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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Tissue-specific changes in molecular clocks during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in mice.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Circadian clocks regulate homeostasis and mediate responses to stressors. Lactation is one of the most energetically demanding periods of an adult female's life. Peripartum changes occur in almost every organ so the dam can support neonatal growth through milk production while homeostasis is maintained. How circadian clocks are involved in adaptation to lactation is currently unknown. The abundance and temporal pattern of core clock genes' expression were measured in suprachiasmatic nucleus, liver, and mammary from late pregnant and early lactation mice. Tissue-specific changes in molecular clocks occurred between physiological states. Amplitude and robustness of rhythms increased in suprachiasmatic nucleus and liver. Mammary rhythms of core molecular clock genes were suppressed. Attenuated rhythms appeared to be a physiological adaptation of mammary to lactation, because manipulation of timing of suckling resulting in significant differences in plasma prolactin and corticosterone had no effect on amplitude. Analysis of core clock proteins revealed that the stoichiometric relationship between positive (CLOCK) and negative (PER2) components remained 1:1 in liver but was increased to 4:1 in mammary during physiological transition. Induction of differentiation of mammary epithelial cell line HC11 with dexamethasone, insulin, and prolactin resulted in similar stoichiometric changes among positive and negative clock regulators, and prolactin induced phase shifts in HC11 Arntl expression rhythm. Data support that distinct mechanisms drive periparturient changes in mammary clock. Stoichiometric change in clock regulators occurs with gland differentiation. Suppression of mammary clock gene expression rhythms represents a physiological adaptation to suckling cues. Adaptations in mammary clock are likely needed in part to support suckling demands of neonates.
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Can intraoperative use of limbal stay suture in strabismus surgery cause epithelial ingrowth?
J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Epithelial ingrowth has been reported extensively as a result of some corneal procedures and secondary to trauma. The authors describe a case of epithelial ingrowth most likely caused by a limbal stay suture used during strabismus surgery. The pathophysiology of epithelial ingrowth and its differential diagnosis of fibrous downgrowth are discussed.
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Identification of a novel oligomerization disrupting mutation in CRY?A associated with congenital cataract in a South Australian family.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Congenital cataract is a heterogeneous disorder causing severe visual impairment in affected children. We screened four South Australian families with autosomal dominant congenital cataract for mutations in 10 crystallin genes known to cause congenital cataract. We identified a novel segregating heterozygous mutation, c.62G>A (p.R21Q), in the CRY?A gene in one family. Western blotting of proteins freshly extracted from cataractous lens material of the proband demonstrated a marked reduction in the amount of the high-molecular-weight oligomers seen in the lens material of an unaffected individual. We conclude that the p.R21Q mutation, which is located in the highly conserved and structurally significant N-terminal region of the protein, is responsible for the cataract phenotype observed in the family as this mutation likely reduces the formation of the functional oligomeric alpha-crystallin.
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Transcriptome analysis of epithelial and stromal contributions to mammogenesis in three week prepartum cows.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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Transcriptome analysis of bovine mammary development has provided insight into regulation of mammogenesis. However, previous studies primarily examined expression of epithelial and stromal tissues combined, and consequently did not account for tissue specific contribution to mammary development. Our objective was to identify differences in gene expression in epithelial and intralobular stromal compartments. Tissue was biopsied from non-lactating dairy cows 3 weeks prepartum, cut into explants and incubated for 2 hr with insulin and hydrocortisone. Epithelial and intralobular stromal tissues were isolated with laser capture microdissection. Global gene expression was measured with Bovine Affymetrix GeneChips, and data were preprocessed using RMA method. Moderated t-tests from gene-specific linear model analysis with cell type as a fixed effect showed more than 3,000 genes were differentially expressed between tissues (P<0.05; FDR<0.17). Analysis of epithelial and stromal transcriptomes using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) showed that epithelial and stromal cells contributed distinct molecular signatures. Epithelial signatures were enriched with gene sets for protein synthesis, metabolism and secretion. Stromal signatures were enriched with genes that encoded molecules important to signaling, extracellular matrix composition and remodeling. Transcriptome differences also showed evidence for paracrine interactions between tissues in stimulation of IGF1 signaling pathway, stromal reaction, angiogenesis, neurogenesis, and immune response. Molecular signatures point to the dynamic role the stroma plays in prepartum mammogenesis and highlight the importance of examining the roles of cell types within the mammary gland when targeting therapies and studying mechanisms that affect milk production.
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Homeorhetic adaptation to lactation: comparative transcriptome analysis of mammary, liver, and adipose tissue during the transition from pregnancy to lactation in rats.
Funct. Integr. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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Tissue-specific shifts in a dams metabolism to support fetal and neonatal growth during pregnancy and lactation are controlled by differential expression of regulatory genes. The goal of this study was to identify a more detailed cohort of genes in mammary, liver, and adipose tissue that are transcriptionally controlled during the pregnancy to lactation evolution and explore the relationship of these genes to core clock genes. Total RNA was isolated from mammary, liver and adipose tissues collected from rat dams on day 20 of pregnancy (P20) and day 1 of lactation (L1) and gene expression was measured using Rat 230 2.0 Affymetrix GeneChips. Gene functional analysis revealed that pathway associated metabolism (carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, cholesterol, protein) were enriched (P?
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Molecular signatures reveal circadian clocks may orchestrate the homeorhetic response to lactation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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Genes associated with lactation evolved more slowly than other genes in the mammalian genome. Higher conservation of milk and mammary genes suggest that species variation in milk composition is due in part to the environment and that we must look deeper into the genome for regulation of lactation. At the onset of lactation, metabolic changes are coordinated among multiple tissues through the endocrine system to accommodate the increased demand for nutrients and energy while allowing the animal to remain in homeostasis. This process is known as homeorhesis. Homeorhetic adaptation to lactation has been extensively described; however how these adaptations are orchestrated among multiple tissues remains elusive. To develop a clearer picture of how gene expression is coordinated across multiple tissues during the pregnancy to lactation transition, total RNA was isolated from mammary, liver and adipose tissues collected from rat dams (n = 5) on day 20 of pregnancy and day 1 of lactation, and gene expression was measured using Affymetrix GeneChips. Two types of gene expression analysis were performed. Genes that were differentially expressed between days within a tissue were identified with linear regression, and univariate regression was used to identify genes commonly up-regulated and down-regulated across all tissues. Gene set enrichment analysis showed genes commonly up regulated among the three tissues enriched gene ontologies primary metabolic processes, macromolecular complex assembly and negative regulation of apoptosis ontologies. Genes enriched in transcription regulator activity showed the common up regulation of 2 core molecular clock genes, ARNTL and CLOCK. Commonly down regulated genes enriched Rhythmic process and included: NR1D1, DBP, BHLHB2, OPN4, and HTR7, which regulate intracellular circadian rhythms. Changes in mammary, liver and adipose transcriptomes at the onset of lactation illustrate the complexity of homeorhetic adaptations and suggest that these changes are coordinated through molecular clocks.
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The genome sequence of taurine cattle: a window to ruminant biology and evolution.
, Christine G Elsik, Ross L Tellam, Kim C Worley, Richard A Gibbs, Donna M Muzny, George M Weinstock, David L Adelson, Evan E Eichler, Laura Elnitski, Roderic Guigo, Debora L Hamernik, Steve M Kappes, Harris A Lewin, David J Lynn, Frank W Nicholas, Alexandre Reymond, Monique Rijnkels, Loren C Skow, Evgeny M Zdobnov, Lawrence Schook, James Womack, Tyler Alioto, Stylianos E Antonarakis, Alex Astashyn, Charles E Chapple, Hsiu-Chuan Chen, Jacqueline Chrast, Francisco Camara, Olga Ermolaeva, Charlotte N Henrichsen, Wratko Hlavina, Yuri Kapustin, Boris Kiryutin, Paul Kitts, Felix Kokocinski, Melissa Landrum, Donna Maglott, Kim Pruitt, Victor Sapojnikov, Stephen M Searle, Victor Solovyev, Alexandre Souvorov, Catherine Ucla, Carine Wyss, Juan M Anzola, Daniel Gerlach, Eran Elhaik, Dan Graur, Justin T Reese, Robert C Edgar, John C McEwan, Gemma M Payne, Joy M Raison, Thomas Junier, Evgenia V Kriventseva, Eduardo Eyras, Mireya Plass, Ravikiran Donthu, Denis M Larkin, James Reecy, Mary Q Yang, Lin Chen, Ze Cheng, Carol G Chitko-McKown, George E Liu, Lakshmi K Matukumalli, Jiuzhou Song, Bin Zhu, Daniel G Bradley, Fiona S L Brinkman, Lilian P L Lau, Matthew D Whiteside, Angela Walker, Thomas T Wheeler, Theresa Casey, J Bruce German, Danielle G Lemay, Nauman J Maqbool, Adrian J Molenaar, Seongwon Seo, Paul Stothard, Cynthia L Baldwin, Rebecca Baxter, Candice L Brinkmeyer-Langford, Wendy C Brown, Christopher P Childers, Timothy Connelley, Shirley A Ellis, Krista Fritz, Elizabeth J Glass, Carolyn T A Herzig, Antti Iivanainen, Kevin K Lahmers, Anna K Bennett, C Michael Dickens, James G R Gilbert, Darren E Hagen, Hanni Salih, Jan Aerts, Alexandre R Caetano, Brian Dalrymple, José Fernando García, Clare A Gill, Stefan G Hiendleder, Erdogan Memili, Diane Spurlock, John L Williams, Lee Alexander, Michael J Brownstein, Leluo Guan, Robert A Holt, Steven J M Jones, Marco A Marra, Richard Moore, Stephen S Moore, Andy Roberts, Masaaki Taniguchi, Richard C Waterman, Joseph Chacko, Mimi M Chandrabose, Andy Cree, Marvin Diep Dao, Huyen H Dinh, Ramatu Ayiesha Gabisi, Sandra Hines, Jennifer Hume, Shalini N Jhangiani, Vandita Joshi, Christie L Kovar, Lora R Lewis, Yih-Shin Liu, John López, Margaret B Morgan, Ngoc Bich Nguyen, Geoffrey O Okwuonu, San Juana Ruiz, Jireh Santibanez, Rita A Wright, Christian Buhay, Yan Ding, Shannon Dugan-Rocha, Judith Herdandez, Michael Holder, Aniko Sabo, Amy Egan, Jason Goodell, Katarzyna Wilczek-Boney, Gerald R Fowler, Matthew Edward Hitchens, Ryan J Lozado, Charles Moen, David Steffen, James T Warren, Jingkun Zhang, Readman Chiu, Jacqueline E Schein, K James Durbin, Paul Havlak, Huaiyang Jiang, Yue Liu, Xiang Qin, Yanru Ren, Yufeng Shen, Henry Song, Stephanie Nicole Bell, Clay Davis, Angela Jolivet Johnson, Sandra Lee, Lynne V Nazareth, Bella Mayurkumar Patel, Ling-Ling Pu, Selina Vattathil, Rex Lee Williams, Stacey Curry, Cerissa Hamilton, Erica Sodergren, David A Wheeler, Wes Barris, Gary L Bennett, André Eggen, Ronnie D Green, Gregory P Harhay, Matthew Hobbs, Oliver Jann, John W Keele, Matthew P Kent, Sigbjørn Lien, Stephanie D McKay, Sean McWilliam, Abhirami Ratnakumar, Robert D Schnabel, Timothy Smith, Warren M Snelling, Tad S Sonstegard, Roger T Stone, Yoshikazu Sugimoto, Akiko Takasuga, Jeremy F Taylor, Curtis P Van Tassell, Michael D MacNeil, Antonio R R Abatepaulo, Colette A Abbey, Virpi Ahola, Iassudara G Almeida, Ariel F Amadio, Elen Anatriello, Suria M Bahadue, Fernando H Biase, Clayton R Boldt, Jeffery A Carroll, Wanessa A Carvalho, Eliane P Cervelatti, Elsa Chacko, Jennifer E Chapin, Ye Cheng, Jungwoo Choi, Adam J Colley, Tatiana A de Campos, Marcos De Donato, Isabel K F de Miranda Santos, Carlo J F de Oliveira, Heather Deobald, Eve Devinoy, Kaitlin E Donohue, Peter Dovc, Annett Eberlein, Carolyn J Fitzsimmons, Alessandra M Franzin, Gustavo R Garcia, Sem Genini, Cody J Gladney, Jason R Grant, Marion L Greaser, Jonathan A Green, Darryl L Hadsell, Hatam A Hakimov, Rob Halgren, Jennifer L Harrow, Elizabeth A Hart, Nicola Hastings, Marta Hernàndez, Zhi-Liang Hu, Aaron Ingham, Terhi Iso-Touru, Catherine Jamis, Kirsty Jensen, Dimos Kapetis, Tovah Kerr, Sari S Khalil, Hasan Khatib, Davood Kolbehdari, Charu G Kumar, Dinesh Kumar, Richard Leach, Justin C-M Lee, Changxi Li, Krystin M Logan, Roberto Malinverni, Elisa Marques, William F Martin, Natalia F Martins, Sandra R Maruyama, Raffaele Mazza, Kim L McLean, Juan F Medrano, Barbara T Moreno, Daniela D Moré, Carl T Muntean, Hari P Nandakumar, Marcelo F G Nogueira, Ingrid Olsaker, Sameer D Pant, Francesca Panzitta, Rosemeire C P Pastor, Mario A Poli, Nathan Poslusny, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Shoba Ranganathan, Andrej Razpet, Penny K Riggs, Gonzalo Rincon, Nelida Rodriguez-Osorio, Sandra L Rodriguez-Zas, Natasha E Romero, Anne Rosenwald, Lillian Sando, Sheila M Schmutz, Libing Shen, Laura Sherman, Bruce R Southey, Ylva Strandberg Lutzow, Jonathan V Sweedler, Imke Tammen, Bhanu Prakash V L Telugu, Jennifer M Urbanski, Yuri T Utsunomiya, Chris P Verschoor, Ashley J Waardenberg, Zhiquan Wang, Robert Ward, Rosemarie Weikard, Thomas H Welsh, Stephen N White, Laurens G Wilming, Kris R Wunderlich, Jianqi Yang, Feng-Qi Zhao.
Science
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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To understand the biology and evolution of ruminants, the cattle genome was sequenced to about sevenfold coverage. The cattle genome contains a minimum of 22,000 genes, with a core set of 14,345 orthologs shared among seven mammalian species of which 1217 are absent or undetected in noneutherian (marsupial or monotreme) genomes. Cattle-specific evolutionary breakpoint regions in chromosomes have a higher density of segmental duplications, enrichment of repetitive elements, and species-specific variations in genes associated with lactation and immune responsiveness. Genes involved in metabolism are generally highly conserved, although five metabolic genes are deleted or extensively diverged from their human orthologs. The cattle genome sequence thus provides a resource for understanding mammalian evolution and accelerating livestock genetic improvement for milk and meat production.
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Molecular signatures suggest a major role for stromal cells in development of invasive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Breast cancer invasion and metastasis involves both epithelial and stromal changes. Our objective was to delineate the pivotal role stroma plays in invasion by comparing transcriptomes among stromal and epithelial cells in normal tissue and invasive breast cancer.
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Hypergravity disruption of homeorhetic adaptations to lactation in rat dams include changes in circadian clocks.
Biol Open
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Altered gravity load induced by spaceflight (microgravity) and centrifugation (hypergravity) is associated with changes in circadian, metabolic, and reproductive systems. Exposure to 2-g hypergravity (HG) during pregnancy and lactation decreased rate of mammary metabolic activity and increased pup mortality. We hypothesize HG disrupted maternal homeorhetic responses to pregnancy and lactation are due to changes in maternal metabolism, hormone concentrations, and maternal behavior related to gravity induced alterations in circadian clocks. Effect of HG exposure on mammary, liver and adipose tissue metabolism, plasma hormones and maternal behavior were analyzed in rat dams from mid-pregnancy (Gestational day [G]11) through early lactation (Postnatal day [P]3); comparisons were made across five time-points: G20, G21, P0 (labor and delivery), P1 and P3. Blood, mammary, liver, and adipose tissue were collected for analyzing plasma hormones, glucose oxidation to CO(2) and incorporation into lipids, or gene expression. Maternal behavioral phenotyping was conducted using time-lapse videographic analyses. Dam and fetal-pup body mass were significantly reduced in HG in all age groups. HG did not affect labor and delivery; however, HG pups experienced a greater rate of mortality. PRL, corticosterone, and insulin levels and receptor genes were altered by HG. Mammary, liver and adipose tissue metabolism and expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism were altered by HG exposure. Exposure to HG significantly changed expression of core clock genes in mammary and liver and circadian rhythms of maternal behavior. Gravity load alterations in dams circadian system may have impacted homeorhetic adaptations needed for a successful lactation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.