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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Use of appropriate initial treatment among adolescents and young adults with cancer.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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There has been little improvement in the survival of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients aged 15 to 39 years relative to other age groups, raising the question of whether such patients receive appropriate initial treatment.
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Use of and mortality after bilateral mastectomy compared with other surgical treatments for breast cancer in California, 1998-2011.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Bilateral mastectomy is increasingly used to treat unilateral breast cancer. Because it may have medical and psychosocial complications, a better understanding of its use and outcomes is essential to optimizing cancer care.
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Neighborhood influences on recreational physical activity and survival after breast cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Higher levels of physical activity have been associated with improved survival after breast cancer diagnosis. However, no previous studies have considered the influence of the social and built environment on physical activity and survival among breast cancer patients.
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Correlation of DNA methylation levels in blood and saliva DNA in young girls of the LEGACY Girls study.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Many epidemiologic studies of environmental exposures and disease susceptibility measure DNA methylation in white blood cells (WBC). Some studies are also starting to use saliva DNA as it is usually more readily available in large epidemiologic studies. However, little is known about the correlation of methylation between WBC and saliva DNA. We examined DNA methylation in three repetitive elements, Sat2, Alu, and LINE-1, and in four CpG sites, including AHRR (cg23576855, cg05575921), cg05951221 at 2q37.1, and cg11924019 at CYP1A1, in 57 girls aged 6-15 years with blood and saliva collected on the same day. We measured all DNA methylation markers by bisulfite-pyrosequencing, except for Sat2 and Alu, which were measured by the MethyLight assay. Methylation levels measured in saliva DNA were lower than those in WBC DNA, with differences ranging from 2.8% for Alu to 14.1% for cg05575921. Methylation levels for the three repetitive elements measured in saliva DNA were all positively correlated with those in WBC DNA. However, there was a wide range in the Spearman correlations, with the smallest correlation found for Alu (0.24) and the strongest correlation found for LINE-1 (0.73). Spearman correlations for cg05575921, cg05951221, and cg11924019 were 0.33, 0.42, and 0.79, respectively. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that, for selected methylation markers (e.g., LINE-1), methylation levels may be highly correlated between blood and saliva, while for others methylation markers, the levels may be more tissue specific. Thus, in studies that differ by DNA source, each interrogated site should be separately examined in order to evaluate the correlation in DNA methylation levels across DNA sources.
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Outcomes after diagnosis of mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome before 30 years of age: a population-based study.
JAMA Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Mycosis fungoides and Sézary syndrome (MF/SS) are rare in children and young adults, and thus the incidence and outcomes in this patient population are not well studied.
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Socioeconomic disparities in mortality after diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the modern treatment era.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Despite advances in treatment, including the introduction of rituximab, survival after diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains heterogeneous. However, no studies have considered the association between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and race/ethnicity on DLBCL mortality before (1988-2000) and after (2001-2009) the introduction of rituximab. We studied all 33,032 DLBCL patients diagnosed between 1988-2009 in California for vital status through December 31, 2010. Patients diagnosed from 2001 to 2009 vs 1988 to 2000 had significantly decreased overall and DLBCL-specific mortality. However, those living in lower SES neighborhoods had 34% (95% confidence interval [CI], 27%-40%) and 24% (95% CI, 16%-32%) higher mortality rate from all causes and lymphoma, respectively, than patients in higher SES neighborhoods. The magnitude of mortality disparities by neighborhood SES was more marked in younger (<65 years) than in older patients (?65 years), in married than nonmarried patients, and after 2000. We concluded that patients living in low SES neighborhoods had substantially worse survival after DLBCL, and this disparity was striking in younger (ie, not eligible for Medicare-aged) patients, married patients, and after the introduction of rituximab. These disparities suggest there are barriers, including inadequate insurance coverage with additional financial burden, to effective treatment among socioeconomically disadvantaged patients.
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Human subjects protection: an event monitoring committee for research studies of girls from breast cancer families.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Researchers must monitor the safety of research participants, particularly in studies involving children and adolescents. Yet, there is limited guidance for the development and implementation of oversight committees for psychosocial, behavioral intervention, and observational studies.
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Impact of neighborhood and individual socioeconomic status on survival after breast cancer varies by race/ethnicity: the Neighborhood and Breast Cancer Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Research is limited on the independent and joint effects of individual- and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status (SES) on breast cancer survival across different racial/ethnic groups.
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Young and uninsured: Insurance patterns of recently diagnosed adolescent and young adult cancer survivors in the AYA HOPE study.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Young adults have historically been the least likely to have health insurance in the United States. Previous studies of survivors of childhood cancer found lower rates of insurance and less access to medical care compared with siblings; however, to the authors' knowledge, no studies to date have examined continuity of insurance after a cancer diagnosis in adolescents and young adults (AYAs).
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"Cancer sucks," and other ponderings by adolescent and young adult cancer survivors.
J Psychosoc Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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As part of the National Cancer Institute's AYA HOPE study, 296 adolescent and young adults (AYAs) completed an open-ended survey item asking them to describe their medical care or experience with cancer. Patient, provider, and system-level characteristics all appear to influence AYAs' perceptions of their medical care. Participants attributed levels of satisfaction with care to the availability and communication of information, the management of side-effects, and the expediency and flexibility of treatments. Struggles with health insurance and finances were evident. Findings contribute to a better understanding of AYAs' cancer treatment experiences and will inform improvements to oncology care for this population.
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Medical care in adolescents and young adult cancer survivors: what are the biggest access-related barriers?
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors experience barriers to utilizing healthcare, but the determinants of cancer-related medical care of AYAs has not been fully explored.
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Obesity and mortality after breast cancer by race/ethnicity: the california breast cancer survivorship consortium.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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We investigated body size and survival by race/ethnicity in 11,351 breast cancer patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2007 with follow-up through 2009 by using data from questionnaires and the California Cancer Registry. We calculated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals from multivariable Cox proportional hazard model-estimated associations of body size (body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and waist-hip ratio (WHR)) with breast cancer-specific and all-cause mortality. Among 2,744 ascertained deaths, 1,445 were related to breast cancer. Being underweight (BMI <18.5) was associated with increased risk of breast cancer mortality compared with being normal weight in non-Latina whites (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.91, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.14, 3.20), whereas morbid obesity (BMI ?40) was suggestive of increased risk (HR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.84, 2.43). In Latinas, only the morbidly obese were at high risk of death (HR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.23, 4.15). No BMI-mortality associations were apparent in African Americans and Asian Americans. High WHR (quartile 4 vs. quartile 1) was associated with breast cancer mortality in Asian Americans (HR = 2.21, 95% CI: 1.21, 4.03; P for trend = 0.01), whereas no associations were found in African Americans, Latinas, or non-Latina whites. For all-cause mortality, even stronger BMI and WHR associations were observed. The impact of obesity and body fat distribution on breast cancer patients risk of death may vary across racial/ethnic groups.
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A Population-Based Observational Study of First-Course Treatment and Survival for Adolescent and Young Adult Females with Breast Cancer.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Young age at breast cancer diagnosis is associated with poor survival. However, little is known about factors associated with first-course treatment receipt or survival among adolescent and young adult (AYA) females aged 15-39 years.
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Melanoma survival disadvantage in young, non-Hispanic white males compared with females.
JAMA Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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Worse survival among patients with melanoma has been demonstrated in middle-aged and older men compared with women, but few studies have explored survival differences by sex in adolescents and young adults, in whom melanoma is the third most common cancer. Focusing on sex disparities in survival among younger individuals may provide further evidence of biological rather than behavioral factors that affect melanoma outcome.
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Talking About Cancer and Meeting Peer Survivors: Social Information Needs of Adolescents and Young Adults Diagnosed with Cancer.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Limited research exists on the social information needs of adolescents and young adults (AYAs, aged 15-39 at diagnosis) with cancer.
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Health-related quality of life of adolescent and young adult patients with cancer in the United States: the Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) diagnosed with cancer face numerous physical, psychosocial, and practical challenges. This article describes the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and associated demographic and health-related characteristics of this developmentally diverse population.
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Impact of breast cancer subtypes on three-year survival among adolescent and young adult women.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Young women have poorer survival after breast cancer than older women. It is unclear whether this survival difference relates to the unique distribution of hormone receptor (HR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) defined molecular breast cancer subtypes among adolescent and young adult (AYA) women aged 15--39 years. The purpose of our study was to examine associations between breast cancer subtypes and short-term survival in AYA women, as well as determine whether the distinct molecular subtype distribution among AYA women explains the unfavorable overall breast cancer survival statistics reported for AYA women compared to older women.
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The California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC): prognostic factors associated with racial/ethnic differences in breast cancer survival.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Racial/ethnic disparities in mortality among US breast cancer patients are well documented. Our knowledge of the contribution of lifestyle factors to disease prognosis is based primarily on non-Latina Whites and is limited for Latina, African American, and Asian American women. To address this knowledge gap, the California Breast Cancer Survivorship Consortium (CBCSC) harmonized and pooled interview information (e.g., demographics, family history of breast cancer, parity, smoking, alcohol consumption) from six California-based breast cancer studies and assembled corresponding cancer registry data (clinical characteristics, mortality), resulting in 12,210 patients (6,501 non-Latina Whites, 2,060 African Americans, 2,032 Latinas, 1,505 Asian Americans, 112 other race/ethnicity) diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer between 1993 and 2007. In total, 3,047 deaths (1,570 breast cancer specific) were observed with a mean (SD) follow-up of 8.3 (3.5) years. Cox proportional hazards regression models were fit to data to estimate hazards ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Compared with non-Latina Whites, the HR of breast cancer-specific mortality was 1.13 (95 % CI 0.97-1.33) for African Americans, 0.84 (95 % CI 0.70-1.00) for Latinas, and 0.60 (95 % CI 0.37-0.97) for Asian Americans after adjustment for age, tumor characteristics, and select lifestyle factors. The CBCSC represents a large and racially/ethnically diverse cohort of breast cancer patients from California. This cohort will enable analyses to jointly consider a variety of clinical, lifestyle, and contextual factors in attempting to explain the long-standing disparities in breast cancer outcomes.
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Unmet Support Service Needs and Health-Related Quality of Life among Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer: The AYA HOPE Study.
Front Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Introduction: Cancer for adolescents and young adults (AYA) differs from younger and older patients; AYA face medical challenges while navigating social and developmental transitions. Research suggests that these patients are under or inadequately served by current support services, which may affect health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: We examined unmet service needs and HRQOL in the National Cancer Institutes Adolescent and Young Adult Health Outcomes and Patient Experience (AYA HOPE) study, a population-based cohort (n?=?484), age 15-39, diagnosed with cancer 6-14?months prior, in 2007-2009. Unmet service needs were psychosocial, physical, spiritual, and financial services where respondents endorsed that they needed, but did not receive, a listed service. Linear regression models tested associations between any or specific unmet service needs and HRQOL, adjusting for demographic, medical, and health insurance variables. Results: Over one-third of respondents reported at least one unmet service need. The most common were financial (16%), mental health (15%), and support group (14%) services. Adjusted models showed that having any unmet service need was associated with worse overall HRQOL, fatigue, physical, emotional, social, and school/work functioning, and mental health (ps?
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Racial patterns of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, in California: a population-based study.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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In order to investigate whether the clinical behaviour of extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (ENKTL) varies by race within a geographic region, we identified a total of 213 non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics and Asians/Pacific islanders (APIs) diagnosed with ENKTL in the California Cancer Registry between 2001 and 2008. The incidence and outcomes of the disease in these racial groups were analysed. The incidence rates in non-Hispanic whites, Hispanics and APIs were 0.05, 0.18 and 0.23 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, among males; and 0.03, 0.07 and 0.10 per 100,000 person-years, respectively, among females. The overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 28.6% in non-Hispanic whites, 30.4% in Hispanic, and 24.0% in APIs. In multivariate analysis, distant versus local/regional disease (Hazard Ratio [HR]=2.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.36, 2.96), initial treatment with chemotherapy plus radiotherapy (HR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.22, 0.70) or radiotherapy alone (HR=0.48, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.99) versus no therapy were associated with OS. However, OS was not affected by age, sex, race, chemotherapy alone, socioeconomic status, or human immunodeficiency virus infection. In conclusion, ENKTL is more common and clinically more similar among Hispanics and APIs than non-Hispanic whites with poor outcome in all racial groups.
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The association between neighborhood characteristics and body size and physical activity in the California teachers study cohort.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2011
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We considered interactions between physical activity and body mass index (BMI) and neighborhood factors.
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Clinical trial participation and time to treatment among adolescents and young adults with cancer: does age at diagnosis or insurance make a difference?
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Because adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer have experienced variable improvement in survival over the past two decades, enhancing the quality and timeliness of cancer care in this population has emerged as a priority area. To identify current trends in AYA care, we examined patterns of clinical trial participation, time to treatment, and provider characteristics in a population-based sample of AYA patients with cancer.
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Lymphoid malignancies in U.S. Asians: incidence rate differences by birthplace and acculturation.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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Malignancies of the lymphoid cells, including non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), HL, and multiple myeloma, occur at much lower rates in Asians than other racial/ethnic groups in the United States. It remains unclear whether these deficits are explained by genetic or environmental factors. To better understand environmental contributions, we examined incidence patterns of lymphoid malignancies among populations characterized by ethnicity, birthplace, and residential neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnic enclave status.
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Nativity and papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates among Hispanic women in California.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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Overall, the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer in Hispanic women residing in the United States (US) is similar to that of non-Hispanic white women. However, little is known as to whether rates in Hispanic women vary by nativity, which may influence exposure to important risk factors.
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The California Neighborhoods Data System: a new resource for examining the impact of neighborhood characteristics on cancer incidence and outcomes in populations.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Research on neighborhoods and health has been growing. However, studies have not investigated the association of specific neighborhood measures, including socioeconomic and built environments, with cancer incidence or outcomes. We developed the California Neighborhoods Data System (CNDS), an integrated system of small area-level measures of socioeconomic and built environments for California, which can be readily linked to individual-level geocoded records. The CNDS includes measures such as socioeconomic status, population density, racial residential segregation, ethnic enclaves, distance to hospitals, walkable destinations, and street connectivity. Linking the CNDS to geocoded cancer patient information from the California Cancer Registry, we demonstrate the variability of CNDS measures by neighborhood socioeconomic status and predominant race/ethnicity for the 7,049 California census tracts, as well as by patient race/ethnicity. The CNDS represents an efficient and cost-effective resource for cancer epidemiology and control. It expands our ability to understand the role of neighborhoods with regard to cancer incidence and outcomes. Used in conjunction with cancer registry data, these additional contextual measures enable the type of transdisciplinary, "cells-to-society" research that is now being recognized as necessary for addressing population disparities in cancer incidence and outcomes.
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Recruitment and follow-up of adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: the AYA HOPE Study.
J Cancer Surviv
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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Cancer is rare in adolescents and young adults (AYA), but these patients have seen little improvement in survival in contrast to most other age groups. Furthermore, participation in research by AYAs is typically low. We conducted a study to examine the feasibility of recruiting a population-based sample of AYA survivors to examine issues of treatment and health outcomes.
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Papillary thyroid cancer incidence rates vary significantly by birthplace in Asian American women.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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To investigate how birthplace influences the incidence of papillary thyroid cancer among Asian American women.
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Global DNA methylation levels in girls with and without a family history of breast cancer.
Epigenetics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Lower levels of global DNA methylation in white blood cell (WBC) DNA have been associated with adult cancers. It is unknown whether individuals with a family history of cancer also have lower levels of global DNA methylation early in life. We examined global DNA methylation in WBC (measured in three repetitive elements, LINE1, Sat2 and Alu, by MethyLight and in LINE1 by pyrosequencing) in 51 girls ages 6-17. Compared to girls without a family history of breast cancer, methylation levels were lower for all assays in girls with a family history of breast cancer, and statistically significantly lower for Alu and LINE1 pyrosequencing. After adjusting for age, body mass index (BMI), and Tanner stage, only methylation in Alu was associated with family history of breast cancer. If these findings are replicated in larger studies, they suggest that lower levels of global WBC DNA methylation observed later in life in adults with cancer may also be present early in life in children with a family history of cancer.
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Asian ethnicity and breast cancer subtypes: a study from the California Cancer Registry.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2010
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The distribution of breast cancer molecular subtypes has been shown to vary by race/ethnicity, highlighting the importance of host factors in breast tumor biology. We undertook the current analysis to determine population-based distributions of breast cancer subtypes among six ethnic Asian groups in California. We defined immunohistochemical (IHC) surrogates for each breast cancer subtype among Chinese, Japanese, Filipina, Korean, Vietnamese, and South Asian patients diagnosed with incident, primary, invasive breast cancer between 2002 and 2007 in the California Cancer Registry as: hormone receptor-positive (HR+)/HER2- [estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) and/or progesterone receptor-positive (PR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-)], triple-negative (ER-, PR-, and HER2-), and HER2-positive (ER±, PR±, and HER2+). We calculated frequencies of breast cancer subtypes among Asian ethnic groups and evaluated their associations with clinical and demographic factors. Complete IHC data were available for 8,140 Asian women. Compared to non-Hispanic White women, Korean [odds ratio (OR) = 1.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-2.2], Filipina (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2-1.5), Vietnamese (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.6), and Chinese (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 1.0-1.3) women had a significantly increased risk of being diagnosed with HER2-positive breast cancer subtypes after adjusting for age, stage, grade, socioeconomic status, histology, diagnosis year, nativity, and hospital ownership status. We report a significant ethnic disparity in HER2-positive breast cancer in a large population-based cohort enriched for Asian-Americans. Given the poor prognosis and high treatment costs of HER2-positive breast cancer, our results have implications for healthcare resource utilization, cancer biology, and clinical care.
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Breast cancer incidence patterns among California Hispanic women: differences by nativity and residence in an enclave.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2010
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Breast cancer incidence is higher in U.S.-born Hispanic women than foreign-born Hispanics, but no studies have examined how these rates have changed over time. To better inform cancer control efforts, we examined incidence trends by nativity and incidence patterns by neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and Hispanic enclave (neighborhoods with high proportions of Hispanics or Hispanic immigrants).
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Disparities in breast cancer survival among Asian women by ethnicity and immigrant status: a population-based study.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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We investigated heterogeneity in ethnic composition and immigrant status among US Asians as an explanation for disparities in breast cancer survival.
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The influence of nativity and neighborhoods on breast cancer stage at diagnosis and survival among California Hispanic women.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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In the US, foreign-born Hispanics tend to live in socioeconomic conditions typically associated with later stage of breast cancer diagnosis, yet they have lower breast cancer mortality rates than their US-born counterparts. We evaluated the impact of nativity (US- versus foreign-born), neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and Hispanic enclave (neighborhoods with high proportions of Hispanics or Hispanic immigrants) on breast cancer stage at diagnosis and survival among Hispanics.
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Hidden breast cancer disparities in Asian women: disaggregating incidence rates by ethnicity and migrant status.
Am J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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We estimated trends in breast cancer incidence rates for specific Asian populations in California to determine if disparities exist by immigrant status and age.
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Past recreational physical activity, body size, and all-cause mortality following breast cancer diagnosis: results from the Breast Cancer Family Registry.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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Few studies have considered the joint association of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity, two modifiable factors, with all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. Women diagnosed with invasive breast cancer (n = 4,153) between 1991 and 2000 were enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry through population-based sampling in Northern California, USA; Ontario, Canada; and Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. During a median follow-up of 7.8 years, 725 deaths occurred. Baseline questionnaires assessed moderate and vigorous recreational physical activity and BMI prior to diagnosis. Associations with all-cause mortality were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusting for established prognostic factors. Compared with no physical activity, any recreational activity during the 3 years prior to diagnosis was associated with a 34% lower risk of death [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.51-0.85] for women with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive tumors, but not those with ER-negative tumors; this association did not appear to differ by race/ethnicity or BMI. Lifetime physical activity was not associated with all-cause mortality. BMI was positively associated with all-cause mortality for women diagnosed at age > or =50 years with ER-positive tumors (compared with normal-weight women, HR for overweight = 1.39, 95% CI: 0.90-2.15; HR for obese = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.11-2.82). BMI associations did not appear to differ by race/ethnicity. Our findings suggest that physical activity and BMI exert independent effects on overall mortality after breast cancer.
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Family history of breast cancer and all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis in the Breast Cancer Family Registry.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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Although having a family history of breast cancer is a well established breast cancer risk factor, it is not known whether it influences mortality after breast cancer diagnosis. We studied 4,153 women with first primary incident invasive breast cancer diagnosed between 1991 and 2000, and enrolled in the Breast Cancer Family Registry through population-based sampling in Northern California, USA; Ontario, Canada; and Melbourne and Sydney, Australia. Cases were oversampled for younger age at diagnosis and/or family history of breast cancer. Carriers of germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 were excluded. Cases and their relatives completed structured questionnaires assessing breast cancer risk factors and family history of cancer. Cases were followed for a median of 6.5 years, during which 725 deaths occurred. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to evaluate associations between family history of breast cancer at the time of diagnosis and risk of all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis, adjusting for established prognostic factors. The hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-1.15) for having at least one first- or second-degree relative with breast cancer, and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.70-1.02) for having at least one first-degree relative with breast cancer, compared with having no such family history. Estimates did not vary appreciably when stratified by case or tumor characteristics. In conclusion, family history of breast cancer is not associated with all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis for women without a known germline mutation in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Therefore, clinical management should not depend on family history of breast cancer.
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Prediagnosis reproductive factors and all-cause mortality for women with breast cancer in the breast cancer family registry.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Studies have examined the prognostic relevance of reproductive factors before breast cancer diagnosis, but most have been small and their overall findings inconclusive. Associations between reproductive risk factors and all-cause mortality after breast cancer diagnosis were assessed with the use of a population-based cohort of 3,107 women of White European ancestry with invasive breast cancer (1,130 from Melbourne and Sydney, Australia; 1,441 from Ontario, Canada; and 536 from Northern California, United States). During follow-up with a median of 8.5 years, 567 deaths occurred. At recruitment, questionnaire data were collected on oral contraceptive use, number of full-term pregnancies, age at first full-term pregnancy, time from last full-term pregnancy to breast cancer diagnosis, breastfeeding, age at menarche, and menopause and menopausal status at breast cancer diagnosis. Hazard ratios for all-cause mortality were estimated with the use of Cox proportional hazards models with and without adjustment for age at diagnosis, study center, education, and body mass index. Compared with nulliparous women, those who had a child up to 2 years, or between 2 and 5 years, before their breast cancer diagnosis were more likely to die. The unadjusted hazard ratio estimates were 2.75 [95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.98-3.83; P < 0.001] and 2.20 (95% CI, 1.65-2.94; P < 0.001), respectively, and the adjusted estimates were 2.25 (95% CI, 1.59-3.18; P < 0.001) and 1.82 (95% CI, 1.35-2.46; P < 0.001), respectively. When evaluating the prognosis of women recently diagnosed with breast cancer, the time since last full-term pregnancy should be routinely considered along with other established host and tumor prognostic factors, but consideration of other reproductive factors may not be warranted.
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Recent trends in breast cancer incidence in US white women by county-level urban/rural and poverty status.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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Unprecedented declines in invasive breast cancer rates occurred in the United States between 2001 and 2004, particularly for estrogen receptor-positive tumors among non-Hispanic white women over 50 years. To understand the broader public health import of these reductions among previously unstudied populations, we utilized the largest available US cancer registry resource to describe age-adjusted invasive and in situ breast cancer incidence trends for non-Hispanic white women aged 50 to 74 years overall and by county-level rural/urban and poverty status.
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Improvements in survival after follicular lymphoma by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status: a population-based study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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A recent report suggested improvements in survival after follicular lymphoma (FL), but not for all racial/ethnic groups. To better understand the reasons for these FL survival differences, we examined the joint influences of diagnostic period, race/ethnicity, and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) on survival in a large population-based case series.
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Disparities in survival after Hodgkin lymphoma: a population-based study.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Survival after Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is generally favorable, but may vary by patient demographic characteristics. The authors examined HL survival according to race/ethnicity and neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES), determined from residential census-block group at diagnosis. For 12,492 classical HL patients ? 15 years diagnosed in California during 1988-2006 and followed through 2007, we determined risk of overall and HL-specific death using Cox proportional hazards regression; analyses were stratified by age and Ann Arbor stage. Irrespective of disease stage, patients with lower neighborhood SES had worse overall and HL-specific survival than patients with higher SES. Patients with the lowest quintile of neighborhood SES had a 64% (patients aged 15-44 years) and 36% (? 45 years) increased risk of HL-death compared to patients with the highest quintile of SES; SES results were similar for overall survival. Even after adjustment for neighborhood SES, blacks and Hispanics had increased risks of HL-death 74% and 43% (15-44 years) and 40% and 17% (? 45 years), respectively, higher than white patients. The racial/ethnic differences in survival were evident for all stages of disease. These data provide evidence for substantial, and probably remediable, racial/ethnic and neighborhood SES disparities in HL outcomes.
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Patterns and predictors of breast cancer chemotherapy use in Kaiser Permanente Northern California, 2004-2007.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
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Chemotherapy regimens for early stage breast cancer have been tested by randomized clinical trials, and specified by evidence-based practice guidelines. However, little is known about the translation of trial results and guidelines to clinical practice. We extracted individual-level data on chemotherapy administration from the electronic medical records of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC), a pre-paid integrated healthcare system serving 29 % of the local population. We linked data to the California Cancer Registry, incorporating socio-demographic and tumor factors, and performed multivariable logistic regression analyses on the receipt of specific chemotherapy regimens. We identified 6,004 women diagnosed with Stage I-III breast cancer at KPNC during 2004-2007; 2,669 (44.5 %) received at least one chemotherapy infusion at KPNC within 12 months of diagnosis. Factors associated with receiving chemotherapy included <50 years of age [odds ratio (OR) 2.27, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.81-2.86], tumor >2 cm (OR 2.14, 95 % CI 1.75-2.61), involved lymph nodes (OR 11.3, 95 % CI 9.29-13.6), hormone receptor-negative (OR 6.94, 95 % CI 4.89-9.86), Her2/neu-positive (OR 2.71, 95 % CI 2.10-3.51), or high grade (OR 3.53, 95 % CI 2.77-4.49) tumors; comorbidities associated inversely with chemotherapy use [heart disease for anthracyclines (OR 0.24, 95 % CI 0.14-0.41), neuropathy for taxanes (OR 0.45, 95 % CI 0.22-0.89)]. Relative to high-socioeconomic status (SES) non-Hispanic Whites, we observed less anthracycline and taxane use by SES non-Hispanic Whites (OR 0.63, 95 % CI 0.49-0.82) and American Indians (OR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.06-0.93), and more anthracycline use by high-SES Asians/Pacific Islanders (OR 1.72, 95 % CI 1.02-2.90). In this equal-access healthcare system, chemotherapy use followed practice guidelines, but varied by race and socio-demographic factors. These findings may inform efforts to optimize quality in breast cancer care.
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Rituximab use and survival after diffuse large B-cell or follicular lymphoma: a population-based study.
Leuk. Lymphoma
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To determine whether reported socioeconomic disparities in survival might be related to treatment, we examined patient and tumor characteristics associated with receipt of rituximab and survival in the National Cancer Institutes Patterns of Care Studies (2003 and 2008) for patients with diffuse large B-cell (DLBCL) and follicular (FL) lymphoma. Patients with DLBCL (n = 1192) were less likely to receive rituximab if they were older, black or Asian, lacked private medical insurance, had impaired performance status, had no lactate dehydrogenase measurements or were diagnosed with stage I disease. Patients with FL (n = 476) were less likely to receive rituximab if they were unmarried or non-Hispanic white. Receipt of rituximab did not differ by neighborhood median income. Treatment with rituximab was associated with better survival for patients with DLBCL, but not patients with FL. Lower rituximab use in patients with DLBCL without private insurance suggests that previously identified socioeconomic disparities in survival may, in part, be explained by receipt of rituximab.
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Age-specific incidence of breast cancer subtypes: understanding the black-white crossover.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
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Breast cancer incidence is higher among black women than white women before age 40 years, but higher among white women than black women after age 40 years (black-white crossover). We used newly available population-based data to examine whether the age-specific incidences of breast cancer subtypes vary by race and ethnicity.
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Impact of cancer on work and education among adolescent and young adult cancer survivors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
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To examine the impact of cancer on work and education in a sample of adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with cancer.
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Unmet adolescent and young adult cancer survivors information and service needs: a population-based cancer registry study.
J Cancer Surviv
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We described unmet information and service needs of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors (15-39 years of age) and identified sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with these unmet needs.
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Occurrence of breast cancer subtypes in adolescent and young adult women.
Breast Cancer Res.
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Breast cancers are increasingly recognized as heterogeneous based on expression of receptors for estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). Triple-negative tumors (ER-/PR-/HER2-) have been reported to be more common among younger women, but occurrence of the spectrum of breast cancer subtypes in adolescent and young adult (AYA) women aged between 15 and 39 years is otherwise poorly understood.
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Positive and negative psychosocial impact of being diagnosed with cancer as an adolescent or young adult.
Cancer
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The objective of this study was to explore the psychosocial impact of cancer on newly diagnosed adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients.
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Patient, hospital, and neighborhood factors associated with treatment of early-stage breast cancer among Asian American women in California.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Clinical guidelines recommend breast-conserving surgery (BCS) with radiation as a viable alternative to mastectomy for treatment of early-stage breast cancer. Yet, Asian Americans are more likely than other groups to have mastectomy or omit radiation after BCS.
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Gastric cancer incidence among Hispanics in California: patterns by time, nativity, and neighborhood characteristics.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
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Better understanding about gastric cancer incidence patterns among Hispanics by birthplace, socioeconomic status (SES), and acculturation can improve preventive strategies and disease models.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.