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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Variation and association to diabetes in 2000 full mtDNA sequences mined from an exome study in a Danish population.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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In this paper, we mine full mtDNA sequences from an exome capture data set of 2000 Danes, showing that it is possible to get high-quality full-genome sequences of the mitochondrion from this resource. The sample includes 1000 individuals with type 2 diabetes and 1000 controls. We characterise the variation found in the mtDNA sequence in Danes and relate the variation to diabetes risk as well as to several blood phenotypes of the controls but find no significant associations. We report 2025 polymorphisms, of which 393 have not been reported previously. These 393 mutations are both very rare and estimated to be caused by very recent mutations but individuals with type 2 diabetes do not possess more of these variants. Population genetics analysis using Bayesian skyline plot shows a recent history of rapid population growth in the Danish population in accordance with the fact that >40% of variable sites are observed as singletons.
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Genetic risk score of 46 type 2 diabetes risk variants associates with changes in plasma glucose and estimates of pancreatic ?-cell function over 5 years of follow-up.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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More than 40 genetic risk variants for type 2 diabetes have been validated. We aimed to test whether a genetic risk score associates with the incidence of type 2 diabetes and with 5-year changes in glycemic traits and whether the effects were modulated by changes in BMI and lifestyle. The Inter99 study population was genotyped for 46 variants, and a genetic risk score was constructed. During a median follow-up of 11 years, 327 of 5,850 individuals developed diabetes. Physical examinations and oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at baseline and after 5 years (n = 3,727). The risk of incident type 2 diabetes was increased with a hazard ratio of 1.06 (95% CI 1.03-1.08) per risk allele. While the population in general had improved glucose regulation during the 5-year follow-up period, each additional allele in the genetic risk score was associated with a relative increase in fasting, 30-min, and 120-min plasma glucose values and a relative decrease in measures of ?-cell function over the 5-year period, whereas indices of insulin sensitivity were unaffected. The effect of the genetic risk score on 5-year changes in fasting plasma glucose was stronger in individuals who increased their BMI. In conclusion, a genetic risk score based on 46 variants associated strongly with incident type 2 diabetes and 5-year changes in plasma glucose and ?-cell function. Individuals who gain weight may be more susceptible to the cumulative impact of type 2 diabetes risk variants on fasting plasma glucose.
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Whole-exome sequencing of 2,000 danish individuals and the role of rare coding variants in type 2 diabetes.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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It has been hypothesized that, in aggregate, rare variants in coding regions of genes explain a substantial fraction of the heritability of common diseases. We sequenced the exomes of 1,000 Danish cases with common forms of type 2 diabetes (including body mass index > 27.5 kg/m(2) and hypertension) and 1,000 healthy controls to an average depth of 56×. Our simulations suggest that our study had the statistical power to detect at least one causal gene (a gene containing causal mutations) if the heritability of these common diseases was explained by rare variants in the coding regions of a limited number of genes. We applied a series of gene-based tests to detect such susceptibility genes. However, no gene showed a significant association with disease risk after we corrected for the number of genes analyzed. Thus, we could reject a model for the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes where rare nonsynonymous variants clustered in a modest number of genes (fewer than 20) are responsible for the majority of disease risk.
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Genetic architecture of vitamin B12 and folate levels uncovered applying deeply sequenced large datasets.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Genome-wide association studies have mainly relied on common HapMap sequence variations. Recently, sequencing approaches have allowed analysis of low frequency and rare variants in conjunction with common variants, thereby improving the search for functional variants and thus the understanding of the underlying biology of human traits and diseases. Here, we used a large Icelandic whole genome sequence dataset combined with Danish exome sequence data to gain insight into the genetic architecture of serum levels of vitamin B(12) (B12) and folate. Up to 22.9 million sequence variants were analyzed in combined samples of 45,576 and 37,341 individuals with serum B(12) and folate measurements, respectively. We found six novel loci associating with serum B(12) (CD320, TCN2, ABCD4, MMAA, MMACHC) or folate levels (FOLR3) and confirmed seven loci for these traits (TCN1, FUT6, FUT2, CUBN, CLYBL, MUT, MTHFR). Conditional analyses established that four loci contain additional independent signals. Interestingly, 13 of the 18 identified variants were coding and 11 of the 13 target genes have known functions related to B(12) and folate pathways. Contrary to epidemiological studies we did not find consistent association of the variants with cardiovascular diseases, cancers or Alzheimers disease although some variants demonstrated pleiotropic effects. Although to some degree impeded by low statistical power for some of these conditions, these data suggest that sequence variants that contribute to the population diversity in serum B(12) or folate levels do not modify the risk of developing these conditions. Yet, the study demonstrates the value of combining whole genome and exome sequencing approaches to ascertain the genetic and molecular architectures underlying quantitative trait associations.
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Type 2 diabetes risk alleles near BCAR1 and in ANK1 associate with decreased ?-cell function whereas risk alleles near ANKRD55 and GRB14 associate with decreased insulin sensitivity in the Danish Inter99 cohort.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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Recently, 10 novel type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in ZMIZ1, ANK1, KLHDC5, TLE1, ANKRD55, CILP2, MC4R, BCAR1, HMG20A, and GRB14 loci were discovered in MetaboChip-genotyped populations of European ancestry.
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Physiologic characterization of type 2 diabetes-related loci.
Curr. Diab. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2010
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For the past two decades, genetics has been widely explored as a tool for unraveling the pathogenesis of diabetes. Many risk alleles for type 2 diabetes and hyperglycemia have been detected in recent years through massive genome-wide association studies and evidence exists that most of these variants influence pancreatic ?-cell function. However, risk alleles in five loci seem to have a primary impact on insulin sensitivity. Investigations of more detailed physiologic phenotypes, such as the insulin response to intravenous glucose or the incretion hormones, are now emerging and give indications of more specific pathologic mechanisms for diabetes-related risk variants. Such studies have shed light on the function of some loci but also underlined the complex nature of disease mechanism. In the future, sequencing-based discovery of low-frequency variants with higher impact on intermediate diabetes-related traits is a likely scenario and identification of new pathways involved in type 2 diabetes predisposition will offer opportunities for the development of novel therapeutic and preventative approaches.
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Studies of association between LPIN1 variants and common metabolic phenotypes among 17,538 Danes.
Eur. J. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Lipin-1, encoded by LPIN1, is expressed in the major metabolically active tissues. Decreased expression of lipin-1 in adipose tissue correlates with increased insulin resistance, and tagging of the LPIN1 locus has shown that rs33997857, rs6744682, and rs6708316 associate with metabolic phenotypes, specifically body mass index (BMI) and fasting serum lipid levels, both on the individual single-nucleotide polymorphism level and with a three-marker haplotype. Our aim was to validate the reported findings in the Danish population.
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MTNR1B G24E variant associates With BMI and fasting plasma glucose in the general population in studies of 22,142 Europeans.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Common variants in the melatonin receptor type 1B (MTNR1B) locus have been shown to increase fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The aims of this study were to evaluate whether nonsynonymous variants in MTNR1B associate with monogenic forms of hyperglycemia, type 2 diabetes, or related metabolic traits.
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Resequencing of 200 human exomes identifies an excess of low-frequency non-synonymous coding variants.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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Targeted capture combined with massively parallel exome sequencing is a promising approach to identify genetic variants implicated in human traits. We report exome sequencing of 200 individuals from Denmark with targeted capture of 18,654 coding genes and sequence coverage of each individual exome at an average depth of 12-fold. On average, about 95% of the target regions were covered by at least one read. We identified 121,870 SNPs in the sample population, including 53,081 coding SNPs (cSNPs). Using a statistical method for SNP calling and an estimation of allelic frequencies based on our population data, we derived the allele frequency spectrum of cSNPs with a minor allele frequency greater than 0.02. We identified a 1.8-fold excess of deleterious, non-syonomyous cSNPs over synonymous cSNPs in the low-frequency range (minor allele frequencies between 2% and 5%). This excess was more pronounced for X-linked SNPs, suggesting that deleterious substitutions are primarily recessive.
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Combined analyses of 20 common obesity susceptibility variants.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Genome-wide association studies and linkage studies have identified 20 validated genetic variants associated with obesity and/or related phenotypes. The variants are common, and they individually exhibit small-to-modest effect sizes.
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Twelve type 2 diabetes susceptibility loci identified through large-scale association analysis.
Benjamin F Voight, Laura J Scott, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Andrew P Morris, Christian Dina, Ryan P Welch, Eleftheria Zeggini, Cornelia Huth, Yurii S Aulchenko, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Laura J McCulloch, Teresa Ferreira, Harald Grallert, Najaf Amin, Guanming Wu, Cristen J Willer, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Steve A McCarroll, Claudia Langenberg, Oliver M Hofmann, Josée Dupuis, Lu Qi, Ayellet V Segrè, Mandy van Hoek, Pau Navarro, Kristin Ardlie, Beverley Balkau, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J Bennett, Roza Blagieva, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Kristina Bengtsson Boström, Bert Bravenboer, Suzannah Bumpstead, Noisël P Burtt, Guillaume Charpentier, Peter S Chines, Marilyn Cornelis, David J Couper, Gabe Crawford, Alex S F Doney, Katherine S Elliott, Amanda L Elliott, Michael R Erdos, Caroline S Fox, Christopher S Franklin, Martha Ganser, Christian Gieger, Niels Grarup, Todd Green, Simon Griffin, Christopher J Groves, Candace Guiducci, Samy Hadjadj, Neelam Hassanali, Christian Herder, Bo Isomaa, Anne U Jackson, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jørgensen, Wen H L Kao, Norman Klopp, Augustine Kong, Peter Kraft, Johanna Kuusisto, Torsten Lauritzen, Man Li, Aloysius Lieverse, Cecilia M Lindgren, Valeriya Lyssenko, Michel Marre, Thomas Meitinger, Kristian Midthjell, Mario A Morken, Narisu Narisu, Peter Nilsson, Katharine R Owen, Felicity Payne, John R B Perry, Ann-Kristin Petersen, Carl Platou, Christine Proença, Inga Prokopenko, Wolfgang Rathmann, N William Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Ghislain Rocheleau, Michael Roden, Michael J Sampson, Richa Saxena, Beverley M Shields, Peter Shrader, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Sparsø, Klaus Straßburger, Heather M Stringham, Qi Sun, Amy J Swift, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Rob M Van Dam, Timon W van Haeften, Thijs van Herpt, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, G Bragi Walters, Michael N Weedon, Cisca Wijmenga, Jacqueline Witteman, Richard N Bergman, Stéphane Cauchi, Francis S Collins, Anna L Gloyn, Ulf Gyllensten, Torben Hansen, Winston A Hide, Graham A Hitman, Albert Hofman, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Markku Laakso, Karen L Mohlke, Andrew D Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Peter P Pramstaller, Igor Rudan, Eric Sijbrands, Lincoln D Stein, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André Uitterlinden, Mark Walker, Nicholas J Wareham, Richard M Watanabe, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Bernhard O Boehm, Harry Campbell, Mark J Daly, Andrew T Hattersley, Frank B Hu, James B Meigs, James S Pankow, Oluf Pedersen, H-Erich Wichmann, Inês Barroso, Jose C Florez, Timothy M Frayling, Leif Groop, Rob Sladek, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, James F Wilson, Thomas Illig, Philippe Froguel, Cornelia M van Duijn, Kari Stefansson, David Altshuler, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, .
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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By combining genome-wide association data from 8,130 individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 38,987 controls of European descent and following up previously unidentified meta-analysis signals in a further 34,412 cases and 59,925 controls, we identified 12 new T2D association signals with combined P<5x10(-8). These include a second independent signal at the KCNQ1 locus; the first report, to our knowledge, of an X-chromosomal association (near DUSP9); and a further instance of overlap between loci implicated in monogenic and multifactorial forms of diabetes (at HNF1A). The identified loci affect both beta-cell function and insulin action, and, overall, T2D association signals show evidence of enrichment for genes involved in cell cycle regulation. We also show that a high proportion of T2D susceptibility loci harbor independent association signals influencing apparently unrelated complex traits.
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New genetic loci implicated in fasting glucose homeostasis and their impact on type 2 diabetes risk.
Josée Dupuis, Claudia Langenberg, Inga Prokopenko, Richa Saxena, Nicole Soranzo, Anne U Jackson, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicole L Glazer, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Anna L Gloyn, Cecilia M Lindgren, Reedik Mägi, Andrew P Morris, Joshua Randall, Toby Johnson, Paul Elliott, Denis Rybin, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Peter Henneman, Harald Grallert, Abbas Dehghan, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Christopher S Franklin, Pau Navarro, Kijoung Song, Anuj Goel, John R B Perry, Josephine M Egan, Taina Lajunen, Niels Grarup, Thomas Sparsø, Alex Doney, Benjamin F Voight, Heather M Stringham, Man Li, Stavroula Kanoni, Peter Shrader, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Meena Kumari, Lu Qi, Nicholas J Timpson, Christian Gieger, Carina Zabena, Ghislain Rocheleau, Erik Ingelsson, Ping An, Jeffrey O'Connell, Jian'an Luan, Amanda Elliott, Steven A McCarroll, Felicity Payne, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, François Pattou, Praveen Sethupathy, Kristin Ardlie, Yavuz Ariyurek, Beverley Balkau, Philip Barter, John P Beilby, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J Bennett, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Eric Boerwinkle, Amélie Bonnefond, Lori L Bonnycastle, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Yvonne Böttcher, Eric Brunner, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Guillaume Charpentier, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Peter Chines, Robert Clarke, Lachlan J M Coin, Matthew N Cooper, Marilyn Cornelis, Gabe Crawford, Laura Crisponi, Ian N M Day, Eco J C de Geus, Jérôme Delplanque, Christian Dina, Michael R Erdos, Annette C Fedson, Antje Fischer-Rosinský, Nita G Forouhi, Caroline S Fox, Rune Frants, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Pilar Galán, Mark O Goodarzi, Jurgen Graessler, Christopher J Groves, Scott Grundy, Rhian Gwilliam, Ulf Gyllensten, Samy Hadjadj, Göran Hallmans, Naomi Hammond, Xijing Han, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Neelam Hassanali, Caroline Hayward, Simon C Heath, Serge Hercberg, Christian Herder, Andrew A Hicks, David R Hillman, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, Jennie Hui, Joe Hung, Bo Isomaa, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jørgensen, Antti Jula, Marika Kaakinen, Jaakko Kaprio, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Beatrice Knight, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, G Mark Lathrop, Debbie A Lawlor, Olivier Le Bacquer, Cécile Lecoeur, Yun Li, Valeriya Lyssenko, Robert Mahley, Massimo Mangino, Alisa K Manning, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Jarred B McAteer, Laura J McCulloch, Ruth McPherson, Christa Meisinger, David Melzer, David Meyre, Braxton D Mitchell, Mario A Morken, Sutapa Mukherjee, Silvia Naitza, Narisu Narisu, Matthew J Neville, Ben A Oostra, Marco Orrù, Ruth Pakyz, Colin N A Palmer, Giuseppe Paolisso, Cristian Pattaro, Daniel Pearson, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Irene Pichler, Ozren Polašek, Danielle Posthuma, Simon C Potter, Anneli Pouta, Michael A Province, Bruce M Psaty, Wolfgang Rathmann, Nigel W Rayner, Kenneth Rice, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Michael Roden, Olov Rolandsson, Annelli Sandbaek, Manjinder Sandhu, Serena Sanna, Avan Aihie Sayer, Paul Scheet, Laura J Scott, Udo Seedorf, Stephen J Sharp, Beverley Shields, Gunnar Sigurethsson, Eric J G Sijbrands, Angela Silveira, Laila Simpson, Andrew Singleton, Nicholas L Smith, Ulla Sovio, Amy Swift, Holly Syddall, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Toshiko Tanaka, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Anke Tönjes, Tiinamaija Tuomi, André G Uitterlinden, Ko Willems van Dijk, Mandy van Hoek, Dhiraj Varma, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Veronique Vitart, Nicole Vogelzangs, Gérard Waeber, Peter J Wagner, Andrew Walley, G Bragi Walters, Kim L Ward, Hugh Watkins, Michael N Weedon, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Jaqueline C M Witteman, John W G Yarnell, Eleftheria Zeggini, Diana Zelenika, Björn Zethelius, Guangju Zhai, Jing Hua Zhao, M Carola Zillikens, , Ingrid B Borecki, Ruth J F Loos, Pierre Meneton, Patrik K E Magnusson, David M Nathan, Gordon H Williams, Andrew T Hattersley, Kaisa Silander, Veikko Salomaa, George Davey Smith, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter Schwarz, Joachim Spranger, Fredrik Karpe, Alan R Shuldiner, Cyrus Cooper, George V Dedoussis, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Andrew D Morris, Lars Lind, Lyle J Palmer, Frank B Hu, Paul W Franks, Shah Ebrahim, Michael Marmot, W H Linda Kao, James S Pankow, Michael J Sampson, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Peter Paul Pramstaller, H Erich Wichmann, Thomas Illig, Igor Rudan, Alan F Wright, Michael Stumvoll, Harry Campbell, James F Wilson, Richard N Bergman, Thomas A Buchanan, Francis S Collins, Karen L Mohlke, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Timo T Valle, David Altshuler, Jerome I Rotter, David S Siscovick, Brenda W J H Penninx, Dorret I Boomsma, Panos Deloukas, Timothy D Spector, Timothy M Frayling, Luigi Ferrucci, Augustine Kong, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Yurii S Aulchenko, Antonio Cao, Angelo Scuteri, David Schlessinger, Manuela Uda, Aimo Ruokonen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Dawn M Waterworth, Peter Vollenweider, Leena Peltonen, Vincent Mooser, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Nicholas J Wareham, Robert Sladek, Philippe Froguel, Richard M Watanabe, James B Meigs, Leif Groop, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Jose C Florez, Inês Barroso.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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Levels of circulating glucose are tightly regulated. To identify new loci influencing glycemic traits, we performed meta-analyses of 21 genome-wide association studies informative for fasting glucose, fasting insulin and indices of beta-cell function (HOMA-B) and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in up to 46,186 nondiabetic participants. Follow-up of 25 loci in up to 76,558 additional subjects identified 16 loci associated with fasting glucose and HOMA-B and two loci associated with fasting insulin and HOMA-IR. These include nine loci newly associated with fasting glucose (in or near ADCY5, MADD, ADRA2A, CRY2, FADS1, GLIS3, SLC2A2, PROX1 and C2CD4B) and one influencing fasting insulin and HOMA-IR (near IGF1). We also demonstrated association of ADCY5, PROX1, GCK, GCKR and DGKB-TMEM195 with type 2 diabetes. Within these loci, likely biological candidate genes influence signal transduction, cell proliferation, development, glucose-sensing and circadian regulation. Our results demonstrate that genetic studies of glycemic traits can identify type 2 diabetes risk loci, as well as loci containing gene variants that are associated with a modest elevation in glucose levels but are not associated with overt diabetes.
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Genetic variation in GIPR influences the glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose challenge.
Richa Saxena, Marie-France Hivert, Claudia Langenberg, Toshiko Tanaka, James S Pankow, Peter Vollenweider, Valeriya Lyssenko, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Josée Dupuis, Anne U Jackson, W H Linda Kao, Man Li, Nicole L Glazer, Alisa K Manning, Jian'an Luan, Heather M Stringham, Inga Prokopenko, Toby Johnson, Niels Grarup, Trine W Boesgaard, Cécile Lecoeur, Peter Shrader, Jeffrey O'Connell, Erik Ingelsson, David J Couper, Kenneth Rice, Kijoung Song, Camilla H Andreasen, Christian Dina, Anna Köttgen, Olivier Le Bacquer, François Pattou, Jalal Taneera, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Denis Rybin, Kristin Ardlie, Michael Sampson, Lu Qi, Mandy van Hoek, Michael N Weedon, Yurii S Aulchenko, Benjamin F Voight, Harald Grallert, Beverley Balkau, Richard N Bergman, Suzette J Bielinski, Amélie Bonnefond, Lori L Bonnycastle, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Yvonne Böttcher, Eric Brunner, Thomas A Buchanan, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Guillaume Charpentier, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Peter S Chines, Francis S Collins, Marilyn Cornelis, Gabriel J Crawford, Jérôme Delplanque, Alex Doney, Josephine M Egan, Michael R Erdos, Mathieu Firmann, Nita G Forouhi, Caroline S Fox, Mark O Goodarzi, Jurgen Graessler, Aroon Hingorani, Bo Isomaa, Torben Jørgensen, Mika Kivimäki, Peter Kovacs, Knut Krohn, Meena Kumari, Torsten Lauritzen, Claire Levy-Marchal, Vladimir Mayor, Jarred B McAteer, David Meyre, Braxton D Mitchell, Karen L Mohlke, Mario A Morken, Narisu Narisu, Colin N A Palmer, Ruth Pakyz, Laura Pascoe, Felicity Payne, Daniel Pearson, Wolfgang Rathmann, Annelli Sandbaek, Avan Aihie Sayer, Laura J Scott, Stephen J Sharp, Eric Sijbrands, Andrew Singleton, David S Siscovick, Nicholas L Smith, Thomas Sparsø, Amy J Swift, Holly Syddall, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Anke Tönjes, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Timo T Valle, Gérard Waeber, Andrew Walley, Dawn M Waterworth, Eleftheria Zeggini, Jing Hua Zhao, , Thomas Illig, H Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Cornelia van Duijn, Frank B Hu, Andrew D Morris, Timothy M Frayling, Andrew T Hattersley, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Kari Stefansson, Peter Nilsson, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Alan R Shuldiner, Mark Walker, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter Schwarz, Gordon H Williams, David M Nathan, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Cyrus Cooper, Michael Marmot, Luigi Ferrucci, Vincent Mooser, Michael Stumvoll, Ruth J F Loos, David Altshuler, Bruce M Psaty, Jerome I Rotter, Eric Boerwinkle, Torben Hansen, Oluf Pedersen, Jose C Florez, Mark I McCarthy, Michael Boehnke, Inês Barroso, Robert Sladek, Philippe Froguel, James B Meigs, Leif Groop, Nicholas J Wareham, Richard M Watanabe.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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Glucose levels 2 h after an oral glucose challenge are a clinical measure of glucose tolerance used in the diagnosis of type 2 diabetes. We report a meta-analysis of nine genome-wide association studies (n = 15,234 nondiabetic individuals) and a follow-up of 29 independent loci (n = 6,958-30,620). We identify variants at the GIPR locus associated with 2-h glucose level (rs10423928, beta (s.e.m.) = 0.09 (0.01) mmol/l per A allele, P = 2.0 x 10(-15)). The GIPR A-allele carriers also showed decreased insulin secretion (n = 22,492; insulinogenic index, P = 1.0 x 10(-17); ratio of insulin to glucose area under the curve, P = 1.3 x 10(-16)) and diminished incretin effect (n = 804; P = 4.3 x 10(-4)). We also identified variants at ADCY5 (rs2877716, P = 4.2 x 10(-16)), VPS13C (rs17271305, P = 4.1 x 10(-8)), GCKR (rs1260326, P = 7.1 x 10(-11)) and TCF7L2 (rs7903146, P = 4.2 x 10(-10)) associated with 2-h glucose. Of the three newly implicated loci (GIPR, ADCY5 and VPS13C), only ADCY5 was found to be associated with type 2 diabetes in collaborating studies (n = 35,869 cases, 89,798 controls, OR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.09-1.15, P = 4.8 x 10(-18)).
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Genetic evidence that raised sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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Epidemiological studies consistently show that circulating sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels are lower in type 2 diabetes patients than non-diabetic individuals, but the causal nature of this association is controversial. Genetic studies can help dissect causal directions of epidemiological associations because genotypes are much less likely to be confounded, biased or influenced by disease processes. Using this Mendelian randomization principle, we selected a common single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the SHBG gene, rs1799941, that is strongly associated with SHBG levels. We used data from this SNP, or closely correlated SNPs, in 27 657 type 2 diabetes patients and 58 481 controls from 15 studies. We then used data from additional studies to estimate the difference in SHBG levels between type 2 diabetes patients and controls. The SHBG SNP rs1799941 was associated with type 2 diabetes [odds ratio (OR) 0.94, 95% CI: 0.91, 0.97; P = 2 x 10(-5)], with the SHBG raising allele associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. This effect was very similar to that expected (OR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96), given the SHBG-SNP versus SHBG levels association (SHBG levels are 0.2 standard deviations higher per copy of the A allele) and the SHBG levels versus type 2 diabetes association (SHBG levels are 0.23 standard deviations lower in type 2 diabetic patients compared to controls). Results were very similar in men and women. There was no evidence that this variant is associated with diabetes-related intermediate traits, including several measures of insulin secretion and resistance. Our results, together with those from another recent genetic study, strengthen evidence that SHBG and sex hormones are involved in the aetiology of type 2 diabetes.
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No consistent effect of ADRB2 haplotypes on obesity, hypertension and quantitative traits of body fatness and blood pressure among 6,514 adult Danes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Evidence regarding the association of variation within ADRB2, the gene encoding the beta-adrenergic receptor 2 (ADRB2) with obesity and hypertension is exceedingly ambiguous. Despite negative reports, functional impacts of individual genetic variants have been reported. Also, functional haplotypes as well as haplotype combinations affecting expression levels in vivo of ADRB2 mRNA and protein as well as receptor sensitivity have been reported. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate if variations within ADRB2 as haplotypes or as haplotype combinations confer an increased prevalence of obesity and hypertension among adults.
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G-allele of intronic rs10830963 in MTNR1B confers increased risk of impaired fasting glycemia and type 2 diabetes through an impaired glucose-stimulated insulin release: studies involving 19,605 Europeans.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Genome-wide association studies have identified several variants within the MTNR1B locus that are associated with fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and type 2 diabetes. We refined the association signal by direct genotyping and examined for associations of the variant displaying the most independent effect on FPG with isolated impaired fasting glycemia (i-IFG), isolated impaired glucose tolerance (i-IGT), type 2 diabetes, and measures of insulin release and peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity.
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A variant near MTNR1B is associated with increased fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes risk.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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In genome-wide association (GWA) data from 2,151 nondiabetic French subjects, we identified rs1387153, near MTNR1B (which encodes the melatonin receptor 2 (MT2)), as a modulator of fasting plasma glucose (FPG; P = 1.3 x 10(-7)). In European populations, the rs1387153 T allele is associated with increased FPG (beta = 0.06 mmol/l, P = 7.6 x 10(-29), N = 16,094), type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.08-1.22, P = 6.3 x 10(-5), cases N = 6,332) and risk of developing hyperglycemia or diabetes over a 9-year period (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.06-1.36, P = 0.005, incident cases N = 515). RT-PCR analyses confirm the presence of MT2 transcripts in neural tissues and show MT2 expression in human pancreatic islets and beta cells. Our data suggest a possible link between circadian rhythm regulation and glucose homeostasis through the melatonin signaling pathway.
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Novel loci for adiponectin levels and their influence on type 2 diabetes and metabolic traits: a multi-ethnic meta-analysis of 45,891 individuals.
Zari Dastani, Marie-France Hivert, Nicholas Timpson, John R B Perry, Xin Yuan, Robert A Scott, Peter Henneman, Iris M Heid, Jorge R Kizer, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Christian Fuchsberger, Toshiko Tanaka, Andrew P Morris, Kerrin Small, Aaron Isaacs, Marian Beekman, Stefan Coassin, Kurt Lohman, Lu Qi, Stavroula Kanoni, James S Pankow, Hae-Won Uh, Ying Wu, Aurelian Bidulescu, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Celia M T Greenwood, Martin Ladouceur, Jonna Grimsby, Alisa K Manning, Ching-Ti Liu, Jaspal Kooner, Vincent E Mooser, Peter Vollenweider, Karen A Kapur, John Chambers, Nicholas J Wareham, Claudia Langenberg, Rune Frants, Ko Willems-Vandijk, Ben A Oostra, Sara M Willems, Claudia Lamina, Thomas W Winkler, Bruce M Psaty, Russell P Tracy, Jennifer Brody, Ida Chen, Jorma Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Peter P Pramstaller, David M Evans, Beate St Pourcain, Naveed Sattar, Andrew R Wood, Stefania Bandinelli, Olga D Carlson, Josephine M Egan, Stefan Böhringer, Diana van Heemst, Lyudmyla Kedenko, Kati Kristiansson, Marja-Liisa Nuotio, Britt-Marie Loo, Tamara Harris, Melissa Garcia, Alka Kanaya, Margot Haun, Norman Klopp, H-Erich Wichmann, Panos Deloukas, Efi Katsareli, David J Couper, Bruce B Duncan, Margreet Kloppenburg, Linda S Adair, Judith B Borja, , James G Wilson, Solomon Musani, Xiuqing Guo, Toby Johnson, Robert Semple, Tanya M Teslovich, Matthew A Allison, Susan Redline, Sarah G Buxbaum, Karen L Mohlke, Ingrid Meulenbelt, Christie M Ballantyne, George V Dedoussis, Frank B Hu, Yongmei Liu, Bernhard Paulweber, Timothy D Spector, P Eline Slagboom, Luigi Ferrucci, Antti Jula, Markus Perola, Olli Raitakari, Jose C Florez, Veikko Salomaa, Johan G Eriksson, Timothy M Frayling, Andrew A Hicks, Terho Lehtimäki, George Davey Smith, David S Siscovick, Florian Kronenberg, Cornelia van Duijn, Ruth J F Loos, Dawn M Waterworth, James B Meigs, Josée Dupuis, J Brent Richards, Benjamin F Voight, Laura J Scott, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Christian Dina, Ryan P Welch, Eleftheria Zeggini, Cornelia Huth, Yurii S Aulchenko, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Laura J McCulloch, Teresa Ferreira, Harald Grallert, Najaf Amin, Guanming Wu, Cristen J Willer, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Steve A McCarroll, Oliver M Hofmann, Ayellet V Segrè, Mandy van Hoek, Pau Navarro, Kristin Ardlie, Beverley Balkau, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J Bennett, Roza Blagieva, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Kristina Bengtsson Boström, Bert Bravenboer, Suzannah Bumpstead, Noel P Burtt, Guillaume Charpentier, Peter S Chines, Marilyn Cornelis, Gabe Crawford, Alex S F Doney, Katherine S Elliott, Amanda L Elliott, Michael R Erdos, Caroline S Fox, Christopher S Franklin, Martha Ganser, Christian Gieger, Niels Grarup, Todd Green, Simon Griffin, Christopher J Groves, Candace Guiducci, Samy Hadjadj, Neelam Hassanali, Christian Herder, Bo Isomaa, Anne U Jackson, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jørgensen, Wen H L Kao, Augustine Kong, Peter Kraft, Johanna Kuusisto, Torsten Lauritzen, Man Li, Aloysius Lieverse, Cecilia M Lindgren, Valeriya Lyssenko, Michel Marre, Thomas Meitinger, Kristian Midthjell, Mario A Morken, Narisu Narisu, Peter Nilsson, Katharine R Owen, Felicity Payne, Ann-Kristin Petersen, Carl Platou, Christine Proença, Inga Prokopenko, Wolfgang Rathmann, N William Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Ghislain Rocheleau, Michael Roden, Michael J Sampson, Richa Saxena, Beverley M Shields, Peter Shrader, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Sparsø, Klaus Straßburger, Heather M Stringham, Qi Sun, Amy J Swift, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Rob M Van Dam, Timon W van Haeften, Thijs van Herpt, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, G Bragi Walters, Michael N Weedon, Cisca Wijmenga, Jacqueline Witteman, Richard N Bergman, Stéphane Cauchi, Francis S Collins, Anna L Gloyn, Ulf Gyllensten, Torben Hansen, Winston A Hide, Graham A Hitman, Albert Hofman, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Markku Laakso, Andrew D Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Igor Rudan, Eric Sijbrands, Lincoln D Stein, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André Uitterlinden, Mark Walker, Richard M Watanabe, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Bernhard O Boehm, Harry Campbell, Mark J Daly, Andrew T Hattersley, Oluf Pedersen, Inês Barroso, Leif Groop, Rob Sladek, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, James F Wilson, Thomas Illig, Philippe Froguel, Cornelia M van Duijn, Kari Stefansson, David Altshuler, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Nicole Soranzo, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicole L Glazer, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Reedik Mägi, Joshua Randall, Paul Elliott, Denis Rybin, Abbas Dehghan, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Kijoung Song, Anuj Goel, Taina Lajunen, Alex Doney, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Meena Kumari, Nicholas J Timpson, Carina Zabena, Erik Ingelsson, Ping An, Jeffrey O'Connell, Jian'an Luan, Amanda Elliott, Steven A McCarroll, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, François Pattou, Praveen Sethupathy, Yavuz Ariyurek, Philip Barter, John P Beilby, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Amélie Bonnefond, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Yvonne Böttcher, Eric Brunner, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Peter Chines, Robert Clarke, Lachlan J M Coin, Matthew N Cooper, Laura Crisponi, Ian N M Day, Eco J C de Geus, Jérôme Delplanque, Annette C Fedson, Antje Fischer-Rosinský, Nita G Forouhi, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Pilar Galán, Mark O Goodarzi, Jurgen Graessler, Scott Grundy, Rhian Gwilliam, Göran Hallmans, Naomi Hammond, Xijing Han, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Caroline Hayward, Simon C Heath, Serge Hercberg, David R Hillman, Aroon D Hingorani, Jennie Hui, Joe Hung, Marika Kaakinen, Jaakko Kaprio, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Beatrice Knight, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, G Mark Lathrop, Debbie A Lawlor, Olivier Le Bacquer, Cécile Lecoeur, Yun Li, Robert Mahley, Massimo Mangino, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Jarred B McAteer, Ruth McPherson, Christa Meisinger, David Melzer, David Meyre, Braxton D Mitchell, Sutapa Mukherjee, Silvia Naitza, Matthew J Neville, Marco Orrù, Ruth Pakyz, Giuseppe Paolisso, Cristian Pattaro, Daniel Pearson, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Irene Pichler, Ozren Polašek, Danielle Posthuma, Simon C Potter, Anneli Pouta, Michael A Province, Nigel W Rayner, Kenneth Rice, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Olov Rolandsson, Annelli Sandbaek, Manjinder Sandhu, Serena Sanna, Avan Aihie Sayer, Paul Scheet, Udo Seedorf, Stephen J Sharp, Beverley Shields, Gunnar Sigurðsson, Eric J G Sijbrands, Angela Silveira, Laila Simpson, Andrew Singleton, Nicholas L Smith, Ulla Sovio, Amy Swift, Holly Syddall, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Anke Tönjes, André G Uitterlinden, Ko Willems van Dijk, Dhiraj Varma, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Veronique Vitart, Nicole Vogelzangs, Gérard Waeber, Peter J Wagner, Andrew Walley, Kim L Ward, Hugh Watkins, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Jaqueline C M Witteman, John W G Yarnell, Diana Zelenika, Björn Zethelius, Guangju Zhai, Jing Hua Zhao, M Carola Zillikens, Ingrid B Borecki, Pierre Meneton, Patrik K E Magnusson, David M Nathan, Gordon H Williams, Kaisa Silander, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter Schwarz, Joachim Spranger, Fredrik Karpe, Alan R Shuldiner, Cyrus Cooper, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Lars Lind, Lyle J Palmer, Paul W Franks, Shah Ebrahim, Michael Marmot, W H Linda Kao, Peter Paul Pramstaller, Alan F Wright, Michael Stumvoll, Anders Hamsten, Thomas A Buchanan, Timo T Valle, Jerome I Rotter, Brenda W J H Penninx, Dorret I Boomsma, Antonio Cao, Angelo Scuteri, David Schlessinger, Manuela Uda, Aimo Ruokonen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Leena Peltonen, Vincent Mooser, Robert Sladek, Kiran Musunuru, Albert V Smith, Andrew C Edmondson, Ioannis M Stylianou, Masahiro Koseki, James P Pirruccello, Daniel I Chasman, Christopher T Johansen, Sigrid W Fouchier, Gina M Peloso, Maja Barbalic, Sally L Ricketts, Joshua C Bis, Mary F Feitosa, Marju Orho-Melander, Olle Melander, Xiaohui Li, Mingyao Li, Yoon Shin Cho, Min Jin Go, Young Jin Kim, Jong-Young Lee, Taesung Park, Kyunga Kim, Xueling Sim, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Leslie A Lange, Joshua D Smith, Andreas Ziegler, Weihua Zhang, Robert Y L Zee, John B Whitfield, John R Thompson, Ida Surakka, Tim D Spector, Johannes H Smit, Juha Sinisalo, James Scott, Juha Saharinen, Chiara Sabatti, Lynda M Rose, Robert Roberts, Mark Rieder, Alex N Parker, Guillaume Paré, Christopher J O'Donnell, Markku S Nieminen, Deborah A Nickerson, Grant W Montgomery, Wendy McArdle, David Masson, Nicholas G Martin, Fabio Marroni, Gavin Lucas, Robert Luben, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Guillaume Lettre, Lenore J Launer, Edward G Lakatta, Reijo Laaksonen, Kirsten O Kyvik, Inke R König, Kay-Tee Khaw, Lee M Kaplan, Asa Johansson, A Cecile J W Janssens, Wilmar Igl, G Kees Hovingh, Christian Hengstenberg, Aki S Havulinna, Nicholas D Hastie, Tamara B Harris, Talin Haritunians, Alistair S Hall, Leif C Groop, Elena González, Nelson B Freimer, Jeanette Erdmann, Kenechi G Ejebe, Angela Döring, Anna F Dominiczak, Serkalem Demissie, Panagiotis Deloukas, Ulf de Faire, Gabriel Crawford, Yii-Der I Chen, Mark J Caulfield, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Themistocles L Assimes, Thomas Quertermous, Mark Seielstad, Tien Y Wong, E-Shyong Tai, Alan B Feranil, Christopher W Kuzawa, Herman A Taylor, Stacey B Gabriel, Hilma Holm, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ronald M Krauss, José M Ordovás, Patricia B Munroe, Jaspal S Kooner, Alan R Tall, Robert A Hegele, John J P Kastelein, Eric E Schadt, David P Strachan, Muredach P Reilly, Nilesh J Samani, Heribert Schunkert, L Adrienne Cupples, Manjinder S Sandhu, Paul M Ridker, Daniel J Rader, Sekar Kathiresan.
PLoS Genet.
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Circulating levels of adiponectin, a hormone produced predominantly by adipocytes, are highly heritable and are inversely associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) and other metabolic traits. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in 39,883 individuals of European ancestry to identify genes associated with metabolic disease. We identified 8 novel loci associated with adiponectin levels and confirmed 2 previously reported loci (P?=?4.5×10(-8)-1.2×10(-43)). Using a novel method to combine data across ethnicities (N?=?4,232 African Americans, N?=?1,776 Asians, and N?=?29,347 Europeans), we identified two additional novel loci. Expression analyses of 436 human adipocyte samples revealed that mRNA levels of 18 genes at candidate regions were associated with adiponectin concentrations after accounting for multiple testing (p<3×10(-4)). We next developed a multi-SNP genotypic risk score to test the association of adiponectin decreasing risk alleles on metabolic traits and diseases using consortia-level meta-analytic data. This risk score was associated with increased risk of T2D (p?=?4.3×10(-3), n?=?22,044), increased triglycerides (p?=?2.6×10(-14), n?=?93,440), increased waist-to-hip ratio (p?=?1.8×10(-5), n?=?77,167), increased glucose two hours post oral glucose tolerance testing (p?=?4.4×10(-3), n?=?15,234), increased fasting insulin (p?=?0.015, n?=?48,238), but with lower in HDL-cholesterol concentrations (p?=?4.5×10(-13), n?=?96,748) and decreased BMI (p?=?1.4×10(-4), n?=?121,335). These findings identify novel genetic determinants of adiponectin levels, which, taken together, influence risk of T2D and markers of insulin resistance.
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The effect of FOXA2 rs1209523 on glucose-related phenotypes and risk of type 2 diabetes in Danish individuals.
BMC Med. Genet.
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Variations within the FOXA family have been studied for a putative contribution to the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), and recently the minor T-allele of FOXA2 rs1209523 was reported to associate with decreased fasting plasma glucose levels in a study using a weighted false discovery rate control procedure to enhance the statistical power of genome wide association studies in detecting associations between low-frequency variants and a given trait.Thus, the primary aim of this study was to investigate whether the minor T-allele of rs1205923 in FOXA2 associated with 1) decreased fasting plasma glucose and 2) a lower risk of developing T2D. Secondly, we investigated whether rs1205923 in FOXA2 associated with other glucose-related phenotypes.
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A genome-wide association search for type 2 diabetes genes in African Americans.
Nicholette D Palmer, Caitrin W McDonough, Pamela J Hicks, Bong H Roh, Maria R Wing, S Sandy An, Jessica M Hester, Jessica N Cooke, Meredith A Bostrom, Megan E Rudock, Matthew E Talbert, Joshua P Lewis, , Assiamira Ferrara, Lingyi Lu, Julie T Ziegler, Michèle M Sale, Jasmin Divers, Daniel Shriner, Adebowale Adeyemo, Charles N Rotimi, Maggie C Y Ng, Carl D Langefeld, Barry I Freedman, Donald W Bowden, Benjamin F Voight, Laura J Scott, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Andrew P Morris, Christian Dina, Ryan P Welch, Eleftheria Zeggini, Cornelia Huth, Yurii S Aulchenko, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Laura J McCulloch, Teresa Ferreira, Harald Grallert, Najaf Amin, Guanming Wu, Cristen J Willer, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Steve A McCarroll, Claudia Langenberg, Oliver M Hofmann, Josée Dupuis, Lu Qi, Ayellet V Segrè, Mandy van Hoek, Pau Navarro, Kristin Ardlie, Beverley Balkau, Rafn Benediktsson, Amanda J Bennett, Roza Blagieva, Eric Boerwinkle, Lori L Bonnycastle, Kristina Bengtsson Boström, Bert Bravenboer, Suzannah Bumpstead, Noel P Burtt, Guillaume Charpentier, Peter S Chines, Marilyn Cornelis, David J Couper, Gabe Crawford, Alex S F Doney, Katherine S Elliott, Amanda L Elliott, Michael R Erdos, Caroline S Fox, Christopher S Franklin, Martha Ganser, Christian Gieger, Niels Grarup, Todd Green, Simon Griffin, Christopher J Groves, Candace Guiducci, Samy Hadjadj, Neelam Hassanali, Christian Herder, Bo Isomaa, Anne U Jackson, Paul R V Johnson, Torben Jørgensen, Wen H L Kao, Norman Klopp, Augustine Kong, Peter Kraft, Johanna Kuusisto, Torsten Lauritzen, Man Li, Aloysius Lieverse, Cecilia M Lindgren, Valeriya Lyssenko, Michel Marre, Thomas Meitinger, Kristian Midthjell, Mario A Morken, Narisu Narisu, Peter Nilsson, Katharine R Owen, Felicity Payne, John R B Perry, Ann-Kristin Petersen, Carl Platou, Christine Proença, Inga Prokopenko, Wolfgang Rathmann, N William Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Ghislain Rocheleau, Michael Roden, Michael J Sampson, Richa Saxena, Beverley M Shields, Peter Shrader, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Thomas Sparsø, Klaus Straßburger, Heather M Stringham, Qi Sun, Amy J Swift, Barbara Thorand, Jean Tichet, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Rob M Van Dam, Timon W van Haeften, Thijs van Herpt, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, G Bragi Walters, Michael N Weedon, Cisca Wijmenga, Jacqueline Witteman, Richard N Bergman, Stéphane Cauchi, Francis S Collins, Anna L Gloyn, Ulf Gyllensten, Torben Hansen, Winston A Hide, Graham A Hitman, Albert Hofman, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, Markku Laakso, Karen L Mohlke, Andrew D Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Peter P Pramstaller, Igor Rudan, Eric Sijbrands, Lincoln D Stein, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André Uitterlinden, Mark Walker, Nicholas J Wareham, Richard M Watanabe, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Bernhard O Boehm, Harry Campbell, Mark J Daly, Andrew T Hattersley, Frank B Hu, James B Meigs, James S Pankow, Oluf Pedersen, H-Erich Wichmann, Inês Barroso, Jose C Florez, Timothy M Frayling, Leif Groop, Rob Sladek, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, James F Wilson, Thomas Illig, Philippe Froguel, Cornelia M van Duijn, Kari Stefansson, David Altshuler, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Nicole Soranzo, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicole L Glazer, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Reedik Mägi, Joshua Randall, Toby Johnson, Paul Elliott, Denis Rybin, Peter Henneman, Abbas Dehghan, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Kijoung Song, Anuj Goel, Josephine M Egan, Taina Lajunen, Alex Doney, Stavroula Kanoni, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Meena Kumari, Nicholas J Timpson, Carina Zabena, Erik Ingelsson, Ping An, Jeffrey O'Connell, Jian'an Luan, Amanda Elliott, Steven A McCarroll, Rosa Maria Roccasecca, François Pattou, Praveen Sethupathy, Yavuz Ariyurek, Philip Barter, John P Beilby, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Sven Bergmann, Murielle Bochud, Amélie Bonnefond, Knut Borch-Johnsen, Yvonne Böttcher, Eric Brunner, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Peter Chines, Robert Clarke, Lachlan J M Coin, Matthew N Cooper, Laura Crisponi, Ian N M Day, Eco J C de Geus, Jérôme Delplanque, Annette C Fedson, Antje Fischer-Rosinský, Nita G Forouhi, Rune Frants, Maria Grazia Franzosi, Pilar Galán, Mark O Goodarzi, Jurgen Graessler, Scott Grundy, Rhian Gwilliam, Göran Hallmans, Naomi Hammond, Xijing Han, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Caroline Hayward, Simon C Heath, Serge Hercberg, Andrew A Hicks, David R Hillman, Aroon D Hingorani, Jennie Hui, Joe Hung, Antti Jula, Marika Kaakinen, Jaakko Kaprio, Y Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Beatrice Knight, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Kirsten Ohm Kyvik, G Mark Lathrop, Debbie A Lawlor, Olivier Le Bacquer, Cécile Lecoeur, Yun Li, Robert Mahley, Massimo Mangino, Alisa K Manning, María Teresa Martínez-Larrad, Jarred B McAteer, Ruth McPherson, Christa Meisinger, David Melzer, David Meyre, Braxton D Mitchell, Sutapa Mukherjee, Silvia Naitza, Matthew J Neville, Ben A Oostra, Marco Orrù, Ruth Pakyz, Giuseppe Paolisso, Cristian Pattaro, Daniel Pearson, John F Peden, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Andreas F H Pfeiffer, Irene Pichler, Ozren Polašek, Danielle Posthuma, Simon C Potter, Anneli Pouta, Michael A Province, Bruce M Psaty, Nigel W Rayner, Kenneth Rice, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Olov Rolandsson, Annelli Sandbaek, Manjinder Sandhu, Serena Sanna, Avan Aihie Sayer, Paul Scheet, Udo Seedorf, Stephen J Sharp, Beverley Shields, Eric J G Sijbrands, Angela Silveira, Laila Simpson, Andrew Singleton, Nicholas L Smith, Ulla Sovio, Amy Swift, Holly Syddall, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Toshiko Tanaka, Anke Tönjes, André G Uitterlinden, Ko Willems van Dijk, Dhiraj Varma, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Veronique Vitart, Nicole Vogelzangs, Gérard Waeber, Peter J Wagner, Andrew Walley, Kim L Ward, Hugh Watkins, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Jaqueline C M Witteman, John W G Yarnell, Diana Zelenika, Björn Zethelius, Guangju Zhai, Jing Hua Zhao, M Carola Zillikens, Ingrid B Borecki, Ruth J F Loos, Pierre Meneton, Patrik K E Magnusson, David M Nathan, Gordon H Williams, Kaisa Silander, Veikko Salomaa, George Davey Smith, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter Schwarz, Joachim Spranger, Fredrik Karpe, Alan R Shuldiner, Cyrus Cooper, George V Dedoussis, Manuel Serrano-Ríos, Lars Lind, Lyle J Palmer, Paul W Franks, Shah Ebrahim, Michael Marmot, W H Linda Kao, Peter Paul Pramstaller, Alan F Wright, Michael Stumvoll, Anders Hamsten, Thomas A Buchanan, Timo T Valle, Jerome I Rotter, David S Siscovick, Brenda W J H Penninx, Dorret I Boomsma, Panos Deloukas, Timothy D Spector, Luigi Ferrucci, Antonio Cao, Angelo Scuteri, David Schlessinger, Manuela Uda, Aimo Ruokonen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Dawn M Waterworth, Peter Vollenweider, Leena Peltonen, Vincent Mooser, Robert Sladek.
PLoS ONE
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African Americans are disproportionately affected by type 2 diabetes (T2DM) yet few studies have examined T2DM using genome-wide association approaches in this ethnicity. The aim of this study was to identify genes associated with T2DM in the African American population. We performed a Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) using the Affymetrix 6.0 array in 965 African-American cases with T2DM and end-stage renal disease (T2DM-ESRD) and 1029 population-based controls. The most significant SNPs (n?=?550 independent loci) were genotyped in a replication cohort and 122 SNPs (n?=?98 independent loci) were further tested through genotyping three additional validation cohorts followed by meta-analysis in all five cohorts totaling 3,132 cases and 3,317 controls. Twelve SNPs had evidence of association in the GWAS (P<0.0071), were directionally consistent in the Replication cohort and were associated with T2DM in subjects without nephropathy (P<0.05). Meta-analysis in all cases and controls revealed a single SNP reaching genome-wide significance (P<2.5×10(-8)). SNP rs7560163 (P?=?7.0×10(-9), OR (95% CI)?=?0.75 (0.67-0.84)) is located intergenically between RND3 and RBM43. Four additional loci (rs7542900, rs4659485, rs2722769 and rs7107217) were associated with T2DM (P<0.05) and reached more nominal levels of significance (P<2.5×10(-5)) in the overall analysis and may represent novel loci that contribute to T2DM. We have identified novel T2DM-susceptibility variants in the African-American population. Notably, T2DM risk was associated with the major allele and implies an interesting genetic architecture in this population. These results suggest that multiple loci underlie T2DM susceptibility in the African-American population and that these loci are distinct from those identified in other ethnic populations.
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