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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sphingomyelin SM(d18:1/18:0) is Significantly Enhanced in Cerebrospinal Fluid Samples Dichotomized by Pathological Amyloid-?42, Tau, and Phospho-Tau-181 Levels.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a severe and chronic neurodegenerative disorder of the brain. The laboratory diagnosis is limited to the analysis of three biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): amyloid-?42 (A?42), total tau, and phospho-tau-181 (P-tau-181). However, there is a need to find more biomarkers in CSF that can improve the sensitivity and specificity. The aim of the present study was to analyze endogenous small metabolites (metabolome) in the CSF, which may provide potentially new insights into biochemical processes involved in AD. One hundred CSF samples were dichotomized by normal (n = 50) and pathological decreased A?42 and increased tau and P-tau-181 levels (n = 50; correlating to an AD-like pathology). These CSF samples were analyzed using the AbsoluteIDQ® p180 Kit (BIOCRATES Life Sciences), which included 40 acyl carnitines metabolites, 21 amino acids, 19 proteinogenic aminoacids, 15 sphingolipids, and 90 glycerophospholipids. Our data show that two sphingomyelins (SM (d18:1/18:0) and SM (d18:1/18:1)), 5 glycerophospholipids (PC aa C32:0, PC aa C34:1, PC aa C36:1, PC aa C38:4 and PC aa C38:6), and 1 acyl carnitine (C3-DC-M/C5-OH) were significantly altered in the CSF with pathological "AD-like pathology". Sphingomyelin SM (d18:1/18:0) proved to be a specific (76%) and sensitive (66%) biomarker with a defined cut-off of 546 nM. Correct diagnoses for 21 out of 32 unknown samples could be achieved using this SM (d18:1/18:0) cut-off value. In conclusion, the sphingolipid SM (d18:1/18:0) is significantly increased in CSF of patients displaying pathological levels of A?42, tau, and P-tau-181.
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Short- and Long-Term Effects of the Modified Swedish Version of the Active Communication Education (ACE) Program for Adults with Hearing Loss.
J Am Acad Audiol
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Background: In Sweden, there is a lack of evidence-based rehabilitation programs for hearing loss. The Active Communication Education program (ACE) has successfully been used in Australia and was translated and evaluated in a Swedish pilot study. The pilot study included 23 participants (age 87 yr). No statistically significant effects were found, but the qualitative assessments indicated that this population found the program to be beneficial. The participants requested more focus on the psychosocial consequences of hearing loss, and the modules in the original ACE program were modified. Purpose: The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a modified Swedish version of the ACE program in a population aged 39-82 yr old. Research Design: Design was a between-group and within-group intervention study. Study Sample: The participants were recruited from the hearing health clinic in Linköping during 2010 and 2012. A total of 73 participants agreed to undergo the ACE, and 67 (92%) completed three or more sessions. Intervention: The ACE program consists of five weekly 2 hr group sessions with 6 to 10 participants per group. Data Collection and Analysis: The outcomes were measured before initiation of the program, 3 wk after program completion, and 6 mo after program completion and included communication strategy use, activity and participation, health-related quality of life, and anxiety and depression. In addition, outcomes were measured after program completion using the International Outcome Inventory-Alternative Interventions, a modified version of the Client Oriented Scale of Improvement, and qualitative feedback was obtained about the response to the program and actions taken as a result of participation. The treatment effects were examined using repeated-measures analyses of variance. Results: Statistically significant effects were found for communication strategy use, activity and participation, and psychosocial well-being. Statistically significant effects were found for gender and degree of hearing loss, indicating that women and those with mild hearing loss significantly improved communication strategies. Conclusions: It is suggested that the program be implemented as part of regular audiological rehabilitation and offered in an early stage of rehabilitation.
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Cochrane in context: Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Evid Based Child Health
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Cochrane Review: Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes McDonald SJ, Middleton P, Dowswell T, Morris PS. Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD004074. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD004074.pub3. This companion piece to the review, Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping in term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes, contains the following pieces: The abstract of the review A commentary from one or more of the review authors, explaining why the review team felt the review was an important one to produce A review of clinical practice guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Canadian Paediatric Society Some other recently published references on this topic.
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Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Evid Based Child Health
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Policies for timing of cord clamping vary, with early cord clamping generally carried out in the first 60 seconds after birth, whereas later cord clamping usually involves clamping the umbilical cord more than one minute after the birth or when cord pulsation has ceased. The benefits and potential harms of each policy are debated.
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Cochrane in context: Schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period.
Evid Based Child Health
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Cochrane Review: Schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period Yonemoto N, Dowswell T, Nagai S, Mori R. Schedules for home visits in the early post-partum period. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2013, Issue 7. Art. No.: CD009326. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009326.pub2. This companion piece to the review, "Schedules for home visits in the early post-partum period," contains the following pieces: The abstract of the review A commentary from one or more of the review authors, explaining why the review team felt the review was an important one to produce A review of clinical practice guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics, and the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE), United Kingdom.
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Schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period.
Evid Based Child Health
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Maternal complications including psychological and mental health problems and neonatal morbidity have been commonly observed in the postpartum period. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the weeks following the birth may prevent health problems from becoming chronic with long-term effects on women, their babies, and their families.
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Whole-Genome Sequencing and Mutation Analysis of Two Extensively Drug-Resistant Sputum Isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (VRFCWCF XDRTB 232 and VRFCWCF XDRTB 1028) from Chennai, India.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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We announce the draft genome sequence of two extensively drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, VRFCWCF XDRTB 232 and VRFCWCF XDRTB 1028, isolated from the sputum samples of a patient clinically suspected to have tuberculosis, and we also report novel mutations that confer drug resistance.
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Distinct endometrial and decidual macrophage characteristics and regulation of their permissivity to HIV-1 infection by SAMHD1.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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In order to develop strategies to prevent HIV-1 (human immunodeficiency virus type 1) transmission, it is crucial to better characterize HIV-1 target cells in the female reproductive tract (FRT) mucosae, and to identify effective innate responses. Control of HIV-1 infection in the decidua (the uterine mucosa during pregnancy) can serve as a model to study natural mucosal protection. Macrophages (dM) are the main HIV-1 target cells in the decidua. Here we report that, in vitro, macrophages (eM) and T cells are the main HIV-1 targets in the non pregnant endometrium. As reported for dM, eM were found to have an M2-like phenotype (CD68(+)/CD163(+)/CD206(+)/IL-10(high)). However, eM and dM may belong to different subpopulations, as they differently express certain markers and secrete different amounts of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. We observed strong expression of the SAMHD1 restriction factor and weak expression of its inactive form (pSAMHD1, phosphorylated at residue Thr592) in both eM and dM. Infection of macrophages from both tissues was enhanced in the presence of the viral protein Vpx, suggesting a role of SAMHD1 in the restriction of HIV-1 infection. This study and further comparisons of the decidua with non pregnant FRT mucosae should help to identify mechanisms of mucosal protection against HIV-1 infection.
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Occupational health physicians have better work conditions for handling sickness certification compared with general practitioners: Results from a nationwide survey in Sweden.
Scand J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Aims: To study whether occupational health physicians (OPs) have a better work situation regarding handling of sickness certification compared with other physicians, in particular general practitioners (GPs), and to analyze associations between OPs' experiences of assessing and providing a long-term prognosis of patients' work capacity and some potentially interrelated factors. Methods: Answers to a nationwide survey from physicians who had sickness certification consultations at least once monthly were analyzed. Differences among OPs (n=481), GPs (n=4257) and physicians working in other clinical settings (n=9452) were estimated by chi square tests. Associations between OPs' experiences as above and potentially interrelated factors were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Results: Among OPs, a lower proportion experienced clinical work situations related to sickness certifications as 'very problematic', compared with the other physicians, and especially so compared with GPs. A higher proportion of OPs also had organizational support for handling sickness certifications. For OPs, experience of sickness certification consultations as problematic once a month or less often, not experiencing sickness certification tasks as a work environment problem, and having a well-established workplace policy regarding sickness certification matters were significantly positively associated with finding assessing and providing a long-term prognosis of work capacity as 'not at all/somewhat problematic'. Conclusions: OPs' work situation regarding sickness certifications was favorable compared with that of other physicians, and especially compared with that of GPs. Our results underline the importance of organizational support for ensuring physicians' experience of having professional competence in handling assessments of patients' work capacity.
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Following the Digestion of Milk Proteins from Mother to Baby.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Little is known about the digestive process in infants. In particular, the chronological activity of enzymes across the course of digestion in the infant remains largely unknown. To create a temporal picture of how milk proteins are digested, enzyme activity was compared between intact human milk samples from three mothers and the gastric samples from each of their 4-12 day postpartum infants, 2 h after breast milk ingestion. The activities of 7 distinct enzymes are predicted in the infant stomach based on their observed cleavage pattern in peptidomics data. We found that the same patterns of cleavage were evident in both intact human milk and gastric milk samples, demonstrating that the enzyme activities that begin in milk persist in the infant stomach. However, the extent of enzyme activity is found to vary greatly between the intact milk and gastric samples. Overall, we observe that milk-specific proteins are cleaved at higher levels in the stomach compared to human milk. Notably, the enzymes we predict here only explain 78% of the cleavages uniquely observed in the gastric samples, highlighting that further investigation of the specific enzyme activities associated with digestion in infants is warranted.
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A high-throughput LC-MS/MS assay for quantification of artesunate and its metabolite dihydroartemisinin in human plasma and saliva.
Bioanalysis
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Saliva is an alternative sampling matrix to plasma, offering a noninvasive technique, but requires a highly sensitive bioanalytical method.
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Combination long-acting ?-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids compared with long-acting ?-agonists alone in older adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a manageable respiratory condition, is the third leading cause of death worldwide. Knowing which prescription medications are the most effective in improving health outcomes for people with COPD is essential to maximizing health outcomes.
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Whole-Genome Sequencing of Streptomycin-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolate VRFCWCF MRTB 180 Reveals Novel and Potential Mutations for Resistance.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2014
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We announce the draft genome sequence of a streptomycin monoresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain (VRFCWCF MRTB 180) isolated from sputum of a clinically suspected tuberculosis patient.
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Identification and characterization of novel associations in the CASP8/ALS2CR12 region on chromosome 2 with breast cancer risk.
Wei-Yu Lin, Nicola J Camp, Maya Ghoussaini, Jonathan Beesley, Kyriaki Michailidou, John L Hopper, Carmel Apicella, Melissa C Southey, Jennifer Stone, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Laura J Van't Veer, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Peter A Fasching, Lothar Haeberle, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Elinor J Sawyer, Timothy Cheng, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Frederik Marme, Harald M Surowy, Barbara Burwinkel, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Florence Menegaux, Claire Mulot, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Javier Benitez, M Pilar Zamora, José Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Nuria Alvarez, Daniel Herrero, Hoda Anton-Culver, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Alfons Meindl, Peter Lichtner, Rita K Schmutzler, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, , Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Heli Nevanlinna, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Sofia Khan, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Akiyo Horio, Natalia V Bogdanova, Natalia N Antonenkova, Thilo Dörk, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Patrick Neven, Els Wauters, Hans Wildiers, Diether Lambrechts, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Siranoush Manoukian, Bernardo Bonanni, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Celine Vachon, Kristen Purrington, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne, Catriona McLean, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Soo Hwang Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Norhashimah Hassan, Eranga Nishanthie Vithana, Vessela Kristensen, Wei Zheng, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Martha J Shrubsole, Jirong Long, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Saila Kauppila, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christi J van Asperen, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Jolanta Lissowska, Louise Brinton, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Judith S Brand, Maartje J Hooning, Antoinette Hollestelle, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Agnes Jager, Jingmei Li, Jianjun Liu, Keith Humphreys, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Hui Cai, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, William Blot, Lisa B Signorello, Qiuyin Cai, Paul D P Pharoah, Barbara Perkins, Mitul Shah, Fiona M Blows, Daehee Kang, Keun-Young Yoo, Dong-Young Noh, Mikael Hartman, Hui Miao, Kee Seng Chia, Thomas Choudary Putti, Ute Hamann, Craig Luccarini, Caroline Baynes, Shahana Ahmed, Mel Maranian, Catherine S Healey, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Chen-Yang Shen, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Pei-Ei Wu, Shian-Ling Ding, Alan Ashworth, Michael Jones, Nick Orr, Anthony J Swerdlow, Helen Tsimiklis, Enes Makalic, Daniel F Schmidt, Quang M Bui, Stephen J Chanock, David J Hunter, Rebecca Hein, Norbert Dahmen, Lars Beckmann, Kirsimari Aaltonen, Taru A Muranen, Tuomas Heikkinen, Astrid Irwanto, Nazneen Rahman, Clare A Turnbull, Quinten Waisfisz, Hanne E J Meijers-Heijboer, Muriel A Adank, Rob B van der Luijt, Per Hall, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Alison Dunning, Douglas F Easton, Angela Cox.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Previous studies have suggested that polymorphisms in CASP8 on chromosome 2 are associated with breast cancer risk. To clarify the role of CASP8 in breast cancer susceptibility, we carried out dense genotyping of this region in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) spanning a 1 Mb region around CASP8 were genotyped in 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 600 controls of European origin from 41 studies participating in the BCAC as part of a custom genotyping array experiment (iCOGS). Missing genotypes and SNPs were imputed and, after quality exclusions, 501 typed and 1232 imputed SNPs were included in logistic regression models adjusting for study and ancestry principal components. The SNPs retained in the final model were investigated further in data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWAS) comprising in total 10 052 case and 12 575 control subjects. The most significant association signal observed in European subjects was for the imputed intronic SNP rs1830298 in ALS2CR12 (telomeric to CASP8), with per allele odds ratio and 95% confidence interval [OR (95% confidence interval, CI)] for the minor allele of 1.05 (1.03-1.07), P = 1 × 10(-5). Three additional independent signals from intronic SNPs were identified, in CASP8 (rs36043647), ALS2CR11 (rs59278883) and CFLAR (rs7558475). The association with rs1830298 was replicated in the imputed results from the combined GWAS (P = 3 × 10(-6)), yielding a combined OR (95% CI) of 1.06 (1.04-1.08), P = 1 × 10(-9). Analyses of gene expression associations in peripheral blood and normal breast tissue indicate that CASP8 might be the target gene, suggesting a mechanism involving apoptosis.
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Outcomes in patients with heart failure treated in hospitals with varying admission rates: population-based cohort study.
BMJ Qual Saf
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Hospital admission rates for patients with heart failure (HF) presenting for emergency department (ED) care vary, and the implications of direct discharge home from the ED are unknown. We examined whether patients treated in hospitals with low admission rates exhibit higher rates of repeat ED visits, hospital readmissions and death.
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A critical role for murine transferrin receptor 2 in erythropoiesis during iron restriction.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Effective erythropoiesis requires an appropriate supply of iron and mechanisms regulating iron homeostasis and erythropoiesis are intrinsically linked. Iron dysregulation, typified by iron-deficiency anaemia and iron overload, is common in many clinical conditions and impacts the health of up to 30% of the world's population. The proteins transmembrane protease, serine 6 (TMPRSS6; also termed matriptase-2), HFE and transferrin receptor 2 (TFR2) play important and opposing roles in systemic iron homeostasis, by regulating expression of the iron regulatory hormone hepcidin. We have performed a systematic analysis of mice deficient in these three proteins and show that TMPRSS6 predominates over HFE and TFR2 in hepcidin regulation. The phenotype of mice lacking TMPRSS6 and TFR2 is characterized by severe anaemia and extramedullary haematopoiesis in the spleen. Stress erythropoiesis in these mice results in increased expression of the newly identified erythroid iron regulator erythroferrone, which does not appear to overcome the hepcidin overproduction mediated by loss of TMPRSS6. Extended analysis reveals that TFR2 plays an important role in erythroid cells, where it is involved in terminal erythroblast differentiation and the regulation of erythropoietin. In conclusion, we have identified an essential role for TFR2 in erythropoiesis that may provide new targets for the treatment of anaemia.
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Phylum-wide comparative genomics unravel the diversity of secondary metabolism in Cyanobacteria.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Cyanobacteria are an ancient lineage of photosynthetic bacteria from which hundreds of natural products have been described, including many notorious toxins but also potent natural products of interest to the pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries. Many of these compounds are the products of non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) or polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways. However, current understanding of the diversification of these pathways is largely based on the chemical structure of the bioactive compounds, while the evolutionary forces driving their remarkable chemical diversity are poorly understood.
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Maternal and perinatal health research priorities beyond 2015: an international survey and prioritization exercise.
Reprod Health
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Maternal mortality has declined by nearly half since 1990, but over a quarter million women still die every year of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal-health related targets are falling short of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals and a post-2015 Development Agenda is emerging. In connection with this, setting global research priorities for the next decade is now required.
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Whole Genome Sequence of Polyresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis CWCFVRF PRTB 19 Sputum Isolate from Chennai, India, Closely Clustering with East African Indian 5 Genogroup.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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We announce the draft genome sequence of a polyresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain (CWCFVRF PRTB 19) isolated from the sputum of a clinically suspected tuberculosis patient, and it closely clusters to the East African Indian 5 (EAI5) lineage.
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Combination of tocolytic agents for inhibiting preterm labour.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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Preterm birth represents the single largest cause of mortality and morbidity for newborns and a major cause of morbidity for pregnant women. Tocolytic agents include a wide range of drugs that can inhibit labour to prolong pregnancy. This may gain time to allow the fetus to mature further before being born, permit antenatal corticosteroid administration for lung maturation, and allow time for intra-uterine transfer to a hospital with neonatal intensive care facilities. However, some tocolytic drugs are associated with severe side effects. Combinations of tocolytic drugs may be more effective over single tocolytic agents or no intervention, without adversely affecting the mother or neonate.
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Early-onset basal cell carcinoma and indoor tanning: a population-based study.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Indoor tanning with UV radiation-emitting lamps is common among adolescents and young adults. Rising incidence rates of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) have been reported for the United States and elsewhere, particularly among those diagnosed at younger ages. Recent epidemiologic studies have raised concerns that indoor tanning may be contributing to early occurrence of BCC, and younger people may be especially vulnerable to cancer risk associated with this exposure. Therefore, we sought to address these issues in a population-based case-control study from New Hampshire.
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Phosphoprotein analysis reveals MEK inhibition as a way to target non-small cell lung cancer tumor initiating cells.
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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We aimed to analyze the activation status of commonly deregulated receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor initiating cells (TIC) previously demonstrated to be refractory to ionizing radiation and chemotherapy.
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Common non-synonymous SNPs associated with breast cancer susceptibility: findings from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium.
Roger L Milne, Barbara Burwinkel, Kyriaki Michailidou, Jose-Ignacio Arias-Perez, M Pilar Zamora, Primitiva Menéndez-Rodríguez, David Hardisson, Marta Mendiola, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Joe Dennis, Qin Wang, Manjeet K Bolla, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Minouk Schoemaker, Yon-Dschun Ko, Hiltrud Brauch, Ute Hamann, , Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Kazuo Tajima, Jingmei Li, Judith S Brand, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Diether Lambrechts, Gilian Peuteman, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Ann Smeets, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katazyna Durda, Mikael Hartman, Miao Hui, Wei Yen Lim, Ching Wan Chan, Federick Marme, Rongxi Yang, Peter Bugert, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Jonine D Figueroa, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henrik Flyger, Maartje J Hooning, Mieke Kriege, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Linetta B Koppert, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Julian Peto, Wei Zheng, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Martha J Shrubsole, Jirong Long, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Mervi Grip, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Sten Cornelissen, Linde Braaf, Daehee Kang, Ji-Yeob Choi, Sue K Park, Dong-Young Noh, Jacques Simard, Martine Dumont, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Peter A Fasching, Alexander Hein, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Jacopo Azzollini, Monica Barile, Elinor Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael Kerin, Nicola Miller, John L Hopper, Daniel F Schmidt, Enes Makalic, Melissa C Southey, Soo Hwang Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Kavitta Sivanandan, Wan-Ting Tay, Chen-Yang Shen, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Ming-Feng Hou, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Marie Sanchez, Claire Mulot, William Blot, Qiuyin Cai, Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Natalia Bogdanova, Thilo Dörk, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Ben Zhang, Fergus J Couch, Amanda E Toland, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, James McKay, Xianshu Wang, Janet E Olson, Celine Vachon, Kristen Purrington, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Kamila Czene, Mikael Eriksson, Keith Humphreys, Hatef Darabi, Shahana Ahmed, Mitul Shah, Paul D P Pharoah, Per Hall, Graham G Giles, Javier Benitez, Alison M Dunning, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Douglas F Easton.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Candidate variant association studies have been largely unsuccessful in identifying common breast cancer susceptibility variants, although most studies have been underpowered to detect associations of a realistic magnitude. We assessed 41 common non-synonymous single-nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) for which evidence of association with breast cancer risk had been previously reported. Case-control data were combined from 38 studies of white European women (46 450 cases and 42 600 controls) and analyzed using unconditional logistic regression. Strong evidence of association was observed for three nsSNPs: ATXN7-K264R at 3p21 [rs1053338, per allele OR = 1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-1.10, P = 2.9 × 10(-6)], AKAP9-M463I at 7q21 (rs6964587, OR = 1.05, 95% CI = 1.03-1.07, P = 1.7 × 10(-6)) and NEK10-L513S at 3p24 (rs10510592, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.07-1.12, P = 5.1 × 10(-17)). The first two associations reached genome-wide statistical significance in a combined analysis of available data, including independent data from nine genome-wide association studies (GWASs): for ATXN7-K264R, OR = 1.07 (95% CI = 1.05-1.10, P = 1.0 × 10(-8)); for AKAP9-M463I, OR = 1.05 (95% CI = 1.04-1.07, P = 2.0 × 10(-10)). Further analysis of other common variants in these two regions suggested that intronic SNPs nearby are more strongly associated with disease risk. We have thus identified a novel susceptibility locus at 3p21, and confirmed previous suggestive evidence that rs6964587 at 7q21 is associated with risk. The third locus, rs10510592, is located in an established breast cancer susceptibility region; the association was substantially attenuated after adjustment for the known GWAS hit. Thus, each of the associated nsSNPs is likely to be a marker for another, non-coding, variant causally related to breast cancer risk. Further fine-mapping and functional studies are required to identify the underlying risk-modifying variants and the genes through which they act.
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Genetic variation in mitotic regulatory pathway genes is associated with breast tumor grade.
Kristen S Purrington, Seth Slettedahl, Manjeet K Bolla, Kyriaki Michailidou, Kamila Czene, Heli Nevanlinna, Stig E Bojesen, Irene L Andrulis, Angela Cox, Per Hall, Jane Carpenter, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Christopher A Haiman, Peter A Fasching, Arto Mannermaa, Robert Winqvist, Hermann Brenner, Annika Lindblom, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Javier Benitez, Anthony Swerdlow, Vessela Kristensen, Pascal Guénel, Alfons Meindl, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Rainer Fagerholm, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Xianshu Wang, Curtis Olswold, Janet E Olson, Anna Marie Mulligan, Julia A Knight, Sandrine Tchatchou, Malcolm W R Reed, Simon S Cross, Jianjun Liu, Jingmei Li, Keith Humphreys, Christine Clarke, Rodney Scott, , Florentia Fostira, George Fountzilas, Irene Konstantopoulou, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Arif B Ekici, Arndt Hartmann, Matthias W Beckmann, Jaana M Hartikainen, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vesa Kataja, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Katri Pylkäs, Saila Kauppila, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Christa Stegmaier, Volker Arndt, Sara Margolin, Rosemary Balleine, José Ignacio Arias Perez, M Pilar Zamora, Primitiva Menéndez, Alan Ashworth, Michael Jones, Nick Orr, Patrick Arveux, Pierre Kerbrat, Thérèse Truong, Peter Bugert, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, France Labrèche, Mark S Goldberg, Martine Dumont, Argyrios Ziogas, Eunjung Lee, Gillian S Dite, Carmel Apicella, Melissa C Southey, Jirong Long, Martha Shrubsole, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Filomena Ficarazzi, Monica Barile, Paolo Peterlongo, Katarzyna Durda, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, Carolien H M van Deurzen, John W M Martens, Mieke Kriege, Jonine D Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Andreas Schneeweiss, William J Tapper, Susan M Gerty, Lorraine Durcan, Catriona McLean, Roger L Milne, Laura Baglietto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Laura J Van't Veer, Sten Cornelissen, Asta Försti, Diana Torres, Thomas Rüdiger, Anja Rudolph, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Stefan Nickels, Caroline Weltens, Giuseppe Floris, Matthieu Moisse, Joe Dennis, Qin Wang, Alison M Dunning, Mitul Shah, Judith Brown, Jacques Simard, Hoda Anton-Culver, Susan L Neuhausen, John L Hopper, Natalia Bogdanova, Thilo Dörk, Wei Zheng, Paolo Radice, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Peter Devillee, Hiltrud Brauch, Maartje Hooning, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Elinor Sawyer, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederick Marmee, Diana M Eccles, Graham G Giles, Julian Peto, Marjanka Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Ute Hamann, Jenny Chang-Claude, Diether Lambrechts, Paul D P Pharoah, Douglas Easton, V Shane Pankratz, Susan Slager, Celine M Vachon, Fergus J Couch.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Mitotic index is an important component of histologic grade and has an etiologic role in breast tumorigenesis. Several small candidate gene studies have reported associations between variation in mitotic genes and breast cancer risk. We measured associations between 2156 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 194 mitotic genes and breast cancer risk, overall and by histologic grade, in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) iCOGS study (n = 39 067 cases; n = 42 106 controls). SNPs in TACC2 [rs17550038: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16-1.33, P = 4.2 × 10(-10)) and EIF3H (rs799890: OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.04-1.11, P = 8.7 × 10(-6)) were significantly associated with risk of low-grade breast cancer. The TACC2 signal was retained (rs17550038: OR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.07-1.23, P = 7.9 × 10(-5)) after adjustment for breast cancer risk SNPs in the nearby FGFR2 gene, suggesting that TACC2 is a novel, independent genome-wide significant genetic risk locus for low-grade breast cancer. While no SNPs were individually associated with high-grade disease, a pathway-level gene set analysis showed that variation across the 194 mitotic genes was associated with high-grade breast cancer risk (P = 2.1 × 10(-3)). These observations will provide insight into the contribution of mitotic defects to histological grade and the etiology of breast cancer.
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Breast cancer risk, nightwork, and circadian clock gene polymorphisms.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Night shift work has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer pointing to a role of circadian disruption. We investigated the role of circadian clock gene polymorphisms and their interaction with nightwork in breast cancer risk in a population-based case-control study in France including 1126 breast cancer cases and 1174 controls. We estimated breast cancer risk associated with each of the 577 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 23 circadian clock genes. We also used a gene- and pathway-based approach to investigate the overall effect on breast cancer of circadian clock gene variants that might not be detected in analyses based on individual SNPs. Interactions with nightwork were tested at the SNP, gene, and pathway levels. We found that two SNPs in RORA (rs1482057 and rs12914272) were associated with breast cancer in the whole sample and among postmenopausal women. In this subpopulation, we also reported an association with rs11932595 in CLOCK, and with CLOCK, RORA, and NPAS2 in the analyses at the gene level. Breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women was also associated with overall genetic variation in the circadian gene pathway (P=0.04), but this association was not detected in premenopausal women. There was some evidence of an interaction between PER1 and nightwork in breast cancer in the whole sample (P=0.024), although the effect was not statistically significant after correcting for multiple testing (P=0.452). Our results support the hypothesis that circadian clock gene variants modulate breast cancer risk.
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A murine model of cervical spinal cord injury to study post-lesional respiratory neuroplasticity.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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A cervical spinal cord injury induces permanent paralysis, and often leads to respiratory distress. To date, no efficient therapeutics have been developed to improve/ameliorate the respiratory failure following high cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Here we propose a murine pre-clinical model of high SCI at the cervical 2 (C2) metameric level to study diverse post-lesional respiratory neuroplasticity. The technique consists of a surgical partial injury at the C2 level, which will induce a hemiparalysis of the diaphragm due to a deafferentation of the phrenic motoneurons from the respiratory centers located in the brainstem. The contralateral side of the injury remains intact and allows the animal recovery. Unlike other SCIs which affect the locomotor function (at the thoracic and lumbar level), the respiratory function does not require animal motivation and the quantification of the deficit/recovery can be easily performed (diaphragm and phrenic nerve recordings, whole body ventilation). This pre-clinical C2 SCI model is a powerful, useful, and reliable pre-clinical model to study various respiratory and non-respiratory neuroplasticity events at different levels (molecular to physiology) and to test diverse putative therapeutic strategies which might improve the respiration in SCI patients.
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Genetic variation at CYP3A is associated with age at menarche and breast cancer risk: a case-control study.
Nichola Johnson, Frank Dudbridge, Nick Orr, Lorna Gibson, Michael E Jones, Minouk J Schoemaker, Elizabeth J Folkerd, Ben P Haynes, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Gillian S Dite, Carmel Apicella, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Laura J Van T Veer, Femke Atsma, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Peter A Fasching, Matthias W Beckmann, Arif B Ekici, Stefan P Renner, Elinor Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael Kerin, Nicola Miller, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederik Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Emilie Cordina, Florence Menegaux, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henrik Flyger, Roger Milne, M Pilar Zamora, José Ignacio Arias Perez, Javier Benitez, Leslie Bernstein, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Christina Clarke Dur, Hermann Brenner, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Alfons Meindl, Joerg Heil, Claus R Bartram, Rita K Schmutzler, Hiltrud Brauch, Christina Justenhoven, Yon-Dschun Ko, Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Keitaro Matsuo, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Natalia N Antonenkova, Annika Lindblom, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Jonathan Beesley, Anna H Wu, David Van Den Berg, Chiu-Chen Tseng, Diether Lambrechts, Dominiek Smeets, Patrick Neven, Hans Wildiers, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Stefan Nickels, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Valeria Pensotti, Fergus J Couch, Janet E Olson, Xianshu Wang, Zachary Fredericksen, Vernon S Pankratz, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Chris Haiman, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Penny Soucy, Soo Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Sze Yee Phuah, Belinda K Cornes, Vessela N Kristensen, Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Wei Zheng, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Mervi Grip, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Peter Devillee, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Mark E Sherman, Per Hall, Nils Schoof, Maartje Hooning, Antoinette Hollestelle, Rogier A Oldenburg, Madeleine Tilanus-Linthorst, Jianjun Liu, Angie Cox, Ian W Brock, Malcolm Wr Reed, Simon S Cross, William Blot, Lisa B Signorello, Paul Dp Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Mitul Shah, Daehee Kang, Dong-Young Noh, Sue K Park, Ji-Yeob Choi, Mikael Hartman, Hui Miao, Wei Yen Lim, Anthony Tang, Ute Hamann, Asta Försti, Thomas Rüdiger, Hans Ulrich Ulmer, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Celine Vachon, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Chen-Yang Shen, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Chiun-Sheng Huang, Ming-Feng Hou, Anna González-Neira, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Craig Luccarini, Joe Dennis, Kyriaki Michailidou, Manjeet K Bolla, Jean Wang, Douglas F Easton, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Mitch Dowsett, Alan Ashworth, Anthony J Swerdlow, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Olivia Fletcher.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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We have previously shown that a tag single nucleotide polymorphism (rs10235235), which maps to the CYP3A locus (7q22.1), was associated with a reduction in premenopausal urinary estrone glucuronide levels and a modest reduction in risk of breast cancer in women age <=50 years.
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A preliminary evaluation of the active communication education program in a sample of 87-year-old hearing impaired individuals.
J Am Acad Audiol
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Previous research suggests that audiological rehabilitation for older adults could include group communication programs in addition to hearing aid fitting or as an alternative to hearing aid fitting for those people who do not wish to proceed with hearing aids. This pilot study was a first attempt to evaluate a Swedish version of such a program, Active Communication Education (ACE), which had been developed and previously evaluated in Australia (Hickson et al, 2007a).
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Nitric oxide donors for treating preterm labour.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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A number of tocolytics have been advocated for the treatment of threatened preterm labour in order to delay birth. The rationale is that a delay in birth may be associated with improved neonatal morbidity or mortality. Nitric oxide donors, such as nitroglycerin, have been used to relax the uterus. This review addresses their efficacy, adverse effects and influence on neonatal outcome.
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Five-year-olds punish antisocial adults.
Aggress Behav
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The human tendency to impose costs on those who have behaved antisocially towards third parties (third-party punishment) has a formative influence on societies, yet very few studies of the development of this tendency exist. In most studies where young children have punished, participants have imposed costs on puppets, leaving open the question as to whether young children punish in real third-party situations. Here, five-year-olds were given the opportunity to allocate desirable or unpleasant items to antisocial and neutral adults, who were presented as real and shown on video. Neutral individuals were almost always allocated only desirable items. Antisocial individuals were instead usually allocated unpleasant items, as long as participants were told they would give anonymously. Most participants who were instead told they would give in person did not allocate unpleasant items, although a minority did so. This indicates that the children interpreted the situation as real, and that whereas they genuinely desired to punish antisocial adults, they did not usually dare do so in person. Boys punished more frequently than girls. The willingness of preschoolers to spontaneously engage in third-party punishment, occasionally even risking the social costs of antagonizing an anti-social adult, demonstrates a deep-seated early-developing punitive sentiment in humans. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A systematic and functional classification of Streptococcus pyogenes that serves as a new tool for molecular typing and vaccine development.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Streptococcus pyogenes ranks among the main causes of mortality from bacterial infections worldwide. Currently there is no vaccine to prevent diseases such as rheumatic heart disease and invasive streptococcal infection. The streptococcal M protein that is used as the substrate for epidemiological typing is both a virulence factor and a vaccine antigen. Over 220 variants of this protein have been described, making comparisons between proteins difficult, and hindering M protein-based vaccine development. A functional classification based on 48 emm-clusters containing closely related M proteins that share binding and structural properties is proposed. The need for a paradigm shift from type-specific immunity against S. pyogenes to emm-cluster based immunity for this bacterium should be further investigated. Implementation of this emm-cluster-based system as a standard typing scheme for S. pyogenes will facilitate the design of future studies of M protein function, streptococcal virulence, epidemiological surveillance, and vaccine development.
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Population pharmacokinetics of artesunate and dihydroartemisinin during long-term oral administration of artesunate to patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The purpose of this study were firstly to characterize the population pharmacokinetics of artesunate (ARS) and its active metabolite dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in patients with metastatic breast cancer during long-term (>3 weeks) daily oral ARS administration and secondly to study the relationship between salivary and plasma concentrations of DHA.
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Planned home versus hospital care for preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes (PPROM) prior to 37 weeks' gestation.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Preterm prelabour rupture of membranes (PPROM) is associated with increased risk of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Women with PPROM have been predominantly managed in hospital. It is possible that selected women could be managed at home after a period of observation. The safety, cost and women's views about home management have not been established.
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Investigation of gene-environment interactions between 47 newly identified breast cancer susceptibility loci and environmental risk factors.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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A large genotyping project within the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC) recently identified 41 associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and overall breast cancer (BC) risk. We investigated whether the effects of these 41 SNPs, as well as six SNPs associated with estrogen receptor (ER) negative BC risk are modified by 13 environmental risk factors for BC. Data from 22 studies participating in BCAC were pooled, comprising up to 26,633 cases and 30,119 controls. Interactions between SNPs and environmental factors were evaluated using an empirical Bayes-type shrinkage estimator. Six SNPs showed interactions with associated p-values (pint ) <1.1 × 10(-3) . None of the observed interactions was significant after accounting for multiple testing. The Bayesian False Discovery Probability was used to rank the findings, which indicated three interactions as being noteworthy at 1% prior probability of interaction. SNP rs6828523 was associated with increased ER-negative BC risk in women ?170 cm (OR = 1.22, p = 0.017), but inversely associated with ER-negative BC risk in women <160 cm (OR = 0.83, p = 0.039, pint = 1.9 × 10(-4) ). The inverse association between rs4808801 and overall BC risk was stronger for women who had had four or more pregnancies (OR = 0.85, p = 2.0 × 10(-4) ), and absent in women who had had just one (OR = 0.96, p = 0.19, pint = 6.1 × 10(-4) ). SNP rs11242675 was inversely associated with overall BC risk in never/former smokers (OR = 0.93, p = 2.8 × 10(-5) ), but no association was observed in current smokers (OR = 1.07, p = 0.14, pint = 3.4 × 10(-4) ). In conclusion, recently identified BC susceptibility loci are not strongly modified by established risk factors and the observed potential interactions require confirmation in independent studies.
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Genetic predisposition to in situ and invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast.
Elinor Sawyer, Rebecca Roylance, Christos Petridis, Mark N Brook, Salpie Nowinski, Efterpi Papouli, Olivia Fletcher, Sarah Pinder, Andrew Hanby, Kelly Kohut, Patricia Gorman, Michele Caneppele, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Nichola Johnson, Ruth Swann, Miriam Dwek, Katherine-Anne Perkins, Cheryl Gillett, Richard Houlston, Gillian Ross, Paolo De Ieso, Melissa C Southey, John L Hopper, Elena Provenzano, Carmel Apicella, Jelle Wesseling, Sten Cornelissen, Renske Keeman, Peter A Fasching, Sebastian M Jud, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Michael J Kerin, Federick Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Barbara Burwinkel, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Pierre Kerbrat, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Roger L Milne, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Javier Benitez, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Alfons Meindl, Peter Lichtner, Rita K Schmutzler, Magdalena Lochmann, Hiltrud Brauch, Hans-Peter Fischer, Yon-Dschun Ko, , Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Natalia V Bogdanova, Thilo Dörk, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Kconfab Investigators, Diether Lambrechts, Caroline Weltens, Erik Van Limbergen, Sigrid Hatse, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Sara Volorio, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Catriona A McLean, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Vessela Kristensen, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Saila Kauppila, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Peter Devillee, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Caroline M Seynaeve, Mieke Kriege, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Mark E Sherman, Maartje J Hooning, Antoinette Hollestelle, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Carolien H M van Deurzen, Jingmei Li, Kamila Czene, Keith Humphreys, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Mitul Shah, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nicholas Orr, Minouk Schoemaker, Fergus J Couch, Emily Hallberg, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Kyriaki Michailidou, Alison M Dunning, Per Hall, Doug Easton, Paul Pharoah, Marjanka K Schmidt, Ian Tomlinson, Montserrat Garcia-Closas.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Invasive lobular breast cancer (ILC) accounts for 10-15% of all invasive breast carcinomas. It is generally ER positive (ER+) and often associated with lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS). Genome-wide association studies have identified more than 70 common polymorphisms that predispose to breast cancer, but these studies included predominantly ductal (IDC) carcinomas. To identify novel common polymorphisms that predispose to ILC and LCIS, we pooled data from 6,023 cases (5,622 ILC, 401 pure LCIS) and 34,271 controls from 36 studies genotyped using the iCOGS chip. Six novel SNPs most strongly associated with ILC/LCIS in the pooled analysis were genotyped in a further 516 lobular cases (482 ILC, 36 LCIS) and 1,467 controls. These analyses identified a lobular-specific SNP at 7q34 (rs11977670, OR (95%CI) for ILC = 1.13 (1.09-1.18), P = 6.0 × 10(-10); P-het for ILC vs IDC ER+ tumors = 1.8 × 10(-4)). Of the 75 known breast cancer polymorphisms that were genotyped, 56 were associated with ILC and 15 with LCIS at P<0.05. Two SNPs showed significantly stronger associations for ILC than LCIS (rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2, P-het = 0.04 and rs889312/5q11/MAP3K1, P-het = 0.03); and two showed stronger associations for LCIS than ILC (rs6678914/1q32/LGR6, P-het = 0.001 and rs1752911/6q14, P-het = 0.04). In addition, seven of the 75 known loci showed significant differences between ER+ tumors with IDC and ILC histology, three of these showing stronger associations for ILC (rs11249433/1p11, rs2981579/10q26/FGFR2 and rs10995190/10q21/ZNF365) and four associated only with IDC (5p12/rs10941679; rs2588809/14q24/RAD51L1, rs6472903/8q21 and rs1550623/2q31/CDCA7). In conclusion, we have identified one novel lobular breast cancer specific predisposition polymorphism at 7q34, and shown for the first time that common breast cancer polymorphisms predispose to LCIS. We have shown that many of the ER+ breast cancer predisposition loci also predispose to ILC, although there is some heterogeneity between ER+ lobular and ER+ IDC tumors. These data provide evidence for overlapping, but distinct etiological pathways within ER+ breast cancer between morphological subtypes.
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The association of asthma education centre characteristics on hospitalizations and emergency department visits in Ontario: a population-based study.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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BackgroundInternational guidelines recommend patient education as an essential component of optimal asthma management. Since 1990 hospital-based asthma education centres (AECs) have been established in Ontario, Canada. It is unknown whether patient outcomes are related to the level of services provided.MethodsUsing linked, population-based health administrative and hospital survey data we analyzed a population of patients aged 2 to 55 years with a hospitalization for asthma (N¿=¿12 029) or a high acuity asthma emergency department (ED) visit (N¿=¿63 025) between April 2004 and March 2007 and followed for three years. Administrative data documenting individuals¿ attendance at AECs were not available. Poisson models were used to test the association of potential access to various AEC service models (outpatient service availability and in-hospital services) with asthma readmissions, ED visits or death within 6 to 36 months following the index admission or ED visit.ResultsFifty three of 163 acute care hospitals had an AEC (N¿=¿36) or had access by referral (N¿=¿17). All AECs documented use with guideline-based recommendations for AE programs. ED patients having access to an AEC that offered full-time, extended hours had reduced rates of adverse outcomes (adjusted relative rate [aRR] 0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.69, 0.90) compared to those with no AEC access. Hospitalized patients with access to asthma education during hospitalization had reduced rates of adverse events (aRR 0.87, 95% CI 0.75, 1.00) compared to those with no inhospital AEC access.ConclusionAlthough compliant with asthma guideline-based program elements, on a population basis access to asthma education centres is associated only with a modest benefit for some admitted and ED patients and depends on the level of access to services provided. Review of both services provided and strategies to address potential barriers to care are necessary.
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Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labour for reducing adverse neonatal outcomes.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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After successful inhibition of threatened preterm labour women are at high risk of recurrent preterm labour. Terbutaline pump maintenance therapy has been used to reduce adverse neonatal outcomes. This review replaces an earlier Cochrane review, published in 2002, which is no longer being updated by the team.
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Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Nausea, retching and vomiting are very commonly experienced by women in early pregnancy. There are considerable physical, social and psychological effects on women who experience these symptoms. This is an update of a review of interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy previously published in 2010.
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Evaluation of an Emergency Department Lean Process Improvement Program to Reduce Length of Stay.
Ann Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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In recent years, lean principles have been applied to improve wait times in the emergency department (ED). In 2009, an ED process improvement program based on lean methods was introduced in Ontario as part of a broad strategy to reduce ED length of stay and improve patient flow. This study seeks to determine the effect of this program on ED wait times and quality of care.
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Evidence that breast cancer risk at the 2q35 locus is mediated through IGFBP5 regulation.
Maya Ghoussaini, Stacey L Edwards, Kyriaki Michailidou, Silje Nord, Richard Cowper-Sal Lari, Kinjal Desai, Siddhartha Kar, Kristine M Hillman, Susanne Kaufmann, Dylan M Glubb, Jonathan Beesley, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Ed Dicks, Qi Guo, Marjanka K Schmidt, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Judith Brown, Kamila Czene, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Daniel Klevebring, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Diether Lambrechts, Bernard Thienpont, Patrick Neven, Hans Wildiers, Annegien Broeks, Laura J Van't Veer, Emiel J Th Rutgers, Fergus J Couch, Janet E Olson, Emily Hallberg, Celine Vachon, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Lorna Gibson, Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Per Hall, Jingmei Li, Jianjun Liu, Keith Humphreys, Daehee Kang, Ji-Yeob Choi, Sue K Park, Dong-Young Noh, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Yasushi Yatabe, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Florence Menegaux, Marie Sanchez, Barbara Burwinkel, Frederik Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Javier Benitez, M Pilar Zamora, Jose Ignacio Arias Perez, Primitiva Menéndez, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Qiuyin Cai, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Soo Hwang Teo, Cheng Har Yip, Daphne S C Lee, Tien Y Wong, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, J Margriet Collée, Carolien H M van Deurzen, John L Hopper, Melissa C Southey, Helen Tsimiklis, Miroslav K Kapuscinski, Chen-Yang Shen, Pei-Ei Wu, Jyh-Cherng Yu, Shou-Tung Chen, Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, Anne-Lise Borresen-Dale, Graham G Giles, Roger L Milne, Catriona McLean, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Mikael Hartman, Hui Miao, Shaik Ahmad Bin Syed Buhari, Yik Ying Teo, Peter A Fasching, Lothar Haeberle, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Minouk J Schoemaker, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Koto, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Sara Volorio, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Sonja Helbig, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christi J van Asperen, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Ute Hamann, Diana Torres, Wei Zheng, Jirong Long, Hoda Anton-Culver, Susan L Neuhausen, Craig Luccarini, Caroline Baynes, Shahana Ahmed, Mel Maranian, Catherine S Healey, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Nuria Alvarez, Daniel Herrero, Daniel C Tessier, Daniel Vincent, Francois Bacot, Ines de Santiago, Jason Carroll, Carlos Caldas, Melissa A Brown, Mathieu Lupien, Vessela N Kristensen, Paul D P Pharoah, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Juliet D French, Douglas F Easton, Alison M Dunning, .
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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GWAS have identified a breast cancer susceptibility locus on 2q35. Here we report the fine mapping of this locus using data from 101,943 subjects from 50 case-control studies. We genotype 276 SNPs using the 'iCOGS' genotyping array and impute genotypes for a further 1,284 using 1000 Genomes Project data. All but two, strongly correlated SNPs (rs4442975 G/T and rs6721996 G/A) are excluded as candidate causal variants at odds against >100:1. The best functional candidate, rs4442975, is associated with oestrogen receptor positive (ER+) disease with an odds ratio (OR) in Europeans of 0.85 (95% confidence interval=0.84-0.87; P=1.7 × 10(-43)) per t-allele. This SNP flanks a transcriptional enhancer that physically interacts with the promoter of IGFBP5 (encoding insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 5) and displays allele-specific gene expression, FOXA1 binding and chromatin looping. Evidence suggests that the g-allele confers increased breast cancer susceptibility through relative downregulation of IGFBP5, a gene with known roles in breast cell biology.
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Betamimetics for inhibiting preterm labour.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Preterm birth is a major contributor to perinatal mortality and morbidity worldwide. Tocolytic agents are drugs used to inhibit uterine contractions. Betamimetics are tocolytic agents that have been widely used, especially in resource-poor countries.
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Amino acid enrichment and compositional changes among mammalian milk proteins and the resulting nutritional consequences.
J. Dairy Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Milk is a hallmark of mammalian evolution: a unique food that has evolved with mammals. Despite the importance of this food, it is not known if variation in AA composition between different species is important to milk proteins or how it might affect the nutritional value of milk. As milk is the only food source for newborn mammals, it has long been speculated that milk proteins should be enriched in essential AA. However, no systematic analysis supports this assumption. Although many factors influence the overall nutritional value of milk, including total protein concentration, we focused here on the AA composition of milk proteins and investigated the possibility that selection drives compositional changes. We identified 9 major milk proteins present in 13 mammalian species and compared them with a large group of nonmilk proteins. Our results indicate heterogeneity in the AA composition of milk proteins, showing significant enrichment and depletion of certain AA in milk-specific proteins. Although high levels of particular AA appear to be consistently maintained, orthologous milk proteins display significant differences in AA composition across species, most notably among the caseins. Interspecies variation of milk composition is thought to be indicative of nutritional optimization to the requirements of the species. In accordance with this, our observations indicate that milk proteins may have adapted to the species-specific nutritional needs of the neonate.
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Interdisciplinary Approaches of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Applied to a Respiratory Neuronal Circuitry Model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Respiratory related diseases associated with the neuronal control of breathing represent life-threatening issues and to date, no effective therapeutics are available to enhance the impaired function. The aim of this study was to determine whether a preclinical respiratory model could be used for further studies to develop a non-invasive therapeutic tool applied to rat diaphragmatic neuronal circuitry. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was performed on adult male Sprague-Dawley rats using a human figure-of-eight coil. The largest diaphragmatic motor evoked potentials (MEPdia) were recorded when the center of the coil was positioned 6 mm caudal from Bregma, involving a stimulation of respiratory supraspinal pathways. Magnetic shielding of the coil with mu metal reduced magnetic field intensities and improved focality with increased motor threshold and lower amplitude recruitment curve. Moreover, transynaptic neuroanatomical tracing with pseudorabies virus (applied to the diaphragm) suggest that connections exist between the motor cortex, the periaqueductal grey cell regions, several brainstem neurons and spinal phrenic motoneurons (distributed in the C3-4 spinal cord). These results reveal the anatomical substrate through which supraspinal stimulation can convey descending action potential volleys to the spinal motoneurons (directly or indirectly). We conclude that MEPdia following a single pulse of TMS can be successfully recorded in the rat and may be used in the assessment of respiratory supraspinal plasticity. Supraspinal non-invasive stimulations aimed to neuromodulate respiratory circuitry will enable new avenues of research into neuroplasticity and the development of therapies for respiratory dysfunction associated with neural injury and disease (e.g. spinal cord injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).
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BDC12-4.1 T-Cell Receptor Transgenic Insulin-Specific CD4 T Cells Are Resistant to In Vitro Differentiation into Functional Foxp3+ T Regulatory Cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The infusion of ex vivo-expanded autologous T regulatory (Treg) cells is potentially an effective immunotherapeutic strategy against graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) and several autoimmune diseases, such as type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, in vitro differentiation of antigen-specific T cells into functional and stable Treg (iTreg) cells has proved challenging. As insulin is the major autoantigen leading to T1D, we tested the capacity of insulin-specific T-cell receptor (TCR) transgenic CD4+ T cells of the BDC12-4.1 clone to convert into Foxp3+ iTreg cells. We found that in vitro polarization toward Foxp3+ iTreg was effective with a majority (>70%) of expanded cells expressing Foxp3. However, adoptive transfer of Foxp3+ BDC12-4.1 cells did not prevent diabetes onset in immunocompetent NOD mice. Thus, in vitro polarization of insulin-specific BDC12-4.1 TCR transgenic CD4+ T cells toward Foxp3+ cells did not provide dominant tolerance in recipient mice. These results highlight the disconnect between an in vitro acquired Foxp3+ cell phenotype and its associated in vivo regulatory potential.
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MicroRNA Related Polymorphisms and Breast Cancer Risk.
Sofia Khan, Dario Greco, Kyriaki Michailidou, Roger L Milne, Taru A Muranen, Tuomas Heikkinen, Kirsimari Aaltonen, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Jianjun Liu, Per Hall, Astrid Irwanto, Keith Humphreys, Jingmei Li, Kamila Czene, Jenny Chang-Claude, Rebecca Hein, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Olivia Fletcher, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Nichola Johnson, Lorna Gibson, Zoe Aitken, John L Hopper, Helen Tsimiklis, Minh Bui, Enes Makalic, Daniel F Schmidt, Melissa C Southey, Carmel Apicella, Jennifer Stone, Quinten Waisfisz, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Muriel A Adank, Rob B van der Luijt, Alfons Meindl, Rita K Schmutzler, Bertram Müller-Myhsok, Peter Lichtner, Clare Turnbull, Nazneen Rahman, Stephen J Chanock, David J Hunter, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Malcolm W R Reed, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Laura J V A N't Veer, Frans B Hogervorst, Peter A Fasching, Michael G Schrauder, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Javier Benitez, Pilar M Zamora, Jose I A Perez, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Paul D P Pharoah, Alison M Dunning, Mitul Shah, Robert Luben, Judith Brown, Fergus J Couch, Xianshu Wang, Celine Vachon, Janet E Olson, Diether Lambrechts, Matthieu Moisse, Robert Paridaens, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Claire Mulot, Frederick Marme, Barbara Burwinkel, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Sandrine Tchatchou, Anna Marie Mulligan, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Natalia N Antonenkova, Hoda Anton-Culver, Hatef Darabi, Mikael Eriksson, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Jolanta Lissowska, Louise Brinton, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christi J van Asperen, Vessela N Kristensen, , Susan Slager, Amanda E Toland, Christine B Ambrosone, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Monica Barile, Paolo Mariani, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, J Margriet Collée, Agnes Jager, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Graham G Giles, Catriona McLean, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Michael Jones, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Mervi Grip, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Arto Mannermaa, Ute Hamann, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Carl Blomqvist, Kristiina Aittomäki, Douglas F Easton, Heli Nevanlinna.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genetic variations, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in microRNAs (miRNA) or in the miRNA binding sites may affect the miRNA dependent gene expression regulation, which has been implicated in various cancers, including breast cancer, and may alter individual susceptibility to cancer. We investigated associations between miRNA related SNPs and breast cancer risk. First we evaluated 2,196 SNPs in a case-control study combining nine genome wide association studies (GWAS). Second, we further investigated 42 SNPs with suggestive evidence for association using 41,785 cases and 41,880 controls from 41 studies included in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC). Combining the GWAS and BCAC data within a meta-analysis, we estimated main effects on breast cancer risk as well as risks for estrogen receptor (ER) and age defined subgroups. Five miRNA binding site SNPs associated significantly with breast cancer risk: rs1045494 (odds ratio (OR) 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88-0.96), rs1052532 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99), rs10719 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99), rs4687554 (OR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.95-0.99, and rs3134615 (OR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05) located in the 3' UTR of CASP8, HDDC3, DROSHA, MUSTN1, and MYCL1, respectively. DROSHA belongs to miRNA machinery genes and has a central role in initial miRNA processing. The remaining genes are involved in different molecular functions, including apoptosis and gene expression regulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate whether the miRNA binding site SNPs are the causative variants for the observed risk effects.
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Human decidual macrophages and NK cells differentially express Toll-like receptors and display distinct cytokine profiles upon TLR stimulation.
Front Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Maternofetal pathogen transmission is partially controlled at the level of the maternal uterine mucosa at the fetal implantation site (the decidua basalis), where maternal and fetal cells are in close contact. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play an important role in initiating rapid immune responses against pathogens in the decidua basalis, however the tolerant microenvironment should be preserved in order to allow fetal development. Here we investigated the expression and functionality of TLRs expressed by decidual macrophages (dMs) and NK cells (dNKs), the major decidual immune cell populations. We report for the first time that both human dMs and dNK cells express mRNAs encoding TLRs 1-9, albeit with a higher expression level in dMs. TLR2, TLR3, and TLR4 protein expression checked by flow cytometry was positive for both dMs and dNK cells. In vitro treatment of primary dMs and dNK cells with specific TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7/8, and TLR9 agonists enhanced their secretion of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, as well as cytokines and chemokines involved in immune cell crosstalk. Only dNK cells released IFN-?, whereas only dMs released IL-1?, IL-10, and IL-12. TLR9 activation of dMs resulted in a distinct pattern of cytokine expression compared to the other TLRs. The cytokine profiles expressed by dMs and dNK cells upon TLR activation are compatible with maintenance of the fetotolerant immune environment during initiation of immune responses to pathogens at the maternofetal interface.
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Altering FAK-paxillin interactions reduces adhesion, migration and invasion processes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) plays an important role in signal transduction pathways initiated at sites of integrin-mediated cell adhesion to the extracellular matrix. Thus, FAK is involved in many aspects of the metastatic process including adhesion, migration and invasion. Recently, several small molecule inhibitors which target FAK catalytic activity have been developed by pharmaceutical companies. The current study was aimed at addressing whether inhibiting FAK targeting to focal adhesions (FA) represents an efficient alternative strategy to inhibit FAK downstream pathways. Using a mutagenesis approach to alter the targeting domain of FAK, we constructed a FAK mutant that fails to bind paxillin. Inhibiting FAK-paxillin interactions led to a complete loss of FAK localization at FAs together with reduced phosphorylation of FAK and FAK targets such as paxillin and p130Cas. This in turn resulted in altered FA dynamics and inhibition of cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Moreover, the migration properties of cells expressing the FAK mutant were reduced as compared to FAK-/- cells. This was correlated with a decrease in both phospho-Src and phospho-p130Cas levels at FAs. We conclude that targeting FAK-paxillin interactions is an efficient strategy to reduce FAK signalling and thus may represent a target for the development of new FAK inhibitors.
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DNA mismatch repair gene MSH6 implicated in determining age at natural menopause.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Length of female reproductive lifespan is associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and infertility. The biological processes that govern the timing of the beginning and end of reproductive life are not well understood. Genetic variants are known to contribute to about 50% of the variation in both age at menarche and menopause, but to date the known genes explain <15% of the genetic component. We have used genome-wide association in a bivariate meta-analysis of both traits, to identify genes involved in determining reproductive lifespan. We observed significant genetic correlation between the two traits using Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA). However, we found no robust statistical evidence for individual variants with an effect on both traits. A novel association with age at menopause was detected for a variant rs1800932 in the mismatch repair gene MSH6 (P=1.9x10(-9)), which was also associated with altered expression levels of MSH6 mRNA in multiple tissues. This study contributes to the growing evidence that DNA repair processes play a key role in ovarian ageing and could be an important therapeutic target for infertility.
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A large-scale assessment of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility using 46 450 cases and 42 461 controls from the breast cancer association consortium.
Roger L Milne, Jesús Herranz, Kyriaki Michailidou, Joe Dennis, Jonathan P Tyrer, M Pilar Zamora, José Ignacio Arias-Perez, Anna González-Neira, Guillermo Pita, M Rosario Alonso, Qin Wang, Manjeet K Bolla, Kamila Czene, Mikael Eriksson, Keith Humphreys, Hatef Darabi, Jingmei Li, Hoda Anton-Culver, Susan L Neuhausen, Argyrios Ziogas, Christina A Clarke, John L Hopper, Gillian S Dite, Carmel Apicella, Melissa C Southey, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, , Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nicholas Orr, Minouk Schoemaker, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna Durda, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Henrik Flyger, Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Xianshu Wang, Janet E Olson, Celine Vachon, Kristen Purrington, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Mervi Grip, Alison M Dunning, Mitul Shah, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Marie Sanchez, Claire Mulot, Hermann Brenner, Aida Karina Dieffenbach, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Maartje J Hooning, Antoinette Hollestelle, J Margriet Collée, Agnes Jager, Angela Cox, Ian W Brock, Malcolm W R Reed, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline Seynaeve, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Jacques Simard, Martine Dumont, Penny Soucy, Thilo Dörk, Natalia V Bogdanova, Ute Hamann, Asta Försti, Thomas Rüdiger, Hans-Ulrich Ulmer, Peter A Fasching, Lothar Häberle, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Julian Peto, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernard Peissel, Paolo Mariani, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Elinor Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael Kerin, Nicola Miller, Federik Marme, Barbara Burwinkel, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Diether Lambrechts, Betul T Yesilyurt, Giuseppe Floris, Karin Leunen, Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, Vessela Kristensen, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Jonine D Figueroa, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Senno Verhoef, Emiel J Rutgers, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, Fergus J Couch, Amanda E Toland, Drakoulis Yannoukakos, Paul D P Pharoah, Per Hall, Javier Benitez, Nuria Malats, Douglas F Easton.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Part of the substantial unexplained familial aggregation of breast cancer may be due to interactions between common variants, but few studies have had adequate statistical power to detect interactions of realistic magnitude. We aimed to assess all two-way interactions in breast cancer susceptibility between 70 917 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) selected primarily based on prior evidence of a marginal effect. Thirty-eight international studies contributed data for 46 450 breast cancer cases and 42 461 controls of European origin as part of a multi-consortium project (COGS). First, SNPs were preselected based on evidence (P < 0.01) of a per-allele main effect, and all two-way combinations of those were evaluated by a per-allele (1 d.f.) test for interaction using logistic regression. Second, all 2.5 billion possible two-SNP combinations were evaluated using Boolean operation-based screening and testing, and SNP pairs with the strongest evidence of interaction (P < 10(-4)) were selected for more careful assessment by logistic regression. Under the first approach, 3277 SNPs were preselected, but an evaluation of all possible two-SNP combinations (1 d.f.) identified no interactions at P < 10(-8). Results from the second analytic approach were consistent with those from the first (P > 10(-10)). In summary, we observed little evidence of two-way SNP interactions in breast cancer susceptibility, despite the large number of SNPs with potential marginal effects considered and the very large sample size. This finding may have important implications for risk prediction, simplifying the modelling required. Further comprehensive, large-scale genome-wide interaction studies may identify novel interacting loci if the inherent logistic and computational challenges can be overcome.
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Titrated oral misoprostol for augmenting labour to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Labour dystocia is associated with a number of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Augmentation of labour is a commonly used intervention in cases of labour dystocia. Misoprostol is an inexpensive and stable prostaglandin E1 analogue that can be administered orally, vaginally, sublingually or rectally. Misoprostol has proven to be effective at stimulating uterine contractions although it can have serious, and even life-threatening side-effects. Titration refers to the process of adjusting the dose, frequency, or both, of a medication on the basis of frequent review to achieve optimal outcomes. Studies have reported on a range of misoprostol titration regimens used for labour induction and titrated misoprostol may potentially be effective and safe for augmentation of labour.
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CPPpred: prediction of cell penetrating peptides.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) are attracting much attention as a means of overcoming the inherently poor cellular uptake of various bioactive molecules. Here, we introduce CPPpred, a web server for the prediction of CPPs using a N-to-1 neural network. The server takes one or more peptide sequences, between 5 and 30 amino acids in length, as input and returns a prediction of how likely each peptide is to be cell penetrating. CPPpred was developed with redundancy reduced training and test sets, offering an advantage over the only other currently available CPP prediction method. Availability and Implementation: CPPpred is freely available to non-commercial users at http://bioware.ucd.ie/cpppred.
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Package of care for active management in labour for reducing caesarean section rates in low-risk women.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Approximately 15% of women have caesarean sections (CS) and while the rate varies, the number is increasing in many countries. This is of concern because higher CS rates do not confer additional health gain but may adversely affect maternal health and have implications for future pregnancies. Active management of labour has been proposed as a means of reducing CS rates. This refers to a package of care including strict diagnosis of labour, routine amniotomy, oxytocin for slow progress and one-to-one support in labour.
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Identification of new genetic susceptibility Loci for breast cancer through consideration of gene-environment interactions.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Genes that alter disease risk only in combination with certain environmental exposures may not be detected in genetic association analysis. By using methods accounting for gene-environment (G × E) interaction, we aimed to identify novel genetic loci associated with breast cancer risk. Up to 34,475 cases and 34,786 controls of European ancestry from up to 23 studies in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were included. Overall, 71,527 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), enriched for association with breast cancer, were tested for interaction with 10 environmental risk factors using three recently proposed hybrid methods and a joint test of association and interaction. Analyses were adjusted for age, study, population stratification, and confounding factors as applicable. Three SNPs in two independent loci showed statistically significant association: SNPs rs10483028 and rs2242714 in perfect linkage disequilibrium on chromosome 21 and rs12197388 in ARID1B on chromosome 6. While rs12197388 was identified using the joint test with parity and with age at menarche (P-values = 3 × 10(-07) ), the variants on chromosome 21 q22.12, which showed interaction with adult body mass index (BMI) in 8,891 postmenopausal women, were identified by all methods applied. SNP rs10483028 was associated with breast cancer in women with a BMI below 25 kg/m(2) (OR = 1.26, 95% CI 1.15-1.38) but not in women with a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or higher (OR = 0.89, 95% CI 0.72-1.11, P for interaction = 3.2 × 10(-05) ). Our findings confirm comparable power of the recent methods for detecting G × E interaction and the utility of using G × E interaction analyses to identify new susceptibility loci.
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Interventions (other than pharmacological, psychosocial or psychological) for treating antenatal depression.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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A meta-analysis of 21 studies suggests the mean prevalence rate for depression across the antenatal period is 10.7%, ranging from 7.4% in the first trimester to a high of 12.8% in the second trimester. Due to maternal treatment preferences and potential concerns about fetal and infant health outcomes, diverse non-pharmacological treatment options are needed.
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Fine-Scale Mapping of the FGFR2 Breast Cancer Risk Locus: Putative Functional Variants Differentially Bind FOXA1 and E2F1.
Kerstin B Meyer, Martin O'Reilly, Kyriaki Michailidou, Saskia Carlebur, Stacey L Edwards, Juliet D French, Radhika Prathalingham, Joe Dennis, Manjeet K Bolla, Qin Wang, Ines de Santiago, John L Hopper, Helen Tsimiklis, Carmel Apicella, Melissa C Southey, Marjanka K Schmidt, Annegien Broeks, Laura J van 't Veer, Frans B Hogervorst, Kenneth Muir, Artitaya Lophatananon, Sarah Stewart-Brown, Pornthep Siriwanarangsan, Peter A Fasching, Michael P Lux, Arif B Ekici, Matthias W Beckmann, Julian Peto, Isabel Dos Santos Silva, Olivia Fletcher, Nichola Johnson, Elinor J Sawyer, Ian Tomlinson, Michael J Kerin, Nicola Miller, Federick Marme, Andreas Schneeweiss, Christof Sohn, Barbara Burwinkel, Pascal Guénel, Thérèse Truong, Pierre Laurent-Puig, Florence Menegaux, Stig E Bojesen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Sune F Nielsen, Henrik Flyger, Roger L Milne, M Pilar Zamora, Jose I Arias, Javier Benitez, Susan Neuhausen, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Christina C Dur, Hermann Brenner, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Alfons Meindl, Rita K Schmutzler, Christoph Engel, Nina Ditsch, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Yon-Dschun Ko, , Heli Nevanlinna, Taru A Muranen, Kristiina Aittomäki, Carl Blomqvist, Keitaro Matsuo, Hidemi Ito, Hiroji Iwata, Yasushi Yatabe, Thilo Dörk, Sonja Helbig, Natalia V Bogdanova, Annika Lindblom, Sara Margolin, Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Anna H Wu, Chiu-Chen Tseng, David Van Den Berg, Daniel O Stram, Diether Lambrechts, Bernard Thienpont, Marie-Rose Christiaens, Ann Smeets, Jenny Chang-Claude, Anja Rudolph, Petra Seibold, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Paolo Radice, Paolo Peterlongo, Bernardo Bonanni, Loris Bernard, Fergus J Couch, Janet E Olson, Xianshu Wang, Kristen Purrington, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Catriona McLean, Christopher A Haiman, Brian E Henderson, Fredrick Schumacher, Loic Le Marchand, Jacques Simard, Mark S Goldberg, France Labrèche, Martine Dumont, Soo-Hwang Teo, Cheng-Har Yip, Sze-Yee Phuah, Vessela Kristensen, Grethe Grenaker Alnæs, Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale, Wei Zheng, Sandra Deming-Halverson, Martha Shrubsole, Jirong Long, Robert Winqvist, Katri Pylkäs, Arja Jukkola-Vuorinen, Saila Kauppila, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Sandrine Tchatchou, Peter Devilee, Robert A E M Tollenaar, Caroline M Seynaeve, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Jonine Figueroa, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Kamila Czene, Hartef Darabi, Kimael Eriksson, Maartje J Hooning, John W M Martens, Ans M W van den Ouweland, Carolien H M van Deurzen, Per Hall, Jingmei Li, Jianjun Liu, Keith Humphreys, Xiao-Ou Shu, Wei Lu, Yu-Tang Gao, Hui Cai, Angela Cox, Malcolm W R Reed, William Blot, Lisa B Signorello, Qiuyin Cai, Paul D P Pharoah, Maya Ghoussaini, Patricia Harrington, Jonathan Tyrer, Daehee Kang, Ji-Yeob Choi, Sue K Park, Dong-Young Noh, Mikael Hartman, Miao Hui, Wei-Yen Lim, Shaik A Buhari, Ute Hamann, Asta Försti, Thomas Rüdiger, Hans-Ulrich Ulmer, Anna Jakubowska, Jan Lubiński, Katarzyna Jaworska, Katarzyna Durda, Suleeporn Sangrajrang, Valerie Gaborieau, Paul Brennan, James McKay, Celine Vachon, Susan Slager, Florentia Fostira, Robert Pilarski, Chen-Yang Shen, Chia-Ni Hsiung, Pei-Ei Wu, Ming-Feng Hou, Anthony Swerdlow, Alan Ashworth, Nick Orr, Minouk J Schoemaker, Bruce A J Ponder, Alison M Dunning, Douglas F Easton.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The 10q26 locus in the second intron of FGFR2 is the locus most strongly associated with estrogen-receptor-positive breast cancer in genome-wide association studies. We conducted fine-scale mapping in case-control studies genotyped with a custom chip (iCOGS), comprising 41 studies (n = 89,050) of European ancestry, 9 Asian ancestry studies (n = 13,983), and 2 African ancestry studies (n = 2,028) from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. We identified three statistically independent risk signals within the locus. Within risk signals 1 and 3, genetic analysis identified five and two variants, respectively, highly correlated with the most strongly associated SNPs. By using a combination of genetic fine mapping, data on DNase hypersensitivity, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays to study protein-DNA binding, we identified rs35054928, rs2981578, and rs45631563 as putative functional SNPs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that FOXA1 preferentially bound to the risk-associated allele (C) of rs2981578 and was able to recruit ER? to this site in an allele-specific manner, whereas E2F1 preferentially bound the risk variant of rs35054928. The risk alleles were preferentially found in open chromatin and bound by Ser5 phosphorylated RNA polymerase II, suggesting that the risk alleles are associated with changes in transcription. Chromatin conformation capture demonstrated that the risk region was able to interact with the promoter of FGFR2, the likely target gene of this risk region. A role for FOXA1 in mediating breast cancer susceptibility at this locus is consistent with the finding that the FGFR2 risk locus primarily predisposes to estrogen-receptor-positive disease.
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Telephone support for women during pregnancy and the first six weeks postpartum.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Telephone communication is increasingly being accepted as a useful form of support within health care. There is some evidence that telephone support may be of benefit in specific areas of maternity care such as to support breastfeeding and for women at risk of depression. There is a plethora of telephone-based interventions currently being used in maternity care. It is therefore timely to examine which interventions may be of benefit, which are ineffective, and which may be harmful.
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Schedules for home visits in the early postpartum period.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Maternal complications including psychological and mental health problems and neonatal morbidity have been commonly observed in the postpartum period. Home visits by health professionals or lay supporters in the weeks following the birth may prevent health problems from becoming chronic with long-term effects on women, their babies, and their families.
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High-dose versus low-dose oxytocin for augmentation of delayed labour.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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A major cause of failure to achieve spontaneous vaginal birth is delay in labour due to presumed inefficient uterine action. Oxytocin is given to increase contractions and high-dose regimens may potentially increase the number of spontaneous vaginal births, but as oxytocin can cause hyperstimulation of the uterus, there is a possibility of increased adverse events.
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Effect of timing of umbilical cord clamping of term infants on maternal and neonatal outcomes.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Policies for timing of cord clamping vary, with early cord clamping generally carried out in the first 60 seconds after birth, whereas later cord clamping usually involves clamping the umbilical cord more than one minute after the birth or when cord pulsation has ceased. The benefits and potential harms of each policy are debated.
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Risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and influenza health-care encounters: a self-controlled study.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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The possible risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome from influenza vaccines remains a potential obstacle to achieving high vaccination coverage. However, influenza infection might also be associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome after seasonal influenza vaccination and after influenza-coded health-care encounters.
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Amniotomy for shortening spontaneous labour.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Intentional artificial rupture of the amniotic membranes during labour, sometimes called amniotomy or breaking of the waters, is one of the most commonly performed procedures in modern obstetric and midwifery practice. The primary aim of amniotomy is to speed up contractions and, therefore, shorten the length of labour. However, there are concerns regarding unintended adverse effects on the woman and baby.
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Intravenous fluids for reducing the duration of labour in low risk nulliparous women.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Several factors may influence the progression of normal labour. It has been postulated that the routine administration of intravenous fluids to keep women adequately hydrated during labour may reduce the period of contraction and relaxation of the uterine muscle, and may ultimately reduce the duration of the labour. It has also been suggested that intravenous fluids may reduce caesarean sections (CS) for prolonged labour. However, the routine administration of intravenous fluids to labouring women has not been adequately elucidated although it is a widely-adopted policy, and there is no consensus on the type or volume of fluids that are required, or indeed, whether intravenous fluids are at all necessary. Women may be able to adequately hydrate themselves if they were allowed oral fluids during labour.Furthermore, excessive volumes of intravenous fluids may pose risks to both the mother and her newborn and different fluids are associated with different risks.
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A systematic review of medical practice variation in OECD countries.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Major variations in medical practice have been documented internationally. Variations raise questions about the quality, equity, and efficiency of resource allocation and use, and have important implications for health care and health policy.
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Cardiovascular safety of inhaled long-acting bronchodilators in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and deadly disease. Long-acting inhaled ?-agonists and anticholinergics, first-line medications for COPD, have been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes. When choosing between the medications, patients and physicians would benefit from knowing which has the least risk.
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Reasons for and factors associated with issuing sickness certificates for longer periods than necessary: results from a nationwide survey of physicians.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Physicians work with sickness certifications is an understudied field. Physicians experience of sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary has been previous reported. However, the extent and frequency of such sickness certification is largely unknown. The aims of this study were: a) to explore the frequency of sickness certifying for longer periods than necessary among physicians working in different clinical settings; b) to examine main reasons for issuing sickness certificates for longer periods than necessary; and c) to examine factors associated with unnecessary issued sickness certificates.
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Problems experienced by gynecologists/obstetricians in sickness certification consultations.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2013
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To explore frequencies and experiences with problems in sickness certification consultations among gynecologists and obstetricians in two different years.
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Evidence of gene-environment interactions between common breast cancer susceptibility loci and established environmental risk factors.
Stefan Nickels, Thérèse Truong, Rebecca Hein, Kristen Stevens, Katharina Buck, Sabine Behrens, Ursula Eilber, Martina Schmidt, Lothar Häberle, Alina Vrieling, Mia Gaudet, Jonine Figueroa, Nils Schoof, Amanda B Spurdle, Anja Rudolph, Peter A Fasching, John L Hopper, Enes Makalic, Daniel F Schmidt, Melissa C Southey, Matthias W Beckmann, Arif B Ekici, Olivia Fletcher, Lorna Gibson, Isabel dos Santos Silva, Julian Peto, Manjeet K Humphreys, Jean Wang, Emilie Cordina-Duverger, Florence Menegaux, Børge G Nordestgaard, Stig E Bojesen, Charlotte Lanng, Hoda Anton-Culver, Argyrios Ziogas, Leslie Bernstein, Christina A Clarke, Hermann Brenner, Heiko Muller, Volker Arndt, Christa Stegmaier, Hiltrud Brauch, Thomas Brüning, Volker Harth, , Arto Mannermaa, Vesa Kataja, Veli-Matti Kosma, Jaana M Hartikainen, Diether Lambrechts, Dominiek Smeets, Patrick Neven, Robert Paridaens, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Nadia Obi, Shan Wang-Gohrke, Fergus J Couch, Janet E Olson, Celine M Vachon, Graham G Giles, Gianluca Severi, Laura Baglietto, Kenneth Offit, Esther M John, Alexander Miron, Irene L Andrulis, Julia A Knight, Gord Glendon, Anna Marie Mulligan, Stephen J Chanock, Jolanta Lissowska, Jianjun Liu, Angela Cox, Helen Cramp, Dan Connley, Sabapathy Balasubramanian, Alison M Dunning, Mitul Shah, Amy Trentham-Dietz, Polly Newcomb, Linda Titus, Kathleen Egan, Elizabeth K Cahoon, Preetha Rajaraman, Alice J Sigurdson, Michele M Doody, Pascal Guénel, Paul D P Pharoah, Marjanka K Schmidt, Per Hall, Doug F Easton, Montserrat Garcia-Closas, Roger L Milne, Jenny Chang-Claude.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Various common genetic susceptibility loci have been identified for breast cancer; however, it is unclear how they combine with lifestyle/environmental risk factors to influence risk. We undertook an international collaborative study to assess gene-environment interaction for risk of breast cancer. Data from 24 studies of the Breast Cancer Association Consortium were pooled. Using up to 34,793 invasive breast cancers and 41,099 controls, we examined whether the relative risks associated with 23 single nucleotide polymorphisms were modified by 10 established environmental risk factors (age at menarche, parity, breastfeeding, body mass index, height, oral contraceptive use, menopausal hormone therapy use, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, physical activity) in women of European ancestry. We used logistic regression models stratified by study and adjusted for age and performed likelihood ratio tests to assess gene-environment interactions. All statistical tests were two-sided. We replicated previously reported potential interactions between LSP1-rs3817198 and parity (Pinteraction = 2.4 × 10(-6)) and between CASP8-rs17468277 and alcohol consumption (Pinteraction = 3.1 × 10(-4)). Overall, the per-allele odds ratio (95% confidence interval) for LSP1-rs3817198 was 1.08 (1.01-1.16) in nulliparous women and ranged from 1.03 (0.96-1.10) in parous women with one birth to 1.26 (1.16-1.37) in women with at least four births. For CASP8-rs17468277, the per-allele OR was 0.91 (0.85-0.98) in those with an alcohol intake of <20 g/day and 1.45 (1.14-1.85) in those who drank ? 20 g/day. Additionally, interaction was found between 1p11.2-rs11249433 and ever being parous (Pinteraction = 5.3 × 10(-5)), with a per-allele OR of 1.14 (1.11-1.17) in parous women and 0.98 (0.92-1.05) in nulliparous women. These data provide first strong evidence that the risk of breast cancer associated with some common genetic variants may vary with environmental risk factors.
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PeptideLocator: prediction of bioactive peptides in protein sequences.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Peptides play important roles in signalling, regulation and immunity within an organism. Many have successfully been used as therapeutic products often mimicking naturally occurring peptides. Here we present PeptideLocator for the automated prediction of functional peptides in a protein sequence.
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Depletion of Jak2V617F myeloproliferative neoplasm-propagating stem cells by interferon-? in a murine model of polycythemia vera.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Interferon-? (IFN?) is an effective treatment of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs). In addition to inducing hematological responses in most MPN patients, IFN? reduces the JAK2V617F allelic burden and can render the JAK2V617F mutant clone undetectable in some patients. The precise mechanism underlying these responses is incompletely understood and whether the molecular responses that are seen occur due to the effects of IFN? on JAK2V617F mutant stem cells is debated. Using a murine model of Jak2V617F MPN, we investigated the effects of IFN? on Jak2V617F MPN-propagating stem cells in vivo. We report that IFN? treatment induces hematological responses in the model and causes depletion of Jak2V617F MPN-propagating cells over time, impairing disease transplantation. We demonstrate that IFN? treatment induces cell cycle activation of Jak2V617F mutant long-term hematopoietic stem cells and promotes a predetermined erythroid-lineage differentiation program. These findings provide insights into the differential effects of IFN? on Jak2V617F mutant and normal hematopoiesis and suggest that IFN? achieves molecular remissions in MPN patients through its effects on MPN stem cells. Furthermore, these results support combinatorial therapeutic approaches in MPN by concurrently depleting dormant JAK2V617F MPN-propagating stem cells with IFN? and targeting the proliferating downstream progeny with JAK2 inhibitors or cytotoxic chemotherapy.
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