JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
RhoB determines tumor aggressiveness in a murine EGFRL858R-induced adenocarcinoma model and is a potential prognostic biomarker for lepidic lung cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose: A crucial event in lung adenocarcinoma progression is the switch from an aerogenous spread toward an infiltrating tumor. Loss of RhoB expression has been suggested to be critical for lung cancer invasion. Here, we tested RhoB expression as a prognostic biomarker in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a special focus on lepidic pattern. Experimental design: We analyzed RhoB expression using both immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR in two series of operated patients (n=100 and 48 respectively) and in a series of advanced lepidic adenocarcinoma (n=31) from different hospitals. Next, we examined the role of RhoB in lung cancer progression in transgenic mice that express inducible EGFRL858R crossed with rhob null mice. Results: We identified that loss of RhoB expression was strongly associated with worse survival (p= 0.0001) and progression-free survival (p <0.001) in the first series. We then confirmed these results after multivariate analyses of the second series. In the series of adenocarcinoma with lepidic features issued from a clinical trial (IFCT-0401), we showed that loss of RhoB expression was associated with higher aggressiveness of stage-IV. Lastly we showed that EGFRL858R/rhob+/+ mice developed mainly diffuse lung tumors with a lepidic pattern while EGFRL858R/rhob+/- and EGFRL858R/rhob-/- developed a greater number of tumors, and aggressive adenocarcinomas with invasive properties. Conclusions: We showed that RhoB is not only a strong prognostic factor in NSCLC but it is also critical for the acquisition of an aggressive phenotype of adenocarcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic relevance of celiac lymph node involvement in ovarian cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the study was to report on the oncologic outcome of the disease spread to celiac lymph nodes (CLNs) in advanced-stage ovarian cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for laryngeal and hypopharyngeal cancer : Minimization of late dysphagia without jeopardizing tumor control.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this work was to retrospectively determine the value of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in patients with laryngeal and hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LHSCC), on outcome and treatment-related toxicity compared to 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3D-CRT).
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the Lactate-to-N-Acetyl-aspartate Ratio Defined With Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging Before Radiation Therapy as a New Predictive Marker of the Site of Relapse in Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because lactate accumulation is considered a surrogate for hypoxia and tumor radiation resistance, we studied the spatial distribution of the lactate-to-N-acetyl-aspartate ratio (LNR) before radiation therapy (RT) with 3D proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (3D-(1)H-MRSI) and assessed its impact on local tumor control in glioblastoma (GBM).
Related JoVE Video
Could baseline health-related quality of life (QoL) predict overall survival in metastatic colorectal cancer? The results of the GERCOR OPTIMOX 1 study.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Health-related quality of life (QoL) has prognostic value in many cancers. A recent study found that the performance of prognostic systems for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) were improvable. We evaluated the independent prognostic value of QoL for overall survival (OS) and its ability to improve two prognostic systems'performance (Köhne and GERCOR models) for patients with mCRC.
Related JoVE Video
External validation of the Briganti nomogram to estimate the probability of specimen-confined disease in patients with high-risk prostate cancer.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To establish an external validation of the updated nomogram from Briganti et?al., which provides estimates of the probability of specimen-confined disease using the variables age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), clinical stage and biopsy Gleason score in preoperatively defined high-risk prostate cancer (PCa).
Related JoVE Video
Optimal scheduling of post-therapeutic follow-up of patients treated for cancer for early detection of relapses.
Stat Methods Med Res
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Post-therapeutic surveillance is one important component of cancer care. However, there still is no evidence-based strategies to schedule patients' follow-up examinations. Our approach is based on the modeling of the probability of the onset of relapse at an early asymptotic or preclinical stage and its transition to a clinical stage. For that we consider a multistate homogeneous Markov model, which includes the natural history of relapse. The model also handles separately the different types of possible relapses. The optimal schedule is provided by the calendar visit that maximizes a utility function. The methodology has been applied to laryngeal cancer. The different follow-up strategies revealed to be more efficient than those proposed by different scientific societies.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative genomic hybridisation array and DNA sequencing to direct treatment of metastatic breast cancer: a multicentre, prospective trial (SAFIR01/UNICANCER).
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer is characterised by genomic alterations. We did a multicentre molecular screening study to identify abnormalities in individual patients with the aim of providing targeted therapy matched to individuals' genomic alterations.
Related JoVE Video
Prognosis and ICU outcome of systemic vasculitis.
BMC Anesthesiol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic vasculitis may cause life threatening complications requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). The aim of this study was to evaluate outcomes of systemic vasculitis patients admitted to the ICU and to identify prognosis factors.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic factors of young women (? 35 years) with node positive breast cancer: possible influence on post-therapeutic follow-up.
Bull Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although young age at diagnosis is an independent prognostic factor of poor survival; no specific recommendation are provided concerning the timing and modalities of follow-up for this population. These patients are followed similarly to older women during post-therapeutic surveillance. The objective of this study is to examine patterns of recurrence in a large series of positive lymph node breast cancer women aged 35 years or below and treated within adjuvant chemotherapy trials.
Related JoVE Video
High endothelial venule blood vessels for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes are associated with lymphotoxin ?-producing dendritic cells in human breast cancer.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Blood vessels and tumor angiogenesis are generally associated with tumor growth and poor clinical outcome of cancer patients. However, we recently discovered that some blood vessels present within the tumor microenvironment can be associated with favorable prognosis. These vessels, designated tumor high endothelial venules (HEVs), appear to facilitate tumor destruction by allowing high levels of lymphocyte infiltration into tumors. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms regulating HEV blood vessels in human breast cancer. We found that lymphotoxin ? was overexpressed in tumors containing high densities of HEVs (HEV(high)) and correlated to DC-LAMP, a marker of mature DCs. DCs were the main producers of lymphotoxin ? in freshly resected HEV(high) breast tumor samples, and the density of DC-LAMP(+) DCs clusters was strongly correlated with the density of tumor HEVs, T and B cell infiltration, and favorable clinical outcome in a retrospective cohort of 146 primary invasive breast cancer patients. Densities of tumor HEVs and DC-LAMP(+) DCs were strongly reduced during breast cancer progression from in situ carcinoma to invasive carcinoma, suggesting that loss of tumor HEVs is a critical step during breast cancer progression. Finally, an increase in the infiltration of regulatory T cells was observed in HEV(high) breast tumors, indicating that tumor HEVs can develop in the presence of regulatory T cells. Together, our results support a key role for DCs and DC-derived lymphotoxin in the formation of tumor HEVs. These findings are important because novel therapeutic strategies based on the modulation of tumor HEVs could have a major impact on clinical outcome of cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Instant-quality fluorescence in-situ hybridization as a new tool for HER2 testing in breast cancer: a comparative study.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
HER2 instant-quality fluorescence in-situ hybridization (IQFISH) is a new fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) assay developed with a non-toxic buffer that reduces the hybridization time to 1-2 h, enabling a turnaround time of 3 h 30 min from dewax to counting. The aim of this study was to compare assessment of HER2 status using IQFISH and assessment using standard FISH.
Related JoVE Video
Determining the Length of Posttherapeutic Follow-up for Cancer Patients Using Competing Risks Modeling.
Med Decis Making
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After a curative treatment for cancer, patients enter into a posttherapeutic surveillance phase. This phase aims to detect relapses as soon as possible to improve the outcome. Mould and others predicted with a simple formula, using a parametric mixture cure model, how long early-stage breast cancer patients should be followed after treatment. However, patients in posttherapeutic surveillance phase are at risk of different events types with different responses according to their prognostic factors and different probabilities to be cured. This paper presents an adaptation of the method proposed by Mould and others, taking into account competing risks. Our loss function estimates, when follow-up is stopped at a given time, the proportion of patients who will fail after this time and who could have been treated successfully.
Related JoVE Video
Conventional versus automated implantation of loose seeds in prostate brachytherapy: analysis of dosimetric and clinical results.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To review the clinical outcome of I-125 permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) for low-risk and intermediate-risk prostate cancer and to compare 2 techniques of loose-seed implantation.
Related JoVE Video
RhoB Promotes Cancer Initiation by Protecting Keratinocytes from UVB-Induced Apoptosis but Limits Tumor Aggressiveness.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of UVB-induced apoptosis in the formation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is recognized. We previously identified the small RhoB (Ras homolog gene family, member B) GTPase, an early response gene to cellular stress, as a critical protein controlling apoptosis of human keratinocytes after UVB exposure. Here we generated SKH1 (hairless immunocompetent mouse) mice invalidated for RhoB to evaluate its role in UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis in vivo. We show that rhob-/- mice have a lower risk of developing UVB-induced keratotic tumors and actinic keratosis that is associated with a higher sensitivity of UVB-exposed keratinocytes to apoptosis. We extend this observation to primary cultures of normal human keratinocytes in which RhoB was downregulated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) and further show that the hypersensitivity to apoptosis depends on B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) downregulation. In rhob-/- mice, the UVB-induced tumors were preferentially undifferentiated and highly proliferative. Finally, we show in humans an almost constant loss of RhoB expression in undifferentiated SCCs. These undifferentiated and RhoB-deficient tumors have elevated phosphorylated histone H2AX (?H2AX) and 53BP1, two markers of DNA double-strand breaks. Together, our results indicate that UVB-induced RhoB expression participates in in vivo SCC initiation by increasing keratinocyte survival. Conversely, RhoB may limit tumor aggressiveness as loss of RhoB expression in tumor cells is associated with tumor progression.
Related JoVE Video
Dendrogenin A arises from cholesterol and histamine metabolism and shows cell differentiation and anti-tumour properties.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously synthesized dendrogenin A and hypothesized that it could be a natural metabolite occurring in mammals. Here we explore this hypothesis and report the discovery of dendrogenin A in mammalian tissues and normal cells as an enzymatic product of the conjugation of 5,6?-epoxy-cholesterol and histamine. Dendrogenin A was not detected in cancer cell lines and was fivefold lower in human breast tumours compared with normal tissues, suggesting a deregulation of dendrogenin A metabolism during carcinogenesis. We established that dendrogenin A is a selective inhibitor of cholesterol epoxide hydrolase and it triggered tumour re-differentiation and growth control in mice and improved animal survival. The properties of dendrogenin A and its decreased level in tumours suggest a physiological function in maintaining cell integrity and differentiation. The discovery of dendrogenin A reveals a new metabolic pathway at the crossroads of cholesterol and histamine metabolism and the existence of steroidal alkaloids in mammals.
Related JoVE Video
The ?5/focal adhesion kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3? integrin pathway in high-grade osteosarcoma: a protein expression profile predictive of response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To date, chemosensitivity to neoadjuvant chemotherapy of patients with high-grade osteosarcoma is evaluated on surgical resection by evaluation of the percentage of necrotic cells. As yet, no predictive profile of response to chemotherapy has been used in clinical practice. Because we have previously shown that the integrin pathway controls genotoxic-induced cell death and hypoxia, we hypothesized that in primary biopsies, expression of proteins involved in this pathway could be associated with sensitivity to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in high-grade osteosarcoma. We studied ?1, ?3, and ?5 integrin expression and integrin-linked kinase, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?), Rho B, angiopoietin-2, ?-catenin, and ezrin expression by immunohistochemistry in 36 biopsies of osteosarcomas obtained before treatment. All patients received a chemotherapy regimen in the neoadjuvant setting. An immunoreactive score was assessed, combining the percentage of positive tumor cells and staining intensity. We evaluated the correlation of the biomarkers with response to chemotherapy, metastasis-free survival, and overall survival. A combination of 3 biomarkers (?5 integrin, FAK, and GSK3?) discriminated good and poor responders to chemotherapy, with the highest area under the curve (89.9%; 95% confidence interval, 77.4-1.00) and a diagnostic accuracy of 90.3%. Moreover, high expression of ezrin was associated with an increased risk of metastasis (hazard ratio, 3.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-12.9; P = .024). We report a protein expression profile in high-grade osteosarcoma associating ?5 integrin, FAK, and GSK3? that significantly correlates with poor response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. This biomarker profile could help select patients for whom an alternative protocol using inhibitors of this pathway can be proposed.
Related JoVE Video
Recurrence risk after Ivor Lewis oesophagectomy for cancer.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to analyze the profile of tumor recurrence for patients operated on for cancer of oesophagogastric junction or oesophagus by Ivor-Lewis oesophagectomy.
Related JoVE Video
A large retrospective multicenter study of vaginal melanomas: implications for new management.
Melanoma Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The outcome of patients presenting with vaginal melanoma has been assessed in a large multicentric retrospective study. The databases of 12 French institutions were searched for primary vaginal melanomas managed between 1990 and 2007. Among the 54 patients recorded, 46 were managed with a curative intent and included in the study. The clinical characteristics, treatments, and detection of c-KIT protein expression have been studied. The median age of the patients was 63.5 years (42-88). Twenty-eight patients were classified as International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I, five as stage II, six as stage III, and one as stage IVA. c-KIT protein was overexpressed in 80% of the patients. Forty-two patients underwent surgical resection of the tumor, nine patients received local adjuvant treatment, and 10 received systemic adjuvant therapy. The median relapse-free survival was 10.9 months. c-KIT-negative status (P=0.01) and stage I (P=0.02) were associated with locoregional recurrence. The rate of metastasis was increased for advanced FIGO stages (P<0.01). The median overall survival (OS) was 28.4 months. The finding of lymph node metastasis adversely affected OS (P<0.01). Conservative surgery and radiotherapy were associated with a decrease in metastasis-free and OS (P<0.01) compared with surgery alone, this group of patients presenting with advanced FIGO stages (P=0.02). Despite the use of limited data, conservative surgery combined with a sentinel lymph node procedure, followed by adjuvant radiotherapy could be proposed to patients with early FIGO stage in the absence of validated management. c-KIT negativity by immunochemistry appears to be a poor prognosis marker in terms of locoregional recurrences but not for metastatic spread nor survival. Further assessment of the role of c-KIT expression in this disease is thus mandatory to select patients for targeted therapy.
Related JoVE Video
?v?3 Integrin and Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1): Prognostic factors in a phase I-II clinical trial associating continuous administration of Tipifarnib with radiotherapy for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
BACKGROUND: Based on our previous results showing the involvement of the farnesylated form of RhoB in glioblastoma radioresistance, we designed a phase II trial associating the farnesyltransferase inhibitor Tipifarnib with radiotherapy in patients with glioblastoma and studied the prognostic values of the proteins which we have previously shown control this pathway. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were treated with 200mg Tipifarnib (recommended dose (RD)) given continuously during radiotherapy. Twenty-seven patients were included in the phase II whose primary end-point was time to progression (TTP). Overall survival (OS) and biomarker analysis were secondary end-points. Expressions of ?v?3, ?v?5 integrins, FAK, ILK, fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) were studied by immuno-histochemistry in the tumour of the nine patients treated at the RD during the previously performed phase I and on those of the phase II patients. We evaluated the correlation of the expressions of these proteins with the clinical outcome. RESULTS: For the phase II patients median TTP was 23.1weeks (95%CI=[15.4; 28.2]) while the median OS was 80.3weeks (95%CI=[57.8; 102.7]). In the pooled phase I and II population, median OS was 60.4w (95%CI=[47.3; 97.6]) while median TTP was 18.1w (95%CI=[16.9; 25.6]). FGFR1 over-expression (HR=4.65; 95%CI=[1.02; 21.21], p=0.047) was correlated with shorter TTP while FGFR1 (HR=4.1 (95% CI=[1.09-15.4]; p=0.036)) and ?v?3 (HR=10.38 (95%CI=[2.70; 39.87], p=0.001)) over-expressions were associated with reduced OS. CONCLUSION: Association of 200mg Tipifarnib with radiotherapy shows promising OS but no increase in TTP compared to historical data. FGFR1 and ?v?3 integrin are independent bad prognostic factors of OS and TTP.
Related JoVE Video
RhoB modifies estrogen responses in breast cancer cells by influencing expression of the estrogen receptor.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: RhoB has been reported to exert positive and negative effects on cancer pathophysiology but an understanding of its role in breast cancer remains incomplete. Analysis of data from the Oncomine database showed a positive correlation between RhoB expression and positivity for both estrogen receptor alpha (ER?) and progesterone receptor (PR). METHODS: This finding was validated by our analysis of a tissue microarray constructed from a cohort of 113 patients and then investigated in human cell models. RESULTS: We found that RhoB expression in tissue was strongly correlated with ER? and PR expression and inversely correlated with tumor grade, tumor size and count of mitosis. In human breast cancer cell lines, RhoB attenuation was associated with reduced expression of both ER? and PR, whereas elevation of RhoB was found to be associated with ER? overexpression. Mechanistic investigations suggested that RhoB modulates ER? expression, controlling both its protein and mRNA levels, and that RhoB modulates PR expression by accentuating the recruitment of ER? and other major co-regulators to the promoter of PR gene. A major consequence of RhoB modulation was that RhoB differentially regulated the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines. Interestingly, we documented crosstalk between RhoB and ER?, with estrogen treatment leading to RhoB activation. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our findings offer evidence that in human breast cancer RhoB acts as a positive function to promote expression of ER? and PR in a manner correlated with cell proliferation.
Related JoVE Video
Integration method of 3D MR spectroscopy into treatment planning system for glioblastoma IMRT dose painting with integrated simultaneous boost.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To integrate 3D MR spectroscopy imaging (MRSI) in the treatment planning system (TPS) for glioblastoma dose painting to guide simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT).
Related JoVE Video
Human solid tumors contain high endothelial venules: association with T- and B-lymphocyte infiltration and favorable prognosis in breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanisms governing infiltration of lymphocytes into tumors remain poorly characterized, in spite of the critical impact of these cells on patient prognosis and therapeutic responses. High endothelial venules (HEV) are blood vessels found in lymphoid tissues, specialized in lymphocyte recruitment, but their implications in human cancer are unknown. In this article, we report the presence of MECA 79(+) blood vessels displaying all the phenotypic characteristics of HEVs in most of the 319 human primary solid tumors, including melanomas, breast, ovarian, colon, and lung carcinomas, analyzed. Tumor HEVs were specifically located within lymphocyte-rich areas, and their density within the tumor stroma was a strong predictor of infiltration by CD3(+) and CD8(+) T cells as well as B cells. Large-scale flow cytometric and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analyses in freshly operated breast tumors revealed that high densities of tumor HEVs correlated with increased naive, central memory and activated effector memory T-cell infiltration and upregulation of genes related to T-helper 1 adaptive immunity and T-cell cytotoxicity. Finally, in a retrospective cohort of 146 invasive breast cancer patients, we found that high densities of tumor HEVs independently conferred a lower risk of relapse and significantly correlated with longer metastasis-free, disease-free, and overall survival rates. Together, our findings suggest that tumor HEVs function as major gateways for lymphocyte infiltration into human tumors, and may represent attractive targets for cancer diagnosis and therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Unexpected high levels of vorinostat when combined with vinorelbine in patients with advanced cancer.
Curr Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was a multi-centre, dose-escalation trial in patients with advanced cancers. Primary objective was to determine maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of vorinostat, a competitive inhibitor of histone deacetylase (HDAC), in combination with vinorelbine. Secondary aims were to determine (1) corresponding pharmacokinetics, (2) safety of this regimen, and (3) impact of UGT1A1 and 2B17 polymorphisms on vorinostat pharmacokinetics.
Related JoVE Video
Single domain antibodies with VH hallmarks are positively selected during panning of llama (Lama glama) naïve libraries.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Independent variable domains with VH hallmarks have been repeatedly identified in immune and pre-immune VHH libraries. In some cases, stable independent VH domains have been also isolated in mouse and human recombinant antibody repertoires. However, we have come to realize that VHs were selected with a higher efficiency than VHHs during biopanning of a pre-immune (VHH) library. The biochemical and biophysical comparison did not indicate a presence of any feature that would favor the VH binders during the selection process. In contrast, selected VHHs seemed to be more stable than the VHs, ruling out the existence of a thermodynamically - favored VH sub-class. Therefore, we reasoned that a certain degree of thermodynamic instability may be beneficial for both displaying and expression of VH(H)s when the Sec-pathway is used for their secretion to avoid the cytoplasmic trapping of fast-folding polypeptides. Indeed, VHHs, but not VHs, were accumulated at higher concentrations when expressed fused to the dsbA leader peptide, a sequence that drives the linked polypeptides to the co-translational SRP secretion machinery. These data suggest that the thermodynamically favored VHHs can be lost during biopanning, as previously observed for DARPins and in contrast to the recombinant antibodies in scFv format.
Related JoVE Video
Early stage (IA-IB) primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube: case-control comparison to adenocarcinoma of the ovary.
J Gynecol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early stage primary carcinoma of the fallopian tube (PCFT) is an uncommon condition when strict criteria are applied. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome stage IA-IB PCFT to a matched group of ovarian cancer (OC).
Related JoVE Video
Functional testicular evaluation using PET/CT with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PET/CT using (18)F-FDG is a well-established diagnostic examination in oncology, cardiology and neurology. The clinical significance of nontumoral testicular uptake of FDG is unknown. Functional testicular imaging may have important clinical applications in the diagnosis and prognosis of male infertility. The aim of this study was to determine the andrological value of a FDG PET/CT in analysing testicular function, by correlating the PET/CT data with the sperm parameters.
Related JoVE Video
Formation of the eIF4F translation-initiation complex determines sensitivity to anticancer drugs targeting the EGFR and HER2 receptors.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elucidating how cancer cells respond to antagonists of HER receptor family members is critical to understanding mechanisms of therapeutic resistance that arise in patients. In large part, resistance to such agents appears to arise from deregulation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt/mTOR pathway. mTOR-dependent phosphorylation of the translation repressor 4E-BP1 leads to its dissociation from eIF4E, thereby causing an increase in the formation of the eIF4F complex, which also comprises eIF4G and eIF4A. In this study, we show that trastuzumab, cetuximab, and erlotinib all decrease the formation of the eIF4F complex in breast, colon, and head and neck cancer cells, respectively. Ectopic expression of eIF4E restores the trastuzumab-dependent defect in eIF4F formation, renders cells resistant to the trastuzumab-mediated decrease in cell proliferation, and rescues breast cancer xenografts from inhibition by trastuzumab. In breast tumor specimens, the level of eIF4E expression is associated with the therapeutic response to a trastuzumab-based regimen. Together, our findings suggest that formation of the eIF4F complex may be a critical determinant of the response to anticancer drugs that target HER2 and epidermal growth factor receptor.
Related JoVE Video
Retrospective analysis of local control and cosmetic outcome of 147 periorificial carcinomas of the face treated with low-dose rate interstitial brachytherapy.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skin cancer is the most common malignancy in white populations. We evaluated the local cure rate and cosmetic outcome of patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the face treated with low-dose rate brachytherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Postoperative radiotherapy in head and neck mucosal melanoma: a GETTEC study.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
to report patterns of failure according to treatment modality, with an emphasis on the role of postoperative radiotherapy in patients with localized head and neck mucosal melanoma (HNMM) treated during a 28-year period in a multi-institutional setting.
Related JoVE Video
Preclinical and clinical evidence that Deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography is a reliable tool for the detection of early molecular responses to erlotinib in head and neck cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is a clinical need to identify predictive markers of the responses to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI). Deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-d-glucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography ((18)FDG-PET/CT) could be a tool of choice for monitoring the early effects of this class of agent on tumor activity.
Related JoVE Video
DNA polymerase theta up-regulation is associated with poor survival in breast cancer, perturbs DNA replication, and promotes genetic instability.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
"Replicative stress" is one of the main factors underlying neoplasia from its early stages. Genes involved in DNA synthesis may therefore represent an underexplored source of potential prognostic markers for cancer. To this aim, we generated gene expression profiles from two independent cohorts (France, n=206; United Kingdom, n=117) of patients with previously untreated primary breast cancers. We report here that among the 13 human nuclear DNA polymerase genes, DNA Polymerase (POLQ) is the only one significantly up-regulated in breast cancer compared with normal breast tissues. Importantly, POLQ up-regulation significantly correlates with poor clinical outcome (4.3-fold increased risk of death in patients with high POLQ expression), and this correlation is independent of Cyclin E expression or the number of positive nodes, which are currently considered as markers for poor outcome. POLQ expression provides thus an additional indicator for the survival outcome of patients with high Cyclin E tumor expression or high number of positive lymph nodes. Furthermore, to decipher the molecular consequences of POLQ up-regulation in breast cancer, we generated human MRC5-SV cell lines that stably overexpress POLQ. Strong POLQ expression was directly associated with defective DNA replication fork progression and chromosomal damage. Therefore, POLQ overexpression may be a promising genetic instability and prognostic marker for breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Brachytherapy in lip carcinoma: long-term results.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of low-dose-rate brachytherapy for local control and relapse-free survival in squamous cell and basal cell carcinomas of the lips. We compared two groups: one with tumors on the skin and the other with tumors on the lip.
Related JoVE Video
An R function to non-parametric and piecewise analysis of competing risks survival data.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Competing risks are frequently encountered in the analysis of survival data. Different methods of analysis can be used in estimated and comparing cumulative incidence functions provided enough information is available as to the times and causes of failure. Algorithms written in R have been developed to handle this type of data. In this paper we propose an R add-on function to the cmprsk package. This function is specifically oriented towards the non-parametric analysis of competing risk data and which provides analyses of three commonly used methods all in one program. We illustrate the use of this function with two examples in oncology and compare the estimates with those provided on the cmprsk and survival package.
Related JoVE Video
Coregistration of prechemotherapy PET-CT for planning pediatric Hodgkins disease radiotherapy significantly diminishes interobserver variability of clinical target volume definition.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the interobserver variability in clinical target volume (CTV) definitions when using registered (18)F-labeled deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET-CT) versus side-by-side image sets in pediatric Hodgkins disease (HD).
Related JoVE Video
Tipifarnib plus tamoxifen in tamoxifen-resistant metastatic breast cancer: a negative phase II and screening of potential therapeutic markers by proteomic analysis.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tipifarnib, a farnesyltransferase inhibitor, has antitumor activity in heavily pretreated metastatic breast cancer patients. Preclinical data suggest that FTIs could restore tamoxifen responsiveness in tamoxifen-resistant disease. Thus, combining FTIs and tamoxifen may be a promising clinical approach after relapse or progression on tamoxifen.
Related JoVE Video
Development and validation of a model that predicts early death among cancer patients participating in phase I clinical trials investigating cytotoxics.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Selecting patients for phase 1 studies remains challenging. Given the lack of clear and reliable guidance for the estimation of life expectancy, we retrospectively assessed predictive factors of early death (within 90 days following inclusion) among these patients.
Related JoVE Video
The added value of quality of life (QoL) for prognosis of overall survival in patients with palliative hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Hepatol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several prognostic classifications (PCs) have been developed for use in palliative care in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have recently suggested that CLIP combined with WHO PS has the greatest discriminative power. We evaluated the prognostic value of quality of life (QoL) data and whether the latter could improve classification of palliative HCC patients.
Related JoVE Video
High endothelial venules (HEVs) in human melanoma lesions: Major gateways for tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes.
Oncoimmunology
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) is a strong prognostic parameter for local dissemination and overall survival in melanoma. Lymphocyte migration from blood into peripheral tissues is mainly regulated by vascular endothelium. However, the blood vessels and mechanisms governing the recruitment of TILs in melanoma tumors remain poorly understood. Here, we show that high endothelial venules (HEVs), specialized blood vessels for lymphocyte extravasation into lymphoid tissues, are frequently found in melanoma tumors and are associated with high levels of lymphocyte infiltration. The analysis of 225 primary melanomas revealed that lymphocytes specifically infiltrated HEV-rich areas of melanoma tumors and that the density of MECA-79+ HEVs was variable among patients and strongly correlated with CD3+, CD8+ and CD20+ TIL densities. Inflammatory (CCL5, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11) and lymphoid (CCL21, CCL19 and CXCL13) chemokines as well as TH1 and naïve T-cell genes were overexpressed in melanoma samples with high densities of tumor HEVs. Mature dendritic cells (mDCs) were frequently found around tumor HEVs and densities of HEVs and DC-LAMP+ mDCs within tumor stroma were strongly correlated. DCs which maintain HEVs in lymph nodes, may thus also contribute to the regulation of HEVs in melanomas. Finally, we found significantly higher densities of tumor HEVs in melanomas with tumor regression, low Clark level of invasion and thin Breslow thickness (all p < 0.001). The strong association between tumor HEVs, TILs, mDCs and clinical parameters of melanoma, supports a critical role for HEVs in limiting malignant melanoma development through both naïve and effector T-lymphocyte recruitment and activation.
Related JoVE Video
Protocol of the Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials (DATECAN) project: formal consensus method for the development of guidelines for standardised time-to-event endpoints definitions in cancer clinical trials.
Eur. J. Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In randomised phase III cancer clinical trials, the most objectively defined and only validated time-to-event endpoint is overall survival (OS). The appearance of new types of treatments and the multiplication of lines of treatment have resulted in the use of surrogate endpoints for overall survival such as progression-free survival (PFS), or time-to-treatment failure. Their development is strongly influenced by the necessity of reducing clinical trial duration, cost and number of patients. However, while these endpoints are frequently used, they are often poorly defined and definitions can differ between trials which may limit their use as primary endpoints. Moreover, this variability of definitions can impact on the trials results by affecting estimation of treatments effects. The aim of the Definition for the Assessment of Time-to-event Endpoints in CANcer trials (DATECAN) project is to provide recommendations for standardised definitions of time-to-event endpoints in randomised cancer clinical trials.
Related JoVE Video
Anatomical correlates for category-specific naming of objects and actions: A brain stimulation mapping study.
Hum Brain Mapp
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The production of object and action words can be dissociated in aphasics, yet their anatomical correlates have been difficult to distinguish in functional imaging studies. To investigate the extent to which the cortical neural networks underlying object- and action-naming processing overlap, we performed electrostimulation mapping (ESM), which is a neurosurgical mapping technique routinely used to examine language function during brain-tumor resections. Forty-one right-handed patients who had surgery for a brain tumor were asked to perform overt naming of object and action pictures under stimulation. Overall, 73 out of the 633 stimulated cortical sites (11.5%) were associated with stimulation-induced language interferences. These interference sites were very much localized (<1 cm(2) ), and showed substantial variability across individuals in their exact localization. Stimulation interfered with both object and action naming over 44 sites, whereas it specifically interfered with object naming over 19 sites and with action naming over 10 sites. Specific object-naming sites were mainly identified in Brocas area (Brodmann area 44/45) and the temporal cortex, whereas action-naming specific sites were mainly identified in the posterior midfrontal gyrus (Brodmann area 6/9) and Brocas area (P = 0.003 by the Fishers exact test). The anatomical loci we emphasized are in line with a cortical distinction between objects and actions based on conceptual/semantic features, so the prefrontal/premotor cortex would preferentially support sensorimotor contingencies associated with actions, whereas the temporal cortex would preferentially underpin (functional) properties of objects. Hum Brain Mapp 35:429-443, 2014. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Maximal cytoreduction in patients with FIGO stage IIIC to stage IV ovarian, fallopian, and peritoneal cancer in day-to-day practice: a Retrospective French Multicentric Study.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the outcome of maximal cytoreductive surgery in patients with stage IIIC to stage IV ovarian, tubal, and peritoneal cancer regarding overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS).
Related JoVE Video
Laparoscopic observation of the diaphragm undersurface in the staging of peritoneal carcinomatosis: comparison of three optical systems.
Eur. J. Obstet. Gynecol. Reprod. Biol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endoscopy is a key tool in the diagnosis and management planning of peritoneal carcinomatosis. The aim of this study was to determine which type of endoscope is the most efficient for comprehensive staging of the upper abdomen peritoneal surface.
Related JoVE Video
CTNNB1 mutation analysis is a useful tool for the diagnosis of desmoid tumors: a study of 260 desmoid tumors and 191 potential morphologic mimics.
Mod. Pathol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Desmoid tumors are benign monoclonal fibroblastic or myofibroblastic neoplasms, characterized by local invasiveness and high rates of recurrence. Desmoid tumors must be distinguished from benign fibroblastic and myofibroblastic lesions, as well as from low-grade sarcoma, which can appear histologically similar to desmoid tumors. This differential diagnosis can be very difficult, especially when diagnosis is based on a core needle biopsy. On the molecular level, most sporadic desmoid tumors are associated with mutations of the ?-catenin gene (CTNNB1). A minority of desmoid tumors are associated with Gardner syndrome and mutations of the familial adenomatous polyposis gene. We identified the common CTNNB1 mutations associated with sporadic desmoid tumors by direct sequencing: in (i) 260 cases of typical desmoid tumors; and (ii) in 191 cases of spindle cell lesions, which can morphologically mimic desmoid tumors. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues were obtained via core needle biopsy (n=150) or open biopsy/surgical excision (n=301). Only 16 cases (4%) were not analyzable (Bouins fixed tissue). CTNNB1 mutations were observed in 223 of 254 (88%) of sporadic desmoid tumors. No CTNNB1 mutations were detected in all other lesions (n=175) studied. CTNNB1 sequencing can be easily and reliably done using tissues obtained via core needle biopsy. Detection of CTNNB1 mutations in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues among spindle cell lesions is proposed as a specific diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of desmoid tumors. This result has significant implications for patient care and management.
Related JoVE Video
Failure event types and prognostic factors after node-positive breast cancer in patients treated by adjuvant chemotherapy: impact on follow-up.
Bull Cancer
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The role of post-therapeutic follow-up for breast cancer patients (pts) is open to debate. The aim of this study was to identify prognostic factors associated with the type of first event.
Related JoVE Video
Designing group sequential randomized clinical trials with time to event end points using a R function.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A major and difficult task is the design of clinical trials with a time to event endpoint. In fact, it is necessary to compute the number of events and in a second step the required number of patients. Several commercial software packages are available for computing sample size in clinical trials with sequential designs and time to event endpoints, but there are a few R functions implemented. The purpose of this paper is to describe features and use of the R function. plansurvct.func, which is an add-on function to the package gsDesign which permits in one run of the program to calculate the number of events, and required sample size but also boundaries and corresponding p-values for a group sequential design. The use of the function plansurvct.func is illustrated by several examples and validated using East software.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.