006). During adenosine infusion, this difference disappeared. The CFR was 2.00 ± 0.43 in the control group and 1.19 ± 0.34 in the TOF group (P = 0.002). No correlation between FMD and CFR was observed in the study group (r (s) = 0.61, n = 8, P = 0.15). This study showed a reduced CFR due to a higher blood flow of the subject at rest in the TOF group. This reduced CFR may disable a normal adaptation to increased oxygen demand during exercise and increase myocardial vulnerability to reduced blood supply postoperatively for TOF patients with coronary heart disease.
Tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) is a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligand with marked hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing effects in obese models. TTA has recently been shown to attenuate dyslipidemia in patients with type 2 diabetes, corroborating the potential for TTA in antidiabetic therapy. In a recent study on normal mice, we showed that TTA increased myocardial fatty acid (FA) oxidation, which was associated with decreased cardiac efficiency and impaired postischemic functional recovery. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to elucidate the effects of TTA treatment (0.5%, 8 days) on cardiac metabolism and function in a hyperlipidemic type 2 diabetic model. We found that TTA treatment increased myocardial FA oxidation, not only in nondiabetic (db/+) mice but also in diabetic (db/db) mice, despite a clear lipid-lowering effect. Although TTA had deleterious effects in hearts from nondiabetic mice (decreased efficiency and impaired mitochondrial respiratory capacity), these effects were not observed in db/db hearts. In db/db hearts, TTA improved ischemic tolerance, an effect that is most likely related to the antioxidant property of TTA. The present study strongly advocates the need for investigation of the cardiac effects of PPAR ligands used in antidiabetic/hypolipidemic therapy, because of their pleiotropic properties.
Insulin given at immediate reperfusion reduces myocardial infarct size in the in vitro and the ex vivo rat heart. In vivo, insulin may cause hypoglycaemia, hypokalaemia and elevation of catecholamines, potentially harmful during an acute myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tolerance and safety of intracoronary insulin infusions in a porcine model applying percutaneous intervention techniques.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the underlying processes involved in the oxygen wasting induced by inotropic drugs and acute and chronic elevation of fatty acid (FA) supply, using unloaded perfused mouse hearts from normal and type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice. We found that an acute elevation of the FA supply in normal hearts, as well as a chronic (in vivo) exposure to elevated FA as in db/db hearts, increased myocardial oxygen consumption (MVo?(unloaded)) due to increased oxygen cost for basal metabolism and for excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Isoproterenol stimulation, on top of a high FA supply, led to an additive increase in MVo?(unloaded), because of a further increase in oxygen cost for EC coupling. In db/db hearts, the acute elevation of FA did not further increase MVo?. Since the elevation in the FA supply is accompanied by increased rates of myocardial FA oxidation, the present study compared MVo? following increased FA load versus FA oxidation rate by exposing normal hearts to normal and high FA concentration (NF and HF, respectively) and to compounds that either stimulate (GW-610742) or inhibit [dichloroacetate (DCA)] FA oxidation. While HF and NF + GW-610742 increased FA oxidation to the same extent, only HF increased MVo?(unloaded). Although DCA counteracted the HF-induced increase in FA oxidation, DCA did not reduce MVo?(unloaded). Thus, in normal hearts, acute FA-induced oxygen waste is 1) due to an increase in the oxygen cost for both basal metabolism and EC coupling and 2) not dependent on the myocardial FA oxidation rate per se, but on processes initiated by the presence of FAs. In diabetic hearts, chronic exposure to elevated circulating FAs leads to adaptations that afford protection against the detrimental effect of an acute FA load, suggesting different underlying mechanisms behind the increased MVo? following acute and chronic FA load.
Speckle-tracking echocardiography (STE) can be used to quantify wall strain in 3 dimensions and thus has the potential to improve the identification of hypokinetic but viable myocardium on dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE). However, if different myocardial layers respond heterogeneously, STE-DSE will have to be standardized according to strain dimension and the positioning of the region of interest. Therefore, the aim of this study was to create a high-resolution model for ejection time (ET) strain and tissue flow in 4 myocardial layers at rest, during hypoperfusion, and during dobutamine challenge to assess the ability of STE-DSE to detect deformation and functional improvement in various layers of the myocardium.
Myocardial fatty acid (FA) oxidation is regulated acutely by the FA supply and chronically at the transcriptional level owing to FA activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha). However, in vivo administration of PPARalpha ligands has not been shown to increase cardiac FA oxidation. In this study we have examined the cardiac response to in vivo administration of tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA, 0.5% w/w added to the diet for 8 days), a PPAR agonist with primarily PPARalpha activity.
Development of cardiac hypertrophy and progression to heart failure entails profound changes in myocardial metabolism, characterized by a switch from fatty acid utilization to glycolysis and lipid accumulation. We report that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1alpha and PPARgamma, key mediators of glycolysis and lipid anabolism, respectively, are jointly upregulated in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cooperate to mediate key changes in cardiac metabolism. In response to pathologic stress, HIF1alpha activates glycolytic genes and PPARgamma, whose product, in turn, activates fatty acid uptake and glycerolipid biosynthesis genes. These changes result in increased glycolytic flux and glucose-to-lipid conversion via the glycerol-3-phosphate pathway, apoptosis, and contractile dysfunction. Ventricular deletion of Hif1alpha in mice prevents hypertrophy-induced PPARgamma activation, the consequent metabolic reprogramming, and contractile dysfunction. We propose a model in which activation of the HIF1alpha-PPARgamma axis by pathologic stress underlies key changes in cell metabolism that are characteristic of and contribute to common forms of heart disease.
We have reported previously that hearts from type 2 diabetic (db/db) mice show decreased cardiac efficiency due to increased work-independent myocardial O(2) consumption (unloaded MVo(2)), indicating higher O(2) use for nonmechanical processes such as basal metabolism (MVo(2)(BM)) and excitation-contraction coupling (MVo(2)(ECC)). Although alterations in cardiac metabolism and/or Ca(2+) handling may contribute to increased energy expenditure in diabetic hearts, direct measurements of the O(2) cost for these individual processes have not been determined. In this study, we 1) validate a procedure for measuring unloaded MVo(2) directly (MVo(2)(unloaded)) and for determining MVo(2)(BM) and MVo(2)(ECC) separately in isolated perfused mouse hearts and 2) determine O(2) cost for these processes in hearts from db/db mice. Unloaded MVo(2), extrapolated from the relationship between cardiac work (measured as pressure-volume area, PVA) and MVo(2), was found to correspond with MVo(2) measured directly in unloaded retrograde perfused hearts (MVo(2)(unloaded)). MVo(2) in K(+)-arrested hearts was defined as MVo(2)(BM); the difference between MVo(2)(unloaded) and MVo(2)(BM) represented MVo(2)(ECC). This procedure was validated by demonstrating that elevations in perfusate fatty acid (FA) and/or Ca(2+) concentrations resulted in changes in either MVo(2)(BM) and/or MVo(2)(ECC). The higher MVo(2)(unloaded) in db/db mice was due to both a higher MVo(2)(BM) and MVo(2)(ECC). Elevation of glucose and insulin decreased FA oxidation and reduced both MVo(2)(unloaded) and MVo(2)(BM). In conclusion, this study provides direct evidence that MVo(2)(BM) and MVo(2)(ECC) are elevated in diabetes and that acute metabolic interventions can have a therapeutic benefit in diabetic hearts due to a MVo(2)-lowering effect.
The isolated perfused heart is an important model in cardiovascular research. We hypothesized that the perfusion procedure per se will phosphorylate some protein kinases important in pre- and postconditioning. Isolated hearts were Langendorff-perfused for 20 min with or without an intraventricular balloon (rats and mice), or in the working heart mode (mice) and compared to non-perfused controls with respect to protein phosphorylation. Rat hearts were also perfused for 20 and 50 min in the Langendorff mode to investigate the effect of perfusion time on phosphorylation. Western blot analysis showed that perfusion per se induced a massive phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, P38-MAPK, JNK, AMPK, but decreased phosphorylation of AKT in the isolated rat and mouse heart. However, during ongoing perfusion the phosphorylation of these kinases was reduced. Langendorff-perfusion without the intraventricular balloon caused less phosphorylation of ERK 1/2, P38-MAPK and JNK, but had no effect on AMPK. In working hearts phosphorylation of kinases was similar to that of Langendorff-perfused hearts without the balloon. Our findings indicate that excising, handling and perfusion induce a time dependent phosphorylation of stress kinases. The presence of the intraventricular balloon caused the strongest phosphorylation, thus Langendorff-perfused hearts might be partly protected by the perfusion procedure if stress kinases are protective in pre- and postconditioning. This might explain conflicting results obtained with different models of both pre- and postconditioning, and the isolated heart might in some situations be suboptimal for such studies.
This study aimed to investigate whether coarctation of the aorta in infancy indicates an altered vascular reactivity in the peripheral and coronary arteries apart from the secondary effect of hypertension or other complications of the disease. Patients with repaired coarctation of the aorta have a high prevalence of premature cardiovascular complications. The etiology still is not fully understood, and the cause is most likely multifactorial. Endothelial function was assessed by peripheral flow mediated dilation (FMD) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) in a study of 10 control subjects and 10 patients with a successfully repaired coarctation of the aorta (mean age, 20.9 years; 20.5 years after repair). No one had re- or rest-coarctation of the aorta, hypertension, pathologic blood pressure response during exercise, or associated cardiac malformations such as bicuspid aortic valve. CFR was achieved by phase-contrast velocity encoding cine magnetic resonance imaging in the coronary sinus before and during infusion with adenosine (0.14 mg/kg/min). FMD was measured in the brachial artery before and after 5 min of arterial occlusion. A normal CFR and FMD was found in both groups. Most studies have been conducted with large, unselected groups. The current study group represented the best outcome of the coarctation spectrum (i.e., patients with no evidence of a residual gradient across the coarctation site or systemic hypertension). The findings reassuringly suggest that significant endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic changes were not present in this selected cohort.
Inflammation is involved in cell proliferation and collagen deposition causing vessel wall remodeling and restenosis after plain balloon angioplasty. Local drug delivery of bioactive agents that reduce the incidence of adverse wall remodeling is of considerable interest concerning treatment strategies for coronary vessel disease and could alter the need of repeated revascularization.
Transgenic mice with cardiac-specific expression of a peptide inhibitor of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)3 [transgenic COOH-terminal GRK3 (GRK3ct) mice] display myocardial hypercontractility without hypertrophy and enhanced ?(1)-adrenergic receptor signaling. A role for GRK3 in the pathogenesis of heart failure (HF) has not been investigated, but inhibition of its isozyme, GRK2, has been beneficial in several HF models. Here, we tested whether inhibition of GRK3 modulated evolving cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction after pressure overload. Weight-matched male GRK3ct transgenic and nontransgenic littermate control (NLC) mice subjected to chronic pressure overload by abdominal aortic banding (AB) were compared with sham-operated (SH) mice. At 6 wk after AB, a significant increase of cardiac mass consistent with induction of hypertrophy was found, but no differences between GRK3ct-AB and NLC-AB mice were discerned. Simultaneous left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume analysis of electrically paced, ex vivo perfused working hearts revealed substantially reduced systolic and diastolic function in NLC-AB mice (n = 7), which was completely preserved in GRK3ct-AB mice (n = 7). An additional cohort was subjected to in vivo cardiac catheterization and LV pressure-volume analysis at 12 wk after AB. NLC-AB mice (n = 11) displayed elevated end-diastolic pressure (8.5 ± 3.1 vs. 2.9 ± 1.2 mmHg, P < 0.05), reduced cardiac output (3,448 ± 323 vs. 4,488 ± 342 ?l/min, P < 0.05), and reduced dP/dt(max) and dP/dt(min) (both P < 0.05) compared with GRK3ct-AB mice (n = 16), corroborating the preserved cardiac structure and function observed in GRK3ct-AB hearts assessed ex vivo. Increased cardiac mass and myocardial mRNA expression of ?-myosin heavy chain confirmed the similar induction of cardiac hypertrophy in both AB groups, but only NLC-AB hearts displayed significantly elevated mRNA levels of brain natriuretic peptide and myocardial collagen contents as well as reduced ?(1)-adrenergic receptor responsiveness to isoproterenol, indicating increased LV wall stress and the transition to HF. Inhibition of cardiac GRK3 in mice does not alter the hypertrophic response but attenuates cardiac dysfunction and HF after chronic pressure overload.
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