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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The physiology underlying Roux-en-Y gastric bypass - A status report.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Obesity and its related comorbidities can be detrimental for the affected individual, and challenge public health systems worldwide. Currently, the only available treatment options leading to clinically significant and maintained body weight loss and reduction in obesity related morbidity and mortality are based on surgical interventions. This review will focus on two main clinical effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), namely body weight loss and change in eating behavior. Animal experiments designed to understand the underlying physiological mechanisms of these post bypass effects will be discussed. Where appropriate, reference will also be made to Vertical Sleeve Gastrectomy (VSG). While caloric malabsorption and mechanical restriction seem not to be major factors in this respect, alterations in gut hormone levels are invariably found after RYGB. However, their causal role in RYGB effects on eating and body weight has recently been challenged. Other potential factors contributing to the RYGB effects include increased bile acid concentrations and an altered composition of gut microbiota. RYGB is further associated with remarkable changes in preference for different dietary components such as a decrease in the preference for high fat or sugar. It needs to be noted, however, that in many cases, the question about the necessity of these alterations for the success of bariatric surgery procedures remains unanswered.
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Novel antidiabetic nutrients identified by in vivo screening for gastric secretion and emptying regulation in rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Diabetes mellitus is a disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels and represents a worldwide health issue. Postprandial hyperglycemia is considered a major predictor of diabetic complications, and its reduction represents a specific treatment target in Type 1 and 2 diabetes. Since postprandial glucose excursions depend to a large extent on gastric secretion and emptying, amylin and glucagon-like peptide 1 analogs are prescribed to reduce them. Although gastric function is considered mainly sensitive to ingested calories, its chemospecificity is not well understood. To identify ingestible nutrients reducing postprandial hyperglycemia, we applied intragastrically more than 40 individual nutrients at an isomolar dose to rats and quantified their impact on gastric secretion and emptying using a novel in vivo computed tomography imaging method. We identified l-tryptophan, l-arginine, l-cysteine, and l-lysine as the most potent modulators with effective strength comparable to a supraphysiological dose of amylin. Importantly, all identified candidates reduced postprandial glucose excursion within an oral glucose tolerance test in healthy and diabetic rats. This clinical beneficial effect originated predominantly from their impact on gastric function, as none of the candidates altered plasma glucose concentrations induced by intraperitoneal or intraduodenal glucose tolerance tests. Overall, these data demonstrate a remarkable chemospecificity of stomach function, unveil a strong role of the stomach for glycemic control and identifies nutrients with antidiabetic potential.
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Noncompliance with guidelines for the treatment of hepatitis C is frequent in daily practice.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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In trials of pegylated interferons (PEG-IFNs), the lack of an early virological response (EVR) was associated with sustained virological response (SVR) rates of only 0-3%. The rates were similarly low when hepatitis C virus (HCV)-RNA was positive at week 24. Treatment guidelines therefore recommend 'stop rules' on the basis of HCV-RNA levels at weeks 12 and 24 of treatment. We analyzed the use of these rules under 'real-life' conditions.
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Downregulation of duodenal SLC transporters and activation of proinflammatory signaling constitute the early response to high altitude in humans.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Solute carrier (SLC) transporters mediate the uptake of biologically active compounds in the intestine. Reduced oxygenation (hypoxia) is an important factor influencing intestinal homeostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the pathophysiological consequences of hypoxia on the expression and function of SLCs in human intestine. Hypoxia was induced in human intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) in vitro (0.2; 1% O2 or CoCl2). For human in vivo studies, duodenal biopsies and serum samples were obtained from individuals (n = 16) acutely exposed to 4,554 meters above sea levels. Expression of relevant targets was analyzed by quantitative PCR, Western blotting, or immunofluorescence. Serum levels of inflammatory mediators and nucleosides were determined by ELISA and LC/MS-MS, respectively. In the duodenum of volunteers exposed to high altitude we observed decreased mRNA levels of apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT), concentrative nucleoside transporters 1/2 (CNT1/2), organic anion transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1), organic cation transporter 2 (OCTN2), peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1), serotonin transporter (SERT), and higher levels of IFN-?, IL-6, and IL-17A. Serum levels of IL-10, IFN-?, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and serotonin were elevated, whereas the levels of uridine decreased upon exposure to hypoxia. Hypoxic IECs showed reduced levels of equilibrative nucleoside transporter 2 (ENT2), OCTN2, and SERT mRNAs in vitro, which was confirmed on the protein level and was accompanied by activation of ERK1/2, increase of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) proteins, and production of IL-8 mRNA. Costimulation with IFN-? and IL-6 during hypoxia further decreased the expression of SERT, ENT2, and CNT2 in vitro. Reduced oxygen supply affects the expression pattern of duodenal SLCs that is accompanied by changes in serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and biologically active compounds demonstrating that intestinal transport is affected during systemic exposure to hypoxia in humans.
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Roux-en Y Gastric Bypass Is Superior to Duodeno-Jejunal Bypass in Improving Glycaemic Control in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Whilst weight loss results in many beneficial metabolic consequences, the immediate improvement in glycaemia after Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass (RYGB) remains intriguing. Duodenal jejunal bypass (DJB) induces similar glycaemic effects, while not affecting calorie intake or weight loss. We studied diabetic ZDF(fa/fa) rats to compare the effects of DJB and RYGB operations on glycaemia.
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass does not affect daily water intake or the drinking response to dipsogenic stimuli in rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for severe obesity, and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common approach in the United States and worldwide. Many studies have documented the changes in body weight, food intake, and glycemic control associated with the procedure. Although dehydration is commonly listed as a postoperative complication, little focus has been directed to testing the response to dipsogenic treatments after RYGB. Accordingly, we used a rat model of RYGB to test for procedure-induced changes in daily water intake and in the response to three dipsogenic treatments: central administration of ANG II, peripheral injection of hypertonic saline, and overnight water deprivation. We did not find any systematic differences in daily water intake of sham-operated and RYGB rats, nor did we find any differences in the response to the dipsogenic treatments. The results of these experiments suggest that RYGB does not impair thirst responses and does not enhance any satiating effect of water intake. Furthermore, these data support the current view that feedback from the stomach is unnecessary for the termination of drinking behavior and are consistent with a role of orosensory or postgastric feedback.
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Where to begin and where to end? Preoperative assessment for patients undergoing metabolic surgery.
Dig Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment of obesity and its associated diseases like type 2 diabetes mellitus. Given the obesity epidemic and the efficacy of surgical treatment, the number of surgical weight loss procedures has grown in recent years. Nevertheless, there is little consensus regarding the extent of preoperative investigations required prior to patients undergoing surgery. This article aims to discuss the available evidence on which preoperative tests are useful for the detection and treatment of conditions such as venous thromboembolism, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and Helicobacter pylori-positive gastritis prior to an operation. The present literature suggests that only a few preoperative investigations are essential, but that preoperative multidisciplinary care is beneficial.
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Physiological mechanisms behind Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.
Dig Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Obesity and its related comorbidities can be detrimental for the affected individual and challenge public health systems worldwide. Currently, the only available treatment options leading to clinically significant and maintained body weight loss and reduction in obesity-related morbidity and mortality are based on surgical interventions. Apart from the 'gold standard' Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), the vertical sleeve gastrectomy and gastric banding are two frequently performed procedures. This review will discuss animal experiments designed to understand the underlying mechanisms of body weight loss after bariatric surgery. While caloric malabsorption and mechanical restriction are no major factors in this respect, alterations in gut hormone levels are invariably found after RYGB. However, their causal role in RYGB effects on eating and body weight has recently been challenged. Other potential factors contributing to the RYGB effects include increased bile acid concentrations and an altered composition of gut microbiota. RYGB is further associated with remarkable changes in the preference for different dietary components such as a decrease in the preference for high fat or sugar; it is important to note that the contribution of altered food preferences to the RYGB effects on body weight is not clear.
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Acute hormonal response to glucose, lipids and arginine infusion in overweight cats.
J Nutr Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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In cats, the incidence of obesity and diabetes is increasing, and little is known about specific aspects of the endocrine control of food intake in this species. Recent data suggest that ghrelin has an important role in the control of insulin secretion and vice versa, but this role has never been demonstrated in cats. Here we aimed to improve our understanding about the relationship between insulin, amylin and ghrelin secretion in response to a nutrient load in overweight cats. After a 16 h fast, weekly, six overweight male cats underwent randomly one of the four testing sessions: saline, glucose, arginine and TAG. All solutions were isoenergetic and isovolumic, and were injected intravenously as a bolus. Glucose, insulin, acylated ghrelin (AG), amylin and prolactin were assayed in plasma before and 10, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 min after the nutrient load. A linear mixed-effects model was used to assess the effect of bolus and time on the parameters. A parenteral bolus of glucose or arginine increased insulin and ghrelin concentrations in cats. Except for with the TAG bolus, no suppression of ghrelin was observed. The absence of AG suppression after the intravenous load of arginine and glucose may suggest: (1) that some nutrients do not promote satiation in overweight cats; or that (2) AG may be involved in non-homeostatic consumption mechanisms. However, the role of ghrelin in food reward remains to be assessed in cats.
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Demonstration of spectral correlation control in a source of polarization-entangled photon pairs at telecom wavelength.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Spectrally correlated photon pairs can be used to improve the performance of long-range fiber-based quantum communication protocols. We present a source based on spontaneous parametric downconversion, which allows one to control spectral correlations within the entangled photon pair without spectral filtering by changing the pump-pulse duration or the characteristics of the coupled spatial modes. The spectral correlations and polarization entanglement are characterized. We find that the generated photon pairs can feature both positive spectral correlations, decorrelation, or negative correlations at the same time as polarization entanglement with a high fidelity of 0.97 (no background subtraction) with the expected Bell state.
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Interleukin-6 contributes to early fasting-induced free fatty acid mobilization in mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Contracting muscle releases interleukin-6 (IL-6) enabling the metabolic switch from carbohydrate to fat utilization. Similarly, metabolism is switched during transition from fed to fasting state. Herein, we examined a putative role for IL-6 in the metabolic adaptation to normal fasting. In lean C57BL/6J mice, 6 h of food withdrawal increased gene transcription levels of IL-6 in skeletal muscle but not in white adipose tissue. Concomitantly, circulating IL-6 and free fatty acid (FFA) levels were significantly increased, whereas respiratory quotient (RQ) was reduced in 6-h fasted mice. In white adipose tissue, phosphorylation of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) was increased on fasting, indicating increased lipolysis. Intriguingly, fasting-induced increase in circulating IL-6 levels and parallel rise in FFA concentration were absent in obese and glucose-intolerant mice. A causative role for IL-6 in the physiological adaptation to fasting was further supported by the fact that fasting-induced increase in circulating FFA levels was significantly blunted in lean IL-6 knockout (KO) and lean C57BL/6J mice treated with neutralizing IL-6 antibody. Consistently, phosphorylation of HSL was significantly reduced in adipose tissue of IL-6-depleted mice. Hence, our findings suggest a novel role for IL-6 in energy supply during early fasting.
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The Sirt1 activator SRT3025 provides atheroprotection in Apoe-/- mice by reducing hepatic Pcsk9 secretion and enhancing Ldlr expression.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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The deacetylase sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) exerts beneficial effects on lipid metabolism, but its roles in plasma LDL-cholesterol regulation and atherosclerosis are controversial. Thus, we applied the pharmacological Sirt1 activator SRT3025 in a mouse model of atherosclerosis and in hepatocyte culture.
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The role of the area postrema in the anorectic effects of amylin and salmon calcitonin: behavioral and neuronal phenotyping.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Amylin reduces meal size by activating noradrenergic neurons in the area postrema (AP). Neurons in the AP also mediate the eating-inhibitory effects of salmon calcitonin (sCT), a potent amylin agonist, but the phenotypes of the neurons mediating its effect are unknown. Here we investigated whether sCT activates similar neuronal populations to amylin, and if its anorectic properties also depend on AP function. Male rats underwent AP lesion (APX) or sham surgery. Meal patterns were analysed under ad libitum and post-deprivation conditions. The importance of the AP in mediating the anorectic action of sCT was examined in feeding experiments of dose-response effects of sCT in APX vs. sham rats. The effect of sCT to induce Fos expression was compared between surgery groups, and relative to amylin. The phenotype of Fos-expressing neurons in the brainstem was examined by testing for the co-expression of dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) or tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH). By measuring the apposition of vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGLUT2)-positive boutons, potential glutamatergic input to amylin- and sCT-activated AP neurons was compared. Similar to amylin, an intact AP was necessary for sCT to reduce eating. Further, co-expression between Fos activation and DBH after amylin or sCT did not differ markedly, while co-localization of Fos and TPH was minor. Approximately 95% of neurons expressing Fos and DBH after amylin or sCT treatment were closely apposed to VGLUT2-positive boutons. Our study suggests that the hindbrain pathways engaged by amylin and sCT share many similarities, including the mediation by AP neurons.
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144-week outcomes of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r)-based first-line ART in 1,409 HIV-infected patients: data from the German STAR/STELLA cohort.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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STAR/STELLA is a prospective[TS1] cohort of HIV patients initiated on LPV/r-based ART in routine clinical practice. Here, virologic/immunologic outcomes and safety data of LPV/r-based first-line ART over a period of 144 weeks are presented.
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Simultaneous assessment of gastric emptying and secretion in rats by a novel computed tomography based method.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-21-2013
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Gastric emptying and gastric secretion are major physiological functions of the stomach. The assessment of these functions in particular in small animals is challenging; no method currently available allows the simultaneous measurement of both functions, and methods used are lethal or invasive and often limited by spatial, temporal or quantitative resolution. Here, we report the establishment and validation of a quantitative non-invasive high-throughput computed tomography based method to measure simultaneously liquid gastric emptying and secretion in rats in vivo. The imaging strategy enables to visualize stomach anatomy, and to quantify stomach volume and stomach contrast agent content. The method was validated by comparing the results to classical lethal methods (stomach phenol red content, stomach wet weight). Additionally, we showed that the use of a mild anesthetic does not interfere with normal gastric function thereby enabling high-resolution temporal studies within single animals. These combined advantages were applied to reevaluate the impact of cholecystokinin (CCK), histamine and oral glucose on gastric function with high temporal resolution. CCK inhibited gastric emptying for 20 min leading to the accumulation of gastric juice in the stomach. The CCK antagonist devazepide blocked this effect. Histamine stimulated gastric secretion and delayed emptying. Oral glucose solution emptied at a fix rate of 24-31 cal/min and stimulated gastric secretion. These results confirm previous observations and add volumetric changes as a new dimension. As computed tomography scanners become broadly available this method is an excellent approach to measure the combined gastric functional readout and to reduce number of animals used.
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Reduced insulin sensitivity as a marker for acute mountain sickness?
High Alt. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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Reduced insulin sensitivity might increase the susceptibility to acute mountain sickness (AMS). The diabetogenic side effects of dexamethasone should therefore be considered for AMS treatment. To examine whether reduced insulin sensitivity is predictive of AMS and how it is affected by dexamethasone at high altitude, we analyzed endocrine and metabolic parameters obtained from healthy mountaineers in Zurich (LA; 490 m), and 2 and 4 days after fast ascent to the Capanna Regina Margherita (HA2, HA4; 4559 m). 14 of 25 participants developed AMS and were treated with dexamethasone starting in the evening of HA2. Before and after ingestion of an 1800 kJ meal, plasma was analyzed for erythropoietin (EPO) and cholecystokinin (CCK). Insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S) and beta cell activity were calculated. HOMA-S (p<0.01) and EPO levels (p<0.05) were lower in Zurich in the group developing AMS and given dexamethasone, i.e., before treatment and exposure to hypoxia. CCK was lower (p<0.01) and glucose and insulin were higher on HA4 in the dexamethasone group compared to the untreated group. Individuals with low baseline insulin sensitivity and low baseline EPO levels were more susceptible to AMS. Reduced CCK may contribute to the beneficial effect of dexamethasone on high altitude anorexia. However, reduced insulin sensitivity questions the widespread use of dexamethasone to prevent/treat AMS.
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Hindbrain noradrenergic input to the hypothalamic PVN mediates the activation of oxytocinergic neurons induced by the satiety factor oleoylethanolamide.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a gut-derived endogenous lipid that stimulates vagal fibers to induce satiety. Our previous work has shown that peripherally administered OEA activates c-fos transcription in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), where it enhances oxytocin (OXY) expression. The anorexigenic action of OEA is prevented by the intracerebroventricular administration of a selective OXY receptor antagonist, suggesting a necessary role of OXYergic mediation of OEAs effect. The NST is the source of direct noradrenergic afferent input to hypothalamic OXY neurons, and therefore, we hypothesized that the activation of this pathway might mediate OEA effects on PVN neurons. To test this hypothesis, we subjected rats to intra-PVN administration of the toxin saporin (DSAP) conjugated to an antibody against dopamine-?-hydroxylase (DBH) to destroy hindbrain noradrenergic neurons. In these rats we evaluated the effects of OEA (10 mg/kg, ip) on feeding behavior, on c-Fos and OXY immunoreactivity in the PVN, and on OXY immunoreactivity in the posterior pituitary gland. We found that the DSAP lesion completely prevented OEAs effects on food intake, on Fos and OXY expression in the PVN, and on OXY immunoreactivity of the posterior pituitary gland; all effects were maintained in sham-operated rats. These results support the hypothesis that noradrenergic NST-PVN projections are involved in the activation of the hypothalamic OXY system, which mediates OEAs prosatiety action.
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery reduces bone mineral density and induces metabolic acidosis in rats.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery leads to bone loss in humans, which may be caused by vitamin D and calcium malabsorption and subsequent secondary hyperparathyroidism. However, because these conditions occur frequently in obese people, it is unclear whether they are the primary causes of bone loss after RYGB. To determine the contribution of calcium and vitamin D malabsorption to bone loss in a rat RYGB model, adult male Wistar rats were randomized for RYGB surgery, sham-operation-ad libitum fed, or sham-operation-body weight-matched. Bone mineral density, calcium and phosphorus balance, acid-base status, and markers of bone turnover were assessed at different time points for 14 wk after surgery. Bone mineral density decreased for several weeks after RYGB. Intestinal calcium absorption was reduced early after surgery, but plasma calcium and parathyroid hormone levels were normal. 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels decreased, while levels of active 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D increased after surgery. RYGB rats displayed metabolic acidosis due to increased plasma lactate levels and increased urinary calcium loss throughout the study. These results suggest that initial calcium malabsorption may play a key role in bone loss early after RYGB in rats, but other factors, including chronic metabolic acidosis, contribute to insufficient bone restoration after normalization of intestinal calcium absorption. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is not involved in postoperative bone loss. Upregulated vitamin D activation may compensate for any vitamin D malabsorption.
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Specific amino acids inhibit food intake via the area postrema or vagal afferents.
J. Physiol. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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To maintain nutrient homeostasis the central nervous system integrates signals that promote or inhibit eating. The supply of vital amino acids is tuned by adjusting food intake according to its dietary protein content. We hypothesized that this effect is based on the sensing of individual amino acids as a signal to control food intake. Here, we show that food intake was most potently reduced by oral L-arginine (Arg), L-lysine (Lys) and L-glutamic acid (Glu) compared to all other 17 proteogenic amino acids in rats. These three amino acids induced neuronal activity in the area postrema and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Surgical lesion of the area postrema abolished the anorectic response to Arg and Glu, whereas vagal afferent lesion prevented the response to Lys. These three amino acids also provoked gastric distension by differentially altering gastric secretion and/or emptying. Importantly, these peripheral mechanical vagal stimuli were dissociated from the amino acids effect on food intake. Thus, Arg, Lys and Glu had a selective impact on food processing and intake suggesting them as direct sensory input to assess dietary protein content and quality in vivo. Overall, this study reveals novel amino acid-specific mechanisms for the control of food intake and of gastrointestinal function.
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Survival time and prognostic factors in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus: 114 cases (2000-2009).
J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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To determine overall survival time and identify prognostic factors associated with survival time in cats with newly diagnosed diabetes mellitus.
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Adaptation of iron transport and metabolism to acute high-altitude hypoxia in mountaineers.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Human iron homeostasis is regulated by intestinal iron transport, hepatic hepcidin release, and signals from pathways that consume or supply iron. The aim of this study was to characterize the adaptation of iron homeostasis under hypoxia in mountaineers at the levels of (1) hepatic hepcidin release, (2) intestinal iron transport, and (3) systemic inflammatory and erythropoietic responses. Twenty-five healthy mountaineers were studied. Blood samples and duodenal biopsies were taken at baseline of 446 m as well as on day 2 (MG2) and 4 (MG4) after rapid ascent to 4559 m. Divalent metal-ion transporter 1 (DMT-1), ferroportin 1 (FP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA), and protein expression were analyzed in biopsy specimens by quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Serum hepcidin levels were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Serum iron, ferritin, transferrin, interleukin (IL)-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were quantified by standard techniques. Serum erythropoietin and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Under hypoxia, erythropoietin peaked at MG2 (P?
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Toward a downconversion source of positively spectrally correlated and decorrelated telecom photon pairs.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Frequency correlation (or decorrelation) of photon pairs is of great importance in long-range quantum communications and photonic quantum computing. We experimentally characterize a spontaneous parametric downconversion source, based on a ?-barium borate crystal cut for type-II phase matching at 1550 nm, which has the capability to emit photons with positive or no spectral correlations. Our system employs a carefully designed detection method exploiting two InGaAs detectors.
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Acute peripheral GLP-1 receptor agonism or antagonism does not alter energy expenditure in rats after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Compared to traditional weight loss strategies, the compensatory decrease in energy expenditure in response to body weight loss is markedly attenuated after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB). Because basal and postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) are increased after RYGB surgery, and because GLP-1 has been shown to increase energy expenditure, we investigated if increased GLP-1 levels are involved in the alterations in energy expenditure after RYGB. Adult male Wistar rats were randomized for RYGB (n=8) or sham surgery (n=17). Part of the sham-operated rats were food restricted and body weight-matched (n=8) to the RYGB animals. The effects of acute subcutaneous administration of the GLP-1 antagonist Exendin (9-39) (Ex-9, 30?g/kg) or the GLP-1 agonist Exendin-4 (Ex-4, 5?g/kg), respectively, on energy expenditure were tested using indirect calorimetry. We found that Ex-9 increased food intake in RYGB, but not in sham-operated rats. Energy expenditure was lower in RYGB and sham-operated body weight-matched rats compared to sham-operated ad libitum fed rats, but significantly higher in RYGB rats compared to sham-operated body weight-matched rats. There was no effect of Ex-9 treatment on energy expenditure in either group of animals. Similarly, Ex-4 decreased food intake more in RYGB than in sham-operated rats, but Ex-4 did not modulate energy expenditure in any surgical group. We conclude that acute modulation of GLP-1 signaling is not directly involved in altered energy expenditure after RYGB surgery in rats.
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CHD6, a cellular repressor of influenza virus replication, is degraded in human alveolar epithelial cells and mice lungs during infection.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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The influenza virus polymerase associates to an important number of transcription-related proteins, including the largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II complex (RNAP II). Despite this association, degradation of the RNAP II takes place in the infected cells once viral transcription is completed. We have previously shown that the chromatin remodeler CHD6 protein interacts with the influenza virus polymerase complex, represses viral replication, and relocalizes to inactive chromatin during influenza virus infection. In this paper, we report that CHD6 acts as a negative modulator of the influenza virus polymerase activity and is also subjected to degradation through a process that includes the following characteristics: (i) the cellular proteasome is not implicated, (ii) the sole expression of the three viral polymerase subunits from its cloned cDNAs is sufficient to induce proteolysis, and (iii) degradation is also observed in vivo in lungs of infected mice and correlates with the increase of viral titers in the lungs. Collectively, the data indicate that CHD6 degradation is a general effect exerted by influenza A viruses and suggest that this viral repressor may play an important inhibitory role since degradation and accumulation into inactive chromatin occur during the infection.
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Amylin and GLP-1 target different populations of area postrema neurons that are both modulated by nutrient stimuli.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The area postrema mediates the hypophagic effect of the pancreatic hormone amylin and is also sensitive to glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). Protein seems to modulate amylin responsiveness because amylin seems to produce a stronger hypophagic effect and a stronger c-Fos expression when protein is absent from the diet. Accordingly, amylin induces a stronger c-Fos expression in the AP when injected in fasted compared to ad libitum fed rats. Here we tested the hypothesis that diet-derived protein attenuates the amylin dependent suppression of feeding and AP activation using isocaloric diets that differed in their protein content. Moreover, we investigated whether peripheral amino acid injection attenuates amylin-induced c-Fos expression in fasted rats. Since recent evidence suggests that GLP-1 may also reduce eating via the AP we tested whether 24 h fasting also increases neuronal AP responsiveness to GLP-1 similar to the fasting-induced increase in amylin responsiveness. Finally, we used the calcitonin receptor (CTR) as an immunohistochemical marker for amylin-receptive AP neurons to investigate whether amylins target neurons differ from GLP-1 responsive AP neurons. We also dissociated amylin responsive cells from neurons implicated in other AP-mediated functions such as aversion or blood pressure regulation. For this purpose, we conducted c-Fos/CTR double staining after LiCl or angiotensin II treatment, respectively. Amylin (5 ?g/kg s.c.) was more effective to reduce the intake of a 1% vs. an 8% or 18% protein diet and to induce c-Fos expression in the AP in rats receiving 1% vs. 18% protein diet. Increased protein intake was associated with increased blood amino acid levels. Peripheral injection of amino acids (1 g/kg i.p.) attenuated the amylin-induced AP activation in 24 h fasted rats. Similar to amylin, GLP-1 (100 ?g/kg i.p.) elicited a significant c-Fos response only in fasted but not in ad libitum fed rats. However, in contrast to a high co-localization of amylin-induced c-Fos and CTR (68%), no c-Fos/CTR co-localization occurred after treatment with GLP-1 or the GLP-1R agonist exendin 4 (2 ?g/kg ip). Similarly, LiCl (76 mg/kg ip) or AngII (50 ?g/kg sc) led to c-Fos expression only in CTR negative AP neurons. In conclusion, our findings support a protein-dependent modulation of behavioral and neuronal amylin responsiveness under equicaloric feeding conditions. Amino acids might contribute to the inhibitory effect of diet-derived protein to reduce amylin-induced neuronal AP activation. Neuronal AP responsiveness to GLP-1 is also increased in the fasted state suggesting that diet-derived nutrients may also interfere with AP-mediated GLP-1 effects. Nevertheless, the primary target neurons for amylin appear to be distinct from cells targeted by GLP-1 and by stimuli producing aversion (LiCl) or contributing to blood pressure regulation (AngII) via the AP. Since amylin and GLP-1 analogs are targets for the treatment of obesity, the nutrient-dependent modulation of AP responsiveness might entail implications for such therapeutic approaches.
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery in rats alters gut microbiota profile along the intestine.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery might modify the gut microbiota composition differently in the three distinct anatomical sections of the small intestine compared to sham surgery. We showed that RYGB induced changes in the microbiota of the alimentary limb and the common channel resembling those seen after prebiotic treatment or weight loss by dieting. These changes may be associated with altered production of intestinal hormones known to control energy balance. Postsurgical modulation of gut microbiota may significantly contribute to the beneficial metabolic effects of RYGB surgery.
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Hypertrophy dependent doubling of L-cells in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operated rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) leads to a rapid remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), but the underlying mode of action remains incompletely understood. L-cell derived gut hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) are thought to play a central role in the anti-diabetic effects of RYGB; therefore, an improved understanding of intestinal endocrine L-cell adaptability is considered pivotal.
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Involvement of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signaling pathway in amylins eating inhibitory effect.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2011
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Peripheral amylin inhibits eating via the area postrema (AP). Because amylin activates the extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK) pathway in some tissues, and because ERK1/2 phosphorylation (pERK) leads to acute neuronal responses, we postulated that it may be involved in amylins eating inhibitory effect. Amylin-induced ERK phosphorylation (pERK) was investigated by immunohistochemistry in brain sections containing the AP. pERK-positive AP neurons were double-stained for the calcitonin 1a/b receptor, which is part of the functional amylin-receptor. AP sections were also phenotyped using dopamine-?-hydroxylase (DBH) as a marker of noradrenergic neurons. The effect of fourth ventricular administration of the ERK cascade blocker U0126 on amylins eating inhibitory action was tested in feeding trials. The number of pERK-positive neurons in the AP was highest ?10-15 min after amylin treatment; the effect appeared to be dose-dependent (5-20 ?g/kg amylin). A portion of pERK-positive neurons in the AP carried the amylin-receptor and 22% of the pERK-positive neurons were noradrenergic. Pretreatment of rats with U0126 decreased the number of pERK-positive neurons in the AP after amylin injection. U0126 also attenuated the ability of amylin to reduce eating, at least when the animals had been fasted 24 h prior to the feeding trial. Overall, our results suggest that amylin directly stimulates pERK in AP neurons in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Part of the AP neurons displaying pERK were noradrenergic. At least under fasting conditions, pERK was shown to be a necessary part in the signaling cascade mediating amylins anorectic effect.
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CHD6 chromatin remodeler is a negative modulator of influenza virus replication that relocates to inactive chromatin upon infection.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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The influenza virus establishes close functional and structural connections with the nucleus of the infected cell. Thus, viral ribonucleoproteins (RNPs) are closely bound to chromatin components and the main constituent of viral RNPs, the nucleoprotein (NP) protein, interacts with histone tails. Using a yeast two-hybrid screening, we previously found that the PA influenza virus polymerase subunit interacts with the CHD6 protein, a member of the CHD family of chromatin remodelers. Here we show that CHD6 also interacts with the viral polymerase complex and colocalizes with viral RNPs in the infected cells. To study the relationships between RNPs, chromatin and CHD6, we have analysed whether NP and CHD6 binds to peptides representing trimethylated lysines of histone 3 tails that mark transcriptionally active or inactive chromatin. Upon infection, NP binds to marks of repressed chromatin and, interestingly an important recruitment of CHD6 to these heterochromatin marks occurs in this situation. Silencing experiments indicate that CHD6 acts as a negative modulator of influenza virus replication. Hence, the CHD6 association with inactive chromatin could be part of a process where the influenza virus triggers modifications of chromatin-associated proteins that could contribute to the pathogenic events used by the virus to induce host cell shut-off.
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Control of energy homeostasis by amylin.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Amylin is an important control of nutrient fluxes because it reduces energy intake, modulates nutrient utilization by inhibiting postprandial glucagon secretion, and increases energy disposal by preventing compensatory decreases of energy expenditure in weight-reduced individuals. The best investigated function of amylin which is cosecreted with insulin is to reduce eating by promoting meal-ending satiation. This effect is thought to be mediated by a stimulation of specific amylin receptors in the area postrema. Secondary brain sites to mediate amylin action include the nucleus of the solitary tract and the lateral parabrachial nucleus, which convey the neural signal to the lateral hypothalamic area and other hypothalamic nuclei. Amylin may also signal adiposity because plasma levels of amylin are increased in adiposity and because higher amylin concentrations in the brain result in reduced body weight gain and adiposity, while amylin receptor antagonists increase body adiposity. The central mechanisms involved in amylins effect on energy expenditure are much less known. A series of recent experiments in animals and humans indicate that amylin is a promising option for anti-obesity therapy especially in combination with other hormones. The most extensive dataset is available for the combination therapy of amylin and leptin. Ongoing research focuses on the mechanisms of these interactions.
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Gastric bypass reduces fat intake and preference.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the most effective therapy for morbid obesity. This study investigated how gastric bypass affects intake of and preference for high-fat food in an experimental (rat) study and within a trial setting (human). Proportion of dietary fat in gastric bypass patients was significantly lower 6 yr after surgery compared with patients after vertical-banded gastroplasty (P = 0.046). Gastric bypass reduced total fat and caloric intake (P < 0.001) and increased standard low-fat chow consumption compared with sham controls (P < 0.001) in rats. Compared with sham-operated rats, gastric bypass rats displayed much lower preferences for Intralipid concentrations > 0.5% in an ascending concentration series (0.005%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%) of two-bottle preference tests (P = 0.005). This effect was demonstrated 10 and 200 days after surgery. However, there was no difference in appetitive or consummatory behavior in the brief access test between the two groups (P = 0.71) using similar Intralipid concentrations (0.005% through 5%). Levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) were increased after gastric bypass as expected. An oral gavage of 1 ml corn oil after saccharin ingestion in gastric bypass rats induced a conditioned taste aversion. These findings suggest that changes in fat preference may contribute to long-term maintained weight loss after gastric bypass. Postingestive effects of high-fat nutrients resulting in conditioned taste aversion may partially explain this observation; the role of GLP-1 in mediating postprandial responses after gastric bypass requires further investigation.
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Nevirapine versus atazanavir/ritonavir, each combined with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine, in antiretroviral-naive HIV-1 patients: the ARTEN Trial.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Selection of first-line antiretroviral therapy requires consideration of efficacy as well as effects on lipids given the increased concern about cardiovascular risk in HIV-1 patients.
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Influence of high-fat feeding, diet-induced obesity, and hyperamylinemia on the sensitivity to acute amylin.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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Obesity results in the increased secretion of various hormones controlling food intake and body weight, such as leptin, and insulin; increased circulating levels of pancreatic amylin have also been described in obese humans and rodents. Because leptin-resistance is present in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats, and because hyperleptinemia seems necessary for the full development of leptin resistance, we tested whether amylin sensitivity is inversely correlated with adiposity, such that DIO reduces the anorectic action of acute amylin. We also determined if hyperamylinemia leads to a change in amylin sensitivity. In the first experiment, rats were chronically exposed to a high fat (HF; 60% fat) diet or fed standard chow for control. The anorectic response to amylin was tested on several occasions over a 14 week observation period. HF feeding led to the expected increase in body adiposity; the response to an acute amylin injection (5-50 ?g/kg s.c.) was unaltered for 10 weeks of HF feeding. Even after 12 weeks on a HF diet, which clearly caused obesity, acute administration of amylin (5 ?g/kg, s.c.) was still able to suppress food intake, although the suppression was not statistically significant. Further experiments using additional doses of amylin will be necessary to demonstrate possible amylin resistance after HF feeding or in DIO rats. In the second experiment, we tested more specifically whether hyperamylinemia that may result from HF feeding and subsequent obesity, reduces the sensitivity of the amylin signaling system. To avoid confounding factors, we chronically infused lean chow fed rats with amylin (5 or 10 ?g/kg/day s.c.) to elevate their plasma amylin concentration to levels observed in obese rats (30-40 pM). In the absence of obesity, hyperamylinemia did not lead to a reduced sensitivity to acute amylin (5-20 ?g/kg s.c.) injections; acute amylin reduced eating similarly in all groups of rats. Overall, we concluded that direct diet effects by short term exposure to HF appear to be of little importance for amylin sensitivity; further, long-term maintenance on a HF diet and the resulting obesity only slightly attenuated the anorectic response to acute amylin. Because we observed no marked changes in amylin sensitivity in lean, chow fed rats with induced hyperamylinemia, amylin receptor downregulation in chronic hyperamylinemia does not seem to occur.
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HIV and cancer in Germany.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Cancer is now the leading cause of death in persons with HIV. In this study, we gathered current epidemiological data on Aids-defining (AD) and non-Aids-defining (NAD) malignancies among HIV-positive patients in Germany.
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Amylinergic control of food intake in lean and obese rodents.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2011
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Obesity develops despite a complex and seemingly well orchestrated network that controls eating, energy expenditure and ultimately body weight; many of the involved signals are derived from the gastrointestinal tract. It is assumed that this network as an entity aims at maintaining body weight and body adiposity at a relatively constant level, but the control mechanisms seem to fail at least if an individual is chronically exposed to an oversupply of food. This article summarizes recent findings about the role of amylin in the control of eating in lean and obese rodents. The article gives some short background information about the well investigated adiposity and satiating signals leptin and cholecystokinin, respectively; this will provide the framework to discuss aspects of amylin physiology and pathophysiology in the control of eating in leanness and obesity. This discussion also involves the mechanisms mediating amylins eating inhibitory effect in the area postrema and the interactions between amylin and leptin. Further, we discuss the effect of high fat diets on amylin release and amylin action in lean and obese rats. The last part of this article raises the question whether amylin interacts with the reward system in the forebrain.
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The effect of using standardized patients or peer role play on ratings of undergraduate communication training: a randomized controlled trial.
Patient Educ Couns
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Considering the expense of standardized patients (SP) for training communication skills and the convenience of peer role playing (RP) there is a surprising lack of studies directly comparing the two methods.
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Genetic variation in IL28B and treatment-induced clearance of hepatitis C virus in HIV-positive patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Recently, a IL28B (rs 12979860) gene polymorphism was identified as a predictor for response to hepatitis C virus-specific treatment in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-uninfected and -infected patients with chronic hepatitis C. In an analysis of HIV-infected patients with acute hepatitis C, we found that the IL28B genotype was associated with serum levels of hepatitis C virus RNA, g-GT, and CD4 cell count. In contrast to HIV-infected patients with chronic hepatitis C, the IL28B genotype was not significantly associated with treatment response rates in patients with acute hepatitis C. Thus, effects of the IL28B single-nucleotide polymorphism may differ in HIV-infected patients with chronic and acute hepatitis C.
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Ghrelin-induced hypothermia: a physiological basis but no clinical risk.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Ghrelin increases food intake and decreases energy expenditure, promoting a positive energy balance. We observed a single case of serious hypothermia during sustained ghrelin treatment in a male subject, suggesting that ghrelin may play a role in the regulation of body temperature. We therefore investigated the effect of ghrelin treatment on body temperature in rodents and humans under controlled conditions. Intriguingly, we could demonstrate ghrelin binding in axon terminals of the medial preoptic area of the hypothalamus located in the vicinity of cold-sensitive neurons. This localization of ghrelin receptors provides a potential anatomical basis for the regulation of body temperature by ghrelin. However, our follow-up studies also indicated that neither a chronic i.c.v. application of ghrelin in rats, nor a single s.c. injection under cold exposure in mice resulted in a relevant decrease in body core temperature. In addition, a four-hour intravenous ghrelin infusion did not decrease body surface temperature in healthy humans. We concluded that while there is a theoretical molecular basis for ghrelin to modify body temperature in mammals, its magnitude is irrelevant under physiologic circumstances. Hypothermia is not likely to represent a serious risk associated with this agent and pathway.
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Steve Woodss contribution to research on amylins eating inhibitory effect.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Amylin is secreted by pancreatic beta-cells and seems to function as a physiological signal of satiation and possibly also as an adiposity signal. Amylins satiating effect is mediated via a direct action at area postrema (AP) neurons. The central pathways mediating amylins effects rely on connections from the AP to the nucleus of the solitary tract and lateral parabrachial nucleus. Amylin was shown to interact, probably at the brainstem, with other satiating signals, namely cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY, and other adiposity signals, namely leptin and insulin. The interaction with leptin, which is thought to involve the hypothalamus, may have important implications for the development of new and improved hormonal anti-obesity treatments. Steve Woods has contributed to the recent literature on amylins eating inhibitory effect by some frequently cited publications. Steves work concentrated more on the central administration of amylin and on amylins potential role as an adiposity signal. His work will be reviewed here and discussed in the context of other important findings on amylins role in the control of energy homeostasis.
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Basal plasma levels of insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and amylin do not signal adiposity in rats recovering from forced overweight.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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This study examined how adiposity signals are related to adiposity during recovery from forced overweight (OW). Rats were rendered OW by chronic intragastric overfeeding (OW). Overfeeding was stopped when OW rats reached 126-129% of saline-infused normal-weight (NW) rats. Adipose tissue (AT) mass was estimated by computed tomography, and blood was drawn from chronic atrial cannulas throughout. Basal levels (i.e. after 2-3 h fasts late in the diurnal phase) of the hypothesized adiposity signals insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and amylin were assayed. OW rats gained approximately 130 g more body weight (BW) and approximately 100 g more AT mass during overfeeding. Plasma levels of insulin and leptin increased, whereas those of ghrelin decreased, linearly with AT mass; amylin did not change reliably. During recovery, OW rats BW and AT mass decreased but were still elevated vs. NW rats after 39 d. OW rats insulin returned to NW levels on d 1 of recovery and decreased below NW levels thereafter. Leptin was no longer elevated after d 8 of recovery. Ghrelin and amylin did not change reliably during recovery. Although AT mass decreased in OW rats during each intermeasurement interval between d 0 and d 23 of recovery, insulin and leptin did so during only the first interval (d 0-5). Insulin and leptin levels were exponentially related to AT mass during recovery. These data indicate that basal insulin, leptin, ghrelin, and amylin do not encode AT mass in rats dynamically regulating BW and adiposity during recovery from OW.
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The cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen 4 polymorphisms affect response to hepatitis C virus-specific therapy in HIV(+) patients with acute and chronic hepatitis C virus co-infection.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA4), a co-receptor expressed on T lymphocytes, is involved in the regulation of T-cell functions. Here, we analyzed the potential impact of the CTLA4 polymorphisms on response to hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific treatment in HIV(+) patients co-infected with HCV.
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Feline pancreatic islet-like clusters and insulin producing cells express functional Toll-like receptors (TLRs).
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are cellular receptors that recognize molecules derived from pathogens, endogenous molecules generated after cellular stress, and free fatty acids. TLR activation leads to a proinflammatory reaction that is fundamental in the initiation of an innate immune response and subsequent adaptive responses but also can damage tissues. TLRs are not only expressed within the immune system, but also in most other organ systems including the pancreas. TLR4 is expressed in pancreatic ?-cells of rodents and humans and its stimulation affects insulin secretion in response to glucose. A low-grade inflammation is often associated with disturbed performance of ?-cells and insulin resistance, the cardinal metabolic event of type-2 diabetes. Feline diabetes mellitus shares many similarities with type-2 diabetes in humans. Our objective was to elucidate the role of TLRs in feline pancreatic islets and islet-like clusters (ILC) that consist of islets with their adjacent tissue. We tested whether TLRs are triggered by their agonists and lead to the expression of inflammatory cytokines. We confirmed the expression of all known feline TLRs in pancreas and ILC. Furthermore, stimulation with TLR agonists increased IL-6 mRNA and protein content and the expression of other proinflammatory cytokines indicating a clear proinflammatory response. The reactivity to TLR ligands was stronger in ?-cell enriched populations obtained after sorting by FACS indicating that inflammatory stimuli can also be generated within ?-cells. We conclude that the microenvironment of feline ?-cells harbor the potential for inflammatory reactions, that can be initiated by molecules released from bacteria or viruses or other molecules recognized by TLRs. Therefore infections associated with bacteriemia and viremia can induce inflammation in islets and damage the endocrine pancreatic tissue.
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Noradrenergic neurons of the area postrema mediate amylins hypophagic action.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2010
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Circulating amylin inhibits food intake via activation of the area postrema (AP). The aim of this study was to identify the neurochemical phenotype of the neurons mediating amylins hypophagic action by immunohistochemical and feeding studies in rats. Expression of c-Fos protein was used as a marker for neuronal activation and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase (DBH), the enzyme-catalyzing noradrenaline synthesis, as a marker for noradrenergic neurons. We found that approximately 50% of amylin-activated AP neurons are noradrenergic. To clarify the functional role of these neurons in amylins effect on eating, noradrenaline-containing neurons in the AP were lesioned using a saporin conjugated to an antibody against DBH. Amylin (5 or 20 microg/kg s.c.)-induced anorexia was observed in sham-lesioned rats with both amylin doses. Rats with a lesion of > 50% of the noradrenaline neurons were unresponsive to the low dose of amylin (5 microg/kg) and only displayed a reduction in food intake 60 min after injection of the high amylin dose (20 microg/kg). In a terminal experiment, the same rats received amylin (20 microg/kg) or saline. The AP and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) were stained for DBH to assess noradrenaline lesion success and for c-Fos expression to evaluate amylin-induced neuronal activation. In contrast to sham-lesioned animals, noradrenaline-lesioned rats did not show a significant increase in amylin-induced c-Fos expression in the AP and NTS. We conclude that the noradrenergic neurons in the AP mediate at least part of amylins hypophagic effect.
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Reduced fasting-induced activation of hypothalamic arcuate neurons is associated with hyperleptinemia and increased leptin sensitivity in obese mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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Fasting increases c-Fos expression in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) in lean, but not in hyperleptinemic mice with late-onset obesity (LOO). Although obesity is associated with leptin resistance, we hypothesized that under fasting conditions, leptin sensitivity might be restored and that hyperleptinemia may counteract the neuronal response to fasting. We investigated whether the reduced fasting response of ARC neurons in LOO is paralleled by an increase in leptin sensitivity, as measured by leptin-induced STAT-3 phosphorylation. To assess leptins role in the modulation of the fasting-induced ARC activation, we investigated c-Fos responses and hormone and metabolite levels in hyperleptinemic diet-induced obese (DIO) and in leptin-deficient ob/ob mice. Leptin induced a stronger STAT-3 phosphorylation in fasted LOO and lean mice than in ad libitum-fed animals. Similar to LOO, hyperleptinemic DIO mice showed no c-Fos response after fasting, while ob/ob mice showed a stronger response than lean control mice. Mimicking hyperleptinemia by repeated leptin injections in lean mice during fasting attenuated the fasting-induced c-Fos expression. Our findings indicate that high leptin levels prevent the fasting-induced activation of ARC neurons in mice. Moreover, leptin sensitivity is dynamic in obese subjects and depends on the feeding status. During short-term increases in leptin sensitivity, e.g., during fasting, leptin signaling appears to be effective, even in hyperleptinemic obesity. As reflected by the blockade of the fasting-induced ARC activation, fasting seems to interfere with the responsiveness of the ARC to signals related to the status of energy intake.
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Safety and Efficacy in HIV-1-Infected Patients Treated with Ritonavir-Boosted Saquinavir Mesylate.
Arch Drug Inf
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of ritonavir-boosted saquinavir 1000/100 mg twice daily administered as a 500 mg film-coated tablet in HIV-1-infected patients. METHODS: In this open-label, observational, 24-week survey conducted in 8 European countries, eligible HIV-infected participants had been prescribed saquinavir/ritonavir in combination with other nonprotease inhibitor (PI) antiretroviral agents as part of their HIV treatment regimen. The safety (grade 3 or 4 adverse events [AEs]), tolerability (by an investigator-reported subjective rating system), and efficacy (the percentage of participants with <50 and <400 copies/mL HIV RNA and change from baseline in mean CD4+ cell count) were analyzed for the overall study population and 7 subpopulations. RESULTS: The enrolled population included 2122 participants with 1908 completing the study; 44 (2.1%) withdrew prematurely because of AEs, including 7 nontreatment-related deaths. There were 33 grade 3 or 4 AEs in 29 (1.4%) participants; 7 AEs in 7 (0.3%) participants were considered treatment-related. Tolerability was reported to be "very good" or "good" in 42% and 25% of participants, respectively. From baseline to week 24, the proportion of participants with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL increased from 31.2% to 47.6% and the proportion with <400 copies/mL increased from 42.5% to 61.4%; the mean CD4+ cell count increased by 75 cells/microL. In the subpopulation analysis, the greatest efficacy benefits occurred in participants who were treatment-naïve and in those not having received prior PI therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with the saquinavir 500 mg film-coated tablet resulted in few grade 3 or 4 AEs and was well tolerated and effective in a broad population of patients.
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Littoral cell angioma in main and accessory intrapancreatic spleen presenting as splenic rupture.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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We report the incidental finding of a nodular mass in the pancreatic tail on a contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan preinterventional to emergency laparotomy for splenic rupture. Because of the past surgical history and radiologic appearance, differential diagnosis included atypical lymphoma in the spleen and regional lymph node, pancreatic adenocarcinoma with splenic metastasis, and intrapancreatic metastase of malignant melanoma; the patient underwent both splenectomy and pancreatic tail resection. A diagnosis of littoral cell angioma in main and accessory intrapancreatic spleen was made. To our knowledge, this is the first description of littoral cell angioma of the spleen involving both main and accessory organ presenting as splenic rupture.
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Central amylin acts as an adiposity signal to control body weight and energy expenditure.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2010
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The pancreatic B-cell hormone amylin has been proposed to be both a satiation signal and an adiposity signal. The effects of peripheral amylin on energy balance are well investigated, but the effects of central amylin are less clear. We determined the effects of low doses of amylin administered into the 3rd cerebral ventricle (i3vt) on food intake, body weight and other indices of energy balance. Amylin (2 pmol/h) significantly lowered body weight compared to saline after 2 weeks of infusion, independent of whether prior body weight was decreased by fasting, increased by voluntary overfeeding or unmanipulated. A bolus injection of amylin (10 pmol, i3vt) increased energy expenditure and body temperature, whereas chronic i3vt amylin infusion had no effect on energy expenditure above that of control rats even though body temperature was increased. Chronic amylin also reduced RQ, implying a preferential oxidation of fat. Overall, the data provide new evidence that amylin is an adiposity signal that acts within the brain, and informing the brain about the status of peripheral energy stores.
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The role of amylin in the control of energy homeostasis.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Amylin is an important player in the control of nutrient fluxes. Amylin reduces eating via a meal size effect by promoting meal-ending satiation. This effect seems to depend on a direct action in the area postrema (AP), which is an area rich in amylin receptors. Subsequent to the activation of AP neurons, the neural signal is conveyed to the forebrain via relays involving the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) to the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) and other hypothalamic nuclei. While the NTS and lPBN seem to be necessary for amylins eating inhibitory effect, the role of the LHA has not yet been fully investigated. Amylin may also act as an adiposity signal. Plasma levels of amylin are higher in obese individuals, and chronic infusion of amylin into the brain reduces body weight gain and adiposity; chronic infusion of an amylin receptor antagonist into the brain increases body adiposity. Amylin increases energy expenditure in rats; this effect occurs under various experimental conditions after peripheral and central administration. Together, these animal data, but also clinical data in humans, indicate that amylin is a promising candidate for the treatment of obesity; effects are most pronounced when amylin is combined with leptin. Finally, recent findings indicate that amylin acts as a neurotrophic factor in specific brain stem areas. Whether this effect may be relevant under physiological conditions requires further studies.
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Effect of hyperlipidemia on 11?-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase, glucocorticoid receptor, and leptin expression in insulin-sensitive tissues of cats.
Domest. Anim. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Glucocorticoid (GC) action depends on GC plasma concentration, cellular GC receptor expression, and the pre-receptor hormone metabolism catalyzed by 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11?-HSD). 11?-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase exists in 2 isoforms; 11?-HSD1 converts inactive cortisone to cortisol, and 11?-HSD2 converts cortisol to cortisone. Increasing evidence in humans and experimental animals suggests that altered tissue cortisol metabolism may predispose to diabetes mellitus (DM). Once DM is established, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia may further maintain the abnormal metabolism of cortisol. To gain further insight in this regard, healthy cats were infused for 10 d with lipids (n = 6) or saline (n = 5). At the end of the infusion period, tissue samples from adipose tissue (visceral, subcutaneous), liver, and muscle were collected to determine mRNA expression of 11?-HSD1, 11?-HSD2, and GC receptor by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction; blood samples were collected to determine plasma cortisol and leptin concentrations. Lipid infusion resulted in greater 11?-HSD1 expression and lower GC receptor expression in visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and lower 11?-HSD2 expression in visceral adipose tissue and liver. Plasma cortisol did not differ. Leptin and body weight increased in lipid-infused cats. In spite of comparable circulating cortisol levels, up-regulation of 11?-HSD1 and down-regulation of 11?-HSD2 expression may result in increased tissue cortisol concentrations in fat depots of hyperlipidemic cats. Down-regulation of GC receptor may represent a self-protective mechanism against increased tissue cortisol levels. In conclusion, hyperlipidemia has a profound effect on 11?-HSD expression and supports the connection between high lipid concentrations and tissue cortisol metabolism.
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Daily dosing of tacrolimus in patients treated with HIV-1 therapy containing a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor or raltegravir.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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The number of HIV-infected patients receiving orthotopic liver transplantation (OLTX) is increasing. One major challenge is the severe drug-drug interactions between immunosuppressive drugs such as tacrolimus and ritonavir-boosted HIV-1 protease inhibitors (PIs). The introduction of raltegravir, which is not metabolized by the cytochrome system, may allow concomitant treatment without dose adaptation.
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Identification of central projections from amylin-activated neurons to the lateral hypothalamus.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2010
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The ability of the pancreatic hormone amylin to inhibit food intake relies on a direct activation of the area postrema (AP). This activation is synaptically transmitted to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPB), the central amygdaloid nucleus (Ce) and the lateral bed nucleus of stria terminalis (BSTL). Interestingly, neurons of the rostro-dorsal lateral hypothalamic area (dLHA), which are activated during fasting, are inhibited by peripheral amylin, although they lack amylin receptors. Using the retrograde tracer cholera toxin-B (Ctb) we analyzed whether the dLHA receives neuronal projections from amylin-activated brain areas. The anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran-amine (BDA) was used to confirm the projections and to identify further neuronal pathways potentially involved in amylin signaling. We identified dense projections from the amylin activated neurons in the LPB and sparse projections from the NTS to the dLHA. LPB fiber efferents were found in close proximity to dLHA nuclei activated by 24h of fasting. The AP and the Ce showed no projections to the dLHA. Dense efferents were also observed from the LPB to other hypothalamic areas, namely to the ventromedial, dorsomedial, paraventricular and arcuate nuclei. This study provides neuroanatomical evidence that among the amylin activated areas, the LPB provides the strongest input to the dLHA, thus it may mediate the amylin-induced inhibition of the dLHA.
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Involvement of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide induced anorexia.
Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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Treatment with the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a commonly used model to induce disease-related anorexia. Following LPS treatment inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where nitric oxide (NO) inhibits orexigenic neurons. Intracellular STAT signaling is triggered by inflammatory stimuli and has been linked to the transcriptional regulation of iNOS. We evaluated whether pharmacological blockade of iNOS by the specific inhibitor 1400W attenuates LPS-induced anorexia. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the tolerance to the anorectic effect occurring after repeated LPS treatment is paralleled by a blunted STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC. Rats treated with a subcutaneous injection of 1400W (10 mg/kg) showed an attenuated anorectic LPS response relative to control rats receiving only LPS (100 µg/kg; i.p.). Similarly, iNOS blockade attenuated LPS-induced adipsia, hyperthermia, inactivity and the concomitant drop in energy expenditure. While single LPS treatment increased STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC, rats treated repeatedly with LPS showed no anorectic response and also no STAT3 phosphorylation in the ARC after the second and third LPS injections, respectively. Hence, pSTAT3 signaling in the ARC might be part of the intracellular cascades translating pro-inflammatory stimuli into suppression of food intake. The current findings substantiate a role of iNOS dependent NO formation in disease-related anorexia.
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Effects of glucagon-like peptide 1 and oxyntomodulin on neuronal activity of ghrelin-sensitive neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and oxyntomodulin (OXM) are structurally related gastrointestinal hormones that are secreted in response to food intake. They reduce food intake and body weight and exert partly overlapping actions on glucose homeostasis and gastrointestinal function. The hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) nucleus is among the central structures expressing a high density of GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R), which are known to be activated by both peptides. It was the aim of our electrophysiological studies to characterize the effects of GLP-1 and OXM on functionally defined ghrelin-sensitive ARC neurons. GLP-1 and OXM (10(-7) M) exerted excitatory effects in about two-thirds of ghrelin-inhibited neurons and in approximately one-third of ghrelin-excited cells. In addition, a minor fraction of the ghrelin-excited cells was inhibited by both peptides. There was a high degree of cosensitivity to GLP-1 and OXM, and the effects of both hormones were blocked by the GLP-1R antagonist exendin(9-39). The GLP-1R-mediated excitations and inhibitions persisted under synaptic blockade, indicating a direct postsynaptic mode of action. Our results demonstrate that GLP-1 and OXM directly and similarly alter neuronal activity in the ARC, probably via a common GLP-1R-mediated mechanism. Ghrelin-antagonistic effects on neuronal activity, which might be implicated in ghrelin-antagonistic in vivo actions, resulting from GLP-1R stimulation (e.g., GLP-1R dependent supression of food intake), predominated in ghrelin-inhibited ARC neurons. However, a subset of ghrelin-excited ARC neurons showed responses to OXM or GLP-1, suggesting the existence of a common mode of action for these hormones; the functional relevance of this effect remains to be elucidated.
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Deletion of the Chd6 exon 12 affects motor coordination.
Mamm. Genome
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
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Members of the CHD protein family play key roles in gene regulation through ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling. This is facilitated by chromodomains that bind histone tails, and by the SWI2/SNF2-like ATPase/helicase domain that remodels chromatin by moving histones. Chd6 is ubiquitously expressed in both mouse and human, with the highest levels of expression in the brain. The Chd6 gene contains 37 exons, of which exons 12-19 encode the highly conserved ATPase domain. To determine the biological role of Chd6, we generated mouse lines with a deletion of exon 12. Chd6 without exon 12 is expressed at normal levels in mice, and Chd6 Exon 12 -/- mice are viable, fertile, and exhibit no obvious morphological or pathological phenotype. Chd6 Exon 12 -/- mice lack coordination as revealed by sensorimotor analysis. Further behavioral testing revealed that the coordination impairment was not due to muscle weakness or bradykinesia. Histological analysis of brain morphology revealed no differences between Chd6 Exon 12 -/- mice and wild-type (WT) controls. The location of CHD6 on human chromosome 20q12 is overlapped by the linkage map regions of several human ataxias, including autosomal recessive infantile cerebellar ataxia (SCAR6), a nonprogressive cerebrospinal ataxia. The genomic location, expression pattern, and ataxic phenotype of Chd6 Exon 12 -/- mice indicate that mutations within CHD6 may be responsible for one of these ataxias.
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Postprandial response of plasma insulin, amylin and acylated ghrelin to various test meals in lean and obese cats.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
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The propensity of diets of different composition to promote obesity is a current topic in feline medicine. The effects of three meals with different protein:fat ratios on hormones (insulin, acylated ghrelin and amylin) involved in the control of food intake and glucose metabolism were compared. Five lean (two females and three males, 28.6 (sd 3.4) % body fat mass (BFM), mean body weight (BW) 4590 g) and five obese (two females and three males, 37.1 (sd 4.1) % BFM, mean BW 4670 g) adult cats were studied. Only BFM differed significantly between obese and lean cats. The cats were fed a high-protein (HP), a high-fat and a high-carbohydrate diet in a randomised cross-over design. Food intake did not differ between cats fed on the different diets, but obese cats consumed significantly more energy, expressed as per kg fat-free mass, than lean cats. After a 6-week adaptation period, a test meal was given and blood samples were collected before and 0, 30, 60 and 100 min after the meal. Baseline concentrations of glucose, amylin and acylated ghrelin were higher in obese cats than in lean cats, and obese cats showed the highest postprandial responses of glucose and amylin. The HP diet led to higher postprandial amylin concentrations than the other diets, indicating a possible effect of amino acids on beta-cell secretion. Postprandial ghrelin concentrations were unaffected by diet composition. The relationship between insulin, amylin and ghrelin secretion and their relevant roles in food intake and glucose metabolism in cats require further study.
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Brainstem mechanisms of amylin-induced anorexia.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2010
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Amylin is secreted by pancreatic beta-cells and is believed to be a physiological signal of satiation. Amylins effect on eating has been shown to be mediated via a direct action at the area postrema (AP) via amylin receptors that are heterodimers of the calcitonin receptor core protein with a receptor activity modifying protein. Peripheral amylin leads to accumulation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate, phosphorylated extracellular-signal regulated kinase 1/2 and c-Fos protein in AP neurons. The particular amylin-activated AP neurons mediating its anorexigenic action seem to be noradrenergic. The central pathways mediating amylins effects have been characterized by lesioning and tracing studies, identifying important connections from the AP to the nucleus of the solitary tract and lateral parabrachial nucleus. Amylin was shown to interact, probably at the brainstem, with other signals involved in the short term control of food intake, namely cholecystokinin, glucagon-like peptide 1 and peptide YY. Amylin also interacts with the adiposity signal leptin; this interaction, which is thought to involve the hypothalamus, may have important implications for the development of new and improved hormonal obesity treatments. In conclusion, amylin actions on food intake seem to reside primarily within the brainstem, and the associated mechanisms are starting to be unraveled. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009.
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Hyperglycaemia but not hyperlipidaemia decreases serum amylase and increases neutrophils in the exocrine pancreas of cats.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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The goal of the study was to determine whether hyperglycaemia or hyperlipidaemia causes pancreatitis in cats and to assess the effect of excess serum glucose and lipids on amylase and lipase activity. Ten-day hyperglycaemic and hyperlipidaemic clamps were carried out in five and six healthy cats, respectively. Ten healthy cats received saline and served as controls. The activity of amylase was below the normal range in 4 of 5 hyperglycaemic cats by day 10. The activity of lipase did not vary in any of the cats. Samples of exocrine pancreas were normal on histological examination, but the number of tissue neutrophils was increased in hyperglycaemic cats (P<0.05). In a retrospective study 14 of 40 (35%) cats with naturally occurring diabetes mellitus had amylase activities below the reference range at the time of admission. Amylase activities normalised within 1 week of insulin therapy and subsequent glycaemic control. Lipase activity was increased in 26 of 40 (65%) diabetic cats and remained elevated despite glycaemic control. In conclusion, hyperglycaemia, but not hyperlipidaemia, increases pancreatic neutrophils in cats. However, because the histological morphology of the exocrine pancreas was normal, hyperglycaemia may play only a minor role in the pathogenesis of pancreatitis. Low amylase activities in diabetic cats may reflect an imbalance in glucose metabolism rather than pancreatitis.
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Vagal sparing surgical technique but not stoma size affects body weight loss in rodent model of gastric bypass.
Obes Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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The aim of this study was to evaluate whether gastric bypass with or without vagal preservation resulted in a different outcome.
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Roles of amylin in satiation, adiposity and brain development.
Forum Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-27-2009
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Amylin plays an important role in the control of nutrient fluxes. It is cosecreted with insulin and reduces eating by promoting meal-ending satiation. This effect seems to depend on a stimulation of amylin receptors in the area postrema. Subsequent to area postrema activation, the neural signal is conveyed to the forebrain via distinct relays in the nucleus of the solitary tract and the lateral parabrachial nucleus to the lateral hypothalamic area and other hypothalamic nuclei; the functional roles of these relays in amylins eating inhibitory effect have not been fully investigated. Amylin may also play a role in the regulation of adiposity. Plasma levels of amylin are increased in adiposity, although the precise relation is unknown. Furthermore, chronic infusion of amylin into the brain reduced body weight gain and adiposity, and chronic infusion of an amylin receptor antagonist increased body adiposity. Both these animal data and pre-clinical research in humans indicate that amylin is a promising option for anti-obesity therapy, especially in combination with leptin. Finally, recent findings indicate that amylin may also be necessary for normal brain development; it acts as a neurotrophic factor for the development of brainstem pathways involved in the control of eating. How this may be relevant under physiological conditions requires further studies, but these findings substantiate the concept that amylin plays an integrative role in the development and operation of neural circuits involved in the control of eating and energy homeostasis.
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Gastric bypass increases energy expenditure in rats.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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Mechanisms underlying weight loss maintenance after gastric bypass are poorly understood. Our aim was to examine the effects of gastric bypass on energy expenditure in rats.
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Diet-derived nutrients mediate the inhibition of hypothalamic NPY neurons in the arcuate nucleus of mice during refeeding.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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Fasting activates orexigenic neuropeptide Y neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) of mice, which is reversed by 2 h refeeding with standard chow. Here, we investigated the contribution of diet-derived macronutrients and anorectic hormones to the reversal of the fasting-induced ARC activation during 2 h refeeding. Refeeding of 12-h-fasted mice with a cellulose-based, noncaloric mash induced only a small reduction in c-Fos expression. Refeeding with diets, containing carbohydrates, protein, or fat alone reversed it similar to chow; however, this effect depended on the amount of intake. The fasting-induced ARC activation was unchanged by subcutaneously injected amylin, CCK (both 20 microg/kg), insulin (0.2 U/kg and 0.05 U/kg) or leptin (2.6 mg/kg). Insulin and leptin had no effect on c-Fos expression in neuropeptide Y or proopiomelanocortin-containing ARC neurons. Interestingly, CCK but not amylin reduced the ghrelin-induced c-Fos expression in the ARC in ad libitum-fed mice, suggesting that CCK may inhibit orexigenic ARC neurons when acting together with other feeding-related signals. We conclude that all three macronutrients and also non-nutritive, ingestion-dependent signals contribute to an inhibition of orexigenic ARC neurons after refeeding. Similar to the previously demonstrated inhibitory in vivo action of peptide YY, CCK may be a postprandial mediator of ARC inhibition.
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Partial sequencing and expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism in adipose tissues and skeletal muscle of healthy cats.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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Impaired insulin sensitivity is increasingly recognised in cats, but sequences of genes involved in insulin-signalling are largely undetermined in this species. In this study, extended feline mRNA sequences were determined for the adiponectin, glucose transporter-1 (GLUT1), GLUT4, peroxisome proliferative activated receptor-gamma1 (PPARgamma1), PPARgamma2, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and insulin receptor genes. Conserved dog-specific primers identified from human-dog mRNA alignments were used to amplify feline cDNA in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The feline sequences determined by this method were used to design feline-specific primers suitable for real-time PCR for quantification of gene expression in insulin sensitive tissues of healthy cats. Partial sequences of feline mRNAs had 86-95% identity with dog and human genes. Expression of adiponectin, GLUT1, GLUT4, PPARgamma1, PPARgamma2, PAI-1 and insulin receptor mRNA was detected and quantified in subcutaneous and visceral fat and skeletal muscle, whereas MCP-1 mRNA was detected in adipose tissue but not in skeletal muscle. Further characterisation of genes related to glucose metabolism in cats will provide additional insights into insulin-signalling mechanisms in this species.
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Molecular analysis of an HBsAg-negative hepatitis B virus mutant selected in a tenofovir-treated HIV-hepatitis B virus co-infected patient.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2009
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The molecular analysis performed in an HIV-hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfected patient revealed selection of an unusual HBV polymerase mutation (rtV191I) during tenofovir-containing therapy, conferring simultaneously immune escape by HBsAg negativity and resistance to lamivudine but not tenofovir. Phenotypic analysis revealed impaired replicative capacity of mutants, which could be restored by concomitant precore or basal core promoter mutations (HBe-antigen-negativity). HBV mutants carrying drug and vaccine resistance may represent a considerable individual risk and public health concern.
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Assessment of six different collagenase-based methods to isolate feline pancreatic islets.
Res. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Isolation of pancreatic islets is necessary to study the molecular mechanisms underlying beta-cell demise in diabetic cats. Six collagenase-based methods of isolation were compared in 10 cat pancreata, including single and double course of collagenase, followed or not by Ficoll centrifugation or accutase, and collagenase plus accutase. Morphometric analysis was performed to measure the relative area of islet and exocrine tissue. Islet specific mRNA transcripts were quantified in isolates by real-time PCR. The single and double course of collagenase digestion was successful in each cat and provided similar islet-to-exocrine tissue ratio. Quantities of insulin mRNA did not differ between the two methods. However, on histological examination either method yielded only approximately 2% of pure islets. The other methods provided disrupted islets or insufficient samples in 1-7 cats. Although pancreas digestion with single and double course of collagenase was superior, further studies are needed to improve islet isolation in cats.
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Divergent effects of estradiol and the estrogen receptor-alpha agonist PPT on eating and activation of PVN CRH neurons in ovariectomized rats and mice.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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Eating is modulated by estradiol in females of many species and in women. To further investigate the estrogen receptor mechanism mediating this effect, ovariectomized rats and mice were treated with estradiol benzoate or the estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha)-selective agonist PPT. PPT inhibited eating in rats much more rapidly than estradiol (approximately 2-6 h versus >24 h). In contrast, the latencies to vaginal estrus after PPT and estradiol were similar (>24 h). PPT also inhibited eating within a few hours in wild-type mice, but failed to inhibit eating in transgenic mice deficient in ER-alpha (ERalphaKO mice). PPT, but not estradiol, induced the expression of c-Fos in corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-expressing cells of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus within 90-180 min in rats. Both PPT and estradiol reduced c-Fos expression in an ER-alpha-containing area of the nucleus of the solitary tract. The anomalously rapid eating-inhibitory effect of PPT suggests that PPTs neuropharmacological effect differs from estradiols, perhaps because PPT differentially activates membrane versus nuclear ER-alpha or because PPT activates non-ER-alpha membrane estrogen receptors in addition to ER-alpha. The failure of PPT to inhibit eating in ERalphaKO mice, however, indicates that ER-alpha is necessary for PPTs eating-inhibitory action and that any PPT-induced activation of non-ER-alpha estrogen receptors is not sufficient to inhibit eating. Finally, the rapid induction of c-Fos in CRH-expressing cells in the PVN by PPT suggests that PPT elicits a neural response that is similar to that elicited by stress or aversive emotional stimuli.
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Amylin reduces plasma glucagon concentration in cats.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Pancreatic amylin plays an important role in the control of nutrient fluxes and is an established therapy in human diabetes as it reduces post-prandial glucagon secretion and slows gastric emptying. Given the similar pathophysiology of human type-2 and feline diabetes mellitus, we investigated whether amylin reduces plasma glucagon levels in cats. Healthy cats were tested using an intravenous arginine stimulation test (IVAST), a meal response test with the test meal comprising 50% of average daily food intake, and an IV glucose tolerance test (IVGTT). Non-amyloidogenic rat amylin injected 5 min before the respective stimulus significantly reduced plasma glucagon levels under all test situations. In the IVAST and IVGTT, cats treated with amylin also had lower plasma insulin concentrations. It was concluded that amylin does reduce plasma glucagon levels in cats, a feature that has treatment potential in diabetic animals as co-administration of amylin would reduce the insulin requirement to control glycaemia.
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Blunted fasting-induced hypothalamic activation and refeeding hyperphagia in late-onset obesity.
Neuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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Hormonal and metabolic factors signal the status of energy balance to hypothalamic nuclei. Obesity is characterized by neuronal, metabolic and hormonal alterations. We therefore hypothesized that hypothalamic responses to challenges of energy balance may differ between lean and obese animals. To test this, we compared c-Fos expression in the hypothalamic arcuate (ARC) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) and the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) of mice (1-year-old) with late-onset obesity (LOO) and of lean controls under different feeding conditions. Fourteen hours of fasting induced high c-Fos expression in neuropeptide-Y-positive ARC neurons, in the PVN and in the rostral LHA in lean but not in LOO mice. c-Fos expression in melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) and orexin-containing neurons in the caudal LHA was not affected by fasting. LOO mice showed fasting hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, elevated fasting blood glucose and an attenuated hyperphagic response during refeeding. Moreover, the anorectic response to leptin and hypoglycemic response to insulin were reduced in LOO mice. We conclude that adiposity blunts the neuronal responses to metabolic challenges in hypothalamic centers which control feeding behavior and energy balance. Elevated blood glucose may be one factor that suppresses hypothalamic responsiveness in obese mice. A similar impact of hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia in LOO mice is also likely although under the current experimental conditions responsiveness to some effects of these hormones appeared to be reduced.
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The dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor NVP-DPP728 reduces plasma glucagon concentration in cats.
Vet. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogues and inhibitors of its degrading enzyme, dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV), are interesting therapy options in human diabetics because they increase insulin secretion and reduce postprandial glucagon secretion. Given the similar pathophysiology of human type 2 and feline diabetes mellitus, this study investigated whether the DPPIV inhibitor NVP-DPP728 reduces plasma glucagon levels in cats. Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (ivGTT; 0.5 g/kg glucose after 12 h fasting) and a meal response test (test meal of 50% of average daily food intake, offered after 24 h fasting) were performed in healthy experimental cats. NVP-DPP728 (0.5-2.5 mg/kg i.v. or s.c.) significantly reduced glucagon output in all tests and increased insulin output in the ivGTT. Follow-up studies will investigate the potential usefulness as therapy in diabetic cats.
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Handlebar injuries in children.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
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Handlebar injuries in children may lead to severe organ lesions despite minimal initial signs and without visible skin bruise. We present our experiences applying a diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm for blunt abdominal trauma, and present the history of two selected cases.
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