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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Potential clinical implications of BRAF mutations in histiocytic proliferations.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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For a growing number of tumors the BRAF V600E mutation carries therapeutic relevance. In histiocytic proliferations the distribution of BRAF mutations and their relevance has not been clarified. Here we present a retrospective genotyping study and a prospective observational study of a patient treated with a BRAF inhibitor. Genotyping of 69 histiocytic lesions revealed that 23/48 Langerhans cell lesions were BRAF-V600E-mutant whereas all non-Langerhans cell lesions (including dendritic cell sarcoma, juvenile xanthogranuloma, Rosai-Dorfman disease, and granular cell tumor) were wild-type. A metareview of 29 publications showed an overall mutation frequency of 48.5% and with N=653 samples this frequency is well defined. The BRAF mutation status cannot be predicted based on clinical parameters and outcome analysis showed no difference. Genotyping identified a 45 year-old woman with an aggressive and treatment-refractory, ultrastructurally confirmed systemic BRAF-mutant LCH. Prior treatments included glucocorticoid/vinblastine and cladribine-monotherapy. Treatment with vemurafenib over 3 months resulted in a dramatic metabolic response by FDG-PET and stable radiographic disease; the patient experienced progression after 6 months. In conclusion, BRAF mutations in histiocytic proliferations are restricted to lesions of the Langerhans-cell type. While for most LCH-patients efficient therapies are available, patients with BRAF mutations may benefit from the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib.
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Attenuated measles virus controls pediatric acute B-lineage lymphoblastic leukemia in NOD/SCID mice.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Novel therapies are needed for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia resistant to conventional therapy. While emerging data suggest leukemias as possible targets of oncolytic attenuated measles virus, it is unknown whether measles virus can eradicate disseminated leukemia, in particular pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We evaluated the efficacy of attenuated measles virus against a large panel of pediatric xenografted and native primary acute lymphoblastic leukemias ex vivo, and against four different acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts of B-lineage in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. Ex vivo, attenuated measles virus readily spread among and effectively killed leukemia cells while sparing normal human blood cells and their progenitors. In immunodeficient mice with disseminated acute lymphoblastic leukemia a few intravenous injections of attenuated measles virus sufficed to eradicate leukemic blasts in the hematopoietic system and to control central nervous system disease resulting in long-term survival in three of the four xenografted B-lineage leukemias. Differential sensitivity of leukemia cells did not require increased expression of the measles entry receptors CD150 or CD46 nor absence of the anti-viral retinoic acid-inducible gene I/melanoma differentiation associated gene-5 /interferon pathway. Attenuated oncolytic measles virus is dramatically effective against pediatric B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia in the pre-clinical setting warranting further investigations towards clinical translation.
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Immunohistochemical and FISH analysis of MDM2 and CDK4 in a dedifferentiated extraskeletal osteosarcoma arising in the vastus lateralis muscle: Differential diagnosis and diagnostic algorithm.
Pathol. Res. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Extraskeletal osteosarcoma is a rare neoplasia within the broad differential diagnostic spectrum of calcifying intramuscular lesions. We present a case of a slowly increasing mass within the left vastus lateralis muscle. At first presentation the patient showed a partially calcified well defined mass with a diameter of 5cm and with no direct contact to the femur. A biopsy from the periphery revealed an ossifying lesion compatible with myositis ossificans. The patient returned 18 months later with the lesion having increased to a diameter of 25cm. The resection specimen revealed a well delimitated tumor with a central core of partially necrotic neoplastic bone. Besides, histology showed high mitotic areas with pleomorphic spindle cells and regions with cartilaginous differentiation. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated: vimentin+, CD34-, desmin-, actin-, EMA- and pancytokeratin- with focal S100 protein positivity and a Ki-67 index of 20%. Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) revealed a gain of chromosomal material on 12q; FISH analyses for the CDK4 and MDM2 region showed high level amplifications. Consequently, a high-grade dedifferentiated extraskeletal osteosarcoma was diagnosed. In conclusion, analysis of the MDM2 and CDK4 status is a powerful and discriminating diagnostic tool to distinguish dedifferentiated extraskeletal osteosarcoma from other benign/malignant ossifying lesions in the skeletal muscle.
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Isolated Whipple's endocarditis: an underestimated diagnosis that requires molecular analysis of surgical material.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2014
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Tropheryma whipplei is known as the bacterium that causes Whipple's disease, a rare systemic illness typically affecting gastrointestinal tract, joints, and central nervous system. In addition, T whipplei infection may present as an isolated endocarditis. Although previously regarded as a rare condition, T whipplei has been recognized as a major cause of culture-negative endocarditis when integrating specific molecular analysis of surgical material into the diagnostic algorithm. Here, we report the case of a 67-year-old man undergoing mitral valve replacement due to T whipplei endocarditis, and discuss diagnostic and therapeutic implications.
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Absence of FLICE-inhibitory protein is a novel independent prognostic marker for very short survival in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Evading apoptosis is a hallmark of pancreatic cancer. In pancreatic cancer models, chemotherapy down-regulates the antiapoptotic protein cellular FLICE inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), which renders cells sensitive to apoptosis. Currently, the relevance of c-FLIP expression as a biomarker in pancreatic cancer is unknown, and here we assessed the prognostic significance of the c-FLIP expression status in a large cohort of pancreatic cancer patients with clinical follow-up.
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Alveolar echinococcosis-spreading disease challenging clinicians: a case report and literature review.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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Human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a potentially deadly disease; recent studies have shown that the endemic area of Echinococcus multilocularis, its causative agent, is larger than previously known. This disease has low prevalence and remains underreported in Europe. Emerging clinical data show that diagnostic difficulties are still common. We report on a 76-year old patient suffering from AE lesions restricted to the left lobe of the liver who underwent a curative extended left hemihepatectomy. Prior to the resection a liver biopsy under the suspicion of an atypical malignancy was performed. After the intervention he developed a pseudoaneurysm of the hepatic artery that was successfully coiled. Surprisingly, during surgery, the macroscopic appearance of the tumour revealed a growth pattern that was rather typical for cystic echinococcosis (CE), i.e., a gross tumour composed of multiple large vesicles with several centimeters in diameter. In addition, there were neither extensive adhesions nor infiltrations of the neighboring pancreas and diaphragm as was expected from previous imaging results. The unexpected diagnosis of AE was confirmed by definite histopathology, specific polymerase chain reaction and serology results. This is a rare case of unusual macroscopic presentation of AE that posed immense diagnostic challenges and had an eventful course. To our knowledge this is the first case of an autochthonous infection in this particular geographic area of Germany, the federal state of Saxony. This report may provide new hints for an expanding area of risk for AE and emphasizes the risk of complications in the scope of diagnostic procedures and the limitations of modern radiological imaging.
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Accurate preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas with C-11 methionine PET/CT.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Focused unilateral or minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT) depends on the successful preoperative localization of parathyroid adenomas. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the accuracy of C-11 methionine positron emission tomography/computed tomography (Met-PET/CT), a novel localization procedure for hyperfunctional parathyroid tissue.
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Interleukin 21-induced granzyme B-expressing B cells infiltrate tumors and regulate T cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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The pathogenic impact of tumor-infiltrating B cells is unresolved at present, however, some studies suggest that they may have immune regulatory potential. Here, we report that the microenvironment of various solid tumors includes B cells that express granzyme B (GrB, GZMB), where these B cells can be found adjacent to interleukin (IL)-21-secreting regulatory T cells (Treg) that contribute to immune tolerance of tumor antigens. Because Tregs and plasmacytoid dendritic cells are known to modulate T-effector cells by a GrB-dependent mechanism, we hypothesized that a similar process may operate to modulate regulatory B cells (Breg). IL-21 induced outgrowth of B cells expressing high levels of GrB, which thereby limited T-cell proliferation by a GrB-dependent degradation of the T-cell receptor ?-chain. Mechanistic investigations into how IL-21 induced GrB expression in B cells to confer Breg function revealed a CD19(+)CD38(+)CD1d(+)IgM(+)CD147(+) expression signature, along with expression of additional key regulatory molecules including IL-10, CD25, and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase. Notably, induction of GrB by IL-21 integrated signals mediated by surface immunoglobulin M (B-cell receptor) and Toll-like receptors, each of which were enhanced with expression of the B-cell marker CD5. Our findings show for the first time that IL-21 induces GrB(+) human Bregs. They also establish the existence of human B cells with a regulatory phenotype in solid tumor infiltrates, where they may contribute to the suppression of antitumor immune responses. Together, these findings may stimulate novel diagnostic and cell therapeutic approaches to better manage human cancer as well as autoimmune and graft-versus-host pathologies.
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Persistent defective membrane trafficking in epithelial cells of patients with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis type 5 due to STXBP2/MUNC18-2 mutations.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (FHL) is a rare primary immune disorder defined by mutations in the syntaxin binding protein 2 (STXBP2) alias MUNC18-2. Despite defective immunity and a hyper-inflammatory state, clinical findings such as neurological, gastrointestinal, and bleeding disorders are present in a significant number of patients and suggest an impaired expression and function of STXBP2 in cells other than cytotoxic lymphocytes.
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MYC status in concert with BCL2 and BCL6 expression predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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MYC rearrangements occur in 5% to 10% of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and confer an increased risk to cyclophosphamide, hydroxydaunorubicin, oncovin, and prednisone (CHOP) and rituximab (R)-CHOP treated patients. We investigated the prognostic relevance of MYC-, BCL2- and BCL6-rearrangements and protein expression in a prospective randomized trial. Paraffin-embedded tumor samples from 442 de novo DLBCL treated within the RICOVER study of the German High-Grade Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL) were investigated using immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect protein expression and breaks of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6. Rearrangements of MYC, BCL2, and BCL6 were detected in 8.8%, 13.5%, and 28.7%, respectively. Protein overexpression of MYC (>40%) was encountered in 31.8% of tumors; 79.6% and 82.8% of tumors expressed BCL2 and BCL6, respectively. MYC translocations, MYChigh, BCL2high, and BCL6low protein expressions were associated with inferior survival. In multivariate Cox regression modeling, protein expression patterns of MYC, BCL2 and BCL6, and MYC rearrangements were predictive of outcome and provided prognostic information independent of the International Prognostic Index (IPI) for overall survival and event-free survival. A combined immunohistochemical or FISH/immunohistochemical score predicts outcome in DLBCL patients independent of the IPI and identifies a subset of 15% of patients with dismal prognosis in the high-risk IPI group following treatment with R-CHOP. Registered at http://www.cancer.gov/clinicaltrials: RICOVER trial of the DSHNHL is NCT 00052936.
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Long-term survival following resection of brain metastases from pancreatic cancer.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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Brain metastases originating from pancreatic cancer are associated with a dismal prognosis and, generally, therapeutic options remain palliative. We present the cases of two patients that developed brain metastases after resection of a pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Brain metastases were resected successfully and neither patients developed any further tumor recurrence. These cases demonstrate that resection of brain metastatic lesions originating from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is a reasonable therapeutic option with a chance for complete cure in some cases.
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Human B cells differentiate into granzyme B-secreting cytotoxic B lymphocytes upon incomplete T-cell help.
Immunol. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Recently, CD4(+) T helper cells were shown to induce differentiation of human B cells into plasma cells by expressing interleukin (IL-)21 and CD40 ligand (CD40L). In the present study we show, that in the absence of CD40L, CD4(+) T cell-derived IL-21 induces differentiation of B cells into granzyme B (GzmB)-secreting cytotoxic cells. Using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis, ELISpot and confocal microscopy, we demonstrate that CD4(+) T cells, activated via their T-cell receptor without co-stimulation, can produce IL-21, but do not express CD40L and rapidly induce GzmB in co-cultured B cells in an IL-21 receptor-dependent manner. Of note, we confirmed these results with recombinant reagents, highlighting that CD40L suppresses IL-21-induced GzmB induction in B cells in a dose-dependent manner. Surprisingly, although GzmB-secreting B cells did not express perforin, they were able to transfer active GzmB to tumor cell lines, thereby effectively inducing apoptosis. In contrast, no cytotoxic effects were found when effector B cells were activated with IL-2 instead of IL-21 or when target cells were cultured with IL-21 alone. Our findings suggest GzmB(+) cytotoxic B cells may have a role in early cellular immune responses including tumor immunosurveillance, before fully activated, antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells are on the spot. CD40 ligand determines whether IL-21 induces differentiation of B cells into plasma cells or into granzyme B-secreting cytotoxic cells.
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Hepcidin is localised in gastric parietal cells, regulates acid secretion and is induced by Helicobacter pylori infection.
Gut
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Hepcidin is an antimicrobial peptide and the central regulator of iron metabolism. Given that hepcidin was shown to be expressed in a variety of extrahepatic tissues and that stomach plays a role in iron absorption and in defence against infections, this study analysed the importance of hepcidin in the stomach.
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Spreading of acute myeloid leukemia cells by trafficking along the peripheral outflow pathway of cerebrospinal fluid.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2011
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Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) can affect not only bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB), but also the compartment of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Besides standard chemotherapy, specific and non-specific immunotherapy has been employed synergistically to treat AML patients. Here we report on a patient who received standard chemotherapy, unspecific immunotherapy with interleukin-2, as well as later specific CD8+ T-cell stimulation by RHAMM-R3 peptide vaccination. The patient maintained a complete remission in BM and PB, while he developed recurrent relapses in the CSF. Moreover, the patient developed a chloroma in the vicinity of neuronal sheaths during hematological CR, but high leukemia cell numbers within the CSF spaces over a long time period. This rare observation demonstrates several aspects. There is a previously unknown site of leukemia cell distribution, namely the peripheral cerebrospinal outflow pathway (PCOP). This demonstrates the ineffective therapy of this previously unknown mechanism of leukemia cell spread. The hypothesis that the PCOP is a site of physiological CSF-T-cell trafficking, and the lumen of the PCOP should be considered as an extension of the subarachnoidal spaces without closed anatomical borders is supported by this observation. The CSF spaces, but possibly specifically the PCOP, may represent a previously unknown survival niche of tumor cells within intrathecal spaces.
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Comparison of clinical and surgical-pathological staging in IIIA non-small cell lung cancer patients.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2011
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The heterogeneous group of IIIA NSCLC patients requires careful preoperative clinical staging as tumor size and lymph node involvement guide treatment. The purpose of our study was to analyze the correctness of clinical staging in IIIA patients.
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A novel method of forceps biopsy improves the diagnosis of proximal biliary malignancies.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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Tissue specimen collection represents a cornerstone in diagnosis of proximal biliary tract malignancies offering great specificity, but only limited sensitivity. To improve the tumor detection rate, we developed a new method of forceps biopsy and compared it prospectively with endoscopic transpapillary brush cytology.
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In vivo study on the expression pattern of resistin in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Vasc Endovascular Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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To study the expression pattern of resistin in abdominal aortic aneurysms and to correlate its plasma levels to aneurysm size and statin therapy.
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Immunoblastic morphology but not the immunohistochemical GCB/nonGCB classifier predicts outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in the RICOVER-60 trial of the DSHNHL.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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The survival of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients varies considerably, reflecting the molecular diversity of tumors. In view of the controversy whether cytologic features, immunohistochemical markers or gene expression signatures may capture this molecular diversity, we investigated which features provide prognostic information in a prospective trial in the R-CHOP treatment era. Within the cohort of DLBCLs patients treated in the RICOVER-60 trial of the German High-Grade Lymphoma Study Group (DSHNHL), we tested the prognostic impact of IB morphology in 949 patients. The expression of immunohistochemical markers CD5, CD10, BCL2, BCL6, human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR, interferon regulatory factor-4/multiple myeloma-1 (IRF4/MUM1), and Ki-67 was assessed in 506 patients. Expression of the immunohistochemical markers tested was of modest, if any, prognostic relevance. Moreover, the Hans algorithm using the expression patterns of CD10, BCL6, and interferon regulatory factor-4/multiple myeloma-1 failed to show prognostic significance in the entire cohort as well as in patient subgroups. IB morphology, however, emerged as a robust, significantly adverse prognostic factor in multivariate analysis, and its diagnosis showed a good reproducibility among expert hematopathologists. We conclude, therefore, that IB morphology in DLBCL is likely to capture some of the adverse molecular alterations that are currently not detectable in a routine diagnostic setting, and that its recognition has significant prognostic power.
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BCL6 gene rearrangement and protein expression are associated with large cell presentation of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma) is an indolent B-cell lymphoma, which is often localized in the stomach. It is characterized by typical morphology, immunology, cytogenetics and expression profile. The coexistence of a large B-cell lymphoma and a MALT lymphoma in the gastrointestinal tract is defined as a composite lymphoma (ComL) and, as we have previously shown, is almost always the consequence of secondary transformation of MALT lymphoma. Here, we have analyzed a panel of seven MALT lymphomas, seven ComL and thirteen large cell variants of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBL) using FISH for the detection of rearrangements of IGH, MALT1, BCL6, BCL10 and FOXP1 and immunohistochemistry for Bcl6, Bcl10 and FoxP1. Translocations involving IGH were found in 10/27 lymphomas including two cases with IGH-BCL6 fusion and one with IGH-BCL10 fusion; in 7/10 cases, the translocation partner was not identified. Bcl10 and FoxP1 protein expression was heterogeneous throughout the series. Genetic rearrangements of BCL6 and Bcl6 protein expression were found almost exclusively in the large cell components of the ComL and the large cell extranodal MZBL (p = 0.2093 and p = 0.0261, respectively). These findings suggest Bcl6 as a marker for transformation of MALT lymphoma.
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An advanced approach for the characterization of dendritic cell-induced T cell proliferation in situ.
Immunobiology
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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It is commonly accepted that dendritic cells (DCs) play a pivotal role in the induction of adaptive T cell-mediated immune responses. The clonal expansion of antigen-specific T cells within secondary lymphoid organs reflects the efficiency of antigen processing and presentation by DCs. Consequently, the quantification of proliferating antigen-specific T cells represents an important read-out for analyzing DC-T cell interactions. Standard proliferation assays are usually performed with cell suspensions of antigen-stimulated lymphocytes labelled with carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester, [(3)H] thymidine, or 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. However, these assays have important limitations, including the complete loss of information about the localization of proliferating cells in situ. Additionally, the ex vivo stimulation with antigen does not necessarily reflect the in vivo situation of cell proliferation. Therefore, an advanced approach for a detailed characterization of proliferating T cells in situ would be helpful for the interpretation of ongoing adaptive immune responses. Here, we describe the development of a fluorescence-based multicolour assay allowing the characterization and quantification of proliferation in different T cell subtypes in cryosections of lymphoid organs. Our approach combines the major benefits of flow cytometry and immunofluorescent-based histology, such as (i) multicolour phenotyping of cell populations and (ii) description of tissue-specific sites of cell proliferation.
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Chronic psychosocial stress promotes systemic immune activation and the development of inflammatory Th cell responses.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Recent studies indicate that chronic psychosocial stress favors the development of generalized immune dysfunction. During stressor exposure neuroendocrine factors affect numbers and functionality of leukocytes. However, the exact mechanisms leading to systemic changes in immune functions during stress are still not clear. During chronic subordinate colony housing, a model of chronic psychosocial stress, mice developed spontaneous colonic inflammation. Decreased glucocorticoid signaling, induced by a combination of adrenal insufficiency and glucocorticoid resistance, was thought to prevent tempering of local immune cells, and to promote tissue inflammation. In this study we investigated changes in the systemic immune status after chronic subordinate colony housing and analyzed potential mechanisms underlying those alterations. Analysis of T helper cell subsets in peripheral lymph nodes revealed a reduction of regulatory T cells, accompanied by increased T cell effector functions. Generalized activation of T cells was shown by elevated cytokine production upon stimulation. In addition, we observed no apparent shift towards T helper type 2 responses. It is likely, that the previously reported hypocorticism in this stress model led to a steady production of inflammatory Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines and obstructed the shift towards an anti-inflammatory response. In conclusion, we established chronic subordinate colony housing as a model to investigate the outcome of stress on the systemic immune status. We also provide evidence that distinct T helper cell subtypes react differentially to the suppressive effect of glucocorticoids.
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CD5+ B cells from individuals with systemic lupus erythematosus express granzyme B.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2010
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Recently, we reported that IL-21 induces granzyme B (GzmB) and GzmB-dependent apoptosis in malignant CD5(+) B cells from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Several autoimmune diseases (AD) are associated with enhanced frequencies of CD5(+) B cells. Since AD are also associated with elevated IL-21 and GzmB levels, we postulated a link between CD5(+) B cells, IL-21 and GzmB. Here, we demonstrate that IL-21 and GzmB serum levels are highly correlated in subjects with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and that freshly isolated CD5(+) SLE B cells constitutively express GzmB. IL-21 directly induced GzmB expression and secretion by CD5(+) B cells from several AD and from cord blood in vitro, and the simultaneous presence of BCR stimulation strongly enhanced this process. Furthermore, IL-21 suppressed both viability and expansion of CD5(+) B cells from SLE individuals. In summary, our study may explain the elevated levels of IL-21 and GzmB in SLE and other AD. Moreover, our data suggest that IL-21 may have disease-modifying characteristics by inducing GzmB in CD5(+) B cells and by suppressing their expansion. Our results provide the rationale for further evaluation of the therapeutic potential of IL-21 in certain AD such as SLE.
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A new missense mutation in the leptin gene causes mild obesity and hypogonadism without affecting T cell responsiveness.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
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Leptin, a protein product of adipocytes, plays a critical role in the regulation of body weight, immune function, pubertal development, and fertility. So far, only three homozygous mutations in the leptin gene in a total of 13 individuals have been found leading to a phenotype of extreme obesity with marked hyperphagia and impaired immune function.
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Comparison of endothelial changes and power settings between torsional and longitudinal phacoemulsification.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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To compare the intraoperative and postoperative outcomes of conventional longitudinal phacoemulsification and torsional phacoemulsification.
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Cyclin H expression is increased in GIST with very-high risk of malignancy.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2010
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Risk estimation of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) is based on tumour size and mitotic rate according to the National Institutes of Health consensus classification. The indication for adjuvant treatment of patients with high risk GIST after R0 resection with small molecule inhibitors is still a controversial issue, since these patients represent a highly heterogeneous population. Therefore, additional prognostic indicators are needed. Here, we evaluated the prognostic value of cyclin H expression in GIST.
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Three-dimensional reconstruction of Echinococcus multilocularis larval growth in human hepatic tissue reveals complex growth patterns.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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In this study we present, for the first time, a three-dimensional digital reconstruction of Echinococcus multilocularis larval growth in human tissue. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded hepatic tissues from patients with alveolar echinococcosis were serially sectioned, stained, and areas of larval growth of the parasite were microphotographed. Parasitic structures were reconstructed from multiple digital planes, revealing a root-like network of interconnected vesicles and tubules extending into the periphery of lesions.
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Tyrosine kinase expression in pulmonary metastases and paired primary tumors.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2009
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Tyrosine kinase inhibitors against the receptors of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor (EGFR) and the platelet derived growth factor (PDGFR) are increasingly used in the treatment of progressive cancers. However, the expression of these receptors especially in lung metastases has not been examined. Tissue specimen from 35 lung metastases of 33 patients with renal cell carcinoma (n=8), sarcoma (n=10), colorectal carcinoma (n=6), otolaryngologic carcinoma (OLC, n=4), testicular and endometrial cancer (n=1 each), malignant melanoma (n=1), adrenal cancer (n=2), malignant fibrous histiocytoma and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (n=1 each) have been immunohistochemically tested for the expression of PDGFR alpha/beta, VEGFR and EGFR. None of the patients had been pretreated with angiogenic inhibitors prior to metastasectomy. PDGFRalpha was expressed in all metastases; 31% stained negative for PDGFRbeta, 86% negative for VEGFR and 45% negative for EGFR. Primary tumors revealed positive staining for PDGFRalpha in 88%, for PDGFRbeta in 59%, for VEGFR in 0% and for EGFR in 18%. Our investigation of a pilot character represents a biomarker-based analysis of pulmonary metastases of different primary tumors; we conclude that an immediate tumor profiling at initial diagnosis should be considered in order to guide tumor therapy individually.
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Loss of HLA-DR expression and immunoblastic morphology predict adverse outcome in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma - analyses of cases from two prospective randomized clinical trials.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Research on prognostically relevant immunohistochemical markers in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas has mostly been performed on retrospectively collected clinical data. This is also true for immunohistochemical classifiers that are thought to reflect the cell-of-origin subclassification of gene expression studies. In order to obtain deeper insight into the heterogeneous prognosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas and to validate a previously published immunohistochemical classifier, we analyzed data from a large set of cases from prospective clinical trials with long-term follow-up.
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Ki-67 as a prognostic marker in mantle cell lymphoma-consensus guidelines of the pathology panel of the European MCL Network.
J Hematop
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course and is mainly an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, there are some indolent cases The Ki-67 index, defined by the percentage of Ki-67-positive lymphoma cells on histopathological slides, has been shown to be a very powerful prognostic biomarker. The pathology panel of the European MCL Network evaluated methods to assess the Ki-67 index including stringent counting, digital image analysis, and estimation by eyeballing. Counting of 2?×?500 lymphoma cells is the gold standard to assess the Ki-67 index since this value has been shown to predict survival in prospective randomized trials of the European MCL Network. Estimation by eyeballing and digital image analysis showed a poor concordance with the gold standard (concordance correlation coefficients [CCC] between 0.29 and 0.61 for eyeballing and CCC of 0.24 and 0.37 for two methods of digital image analysis, respectively). Counting a reduced number of lymphoma cells (2?×?100 cells) showed high interobserver agreement (CCC?=?0.74). Pitfalls of the Ki-67 index are discussed and guidelines and recommendations for assessing the Ki-67 index in MCL are given.
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The tumor antigens RHAMM and G250/CAIX are expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas and elicit specific CD8+ T cell responses.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Despite advances in surgery, radio- and chemotherapy, therapeutic approaches for patients with head and neck squamous carcinoma (HNSCC) need to be improved. Immunotherapies eliciting tumor specific immune responses might constitute novel treatment options. We therefore investigated the expression and immunogenicity of two tumor-associated antigens (TAA) the receptor for hyaluronic acid mediated motility (RHAMM) and carboanhydrase IX (G250/CAIX) in HNSCC patients. Twenty-two HNSCC samples were examined for the expression of RHAMM and G250 by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry, 14/22 samples were tested for HLA-A2 expression by flow cytometry. For 8/22 samples single tumor-cell suspensions were generated, and mixed lymphocyte peptide cultures (MLPC) were performed to evaluate the frequencies of cytotoxic T cells specifically recognizing RHAMM and G250 using Tetramer staining/multi-color flow cytometry and enzyme linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assays. RHAMM and G250 were expressed in 73 and 80% of the HNSCC samples at the protein level. A co-expression of both TAAs could be detected in 60% of the patients. In 4/8 HLA-A2+ patients, 0.06-0.13% of CD8+ effector T cells recognized Tetramers for RHAMM or G250 and secreted IFNgamma and granzyme B in ELISPOT assays. RHAMM and G250 are expressed at high frequency and high protein level in HNSCCs and are recognized by cytotoxic CD8+ effector T cells. Therefore both TAAs constitute interesting targets for T cell based immunotherapies for HNSCC.
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Reticular dysgenesis (aleukocytosis) is caused by mutations in the gene encoding mitochondrial adenylate kinase 2.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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Human severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) are phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous diseases. Reticular dysgenesis is the most severe form of inborn SCID. It is characterized by absence of granulocytes and almost complete deficiency of lymphocytes in peripheral blood, hypoplasia of the thymus and secondary lymphoid organs, and lack of innate and adaptive humoral and cellular immune functions, leading to fatal septicemia within days after birth. In bone marrow of individuals with reticular dysgenesis, myeloid differentiation is blocked at the promyelocytic stage, whereas erythro- and megakaryocytic maturation is generally normal. These features exclude a defect in hematopoietic stem cells but point to a unique aberration of the myelo-lymphoid lineages. The dramatic clinical course of reticular dysgenesis and its unique hematological phenotype have spurred interest in the unknown genetic basis of this syndrome. Here we show that the gene encoding the mitochondrial energy metabolism enzyme adenylate kinase 2 (AK2) is mutated in individuals with reticular dysgenesis. Knockdown of zebrafish ak2 also leads to aberrant leukocyte development, stressing the evolutionarily conserved role of AK2. Our results provide in vivo evidence for AK2 selectivity in leukocyte differentiation. These observations suggest that reticular dysgenesis is the first example of a human immunodeficiency syndrome that is causally linked to energy metabolism and that can therefore be classified as a mitochondriopathy.
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Microarray-based genomic profiling reveals novel genomic aberrations in follicular lymphoma which associate with patient survival and gene expression status.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
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Follicular lymphoma (FL) is characterized by a large number of chromosomal aberrations. However, their exact genomic extension and involved target genes remain to be determined. For this purpose, we used array-based intermediate-high resolution genomic profiling in combination with Affymetrix gene expression analysis. Tumor specimens from 128 FL patients were analyzed for the presence of genomic aberrations and the results were correlated to clinical data sets and mRNA expression levels. In 114 (89%) of the 128 analyzed cases, a total of 688 genomic aberrations (384 gains/amplifications and 304 losses) were detected. Frequent genomic aberrations were: -1p36 (18%), +2p15 (24%), -3q (14%), -6q (25%), +7p (19%), +7q (23%), +8q (14%), -9p (16%), -11q (15%), +12q (20%), -13q (11%), -17p (16%), +18p (18%), and +18q (28%). Critical segments of these imbalances were delineated to genomic fragments with a minimum size down to 0.2 Mb. By comparison of these with mRNA gene expression data, putative candidate genes were identified. Moreover, we found that deletions affecting the tumor suppressor gene CDKN2A/B on 9p21 were detected in nontransformed FL grade I-II. For this aberration as well as for -6q25 and -6q26, an association with inferior survival was observed.
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Telomere length in mantle cell lymphoma.
Blood
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Telomere shortening is of pathogenic and prognostic importance in cancers. In the present study, we analyzed telomere length in 73 mantle cell lymphoma (MCL), 55 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and 20 normal B-cell samples using quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) to study its association with disease characteristics and outcome. Telomere length was found to be highly variable in MCL (range, 2.2-13.8 kb; median, 4.3 kb). Telomere dysfunction in MCL was evident from comparison with normal B cells (median, 7.5 kb), but had no significant association with any biologic or clinical feature. This was in contrast to CLL, in which a significant correlation of short telomeres with poor prognostic subgroups was confirmed. There was a trend toward an increased number of genomic aberrations with shortening of telomeres in MCL. No difference in survival was observed between the groups with short and long telomeres, indicating that, as opposed to CLL, telomere length is not of prognostic relevance in MCL.
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Sensitive and specific immunohistochemical diagnosis of human alveolar echinococcosis with the monoclonal antibody Em2G11.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
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Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by the metacestode stage of Echinococcus multilocularis. Differential diagnosis with cystic echinococcosis (CE) caused by E. granulosus and AE is challenging. We aimed at improving diagnosis of AE on paraffin sections of infected human tissue by immunohistochemical testing of a specific antibody.
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An early reduction in Treg cells correlates with enhanced local inflammation in cutaneous leishmaniasis in CCR6-deficient mice.
PLoS ONE
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Resistance to Leishmania major infection is dependent on the development of a cell-mediated Th1 immune response in resistant C57BL/6 mice whereas Th2-prone BALB/c mice develop non-healing lesions after infection. The chemokine receptor CCR6 is shared by anti-inflammatory regulatory T cells and pro-inflammatory Th17 cells. In a recent study we showed that C57BL/6 mice deficient in CCR6 exhibited enhanced footpad swelling and impaired T helper cell migration indicated by reduced recruitment of total T helper cells into the skin after infection and a reduced delayed type hypersensitivity reaction. Based on these findings we tested whether the lack of CCR6 alters Treg or Th17 cell responses during the course of Leishmania major infection. When we analyzed T cell subsets in the lymph nodes of CCR6-deficient mice, Th17 cell numbers were not different. However, reduced numbers of Treg cells paralleled with a stronger IFN? response. Furthermore, the early increase in IFN?-producing cells correlated with increased local tissue inflammation at later time points. Our data indicate an important role of CCR6 for Treg cells and a redundant role for Th17 cells in a Th1 cell-driven anti-parasitic immune response against Leishmania major parasites in resistant C57BL/6 mice.
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CD57(high) neuroblastoma cells have aggressive attributes ex situ and an undifferentiated phenotype in patients.
PLoS ONE
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Neuroblastoma is thought to originate from neural crest-derived cells. CD57 defines migratory neural crest cells in normal development and is expressed in neuroblastoma.
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High-resolution genomic profiling reveals clonal evolution and competition in gastrointestinal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma and its large cell variant.
Int. J. Cancer
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We studied marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the gastrointestinal tract including seven small cell lymphomas, eight large cell areas of composite lymphomas and 13 large cell variants using SNP array profiling. We found an increase of genomic complexity with lymphoma progression from small to large cytology, and identified gains of prominent (proto) oncogenes such as REL, BCL11A, ETS1, PTPN1, PTEN and KRAS which were found exclusively in the large cell variants. Copy numbers of ADAM3A, SCAPER and SIRPB1 were varying between the three different modes of presentation, hence suggestive for aberrations associated with progression from small to large cell lymphoma. The number of aberrations was slightly higher in the large cell part of composite lymphomas than in large cell lymphomas, suggesting that clonal selection takes place and that composite lymphomas are in a transition state. To further investigate this, we comparatively analyzed samples of two morphologically different regions of the same small cell tumor with a BIRC3-MALT1 translocation, as well as material acquired at two different time points from one composite lymphoma. We found genomic heterogeneity in both cases, supporting the theory of competing subclones in the evolution and progression of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma.
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Rapid identification of Leishmania spp. in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples by fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Trop. Med. Int. Health
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To describe and validate fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), a new method of Leishmania spp. identification. FISH allows for a rapid detection of target organisms by specific binding of fluorescently labelled oligonucleotide probes to ribosomal RNA.
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Relationships and sexuality of imprisoned men in the German penal system--a survey of inmates in a Berlin prison.
Int J Law Psychiatry
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The lack of concrete scientific data on the sexual behavior of inmates in German prisons is surprising, especially given the extant international scholarship on prison culture and sexual violence. Historically, the most influential publications were Clemmers "The Prison Community", and Sykess "The Society of Captives", which both addressed the importance of sexual deprivation and analyzed the impact of sexual victimization on prisoners. Different forms of homosexual contact between inmates include prostitution and "protective pairing", both characterized as "dark" issues--nonconsensual sexual acts--which still have not been scientifically researched. The United States enacted the Prison Rape Elimination Act, 2003, revealing nationwide data on the prevalence of sexual assault within correctional facilities. Prison inmates suffer not only from separation from their spouses or partners, but also from sexual harassment, extortion, and the threat of rape, which has multiple implications for their mental and physical health. This article presents the first German study to record data about the relationships and sexuality of imprisoned men, and was conducted in an adult correctional facility for long-term prisoners in Berlin-Tegel. The survey, which is based on results from a questionnaire taken by voluntary study participants, had a special focus on the occurrence of consensual homoerotic contacts between heterosexual inmates. The emphasis was on the potential impact of such contact on role behavior during confinement, as well as the impact on sexual identity after release. The survey revealed the first data on the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence and coercion within correctional facilities. This article presents the results of this survey for the first time.
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Cystic teratoma of the pancreas.
Anticancer Res.
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Benign cystic teratoma of the pancreas often appears to be potentially malignant in preoperative staging. The final diagnosis is generally obtained after surgical removal. Reliable prediction is mandatory for differential treatment.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.