T cell development and activation are highly regulated processes, and their proper execution is important for a competent immune system. Shc SH2-domain binding protein-1 (Shcbp1) is an evolutionarily conserved protein that binds to the adaptor protein ShcA. Studies in Drosophila and in cell lines have strongly linked Shcbp1 to cell proliferation, embryonic development, growth factor signaling, and tumorigenesis. Here we show that Shcbp1 expression is strikingly upregulated during the ?-selection checkpoint in thymocytes, and that its expression tightly correlates with proliferative stages of T cell development. To evaluate the role for Shcbp1 during thymic selection and T cell function in vivo, we generated mice with global and conditional deletion of Shcbp1. Surprisingly, the loss of Shcbp1 expression did not have an obvious effect during T cell development. However, in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which depends on CD4(+) T cell function and mimics multiple features of the human disease multiple sclerosis, Shcbp1 deficient mice had reduced disease severity and improved survival, and this effect was T cell intrinsic. These data suggest that despite the striking upregulation of Shcbp1 during T cell proliferation, loss of Shcbp1 does not directly affect T cell development, but regulates CD4(+) T cell effector function in vivo.
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection in the respiratory tract triggers robust innate and adaptive immune responses, resulting in both virus clearance and lung inflammation and injury. After virus clearance, resolution of ongoing inflammation and tissue repair occur during a distinct recovery period. B7 family co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86 have important roles in modulating T cell activity during the initiation and effector stages of the host response to IAV infection, but their potential role during recovery and resolution of inflammation is unknown. We found that antibody-mediated CD86 blockade in vivo after virus clearance led to a delay in recovery, characterized by increased numbers of lung neutrophils and inflammatory cytokines in airways and lung interstitium, but no change in conventional IAV-specific T cell responses. However, CD86 blockade led to decreased numbers of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), and adoptive transfer of Tregs into ?CD86 treated mice rescued the effect of the blockade, supporting a role for Tregs in promoting recovery after virus clearance. Specific depletion of Tregs late after infection mimicked the CD86 blockade phenotype, confirming a role for Tregs during recovery after virus clearance. Furthermore, we identified neutrophils as a target of Treg suppression since neutrophil depletion in Treg-depleted mice reduced excess inflammatory cytokines in the airways. These results demonstrate that Tregs, in a CD86 dependent mechanism, contribute to the resolution of disease after IAV infection, in part by suppressing neutrophil-driven cytokine release into the airways.
The liver is a tolerogenic environment exploited by persistent infections, such as hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV) viruses. In a murine model of intravenous hepatotropic adenovirus infection, liver-primed antiviral CD8(+) T cells fail to produce proinflammatory cytokines and do not display cytolytic activity characteristic of effector CD8(+) T cells generated by infection at an extrahepatic, that is, subcutaneous, site. Importantly, liver-generated CD8(+) T cells also appear to have a T-regulatory (Treg) cell function exemplified by their ability to limit proliferation of antigen-specific T-effector (Teff ) cells in vitro and in vivo via T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin 3 (Tim-3) expressed by the CD8(+) Treg cells. Regulatory activity did not require recognition of the canonical Tim-3 ligand, galectin-9, but was dependent on CD8(+) Treg cell-surface Tim-3 binding to the alarmin, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB-1).
The contribution of different DC subsets to effector and memory CD8(+) T cell generation during infection and the mechanism by which DCs controls these fate decisions is unclear. Here we demonstrated that the CD103(+) and CD11b(hi) migratory respiratory DC (RDC) subsets after influenza virus infection activated naive virus-specific CD8(+) T cells differentially. CD103(+) RDCs supported the generation of CD8(+) T effector (Teff) cells, which migrate from lymph nodes to the infected lungs. In contrast, migrant CD11b(hi) RDCs activated CD8(+) T cells characteristic of central memory CD8(+) T (CD8(+) Tcm) cells including retention within the draining lymph nodes. CD103(+) RDCs expressed CD24 at an elevated level, contributing to the propensity of this DC subpopulation to support CD8(+) Teff cell differentiation. Mechanistically, CD24 was shown to regulate CD8(+) T cell activation through HMGB1-mediated engagement of T cell RAGE. Thus, there is distribution of labor among DC subsets in regulating CD8(+) T cell differentiation.
IL-21 is a type-I cytokine that has pleiotropic immuno-modulatory effects. Primarily produced by activated T cells including NKT and TFH cells, IL-21 plays a pivotal role in promoting TFH differentiation through poorly understood cellular and molecular mechanisms. Here, employing a mouse model of influenza A virus (IAV) infection, we demonstrate that IL-21, initially produced by NKT cells, promotes TFH differentiation by promoting the migration of late activator antigen presenting cell (LAPC), a recently identified TFH inducer, from the infected lungs into the draining lymph nodes (dLN). LAPC migration from IAV-infected lung into the dLN is CXCR3-CXCL9 dependent. IL-21-induced TNF-? production by conventional T cells is critical to stimulate CXCL9 expression by DCs in the dLN, which supports LAPC migration into the dLN and ultimately facilitates TFH differentiation. Our results reveal a previously unappreciated mechanism for IL-21 modulation of TFH responses during respiratory virus infection.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) causes severe respiratory disease in children, the elderly and immunocompromised individuals. The combined actions of CD4 and CD8 T cells play a critical role in terminating an acute RSV infection whereas antibodies can provide protection from re-infection. Despite eliciting an immune response that mediates clearance of the virus, immunity to the virus appears to wane over time and individuals remain susceptible to reinfection with RSV throughout their lifetime. The ineffectiveness of the natural infection to induce long-term immunity has hampered vaccine efforts and there is currently no licensed RSV vaccine. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of the adaptive immune response to RSV and its contribution to disease.
Respiratory virus infections, such as influenza, typically induce a robust type I (pro-inflammatory cytokine) immune response, however, the production of type 2 cytokines has been observed. Type 2 cytokine production during respiratory virus infection is linked to asthma exacerbation; however, type 2 cytokines may also be tissue protective. Interleukin (IL)-5 is a prototypical type 2 cytokine that is essential for eosinophil maturation and egress out of the bone marrow. However, little is known about the cellular source and underlying cellular and molecular basis for the regulation of IL-5 production during respiratory virus infection. Using a mouse model of influenza virus infection, we found a robust transient release of IL-5 into infected airways along with a significant and progressive accumulation of eosinophils into the lungs, particularly during the recovery phase of infection, i.e. following virus clearance. The cellular source of the IL-5 was group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) infiltrating the infected lungs. Interestingly, the progressive accumulation of eosinophils following virus clearance is reflected in the rapid expansion of c-kit(+) IL-5 producing ILC2. We further demonstrate that the enhanced capacity for IL-5 production by ILC2 during recovery is concomitant with the enhanced expression of the IL-33 receptor subunit, ST2, by ILC2. Lastly, we show that NKT cells, as well as alveolar macrophages (AM), are endogenous sources of IL-33 that enhance IL-5 production from ILC2. Collectively, these results reveal that c-kit(+) ILC2 interaction with IL-33 producing NKT and AM leads to abundant production of IL-5 by ILC2 and accounts for the accumulation of eosinophils observed during the recovery phase of influenza infection.
Recent evidence has identified the role of granzyme B- and perforin-expressing CD4(+) T cells with cytotoxic potential in antiviral immunity. However, the in vivo cytokine cues and downstream pathways governing the differentiation of these cells are unclear. Here, we have identified that CD4(+) T cells with cytotoxic potential are specifically induced at the site of infection during influenza virus infection. The development of CD4(+) T cells with cytotoxic potential in vivo was dependent on the cooperation of the STAT2-dependent type I interferon signaling and the interleukin-2/interleukin-2 receptor alpha pathway for the induction of the transcription factors T-bet and Blimp-1. We showed that Blimp-1 promoted the binding of T-bet to the promoters of cytolytic genes in CD4(+) T cells and was required for the cytolytic function of the in vitro- and in vivo-generated CD4(+) T cells with cytotoxic potential. Thus, our data define the molecular basis of regulation of the in vivo development of this functionally cytotoxic Th subset during acute respiratory virus infection. The potential implications for the functions of these cells are discussed.
Because of its essential role in gas exchange and oxygen delivery, the lung has evolved a variety of strategies to control inflammation and maintain homeostasis. Invasion of the lung by pathogens (and in some instances exposure to certain noninfectious particulates) disrupts this equilibrium and triggers a cascade of events aimed at preventing or limiting colonization (and more importantly infection) by pathogenic microorganisms. In this review we focus on viral infection of the lung and summarize recent advances in our understanding of the triggering of innate and adaptive immune responses to viral respiratory tract infection, mechanisms of viral clearance, and the well-recognized consequences of acute viral infection complicating underlying lung diseases, such as asthma.
Influenza virus infection has the potential to induce excess pulmonary inflammation and massive tissue damage in the infected host. Conventional CD4(+) and CD8(+) as well as nonconventional innate like T cells respond to infection and make an essential contribution to the clearance of virus infected cells and the resolution of pulmonary inflammation and injury. Emerging evidence in recent years has suggested a critical role of local interactions between lung effector T cells and antigen presenting cells in guiding the accumulation, differentiation and function of effector T cells beyond their initial activation in the draining lymph nodes during influenza infection. As such, lung effector CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells utilize multiple effector and regulatory mechanisms to eliminate virus infected cells as well as fine tune the control of pulmonary inflammation and injury. Elucidating the mechanisms by which conventional and nonconventional T cells orchestrate their response in the lung as well as defining the downstream events required for the resolution of influenza infection will be important areas of future basic research which in turn may result in new therapeutic strategies to control the severity of influenza virus infection.
Decline in immune function with age has been attributed to defects or alterations in both the innate and the adaptive immune system. In this issue of the JCI, Zhao and coworkers provide evidence for a novel mechanism of immune dysfunction in aging mice. They show that migration of respiratory DCs from the site of virus replication to the draining lymph nodes in response to infection with several different respiratory viruses is markedly diminished with increasing age. The impaired DC migration was a result of increased levels of the lipid mediator prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) in the respiratory tract with age and could be partially reversed by blockade of PGD(2) synthesis or action.
Dendritic cells (DC) play a key role in antiviral immunity, functioning both as innate effector cells in early phases of the immune response and subsequently as antigen-presenting cells that activate the adaptive immune response. In the murine respiratory tract, there are several respiratory dendritic cell (RDC) subsets, including CD103(+) DC, CD11b(hi) DC, monocyte/macrophage DC, and plasmacytoid DC. However, little is known about the interaction between these tissue-resident RDC and viruses that are encountered during natural infection in the respiratory tract. Here, we show both in vitro and in vivo that the susceptibility of murine RDC to infection with type A influenza virus varies with the level of MHC class II expression by RDC and with the virus strain. Both CD103(+) and CD11b(hi) RDC, which express the highest basal level of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II, are highly susceptible to infection by type A influenza virus. However, efficient infection is restricted to type A influenza virus strains of the H2N2 subtype. Furthermore, enhanced infectivity by viruses of the H2N2 subtype is linked to expression of the I-E MHC class II locus product. These results suggest a potential novel role for MHC class II molecules in influenza virus infection and pathogenesis in the respiratory tract.
Interleukin (IL)-10 is an important regulatory cytokine that can modulate excessive immune mediated injury. Several distinct cell types have been demonstrated to produce IL-10, including most recently CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) responding to respiratory virus infection. Here we report that CD4+ T cell help in the form of IL-2 is required for IL-10 production by CTLs, but not for the induction of CTL effector cytokines. We show that IL-2 derived from CD4+ helper T cells cooperates with innate immune cell-derived IL-27 to amplify IL-10 production by CTLs through a Blimp-1-dependent mechanism. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized pathway that coordinates signals derived from innate and helper T cells to control the production of a regulatory cytokine by CTLs during acute viral infection.
The 2009 influenza pandemic highlighted the threat that type A influenza poses to human health. Thus, there is an urgency to understand the pathobiology of influenza infection and the contribution of the host immune response to virus elimination and the development of lung injury. This review focuses on the T cell arm of the adaptive host immune response to influenza. We assess recent developments in the understanding of how primary influenza virus-specific T cell responses are induced by antigen-presenting cells, the interaction of activated effector T cells with antigen-bearing cells in the infected lungs. Also examined is the contribution of influenza-specific effector T cells to the development and control of lung injury and inflammation during infection.
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the leading viral cause of severe lower respiratory tract illness in young infants. Clinical studies have documented that certain polymorphisms in the gene encoding the regulatory cytokine IL-10 are associated with the development of severe bronchiolitis in RSV infected infants. Here, we examined the role of IL-10 in a murine model of primary RSV infection and found that high levels of IL-10 are produced in the respiratory tract by anti-viral effector T cells at the onset of the adaptive immune response. We demonstrated that the function of the effector T cell -derived IL-10 in vivo is to limit the excess pulmonary inflammation and thereby to maintain critical lung function. We further identify a novel mechanism by which effector T cell-derived IL-10 controls excess inflammation by feedback inhibition through engagement of the IL-10 receptor on the antiviral effector T cells. Our findings suggest a potentially critical role of effector T cell-derived IL-10 in controlling disease severity in clinical RSV infection.
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) play a prominent role in the resolution of viral infections through their capacity both to mediate contact-dependent lysis of infected cells and to release soluble proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. The factors controlling these antiviral effector activities in vivo at infection sites are ill defined. Using a mouse model of influenza infection, we observed that the expression of CTL effector activity in the infected lungs is dictated by the target cell type encountered. CD45(+) lung infiltrating inflammatory mononuclear cells, particularly CD11c(hi) dendritic cells, trigger both CTL cytotoxicity and release of inflammatory mediators, whereas CD45(-) influenza-infected respiratory epithelial cells stimulate only CTL cytotoxicity. CTL proinflammatory mediator release is modulated by co-stimulatory ligands (CD80 and CD86) expressed by the CD45(+) inflammatory cells. These findings suggest novel mechanisms of control of CTL effector activity and have potentially important implications for the control of excess pulmonary inflammation and immunopathology while preserving optimal viral clearance during respiratory virus infections.
A hallmark of cells comprising the mammalian adaptive immune system is the requirement for these rare naïve T (and B) lymphocytes directed to a specific microorganism to undergo proliferative expansion upon first encounter with this antigen. In the case of naïve CD8(+) T cells the ability of these rare quiescent lymphocytes to rapidly activate and expand into effector T cells in numbers sufficient to control viral and certain bacterial infections can be essential for survival. In this report we examined the activation, cell cycle time and initial proliferative response of naïve murine CD8(+) T cells responding in vivo to Influenza and Vaccinia virus infection or vaccination with viral antigens. Remarkably, we observed that CD8(+) T cells could divide and proliferate with an initial cell division time of as short as 2 hours. The initial cell cycle time of responding CD8(+) T cells is not fixed but is controlled by the antigenic stimulus provided by the APC in vivo. Initial cell cycle time influences the rate of T cell expansion and the numbers of effector T cells subsequently accumulating at the site of infection. The T cell cycle time varies with duration of the G(1) phase of the cell cycle. The duration of G(1) is inversely correlated with the phosphorylation state of the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein in the responding T cells. The implication of these findings for the development of adaptive immune responses and the regulation of cell cycle in higher eukaryotic cells is discussed.
Acute viral infections induce robust adaptive immune responses resulting in virus clearance. Recent evidence suggests that there may be depots of viral antigen that persist in draining lymph nodes (DLNs) after virus clearance and could, therefore, affect the adaptive immune response and memory T cell formation. The nature of these residual antigen depots, the mechanism of antigen persistence, and the impact of the persistent antigen on memory T cells remain ill defined. Using a mouse model of influenza virus infection of the respiratory tract, we identified respiratory dendritic cells (RDCs) as essential for both sampling and presenting residual viral antigen. RDCs in the previously infected lung capture residual viral antigen deposited in an irradiation-resistant cell type. RDCs then transport the viral antigen to the LNs draining the site of infection, where they present the antigen to T cells. Lastly, we document preferential localization of memory T cells to the DLNs after virus clearance as a consequence of presentation of residual viral antigen by the migrant RDC.
Classically, naive T cells recognize a specific peptide-MHC complex resulting in their activation and differentiation. However, it is known that T cells also have the ability to interact productively with variant ligands, indicating a flexibility in TCR Ag recognition. These altered peptide ligands have been shown to trigger responses ranging from complete activation to full inhibition of T cell responses, and thus may play an important role in initiating or sustaining T cell-mediated immunity. We have found that influenza virus-specific CD8(+) TCR transgenic T cells differentially respond to a native (agonist) and variant viral epitope, differing in two amino acids that are thought to alter TCR recognition. In response to stimulation with the agonist epitope, these cells activate, proliferate, and differentiate into effector CTLs. Conversely, stimulation with the variant epitope results in activation, proliferation, and development of effector activity followed by rapid and extensive apoptotic cell death. Stimulation of the T cells with the altered ligand results in an inability to sustain the expression of the prosurvival molecules, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. These data suggest that the response to the agonist and variant epitopes may reflect TCR avidity-dependent differential signaling through the TCR, resulting either in activation-dependent T cell proliferative expansion and survival or in the accelerated death of acutely activated differentiating T cells. This process of CD8(+) T cell activation, proliferation, and differentiation followed by rapid cell death may represent a novel mechanism of altered peptide ligand-induced apoptosis programmed by initial Ag receptor engagement.
Vaccination with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) vaccine results in enhanced respiratory tract inflammation and injury following subsequent RSV infection. RSV vaccine-enhanced disease can also be produced in mice by prior vaccination with a vaccinia virus vector containing the RSV G protein, followed by intranasal infectious RSV challenge, a process characterized by induction of a potent memory CD4(+) T-cell response to challenge infection with some features characteristic of Th-2 CD4(+) T-cell responses, including increased eosinophil accumulation in pulmonary inflammatory infiltrates. The adaptive immune response to the RSV G protein in immunized BALB/c mice is characterized by a weak or absent primary and secondary recall CD8(+) T-cell response. These and related results have led to the hypothesis that the failure of the infected animals to mount an effective CD8(+) memory T-cell (CD8(+) Tm) response in this model could account for the pulmonary eosinophilia associated with the development of enhanced disease, and that CD8(+) T cells may control the development of eosinophilia. In this study, we investigated how and when the generation of a CD8(+) Tm response to RSV infection might affect the development of pulmonary eosinophilia in this model of vaccine-enhanced disease. By defining the CD8(+) T-cell response kinetics and monitoring lung parenchymal eosinophil accumulation, we show that the establishment of an RSV-specific CD8(+) Tm response in the infected lungs early after challenge infection (i.e., within the first 3 d of RSV infection) is necessary and sufficient to control pulmonary eosinophilia development. Additionally, our work suggests that the mechanism by which CD8(+) T cells regulate this process is not by modulating the differentiation or development of the CD4(+) Tm response. Rather, we demonstrate that IL-10 produced by early responding CD8(+) Tm cells may regulate the pulmonary eosinophilia development observed in RSV vaccine-enhanced disease.
Dendritic cells located at the body surfaces, e.g. skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in the induction of adaptive immune responses to pathogens and inert antigens present at these surfaces. In the respiratory tract, multiple subsets of dendritic cells (RDC) have been identified in both the normal and inflamed lungs. While the importance of RDC in antigen transport from the inflamed or infected respiratory tract to the lymph nodes draining this site is well recognized, the contribution of individual RDC subsets to this process and the precise role of migrant RDC within the lymph nodes in antigen presentation to T cells is not clear. In this report, we demonstrate that two distinct subsets of migrant RDC--exhibiting the CD103(+) and CD11b(hi) phenotype, respectively--are the primary DC presenting antigen to naïve CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the draining nodes in response to respiratory influenza virus infection. Furthermore, the migrant CD103(+) RDC subset preferentially drives efficient proliferation and differentiation of naive CD8(+) T cells responding to infection into effector cells, and only the CD103(+) RDC subset can present to naïve CD8(+) T cells non-infectious viral vaccine introduced into the respiratory tract. These results identify CD103(+) and CD11b(hi) RDC as critical regulators of the adaptive immune response to respiratory tract infection and potential targets in the design of mucosal vaccines.
Activated antigen-specific T cells produce a variety of effector molecules for clearing infection but also contribute to inflammation and tissue injury. Here we report an anti-inflammatory property of antiviral CD8+ and CD4+ effector T cells (T(eff) cells) in the infected periphery during acute virus infection. We find that, during acute influenza infection, interleukin-10 (IL-10) is produced in the infected lungs in large amounts--exclusively by infiltrating virus-specific T(eff) cells, with CD8+ T(eff) cells contributing a larger fraction of the IL-10 produced. These T(eff) cells in the periphery simultaneously produce IL-10 and proinflammatory cytokines and express lineage markers characteristic of conventional T helper type 1 or T cytotoxic type 1 cells. Notably, blocking the action of the T(eff) cell-derived IL-10 results in enhanced pulmonary inflammation and lethal injury. Our results show that antiviral T(eff) cells exert regulatory functions--that is, they fine-tune the extent of lung inflammation and injury associated with influenza infection by producing an anti-inflammatory cytokine. We discuss the potential implications of these findings for infection with highly pathogenic influenza viruses.
Influenza A virus (IAV) is a leading cause of respiratory tract disease worldwide. Anti-viral CD8(+) T lymphocytes responding to IAV infection are believed to eliminate virally infected cells by direct cytolysis but may also contribute to pulmonary inflammation and tissue damage via the release of pro-inflammatory mediators following recognition of viral antigen displaying cells. We have previously demonstrated that IAV antigen expressing inflammatory cells of hematopoietic origin within the infected lung interstitium serve as antigen presenting cells (APC) for infiltrating effector CD8(+) T lymphocytes; however, the spectrum of inflammatory cell types capable of serving as APC was not determined. Here, we demonstrate that viral antigen displaying neutrophils infiltrating the IAV infected lungs are an important cell type capable of acting as APC for effector CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the infected lungs and that neutrophils expressing viral antigen as a result of direct infection by IAV exhibit the most potent APC activity. Our findings suggest that in addition to their suggested role in induction of the innate immune responses to IAV, virus clearance, and the development of pulmonary injury, neutrophils can serve as APCs to anti-viral effector CD8(+) T cells within the infected lung interstitium.
The humoral immune response to most respiratory virus infections plays a prominent role in virus clearance and is essential for resistance to reinfection. T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are believed to support the development both of a potent primary antibody response and of the germinal center response critical for memory B cell development. Using a model of primary murine influenza A virus (IAV) infection, we demonstrate that a novel late activator antigen-presenting cell (LAPC) promotes the Tfh response in the draining lymph nodes (dLNs) of the IAV-infected lungs. LAPCs migrate from the infected lungs to the dLN "late," i.e., 6 d after infection, which is concomitant with Tfh differentiation. LAPC migration is CXCR3-dependent, and LAPC triggering of Tfh cell development requires ICOS-ICOSL-dependent signaling. LAPCs appear to play a pivotal role in driving Tfh differentiation of Ag-primed CD4(+) T cells and antiviral antibody responses.
A hallmark of infection by respiratory viruses is productive infection of and the subsequent destruction of the airway epithelium. These viruses can also target other stromal cell types as well as in certain instances, CD45(+) hematopoietic cells either resident in the lungs or part of the inflammatory response to infection. The mechanisms by which the virus produces injury to these cell types include direct infection with cytopathic effects as a consequence of replication. Host mediated damage is also a culprit in pulmonary injury as both innate and adaptive immune cells produce soluble and cell-associated pro-inflammatory mediators. Recently, it has become increasingly clear that in addition to control of excess inflammation and virus elimination, the resolution of infection requires an active repair process, which is necessary to regain normal respiratory function and restore the lungs to homeostasis. The repair response must re-establish the epithelial barrier and regenerate the microarchitecture of the lung. Emerging areas of research have highlighted the importance of innate immune cells, particularly the newly described innate lymphoid cells, as well as alternatively activated macrophages and pulmonary stem cells in the repair process. The mechanisms by which respiratory viruses may impede or alter the repair response will be important areas of research for identifying therapeutic targets aimed at limiting virus and host mediated injury and expediting recovery.
Since its discovery in 1956, rhinovirus (RV) has been recognized as the most important virus producing the common cold syndrome. Despite its ubiquity, little is known concerning the pathogenesis of RV infections, and some of the research in this area has led to contradictions regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of RV-induced illness. In this article, we discuss the pathogenesis of this virus as it relates to RV-induced illness in the upper and lower airway, an issue of considerable interest in view of the minimal cytopathology associated with RV infection. We endeavor to explain why many infected individuals exhibit minimal symptoms or remain asymptomatic, while others, especially those with asthma, may have severe, even life-threatening, complications (sequelae). Finally, we discuss the immune responses to RV in the normal and asthmatic host focusing on RV infection and epithelial barrier integrity and maintenance as well as the impact of the innate and adaptive immune responses to RV on epithelial function.
Recent years have seen several advances in our understanding of immunity to virus infection of the lower respiratory tract, including to influenza virus infection. Here, we review the cellular targets of viruses and the features of the host immune response that are unique to the lungs. We describe the interplay between innate and adaptive immune cells in the induction, expression and control of antiviral immunity, and discuss the impact of the infected lung milieu on moulding the response of antiviral effector T cells. Recent findings on the mechanisms that underlie the increased frequency of severe pulmonary bacterial infections following respiratory virus infection are also discussed.
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