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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Direct comparison of visual and quantitative bone marrow FDG-PET/CT findings with bone marrow biopsy results in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: does bone marrow FDG-PET/CT live up to its promise?
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Detection of bone marrow involvement using 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) has been proposed as a non-invasive alternative to standard blind bone marrow biopsy (BMB) of the posterior iliac crest in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, studies that directly compare FDG-PET/CT results with histopathology are currently lacking.
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Prognostic superiority of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index over pretreatment whole-body volumetric-metabolic FDG-PET/CT metrics in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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This study aimed to determine the prognostic value of whole-body maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax ), whole-body metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and whole-body total lesion glycolysis (TLG) at pretreatment (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
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Bone marrow biopsy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: Useful or redundant test?
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Purpose. To determine the additional value of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in the standard staging work-up of patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), in terms of risk assessment and treatment planning. Material and methods. A total of 113 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone standard pretreatment evaluation, including serum lactate dehydrogenase measurement, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status assessment, computed tomography or (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography, and BMB, were retrospectively included. National Comprehensive Cancer Network International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) score and treatment strategy were determined in each patient, once without and once with taking into account BMB results. Numbers and percentages of BMB-induced changes on NCCN-IPI-based risk stratification (i.e. formation of low, low-intermediate, high-intermediate, and high risk groups) and choice of treatment were calculated, along with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. BMB was positive in 18 of 113 patients (15.9%, 95% CI 10.2-23.9 %). BMB-induced changes on NCCI-IPI-based risk stratification occurred in 9 of 113 patients (8.0%, 95% CI 4.1-14.6%). Five patients were upstaged from low-intermediate to high-intermediate risk, and four patients were upstaged from high-intermediate to high risk. BMB findings changed treatment planning in none of the 113 patients (0.0%, 95% CI 0.0-4.0%). Conclusion. Although BMB results upstaged the NCCN-IPI-based risk stratification in a small number of cases, this did not have any therapeutic implications in our patient series. These findings support the omission of BMB from routine staging of newly diagnosed DLBCL in the current risk stratification and treatment era.
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Brain 18F-FDG-PET characteristics in patients with paraneoplastic neurological syndrome and its correlation with clinical and MRI findings.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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This study aimed to examine the imaging characteristics and clinical and MRI correlates of brain F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET imaging in patients with paraneoplatic neurological syndrome.
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Bone marrow FDG-PET/CT in Hodgkin lymphoma revisited: do imaging and pathology match?
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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To directly compare visual and quantitative (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) to bone marrow biopsy (BMB) findings in the right posterior iliac crest in patients with newly diagnosed Hodgkin lymphoma.
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FDG PET for diagnosing infection in hip and knee prostheses: prospective study in 221 prostheses and subgroup comparison with combined (111)In-labeled leukocyte/(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid bone marrow imaging in 88 prostheses.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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This study aims to assess and compare the value of FDG PET with combined In-labeled leukocyte/Tc-sulfur colloid bone marrow (WBC/BM) imaging for diagnosing infection in hip and knee prostheses.
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Can full-dose contrast-enhanced CT be omitted from an FDG-PET/CT staging examination in newly diagnosed FDG-avid lymphoma?
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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To determine whether full-dose contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) (CECT) can be omitted from an F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) (FDG-PET)/CT staging examination in newly diagnosed FDG-avid lymphoma.
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Utility of quantitative FDG-PET/CT for the detection of bone marrow involvement in follicular lymphoma: a histopathological correlation study.
Skeletal Radiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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To determine the value of visual and quantitative (18)?F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) for the detection of bone marrow involvement in follicular lymphoma, using direct histopathological examination at the right posterior iliac crest as reference standard.
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Bone marrow 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography cannot replace bone marrow biopsy in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Am. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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This study aimed to investigate whether visual and quantitative (18) F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT)-based bone marrow assessment can replace blind bone marrow biopsy (BMB) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). This retrospective study included 78 patients with newly diagnosed DLBCL who had undergone both FDG-PET/CT and BMB. FDG-PET/CT images were visually evaluated for bone marrow involvement. Patient-based sensitivity of visual FDG-PET/CT assessment was calculated using BMB as the reference standard. Metabolically active volume, maximum standardized uptake value, 3D partial volume corrected mean standardized uptake value, and 3D partial volume corrected mean metabolic volume product (cMVPmean ) of FDG-avid bone marrow lesions were measured. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the influence of (potential) prognostic factors (BMB status, visual [dichotomous] FDG-PET/CT bone marrow status, metabolically active volume, maximum standardized uptake value, 3D partial volume corrected mean standardized uptake value, 3D partial volume corrected mean metabolic volume product, and International Prognostic Index score) on progression-free survival and overall survival. FDG-PET/CT detected bone marrow involvement in 34 (43.6%) cases and BMB in 16 (20.5%) of 78 cases, of whom 11 were also detected by FDG-PET/CT, resulting in a patient-based sensitivity of 68.8% (95% confidence interval?=?44.2%-86.1%) for FDG-PET/CT. In the multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, only BMB status was an independent predictive factor of progression-free survival (P?=?0.016) and overall survival (P?=?0.004). In conclusion, FDG-PET/CT misses bone marrow involvement that has been detected by BMB in a non-negligible proportion of patients. Furthermore, both visual and quantitative FDG-PET/CT-based bone marrow assessments are prognostically inferior to BMB. Therefore, FDG-PET/CT cannot replace BMB in newly diagnosed DLBCL.
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Role of imaging in predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in gastric cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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With the proven overall benefit of neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced gastric cancer, there has come a need to discriminate responders from non-responders. In this article, the current role of anatomical and molecular imaging in the prediction of response to neoadjuvant therapy in gastric cancer is outlined and future prospects are discussed.
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Relationship between pretreatment FDG-PET and diffusion-weighted MRI biomarkers in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Am J Nucl Med Mol Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine the correlation between the (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) standardized uptake value (SUV) and the diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Pretreatment FDG-PET and diffusion-weighted MRI of 21 patients with histologically proven DLBCL were prospectively analyzed. In each patient, maximum, mean and peak standardized uptake value (SUV) was measured in the lesion with visually highest FDG uptake and in the largest lesion. Mean ADC (ADCmean, calculated with b-values of 0 and 1000 s/mm(2)) was measured in the same lesions. Correlations between FDG-PET metrics (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak) and ADCmean were assessed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. In the lesions with visually highest FDG uptake, no significant correlations were found between the SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak and the ADCmean (P=0.498, P=0.609 and P=0.595, respectively). In the largest lesions, there were no significant correlations either between the SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak and the ADCmean (P=0.992, P=0.843 and P=0.894, respectively). The results of this study indicate that the glycolytic rate as measured by FDG-PET and changes in water compartmentalization and water diffusion as measured by the ADC are independent biological phenomena in newly diagnosed DLBCL. Further studies are warranted to assess the complementary roles of these different imaging biomarkers in the evaluation and follow-up of DLBCL.
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FDG PET/CT for the detection of bone marrow involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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To systematically review and meta-analyse published data on the diagnostic performance of (18)F-FDG PET/CT in detecting bone marrow involvement in patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL).
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FDG PET/CT in Crohns disease: correlation of quantitative FDG PET/CT parameters with clinical and endoscopic surrogate markers of disease activity.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and potential clinical utility of assessment of Crohns disease (CD) activity by (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT employing a new quantitative approach.
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Nononcological applications of positron emission tomography for evaluation of the thorax.
J Thorac Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Positron emission tomography is a powerful quantitative molecular imaging technique that is complementary to structural imaging techniques for purposes of disease detection and characterization. This review article provides an overview of the applications of positron emission tomography for evaluation of patients with nononcological diseases that may be encountered in the thorax, such as infection, sarcoidosis, idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, adult respiratory distress syndrome, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and atherosclerosis among others.
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Oncological applications of positron emission tomography for evaluation of the thorax.
J Thorac Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Positron emission tomography is a powerful quantitative molecular imaging technique that is complementary to structural imaging techniques for purposes of disease detection and characterization. This review article will provide an overview of the applications of positron emission tomography for evaluation of patients with oncological diseases that may be encountered in the thorax.
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Overview of positron emission tomography, hybrid positron emission tomography instrumentation, and positron emission tomography quantification.
J Thorac Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Positron emission tomography (PET) is a powerful quantitative molecular imaging technique that is complementary to structural imaging techniques for purposes of disease detection and characterization. This review article provides a brief overview of PET, hybrid PET instrumentation, and PET quantification.
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Whole-body MRI vs. CT for staging lymphoma: Patient experience.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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To assess and compare patient experience of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to that of computed tomography (CT) for staging newly diagnosed lymphoma.
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Rapid high resolution MR neurography with a diffusion-weighted pre-pulse.
Magn Reson Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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To introduce, optimize, and assess the feasibility of a new scheme to rapidly acquire high-resolution volumetric neurographic images using a three-dimensional turbo spin-echo sequence combined with a diffusion-weighted pre-pulse called improved motion-sensitized driven equilibrium (iMSDE): Diffusion-prepared MR Neurography (D-prep MRN).
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PET/MR imaging: technical aspects and potential clinical applications.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Instruments that combine positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging have recently been assembled for use in humans, and may have diagnostic performance superior to that of PET/computed tomography (CT) for particular clinical and research applications. MR imaging has major strengths compared with CT, including superior soft-tissue contrast resolution, multiplanar image acquisition, and functional imaging capability through specialized techniques such as diffusion-tensor imaging, diffusion-weighted (DW) imaging, functional MR imaging, MR elastography, MR spectroscopy, perfusion-weighted imaging, MR imaging with very short echo times, and the availability of some targeted MR imaging contrast agents. Furthermore, the lack of ionizing radiation from MR imaging is highly appealing, particularly when pediatric, young adult, or pregnant patients are to be imaged, and the safety profile of MR imaging contrast agents compares very favorably with iodinated CT contrast agents. MR imaging also can be used to guide PET image reconstruction, partial volume correction, and motion compensation for more accurate disease quantification and can improve anatomic localization of sites of radiotracer uptake, improve diagnostic performance, and provide for comprehensive regional and global structural, functional, and molecular assessment of various clinical disorders. In this review, we discuss the historical development, software-based registration, instrumentation and design, quantification issues, potential clinical applications, potential clinical roles of image segmentation and global disease assessment, and challenges related to PET/MR imaging. Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13121038/-/DC1.
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Potential prognostic implications of whole-body bone marrow MRI in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with a negative blind bone marrow biopsy.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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To assess the prognostic implications of whole-body bone marrow MRI findings in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients with a negative blind bone marrow biopsy (BMB).
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Assessment of small bowel motility in patients with chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction using cine-MRI.
Am. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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Chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction (CIPO) is a rare, serious motility disorder, with life-threatening complications over time. However, lack of an established, non-invasive diagnostic method has caused delays in the diagnosis of this intractable disease. Cine-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an emerging technique, with a potential to evaluate the motility of the entire bowel. We compared small bowel motility in healthy volunteers, patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and those with CIPO, using cine-MRI, and evaluated the usefulness of cine-MRI as a novel diagnostic method for CIPO.
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Diffusion coefficient measurement using a temperature-controlled fluid for quality control in multicenter studies.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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To present the use of a quality control ice-water phantom for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). DW-MRI has emerged as an important cancer imaging biomarker candidate for diagnosis and early treatment response assessment. Validating imaging biomarkers through multicenter trials requires calibration and performance testing across sites.
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Gadoxetic acid disodium-enhanced hepatocyte phase MRI: can increasing the flip angle improve focal liver lesion detection?
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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To determine whether hepatocyte phase gadoxetic acid disodium (EOB)-enhanced MRI using a high flip angle (FA) improves focal liver lesion (FLL) detection compared with using a standard low FA.
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Low b-value diffusion-weighted imaging for diagnosing strangulated small bowel obstruction: a feasibility study.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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To assess the feasibility of low b-value diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) for diagnosing strangulated small bowel obstruction (SBO).
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Fundamentals of PET and PET/CT imaging.
Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
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In this review, the fundamental principles of fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and FDG PET/computed tomography (CT) imaging have been described. The basic physics of PET instrumentation, radiotracer chemistry, and the artifacts, as well as normal physiological or benign pathological variants, have been described and presented to the readers in a lucid manner to enable them an easy grasp of the fundamentals of the subject. Finally, we have outlined the current developments in quantitative PET imaging, including dual time point and delayed PET imaging, time-of-flight technology in PET imaging and partial volume correction, and global disease assessment with their potential of being incorporated into the assessment of benign and malignant disorders.
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MRI for staging lymphoma: whole-body or less?
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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To assess whether whole-body MRI detects more clinically relevant lesions (i.e., leading to a change in Ann Arbor stage) than an MRI protocol that only includes the head/neck and trunk (i.e., from cranial vertex to groin, excluding the arms) in patients with lymphoma.
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Magnetic resonance imaging of malignant lymphoma.
Expert Rev Hematol
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2011
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Computed tomography (CT), (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET and the hybrid FDG-PET/CT are the most commonly used diagnostic tools for the initial staging and treatment response assessment of malignant lymphomas. MRI techniques such as whole-body MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging may be good radiation-free alternatives to FDG-PET/CT, which may be particularly relevant for children. Diffusion-weighted imaging is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review the value of these emerging MRI techniques for the staging and response assessment of malignant lymphoma. Furthermore, we will discuss some additional imaging techniques that are the subject of ongoing research and may have potential for future clinical application.
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Additional value of gadoxetic acid-DTPA-enhanced hepatobiliary phase MR imaging in the diagnosis of early-stage hepatocellular carcinoma: comparison with dynamic triple-phase multidetector CT imaging.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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To assess the value of hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid (EOB)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the diagnosis of early stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (<3 cm) compared to triple-phase dynamic multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).
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Diffusion-weighted MRI for evaluating perianal fistula activity: feasibility study.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2011
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To assess the feasibility of using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) for evaluating perianal fistula activity.
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Newly diagnosed lymphoma: initial results with whole-body T1-weighted, STIR, and diffusion-weighted MRI compared with 18F-FDG PET/CT.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
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The purpose of this study was to compare whole-body MRI including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) with (18)F-FDG PET/CT in the staging of newly diagnosed lymphoma.
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Anatomic dependency of phase shifts in the cerebral venous system of neonates at susceptibility-weighted MRI.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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To assess the anatomic variation and age-related changes of phase shifts in the neonatal cerebral venous system at susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI).
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Imaging of bone marrow involvement in lymphoma: state of the art and future directions.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Accurate detection of bone marrow involvement in patients with lymphoma is of crucial importance because of the prognostic and therapeutic consequences. Bone marrow trephine biopsy (BMB) is currently regarded as the method of choice for the evaluation of the bone marrow in lymphoma, but it is invasive, has a risk of complications, and lacks sufficient sensitivity due to the possibility of sampling errors. Bone marrow imaging, if accurate, may (partially) replace BMBand/or may improve the sensitivity of BMB by guiding the biopsy to the location that appears to be involved by lymphoma at imaging. In this scientific communication, general concepts of bone marrow imaging, state-of-the-art imaging modalities, and future imaging strategies for the assessment of the bone marrow in lymphoma will be reviewed and discussed.
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PET and PET/CT for unknown primary tumors.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
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Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is defined as histologically proven metastatic disease that, after a complete diagnostic work-up, yields no primary detectable tumor. CUP is one of the ten most frequent cancers, with overall poor outcome. Detection of the unknown primary tumor is of crucial importance in this scenario, since it might help to select and offer definitive treatment, which, in turn, may improve patient prognosis. Additional diagnostic work-up, usually consisting of a combination of several radiological and endoscopic investigations and serum tumor marker studies, can be time consuming, expensive, and pose a significant burden to the patient. The final diagnostic yield of these tests is often limited. Combined positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT), using the radiotracer (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG), may be of great value in the management of patients with CUP for the detection of primary tumors. This chapter gives a brief introduction to the syndrome of CUP, followed by an outline of the rationale, use, and utility of FDG-PET/CT in CUP, and concludes with a discussion on the challenges and future directions in the diagnostic management of patients with CUP.
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Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging with gadofosveset trisodium as a negative contrast agent for lymph node metastases assessment.
Jpn J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using intravenously administered gadofosveset trisodium as a negative contrast agent for lymph node (LN) assessment with diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) using a VX2 tumor model in rabbits.
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Peristalsis gap sign at cine magnetic resonance imaging for diagnosing strangulated small bowel obstruction: feasibility study.
Jpn J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for diagnosing strangulated small bowel obstruction (SBO).
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A new dimension of FDG-PET interpretation: assessment of tumor biology.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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(18)F-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is increasingly being used for the evaluation of several malignancies. Key to the correct interpretation of oncological FDG-PET studies is awareness of the concept that the degree of FDG uptake reflects the biology of the tumor in many cancers. More specifically, cancers with high FDG uptake are often histologically and clinically more aggressive than those with low or no FDG uptake. Therefore, although a negative FDG-PET scan in a patient with a cancer that has a size above the spatial resolution of PET may be interpreted as false-negative in terms of tumor detectability, it should in fact be regarded as true-negative from the view-point of tumor biology. This nonsystematic review will give examples of several major cancers in which the relationship between FDG avidity and tumor biology is applicable, and emphasizes the need to reconsider the definition of a "false-negative" FDG-PET scan in clinical oncology.
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Defining the role of modern imaging techniques in assessing lymph nodes for metastasis in cancer: evolving contribution of PET in this setting.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Accurate characterization of lymph nodes in patients with cancer and in patients who present with unexplained lymphadenopathy is of major importance for appropriate treatment planning and determination of prognosis. Size measurements are still the most frequently used method for discriminating malignant from non-malignant lymph nodes, but are insufficiently accurate. In order to improve evaluation of lymph nodes, there is a need for imaging modalities that go beyond anatomical lymph node assessment and that allow visualization and quantification of physiological and biochemical processes at the cellular level. We review and discuss functional imaging techniques in the evaluation of lymph nodes.
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Improving background suppression in diffusion-weighted imaging of the abdomen and pelvis using STIR with single-axis diffusion encoding.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Bowel contents and peripheral nerves often show high signal intensity at diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of the abdomen and pelvis, obscuring or mimicking pathology. This study introduced and compared short tau inversion recovery (STIR) with single-axis DWI to the usual combination of spectral fat suppression (SFS) with trace DWI in the suppression of bowel contents and peripheral nerves. Five volunteers underwent both STIR with single-axis DWI and SFS with trace DWI of the abdomen and pelvis. Images were evaluated by two observers with respect to the suppression of signal of bowel contents and peripheral nerves using four-point grading scales (4=poor suppression; 3=moderate suppression; 2=good suppression; 1=excellent suppression). Mean scores (±S.D.) regarding the suppression of bowel contents were 1.60±0.55 and 1.40±0.89 for STIR with single-axis DWI and 3.40±0.55 and 3.00±1.00 for SFS with trace DWI for observers 1 and 2, respectively. Mean scores regarding the suppression of peripheral nerves were 1.20±0.45 and 1.20±0.45 for STIR with single-axis DWI and 2.40±0.89 and 2.80±0.84 for SFS with trace DWI for observers 1 and 2, respectively. In conclusion, STIR with single-axis DWI is superior to SFS with trace DWI in the suppression of bowel signal and peripheral nerves.
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Complementary roles of whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI and 18F-FDG PET: the state of the art and potential applications.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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(18)F-FDG PET is an established functional imaging modality for the evaluation of human disease. Diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) is another rapidly evolving functional imaging modality that can be used to evaluate oncologic and nononcologic lesions throughout the body. The information provided by (18)F-FDG PET and DWI can be complementary, because the 2 methods are based on completely different biophysical underpinnings. This article will describe the basic principles, clinical applications, and limitations of DWI. In addition, the available evidence that correlates and compares (18)F-FDG PET and DWI will be reviewed.
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Whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging for staging malignant lymphoma in children.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2010
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CT is currently the mainstay in staging malignant lymphoma in children, but the risk of second neoplasms due to ionizing radiation associated with CT is not negligible. Whole-body MRI techniques and whole-body diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in particular, may be a good radiation-free alternative to CT. DWI is characterized by high sensitivity for the detection of lesions and allows quantitative assessment of diffusion that may aid in the evaluation of malignant lymphomas. This article will review whole-body MRI techniques for staging malignant lymphoma with emphasis on whole-body DWI. Furthermore, future considerations and challenges in whole-body DWI will be discussed.
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Diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression facilitates detection and evaluation of an anterior rib contusion.
Clin Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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We report the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in a 29-year-old woman with anterior chest wall pain following blunt trauma, with special emphasis on the value of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS). Although a rib contusion could be depicted at (fat-suppressed) T2-weighted MRI, anatomical localization and assessment of lesion extent were superior and more straightforward at DWIBS. Thus, this report shows the utility of adding DWIBS to an MRI protocol for anterior chest wall evaluation.
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ADC measurements in the evaluation of lymph nodes in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma: feasibility study.
MAGMA
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2010
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To determine whether apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements allow discrimination of normal lymph nodes from lymphomatous lymph nodes, and indolent lymphomas from aggressive lymphomas in patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).
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Assessment of multiexponential diffusion features as MRI cancer therapy response metrics.
Magn Reson Med
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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The aim of this study was to empirically test the effect of chemotherapy-induced tissue changes in a glioma model as measured by several diffusion indices calculated from nonmonoexponential formalisms over a wide range of b-values. We also compared these results to the conventional two-point apparent diffusion coefficient calculation using nominal b-values. Diffusion-weighted imaging was performed over an extended range of b-values (120-4000 sec/mm(2) ) on intracerebral rat 9L gliomas before and after a single dose of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea. Diffusion indices from three formalisms of diffusion-weighted signal decay [(a) two-point analytical calculation using either low or high b-values, (b) a stretched exponential formalism, and (c) a biexponential fit] were tested for responsiveness to therapy-induced differences between control and treated groups. Diffusion indices sensitive to "fast diffusion" produced the largest response to treatment, which resulted in significant differences between groups. These trends were not observed for "slow diffusion" indices. Although the highest rate of response was observed from the biexponential formalism, this was not found to be significantly different from the conventional monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient method. In conclusion, parameters from the more complicated nonmonoexponential formalisms did not provide additional sensitivity to treatment response in this glioma model beyond that observed from the two-point conventional monoexponential apparent diffusion coefficient method.
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Apparent diffusion coefficient measurement in a moving phantom simulating linear respiratory motion.
Jpn J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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The aim of this study was to examine the effect of simulated linear respiratory motion on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements.
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Ultra-high-b-value diffusion-weighted MR imaging for the detection of prostate cancer: evaluation in 201 cases with histopathological correlation.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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To assess the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) imaging (DWI) for prostate cancer detection, using different b-values.
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Imaging and clinical characteristics of children with multiple foci of microsusceptibility changes in the brain on susceptibility-weighted MRI.
Pediatr Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Microsusceptibility changes in the brain are well known to correspond with microbleeds or micrometal fragments in adults, but this phenomenon has not been explored well in children.
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Subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects (SUSHI) for selective visualization of peripheral nerves.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called "subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects" (SUSHI).
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Comparison of apparent diffusion coefficients and distributed diffusion coefficients in high-grade gliomas.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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To compare apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) with distributed diffusion coefficients (DDCs) in high-grade gliomas.
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Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the liver using tracking only navigator echo: feasibility study.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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To introduce and assess the TRacking Only Navigator echo (TRON) technique for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) of the liver.
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Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of the liver at 3.0 Tesla using TRacking Only Navigator echo (TRON): a feasibility study.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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To assess the feasibility of TRacking Only Navigator echo (TRON) for diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) of the liver at 3.0T.
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Whole-body MRI, including diffusion-weighted imaging, for the initial staging of malignant lymphoma: comparison to computed tomography.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2009
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To assess the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), for the initial staging of malignant lymphoma, compared with computed tomography (CT).
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Combined FDG-PET/CT for the detection of unknown primary tumors: systematic review and meta-analysis.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
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The aim of this study was to systematically review and meta-analyze published data on the diagnostic performance of combined 18F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the detection of primary tumors in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP). A systematic search for relevant studies was performed of the PubMed/MEDLINE and Embase databases. Methodological quality of the included studies was assessed. Reported detection rates, sensitivities and specificities were meta-analyzed. Subgroup analyses were performed if results of individual studies were heterogeneous. The 11 included studies, comprising a total sample size of 433 patients with CUP, had moderate methodological quality. Overall primary tumor detection rate, pooled sensitivity and specificity of FDG-PET/CT were 37%, 84% (95% CI 78-88%) and 84% (95% CI 78-89%), respectively. Sensitivity was heterogeneous across studies (P = 0.0001), whereas specificity was homogeneous across studies (P = 0.2114). Completeness of diagnostic workup before FDG-PET/CT, location of metastases of unknown primary, administration of CT contrast agents, type of FDG-PET/CT images evaluated and way of FDG-PET/CT review did not significantly influence diagnostic performance. In conclusion, FDG-PET/CT can be a useful method for unknown primary tumor detection. Future studies are required to prove the assumed advantage of FDG-PET/CT over FDG-PET alone and to further explore causes of heterogeneity.
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FDG PET/CT in carcinoma of unknown primary.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2009
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Carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP) is a heterogeneous group of metastatic malignancies in which a primary tumor could not be detected despite thorough diagnostic evaluation. Because of its high sensitivity for the detection of lesions, combined (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET)/computed tomography (CT) may be an excellent alternative to CT alone and conventional magnetic resonance imaging in detecting the unknown primary tumor. This article will review the use, diagnostic performance, and utility of FDG PET/CT in CUP and will discuss challenges and future considerations in the diagnostic management of CUP.
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Influence of cardiac motion on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the liver.
MAGMA
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2009
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To assess cardiac motion-induced signal loss in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) of the liver using dynamic DWI.
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Diffusion-weighted MR neurography of the sacral plexus with unidirectional motion probing gradients.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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This technical note introduces diffusion-weighted (DW) MR neurography (MRN) of the sacral plexus with unidirectional motion probing gradients (MPGs).
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Whole-body MRI using a sliding table and repositioning surface coil approach.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
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To introduce and assess a new way of performing whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a non-integrated surface coil approach as available on most clinical MRI systems worldwide.
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Dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI in advanced pancreatic cancer: semi-automated analysis to predict response to chemotherapy.
NMR Biomed
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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The purpose of this study was to assess whether dynamic susceptibility contrast magnetic resonance imaging (DSC-MRI) can predict response to chemotherapy in advanced pancreatic cancer. DSC-MRI was performed using gradient-echo echo-planar imaging after bolus injection of contrast material. Fifty-four patients with advanced pancreatic cancer who were scheduled for chemotherapy were enrolled. ?R2* was calculated using semi-automated computer analysis capable of tracking moving lesions during DSC-MRI. Pre-treatment maximum ?R2* and clinical factors including gender, age, tumor stage (UICC III/IV), initial tumor size, and chemotherapy regimen were compared between patients with progressive disease and patients with stable disease as was determined at 3-month follow-up, and between patients with progressive disease and patients with stable disease as was determined at 6-month follow-up. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and the Kaplan-Meier method with log-rank test were used to assess the relationship between the pre-treatment maximum ?R2* and early progression (i.e. at 3-month follow-up). The pre-treatment maximum ?R2* of patients with disease progression at 3-month follow-up (10.68?±?3.88?s(-1)) was significantly different (p?
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Imaging in assessing lymph node status in gastric cancer.
Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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Accurate assessment of lymph node status is of crucial importance for appropriate treatment planning and determining prognosis in patients with gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to systematically review the current role of imaging in assessing lymph node (LN) status in gastric cancer.
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Whole-body diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2009
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Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) provides information on the diffusivity of water molecules in the human body. Technological advances and the development of the concept of diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) have opened the path for routine clinical whole-body DWI. Whole-body DWI allows detection and characterization of both oncological and non-oncological lesions throughout the entire body. This article reviews the basic principles of DWI and the development of whole-body DWI, illustrates its potential clinical applications, and discusses its limitations and challenges.
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ADC measurements of lymph nodes: inter- and intra-observer reproducibility study and an overview of the literature.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2009
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Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) may be of value in discriminating malignant from non-malignant lymph nodes, provided that they are reproducible. The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-observer reproducibilities of ADC measurements of lymph nodes and to provide an overview of the current literature on ADC measurements in the characterization of lymph nodes.
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Diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging in esophageal cancer.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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The purpose of this study was to assess the value of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in detecting esophageal cancer and assessing lymph-node status, compared with histopathological results. DWI was prospectively performed in 24 consecutive patients with esophageal cancer, using the diffusion-weighted whole-body imaging with background body signal suppression (DWIBS) sequence. DWIBS images were fused with T2-weighted images, and independently and blindly evaluated by three board-certified radiologists, regarding primary tumor detectability and lymph-node status. Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of the primary tumor and lymph nodes were also measured. Average primary tumor detection rate was 49.4%, average patient-based sensitivity and specificity for the detection of lymph-node metastasis were 77.8 and 55.6%, and average lymph-node group-based sensitivity and specificity were 39.4 and 92.6%. There were no interobserver differences among the three readers (P < 0.0001). Mean ADC of detected primary tumors was 1.26 +/- 0.29x10(-3) mm(2)/s. Mean ADC of metastatic lymph nodes (1.46 +/- 0.35x10(-3) mm(2)/s) was significantly higher (P < 0.0001) than that of nonmetastatic lymph nodes (1.15 +/- 0.24 mm(2)/s), but ADCs of both groups overlapped. In conclusion, this study suggests that DWI only has a limited role in detecting esophageal cancer and nodal staging.
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Age-related inflammatory changes in the spine as demonstrated by (18)F-FDG-PET:observation and insight into degenerative spinal changes.
Hell J Nucl Med
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Our aim was to determine whether the inflammatory component associated with age-related degenerative changes in the spine can be assessed by (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography ((18)F-FDG-PET). Mean and maximum standardize uptake values (SUV(mean) and SUV(max)) of intervertebral discs and spinous processes were measured in 45 patients who had undergone (18)F-FDG-PET for any clinical indication. Correlations between age and FDG-PET indices (SUV(mean) and SUV(max) of intervertebral discs and spinous processes) were determined. Pearsons correlation coefficients between age and intervertebral disc SUV(mean), between age and intervertebral disc SUV(max), and between age and spinous process SUV(mean) were 0.4821, 0.3946, and 0.5017 (P<0.05), indicating moderate positive correlations between these parameters. However, Pearsons correlation coefficient between age and spinous process SUV(max)was 0.7998 (P>0.05), indicating no correlation between these two parameters. In conclusion, intensity of (18)F-FDG uptake in the intervertebral discs and spinous processes generally increases with aging, which is likely to reflect associated inflammatory processes.
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Diffusion-weighted MRI for the detection of colorectal polyps: feasibility study.
Magn Reson Imaging
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The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) for detecting colorectal polyps. DWI (high b-value of 1000 s/mm(2)) was prospectively performed in 26 symptomatic patients who were scheduled to undergo colonoscopy. DWI and colonoscopic findings were interpreted in a blinded manner. The sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV) of DWI for the detection of clinically relevant polyps (?6 mm) and colorectal cancer (CRC) were calculated on a per-lesion basis, using colonoscopy results as the standard of reference. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and negative predictive value (NPV) on a per-patient basis were also calculated. Sensitivity and PPV on a per-lesion basis were 80.0% [95% confidence interval (CI): 49.0%-94.3%] and 72.7% (95% CI: 43.4%-90.3%) for polyps ?6 mm and CRC. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV on a per-patient basis were 85.7% (95% CI: 48.7%-97.4%), 84.2% (95% CI: 62.4%-94.5%), 66.7% (95% CI: 35.4%-87.9%) and 94.1% (95% CI: 73.0%-99.0%) for polyps ?6mm and CRC. In conclusion, DWI cannot yet be recommended in a clinical setting in which DWI is performed first and subsequent colonoscopy is only performed in patients with positive findings at DWI. Further (technical) developments are required to increase its diagnostic yield.
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Whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI: tips, tricks, and pitfalls.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
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We examine the clinical impetus for whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI and discuss how to implement the technique with clinical MRI systems. We include practical tips and tricks to optimize image quality and reduce artifacts. The interpretative pitfalls are enumerated, and potential challenges are highlighted.
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Architectural configuration and microstructural properties of the sacral plexus: a diffusion tensor MRI and fiber tractography study.
Neuroimage
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The ability to investigate microstructural properties of the central nervous system with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been shown in many studies. More recently, DTI is being applied outside the brain showing promising results, for instance, for investigating muscle tissue. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fiber tractography to study the nerves of the sacral plexus in humans in vivo and to assess the architectural configuration and microstructural properties of these peripheral nerves. For this research goal we optimized the acquisition parameters of a DTI sequence and acquired data from 10 healthy adults and one 12-year patient having spina bifida and neurogenic bladder dysfunction. For the healthy volunteers, we estimated the fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial diffusivities (RD) of the sacral plexus nerves which may serve as a baseline for future studies. We demonstrated that tractography of the sacral plexus on a 3 Tesla MR scanner is feasible, giving 3D insight in the general anatomy and organization of the nerves L4 to S3. In addition, branches to the pudendal nerve were also found in 4 volunteers. There were no significant differences in any of the estimated diffusion measures between the right and left sided nerves or between the nerves L4 to S3 on an intra-subject basis. Furthermore, clinical feasibility of DTI and tractography in a child having spina bifida and neurogenic bladder dysfunction is demonstrated. The architectural configuration of the childs sacral plexus was comparable with the healthy volunteers and no significant disrupted nerve fibers were observed. However, there are strong indications that abnormal diffusion characteristics are present at the level of the neural tube defect due to incomplete segments of the nerves that are close to the vertebrae. These findings are encouraging for using DTI as a means to investigate changes in microstructural properties of the nerves of the sacral plexus. Moreover, this new methodology may provide a new avenue to a better analysis and diagnosis of neurogenic bladder dysfunctions.
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Effective performance of T(1)-weighted FLAIR Imaging with BLADE in pediatric brains.
Magn Reson Med Sci
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In magnetic resonance imaging of the brain, BLADE is used to compensate for head motion. The technique focuses mainly on acquisition of T(2)-weighted or contrast-enhanced T(1)-weighted images in adults; its utility for nonenhanced T(1)-weighted imaging in children is not well established. We compared the quality of T(1)-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery brain imaging with BLADE (T(1)-FLAIR-BLADE) to that of conventional spin-echo T(1)-weighted imaging (T(1)-SE) in pediatric patients who cannot stay still during MR imaging.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.