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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
IL-17A Influences Essential Functions of the Monocyte/Macrophage Lineage and Is Involved in Advanced Murine and Human Atherosclerosis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Lesion progression is primarily mediated by cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. IL-17A is a proinflammatory cytokine, which modulates immune cell trafficking and is involved inflammation in (auto)immune and infectious diseases. But the role of IL-17A still remains controversial. In the current study, we investigated effects of IL-17A on advanced murine and human atherosclerosis, the common disease phenotype in clinical care. The 26-wk-old apolipoprotein E-deficient mice were fed a standard chow diet and treated either with IL-17A mAb (n = 15) or irrelevant Ig (n = 10) for 16 wk. Furthermore, essential mechanisms of IL-17A in atherogenesis were studied in vitro. Inhibition of IL-17A markedly prevented atherosclerotic lesion progression (p = 0.001) by reducing inflammatory burden and cellular infiltration (p = 0.01) and improved lesion stability (p = 0.01). In vitro experiments showed that IL-17A plays a role in chemoattractance, monocyte adhesion, and sensitization of APCs toward pathogen-derived TLR4 ligands. Also, IL-17A induced a unique transcriptome pattern in monocyte-derived macrophages distinct from known macrophage types. Stimulation of human carotid plaque tissue ex vivo with IL-17A induced a proinflammatory milieu and upregulation of molecules expressed by the IL-17A-induced macrophage subtype. In this study, we show that functional blockade of IL-17A prevents atherosclerotic lesion progression and induces plaque stabilization in advanced lesions in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. The underlying mechanisms involve reduced inflammation and distinct effects of IL-17A on monocyte/macrophage lineage. In addition, translational experiments underline the relevance for the human system.
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Effect of delayed CNI-based immunosuppression with Advagraf® on liver function after MELD-based liver transplantation [IMUTECT].
BMC Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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MELD-based allocation for liver transplantation follows the "sickest-patient-first" strategy. The latter patients present with both, decreased immune competence and poor kidney function which is further impaired by immunosuppressants.
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Granulocyte functions are independent of arginine availability.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Arginine depletion via myeloid cell arginase is critically involved in suppression of the adaptive immune system during cancer or chronic inflammation. On the other hand, arginine depletion is being developed as a novel anti-tumor metabolic strategy to deprive arginine-auxotrophic cancer cells of this amino acid. In human immune cells, arginase is mainly expressed constitutively in PMNs. We therefore purified human primary PMNs from healthy donors and analyzed PMN function as the main innate effector cell and arginase producer in the context of arginine deficiency. We demonstrate that human PMN viability, activation-induced IL-8 synthesis, chemotaxis, phagocytosis, generation of ROS, and fungicidal activity are not impaired by the absence of arginine in vitro. Also, profound pharmacological arginine depletion in vivo via ADI-PEG20 did not inhibit PMN functions in a mouse model of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis; PMN invasion into the lung, activation, and successful PMN-dependent clearance of Aspergillus fumigatus and survival of mice were not impaired. These novel findings add to a better understanding of immunity during inflammation-associated arginine depletion and are also important for the development of therapeutic arginine depletion as anti-metabolic tumor therapy.
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Intraoperative three-dimensional imaging in the treatment of calcaneal fractures.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Displaced intra-articular calcaneal fractures are frequently treated by open reduction and internal fixation. The usual intraoperative monitoring by means of fluoroscopy does not always provide complete intraoperative information for the surgeon. The aims of this study were to analyze the percentage of patients for whom intraoperative three-dimensional imaging leads to intraoperative revision and whether the avoidance of an intra-articular step or gap influences the clinical outcome.
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Prevailing role of contact guidance in intrastromal T-cell trapping in human pancreatic cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is characterized by extensive collagen-rich stroma. T cells that infiltrate pancreatic cancers frequently become trapped in the stroma and do not contact tumor cells. Here, we aimed to analyze how chemokines and extracellular matrix (ECM) collagen interact in mediating T-cell infiltration in PDAC.
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The CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) signalosome complex: Stepping into the limelight of human primary immunodeficiency.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Next-generation DNA sequencing has accelerated the genetic characterization of many human primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs). These discoveries can be lifesaving for the affected patients and also provide a unique opportunity to study the effect of specific genes on human immune function. In the past 18 months, a number of independent groups have begun to define novel PIDs caused by defects in the caspase recruitment domain family, member 11 (CARD11)-B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia/lymphoma 10 (BCL10)-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma translocation gene 1 (MALT1 [CBM]) signalosome complex. The CBM complex forms an essential molecular link between the triggering of cell-surface antigen receptors and nuclear factor ?B activation. Germline mutations affecting the CBM complex are now recognized as the cause of novel combined immunodeficiency phenotypes, which all share abnormal nuclear factor ?B activation and dysregulated B-cell development as defining features. For this "Current perspectives" article, we have engaged experts in both basic biology and clinical immunology to capture the worldwide experience in recognizing and managing patients with PIDs caused by CBM complex mutations.
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Complementary induction of immunogenic cell death by oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV and gemcitabine in pancreatic cancer.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Novel therapies employing oncolytic viruses have emerged as promising anticancer modalities. The cure of particularly aggressive malignancies requires induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD), coupling oncolysis with immune responses via calreticulin, ATP, and high-mobility group box protein B1 (HMGB1) release from dying tumor cells. The present study shows that in human pancreatic cancer cells (pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma [PDAC] cells n=4), oncolytic parvovirus H-1 (H-1PV) activated multiple interconnected death pathways but failed to induce calreticulin exposure or ATP release. In contrast, H-1PV elevated extracellular HMGB1 levels by 4.0±0.5 times (58%±9% of total content; up to 100 ng/ml) in all infected cultures, whether nondying, necrotic, or apoptotic. An alternative secretory route allowed H-1PV to overcome the failure of gemcitabine to trigger HMGB1 release, without impeding cytotoxicity or other ICD activities of the standard PDAC medication. Such broad resistance of H-1PV-induced HMGB1 release to apoptotic blockage coincided with but was uncoupled from an autocrine interleukin-1? (IL-1?) loop. That and the pattern of viral determinants maintained in gemcitabine-treated cells suggested the activation of an inflammasome/caspase 1 (CASP1) platform alongside DNA detachment and/or nuclear exclusion of HMGB1 during early stages of the viral life cycle. We concluded that H-1PV infection of PDAC cells is signaled through secretion of the alarmin HMGB1 and, besides its own oncolytic effect, might convert drug-induced apoptosis into an ICD process. A transient arrest of cells in the cyclin A1-rich S phase would suffice to support compatibility of proliferation-dependent H-1PV with cytotoxic regimens. These properties warrant incorporation of the oncolytic virus H-1PV, which is not pathogenic in humans, into multimodal anticancer treatments.
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Infectious versus non-infectious loosening of implants: activation of T lymphocytes differentiates between the two entities.
Int Orthop
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Loosening of implants occurs mainly for two reasons: bacterial infection of the implant or "aseptic loosening" presumably due to wear particles derived from the implant. To gain further insight into the pathomechanism, we analysed activation of the T cell response in these patients.
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Pharmacodynamic monitoring of immunosuppressive effects indicates reduced cyclosporine activity during telaprevir therapy.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Drug interactions with immunosuppressive drugs are a major problem associated with protease inhibitor-based antiviral triple therapy for hepatitis C virus (HCV) reinfection after liver transplantation. In this retrospective cohort study, we analyzed biomarkers of the immunosuppressive effects of cyclosporine A (CSA) by quantifying nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-regulated gene expression during telaprevir (TVR) therapy in 5 liver transplant patients. Furthermore, dose adjustments and blood concentrations of CSA as well as the clinical course were analyzed. We observed a clear impact of TVR not only on doses and blood concentrations but also on the immunosuppressive effects of CSA. Despite apparently adequate CSA trough concentrations, the CSA peak concentration decreased to 68% (range?=?44%-90%). This was associated with a 1.9-fold (1.6- to 4.1-fold) increase in the residual gene activity of NFAT-regulated genes, which indicated reduced immunosuppressive activity of CSA with TVR co-medication. The median dose of CSA was reduced to 25% (range?=?16%-48%) and 31% (range?=?22%-64%) after 1 and 2 weeks, respectively. The CSA drug clearance was reduced to 38.7% (range?=?31.0%-49.4%). We report excellent antiviral efficacy. At the end of the observation period, all patients were HCV RNA-negative (1 patient at 18 weeks, 1 patient at 12 weeks, and 3 patients at 4 weeks after the end of therapy). Safety was acceptable, with mild acute rejection and reactivation of cytomegalovirus being the most serious adverse events. One patient with histologically proven recurrent cholestatic hepatitis before therapy underwent retransplantation during the course of antiviral therapy. In conclusion, the immunomonitoring of NFAT-regulated gene expression indicated reduced immunosuppressive activity of CSA during antiviral therapy with TVR in our cohort of liver transplant patients. Thus, the immunosuppressive effects of CSA may be overestimated if one is looking only at trough concentrations during co-medication with protease inhibitors or other strong cytochrome P450 3A inhibitors. Immunomonitoring of NFAT-regulated gene expression could, therefore, help to prevent overimmunosuppression or underimmunosuppression.
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Pharmacodynamic monitoring of nuclear factor of activated T cell-regulated gene expression in liver allograft recipients on immunosuppressive therapy with calcineurin inhibitors in the course of time and correlation with acute rejection episodes--a prospective study.
Ann. Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Due to considerable pharmacokinetic (PK) variability, immunosuppression with calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) remains challenging. The objective of this study was to assess a pharmacodynamic (PD) approach of monitoring nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT)-regulated gene expression in the course of time and in correlation with rejection episodes.
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On the inflammatory response in metal-on-metal implants.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Metal-on-metal implants are a special form of hip endoprostheses that despite many advantages can entail serious complications due to release of wear particles from the implanted material. Metal wear particles presumably activate local host defence mechanisms, which causes a persistent inflammatory response with destruction of bone followed by a loosening of the implant. To better characterize this inflammatory response and to link inflammation to bone degradation, the local generation of proinflammatory and osteoclast-inducing cytokines was analysed, as was systemic T cell activation.
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The macrophage inflammatory proteins MIP1? (CCL3) and MIP2? (CXCL2) in implant-associated osteomyelitis: linking inflammation to bone degradation.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Bacterial infections of bones remain a serious complication of endoprosthetic surgery. These infections are difficult to treat, because many bacterial species form biofilms on implants, which are relatively resistant towards antibiotics. Bacterial biofilms elicit a progressive local inflammatory response, resulting in tissue damage and bone degradation. In the majority of patients, replacement of the prosthesis is required. To address the question of how the local inflammatory response is linked to bone degradation, tissue samples were taken during surgery and gene expression of the macrophage inflammatory proteins MIP1? (CCL3) and MIP2? (CXCL2) was assessed by quantitative RT-PCR. MIPs were expressed predominantly at osteolytic sites, in close correlation with CD14 which was used as marker for monocytes/macrophages. Colocalisation of MIPs with monocytic cells could be confirmed by histology. In vitro experiments revealed that, aside from monocytic cells, also osteoblasts were capable of MIP production when stimulated with bacteria; moreover, CCL3 induced the differentiation of monocytes to osteoclasts. In conclusion, the multifunctional chemokines CCL3 and CXCL2 are produced locally in response to bacterial infection of bones. In addition to their well described chemokine activity, these cytokines can induce generation of bone resorbing osteoclasts, thus providing a link between bacterial infection and osteolysis.
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Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan CSPG4 as a novel hypoxia-sensitive marker in pancreatic tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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CSPG4 marks pericytes, undifferentiated precursors and tumor cells. We assessed whether the shed ectodomain of CSPG4 (sCSPG4) might circulate and reflect potential changes in CSPG4 tissue expression (pCSPG4) due to desmoplastic and malignant aberrations occurring in pancreatic tumors. Serum sCSPG4 was measured using ELISA in test (n?=?83) and validation (n?=?221) cohorts comprising donors (n?=?11+26) and patients with chronic pancreatitis (n?=?11+20) or neoplasms: benign (serous cystadenoma SCA, n?=?13+20), premalignant (intraductal dysplastic IPMNs, n?=?9+55), and malignant (IPMN-associated invasive carcinomas, n?=?4+14; ductal adenocarcinomas, n?=?35+86). Pancreatic pCSPG4 expression was evaluated using qRT-PCR (n?=?139), western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. sCSPG4 was found in circulation, but its level was significantly lower in pancreatic patients than in donors. Selective maintenance was observed in advanced IPMNs and PDACs and showed a nodal association while lacking prognostic relevance. Pancreatic pCSPG4 expression was preserved or elevated, whereby neoplastic cells lacked pCSPG4 or tended to overexpress without shedding. Extreme pancreatic overexpression, membranous exposure and tissue(high)/sera(low)-discordance highlighted stroma-poor benign cystic neoplasm. SCA is known to display hypoxic markers and coincide with von-Hippel-Lindau and Peutz-Jeghers syndromes, in which pVHL and LBK1 mutations affect hypoxic signaling pathways. In vitro testing confined pCSPG4 overexpression to normal mesenchymal but not epithelial cells, and a third of tested carcinoma cell lines; however, only the latter showed pCSPG4-responsiveness to chronic hypoxia. siRNA-based knockdowns failed to reduce the malignant potential of either normoxic or hypoxic cells. Thus, overexpression of the newly established conditional hypoxic indicator, CSPG4, is apparently non-pathogenic in pancreatic malignancies but might mark distinct epithelial lineage and contribute to cell polarity disorders. Surficial retention on tumor cells renders CSPG4 an attractive therapeutic target. Systemic 'drop and restoration' alterations accompanying IPMN and PDAC progression indicate that the interference of pancreatic diseases with local and remote shedding/release of sCSPG4 into circulation deserves broad diagnostic exploration.
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Initiation of an inflammatory response in resident intestinal lamina propria cells -use of a human organ culture model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Resident human lamina propria immune cells serve as powerful effectors in host defense. Molecular events associated with the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to characterize phenotypic and functional changes induced in these cells at the onset of intestinal inflammation using a human intestinal organ culture model. In this model, healthy human colonic mucosa was depleted of epithelial cells by EDTA treatment. Following loss of the epithelial layer, expression of the inflammatory mediators IL1B, IL6, IL8, IL23A, TNFA, CXCL2, and the surface receptors CD14, TLR2, CD86, CD54 was rapidly induced in resident lamina propria cells in situ as determined by qRT-PCR and immunohistology. Gene microarray analysis of lamina propria cells obtained by laser-capture microdissection provided an overview of global changes in gene expression occurring during the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in these cells. Bioinformatic analysis gave insight into signalling pathways mediating this inflammatory response. Furthermore, comparison with published microarray datasets of inflamed mucosa in vivo (ulcerative colitis) revealed a significant overlap of differentially regulated genes underlining the in vivo relevance of the organ culture model. Furthermore, genes never been previously associated with intestinal inflammation were identified using this model. The organ culture model characterized may be useful to study molecular mechanisms underlying the initiation of an intestinal inflammatory response in normal mucosa as well as potential alterations of this response in inflammatory bowel disease.
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Hantaviral mechanisms driving HLA class I antigen presentation require both RIG-I and TRIF.
Eur. J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Hantaviruses are emerging human pathogens. They induce an unusually strong antiviral response of human HLA class I (HLA-I) restricted CD8? T cells that may contribute to tissue damage and hantavirus-associated disease. In this study, we analyzed possible hantaviral mechanisms that enhance the HLA-I antigen presentation machinery. Upon hantavirus infection of various human and primate cell lines, we observed transactivation of promoters controlling classical HLA molecules. Hantavirus-induced HLA-I upregulation required proteasomal activity and was associated with increased TAP expression. Intriguingly, human DCs acquired the capacity to cross-present antigen upon hantavirus infection. Furthermore, knockdown of TIR domain containing adaptor inducing IFN-? or retinoic acid inducible gene I abolished hantavirus-driven HLA-I induction. In contrast, MyD88-dependent viral sensors were not involved in HLA-I induction. Our results show that hantaviruses strongly boost the HLA-I antigen presentation machinery by mechanisms that are dependent on both retinoic acid inducible gene I and TIR domain containing adaptor inducing IFN-?.
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Whole-exome sequencing links caspase recruitment domain 11 (CARD11) inactivation to severe combined immunodeficiency.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Primary immunodeficiencies represent model diseases for the mechanistic understanding of the human innate and adaptive immune response. They are clinically highly relevant per se because in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), infections caused by opportunistic pathogens are typically life-threatening early in life.
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TLR-9 contributes to the antiviral innate immune sensing of rodent parvoviruses MVMp and H-1PV by normal human immune cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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The oncotropism of Minute Virus of Mice (MVMp) is partially related to the stimulation of an antiviral response mediated by type-I interferons (IFNs) in normal but not in transformed mouse cells. The present work was undertaken to assess whether the oncotropism displayed against human cells by MVMp and its rat homolog H-1PV also depends on antiviral mechanisms and to identify the pattern recognition receptor (PRR) involved. Despite their low proliferation rate which represents a drawback for parvovirus multiplication, we used human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs) as normal model specifically because all known PRRs are functional in this mixed cell population and moreover because some of its subsets are among the main IFN producers upon infections in mammals. Human transformed models consisted in lines and tumor cells more or less permissive to both parvoviruses. Our results show that irrespective of their permissiveness, transformed cells do not produce IFNs nor develop an antiviral response upon parvovirus infection. However, MVMp- or H-1PV-infected hPBMCs trigger such defense mechanisms despite an absence of parvovirus replication and protein expression, pointing to the viral genome as the activating element. Substantial reduction of an inhibitory oligodeoxynucleotide (iODN) of the latter IFN production identified TLR-9 as a potential PRR for parvoviruses in hPBMCs. However, neither the iODN treatment nor an antibody-induced neutralization of the IFN-triggered effects restored parvovirus multiplication in these cells as expected by their weak proliferation in culture. Finally, given that a TLR-9 activation could also not be observed in parvovirus-infected human lines reported to be endowed with a functional TLR-9 pathway (Namalwa, Raji, and HEK293-TLR9(+/+)), our data suggest that transformed human cells do not sense MVMp or H-1PV either because of an absence of PRR expression or an intrinsic, or virus-driven defect in the endosomal sensing of the parvovirus genomes by TLR-9.
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The impact of MFG-E8 in chronic pancreatitis: potential for future immunotherapy?
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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The glycoprotein MFG-E8 mediates phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells and influences the pathogenesis and progression of inflammatory diseases. MFG-E8 was shown to attenuate the progression of inflammation and to improve survival in septic rats. Accumulating evidence suggests an immunomodulatory link between MFG-E8 and the pro-inflammatory chemokine fractalkine, which may determine the severity of pain, fibrosis, and inflammation in chronic pancreatitis (CP).
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Pharmacodynamic monitoring of cyclosporin A reveals risk of opportunistic infections and malignancies in renal transplant recipients 65 years and older.
Ther Drug Monit
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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The cohort of senior renal allograft recipients is increasing. Age-related physiologic changes are believed to influence the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of immunosuppression. Measuring the residual nuclear factor of activated T-cell (NFAT)-regulated gene expression (RGE) is a promising pharmacodynamic tool to individually monitor cyclosporin A (CsA) therapy.
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Interferon ? improves the vaccination potential of oncolytic parvovirus H-1PV for the treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis in pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Oncolytic viruses with their capacity to specifically replicate in and kill tumor cells emerged as a novel class of cancer therapeutics. Rat oncolytic parvovirus (H-1PV) was used to treat different types of cancer in preclinical settings and was lately successfully combined with standard gemcitabine chemotherapy in treating pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) in rats. Our previous work showed that the immune system and particularly the release of interferon-gamma (IFN?) seem to mediate the anticancer effect of H-1PV in that model. Therefore, we reasoned that the therapeutic properties of H-1PV can be boosted with IFN? for the treatment of late incurable stages of PDAC like peritoneal carcinomatosis. Rats bearing established orthotopic pancreatic carcinomas with peritoneal metastases were treated with a single intratumoral (i.t.) or intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of 5 x 10? plaque forming units of H-1PV with or without concomitant IFN? application. Intratumoral injection proved to be more effective than the intraperitoneal route in controlling the growth of both the primary pancreatic tumors and peritoneal carcinomatosis, accompanied by migration of virus from primary to metastatic deposits. Concomitant i.p. treatment of H-1PV with recIFN? resulted in improved therapeutic effect yielding an extended animal survival, compared with i.p. treatment with H-1PV alone. IFN? application enhanced the H-1PV-induced peritoneal macrophage and splenocyte responses against tumor cells while causing a significant reduction in the titers of H1-PV-neutralising antibodies in ascitic fluid. Thus, IFN? co-application together with H-1PV might be considered as a novel therapeutic option to improve the survival of PDAC patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis.
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Leflunomide induces apoptosis in fludarabine-resistant and clinically refractory CLL cells.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2011
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Environmental conditions in lymph node proliferation centers protect chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells from apoptotic triggers. This situation can be mimicked by in vitro stimulation with CD40 ligand (CD40L) and interleukin 4 (IL-4). Our study investigates the impact of the drug leflunomide to overcome apoptosis resistance of CLL cells.
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Cyclosporine-induced gingival overgrowth correlates with NFAT-regulated gene expression: a pilot study.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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To determine whether incidence and severity of cyclosporine A (CsA)-induced gingival overgrowth (GO) is related to expression nuclear factor of activated T cells-regulated genes (NFAT-regulated genes).
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Pharmacodynamic disparities in tacrolimus-treated patients developing cytomegalus virus viremia.
Ther Drug Monit
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2011
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The optimal balance between efficacy and toxicity of tacrolimus (Tac) treatment remains unsolved. The quantification of nuclear factor of activated T cell (NFAT)-regulated gene expression may provide a tool to monitor the individual susceptibility to Tac.
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RNA helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene I as a sensor of Hantaan virus replication.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Hantaan virus (HTNV) causes severe human disease. The HTNV genome consists of three ssRNA segments of negative polarity that are complexed with viral nucleocapsid (N) protein. How the human innate immune system detects HTNV is unclear. RNA helicase retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I) does not sense genomic HTNV RNA. So far it has not been analysed whether pathogen-associated molecular patterns generated during the HTNV replication trigger RIG-I-mediated innate responses. Indeed, we found that knock-down of RIG-I in A549 cells, an alveolar epithelial cell line, increases HTNV replication and prevents induction of 2,5-oligoadenylate synthetase, an interferon-stimulated gene. Moreover, overexpression of wild-type or constitutive active RIG-I in Huh7.5 cells lacking a functional RIG-I diminished HTNV virion production. Intriguingly, reporter assays revealed that in vitro-transcribed HTNV N RNA and expression of the HTNV N ORF triggers RIG-I signalling. This effect was completely blocked by the RNA-binding domain of vaccinia virus E3 protein, suggesting that dsRNA-like secondary structures of HTNV N RNA stimulate RIG-I. Finally, transfection of HTNV N RNA into A549 cells resulted in a 2 log-reduction of viral titres upon challenge with virus. Our study is the first demonstration that RIG-I mediates antiviral innate responses induced by HTNV N RNA during HTNV replication and interferes with HTNV growth.
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Tolerability of inhaled N-chlorotaurine in an acute pig streptococcal lower airway inflammation model.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Inhalation of N-chlorotaurine (NCT), an endogenous new broad spectrum non-antibiotic anti-infective, has been shown to be very well tolerated in the pig model recently. In the present study, inhaled NCT was tested for tolerability and efficacy in the infected bronchopulmonary system using the same model.
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Calcineurin inhibitors and NFAT-regulated gene expression.
Clin. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) have a narrow therapeutic window; therefore, regular monitoring of the drug is necessary to balance sufficient efficacy with minimal toxicity. Until now, monitoring of immunosuppressive drugs is performed by pharmacokinetic assessments, mainly by trough concentrations (C0) of the drug. All these methods rely on pharmacokinetic data, which does not reflect the biological effects of CNI on the immune system. Several approaches have been undertaken to measure the biologic effects of CNI-based immunosuppression. Recently, a new quantitative analysis of gene expression has been employed to calculate the inhibition of the transcription of NFAT-regulated genes in peripheral blood. Methodological aspects and clinical data on the potential benefit of this specific CNI monitoring assay are discussed.
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Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Erythropoietin (Epo) administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC).
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Molecular detection of breast cancer metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR): identifying, evaluating and establishing multi-marker panels.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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The potential advantage of using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) methodology to detect metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) of breast cancer (BC) patients was evaluated in this prospective study. We measured the expression of relevant gene transcripts in SLNs using an innovative algorithm and compared the results of single-marker assays versus multi-marker assays with conventional histological detection methods. SLNs from women aged ? 18 years diagnosed with unilateral BC were examined by haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry and analysed for transcripts of several relevant genes using qRT-PCR (learning group). Four candidate panels of expressed transcript combinations with high sensitivity and specificity were selected for further investigation. The candidate panels were then validated using SLNs from a second group of BC patients (validation group). In the learning group, 74/314 SLN sections from 150 patients were positive for metastasis by histology. The transcripts analysed showed the following individual sensitivities/specificities: cytokeratin 19 (CK19) 94.6%/97.9%; mammaglobin 1 (MGB1) 82.4%/91.7%; mammaglobin 2 (MGB2) 82.4%/96.7%; carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) 71.6%/97.5%; EPCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) 91.9%/97.1%; and NY-BR-1 82.4%/93.8%. The optimal panel based on the predefined criteria comprised four markers: CK19, MGB1, EPCAM, and NY-BR-1, of which ? 2 had to be positive (95.9% sensitivity, 95.0% specificity, 85.5% positive predictive value (PPV), and 98.7% negative predictive value (NPV)). Overall concordance with histology was 95.2%. In the validation group, 84/315 SLN sections from 235 patients were histologically positive, and panel sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy were 88.1, 95.2 and 93.3%, respectively, at the SLN section level. In conclusion, molecular staging using expression patterns of relevant transcripts in SLNs could serve as a useful complement to standard diagnostic work-up in BC patients. The proposed flexible multi-parametric approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared with the single-marker approach. However, it overcomes several limitations of the previously reported molecular assays for SLN diagnosis.
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Immunomonitoring of nuclear factor of activated T cells-regulated gene expression: the first clinical trial in liver allograft recipients.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Long-term calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) treatment can cause serious side effects in liver allograft recipients. An optimal risk-to-benefit ratio for CNI blood levels has not been established. Pharmacodynamic drug monitoring through the measurement of the CNI biological activity, that is, the expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-regulated genes, seems to be a promising approach. The residual gene expression (RGE) of NFAT-regulated genes 2 and 1.5 hours after cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK-506) intake was measured in 100 liver allograft recipients with 1 or more years of follow-up post-transplantation. The mean RGE in all patients was 62% ± 33%. A significant negative correlation between the CsA (P < 0.0001, r = -0.8026) and FK-506 peak levels (P < 0.0001, r = -0.6982) and the RGE of all NFAT-regulated genes was observed. Clinical reliability was proven too. In conclusion, the data presented in this pilot study reveal the applicability of the pharmacodynamic monitoring of CNI efficacy in liver allograft recipients. To confirm the advantage of individualized pharmacodynamic drug monitoring over pharmacokinetic drug monitoring with respect to clinical outcomes, controlled, prospective studies are needed.
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WF10 stimulates NK cell cytotoxicity by increasing LFA-1-mediated adhesion to tumor cells.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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The redox-active chlorite-based drug WF10 (Immunokine) was shown to have modulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune system in vitro and in vivo. Animal studies suggest that WF10 enhances immunity against tumors. One possible explanation for such an effect is that WF10 stimulates natural killer cell cytotoxicity against malignant cells. Here, we show that WF10 regulates human NK cell cytotoxicity in a time-dependent manner, following an S-shaped kinetic with an initial stimulation of activity followed by a decrease in activity relative to the untreated controls. WF10 does not activate NK cells on its own but co-stimulates NK cell activation mediated by different activating receptors. This is mediated by enhancing NK cell adhesion to target cells through promoting the activation of the integrin LFA-1. These data demonstrate a direct effect of WF10 on the cytotoxicity of human NK cells.
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Immune cells participate in the oncosuppressive activity of parvovirus H-1PV and are activated as a result of their abortive infection with this agent.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Treatment of cancers by means of viruses, that specifically replicate in (oncotropism) and kill (oncolysis) neoplastic cells, is increasingly gaining acceptance in the clinic. Among these agents, parvoviruses have been shown to possess not only direct oncolytic but also immunomodulating properties, serving as an adjuvant to prime the immune system to react against infected tumors. Here, we aimed to establish whether immunomodulating mechanisms participate in the recently reported therapeutic potential of parvoviruses against pancreatic carcinoma. Using adoptive transfer experiments we discovered that the transfer of splenocytes of donor rats harboring H-1PV-treated orthotopic PDAC tumors could significantly prolong the survival of naïve tumor-bearing recipients, compared to those receiving cells from mock-treated donors. Closer investigation of immunological parameters in infected donor rats revealed that virus-induced interferon gamma production and cellular immune response played an important role in this effect. These data have also preclinical relevance since abortive H-1PV infection of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells or cocultivation of these cells with H-1PV-preinfected pancreatic cancer cells, resulted in enhancement of innate and adaptive immune reactivity. Taken together our data reveal that oncolytic H-1PV modulates the immune system into an anticancer state, and further support the concept of using parvoviruses in the fight against pancreatic cancer.
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New concepts to individualize calcineurin inhibitor therapy in renal allograft recipients.
Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2010
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A maximum of efficacy with a minimum of toxicity is the ultimate goal of immunosuppressive therapy. Calcineurin inhibitors are widely used as immunosuppressive drugs, and there is still a discussion about the optimal blood levels of cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (Tac), balancing safety and efficacy. Monitoring of calcineurin inhibitor therapy is usually performed by blood trough levels, pharmacokinetics such as measurement of two hour peak levels, or by various areas under the curve assessments (AUC, 4 to 12 hours). All these mentioned pharmacokinetic measurements cannot predict the individual biological effects of the immunosuppressive drug. Several approaches have been undertaken to measure immunosuppression by calcineurin inhibitors. In this manuscript, general and specific immune monitoring strategies of calcineurin inhibitors and their clinical benefits are discussed.
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Inhibition of membrane complement inhibitor expression (CD46, CD55, CD59) by siRNA sensitizes tumor cells to complement attack in vitro.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2010
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The efficacy of cancer-immunotherapy with complement-activating monoclonal antibodies is limited by over-expression of one or more membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins (mCRPs: CD46, CD55, CD59) on the surface of neoplastic cells. In this study we designed small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) for posttranscriptional gene knock down of CD46, CD55 and CD59 aiming at to sensitize tumor cells to complement attack and thereby to better exploit complement for tumor cell destruction. Tumor cell lines of different origin, such as Du145 (prostate), BT474 (breast) and K562 (erythroleukemia) were selected for the study. FACS-analysis demonstrated that siRNA anti-CD46(301) reduced CD46 protein expression up to 80%, siRNA anti-CD55(255) diminished CD55 protein expression up to 49%, and CD59 protein expression was inhibited up to 82% by siRNA anti-CD59(1339). Time course experiments revealed a long-lasting silencing effect with >50% complement regulator inhibition up to day 13. Upon mCRP knock down, complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) was augmented by 20-30% for CD46, by up to 24% for CD55 and by up to 55% for CD59. The combined inhibition of all three inhibitors further enhanced CDC by up to 66%. Dependent on the cell line, CD46 and CD55 downregulation increased significantly C3 ospsonization, which is known to support cell-mediated defense mechanisms. mCRP blocking antibodies were only partly able to further augment the tumor cells susceptibility to complement lysis. Thus, siRNA-induced inhibition of complement regulator expression clearly sensitizes malignant cells to complement attack and, if specifically targeted to the tumor, appears suited as adjuvant to improve antibody-based cancer immunotherapy.
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Pharmacodynamic monitoring of cyclosporine A by NFAT-regulated gene expression and the relationship with infectious complications in pediatric renal transplant recipients.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2010
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Pharmacokinetic monitoring of CsA is unsatisfactory, because at comparable CsA blood concentrations, the frequency and severity of adverse effects vary considerably among patients. We have therefore recently developed a precise, reliable, and robust whole-blood pharmacodynamic assay that measures the suppression of CsA-target genes in T lymphocytes. Because of the different characteristics of CsA pharmacokinetics in children and the higher propensity for infectious complications, this assay requires validation in the pediatric patient population. We therefore quantified in a prospective study of 45 pediatric renal transplant recipients the residual expression of NFAT-regulated genes in lymphocytes by RT-PCR and correlated these findings with the frequency of recurrent infections in the maintenance period post-transplant. Patients with recurrent infections showed a significantly stronger inhibition of NFAT-regulated gene expression (18.2%) than patients without recurrent infections (31.7%; p = 0.012). This difference was specific, because various PK parameters of CsA and the concomitant immunosuppressive therapy were comparable between patients. Multivariate regression analysis showed that patient age and residual NFAT-regulated gene expression were the only independent determinants of recurrent infections. By ROC curve analysis, a cutoff value of 23% residual NFAT-regulated gene expression had the highest sensitivity (71.1%) and specificity (65.4%) for the discrimination of patients with and without recurrent infections. Pharmacodynamic monitoring of CsA by measurement of residual NFAT-regulated gene expression in T lymphocytes has the potential to identify over-immunosuppressed pediatric renal transplant recipients and is therefore a useful tool for the optimization of CsA therapy.
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Identification of an important immunological difference between virulent varicella-zoster virus and its avirulent vaccine: viral disruption of dendritic cell instruction.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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Virulent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) can spread in immunocompetent humans, resulting in symptoms mostly of the skin. In contrast, vaccine Oka (V-Oka), the attenuated VZV vaccine strain, only rarely causes clinical reactions. The mechanisms underlying these pathogenetic differences are unclear. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the ability of virulent VZV and V-Oka to modulate instruction of dendritic cells (DCs) by innate signals. DCs isolated from normal human skin were susceptible to infection with VZV and V-Oka. Moreover, inflammatory DCs, which play a crucial role in the stimulation of Th1 immune responses, accumulated in herpes zoster lesions. Infection of inflammatory DCs generated in vitro with virulent VZV or V-Oka resulted in upregulation of CD1c. Upon coculture with CD1c-restricted innate cells, DCs developed a mature phenotype whether infected with virulent VZV or V-Oka. Intriguingly, a striking difference was detected on the functional level. The release of IFN-gamma and IL-12, the signature cytokines of Th1 responses, was enhanced by V-Oka but blocked by virulent VZV. V-Oka and virulent VZV efficiently synergized with CD40L, eliminating the possibility that CD40 signaling was a target of VZV-associated immune evasion. Instead, virulent VZV selectively interfered with signaling through TLR2, which is known to sense VZV. Thus, virulent VZV subverts Th1-promoting instruction of human DCs by blocking TLR2-mediated innate signals that prime IL-12 production by DCs. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel immune-evasion mechanism of virulent VZV that has been lost during the attenuation process leading to the VZV vaccine strain.
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IFN-? activated JAK1 shifts CD40-induced cytokine profiles in human antigen-presenting cells toward high IL-12p70 and low IL-10 production.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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CD40Ligand (CD40L) represents a strong endogenous danger signal associated with chronic inflammatory disease. CD40L induces activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as DCs, monocytes, B-cells and endothelial cells. However, CD40 activation alone, whilst inducing IL-10 production, is insufficient to induce interleukin (IL)-12p70 release in human APCs suggesting that additional cytokine signals (e.g. GM-CSF, IL-4 or IFN-?) are required for the induction of a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile. We demonstrate that IFN-?-induced Janus kinase 1 (JAK1) enhances CD40-induced IL-12p70 release whilst simultaneously inhibiting IL-10 synthesis, resulting in a pro-inflammatory phenotype of CD40L-activated dendritic cells (DCs). JAK2 mediated enhancing effects on IL-12p70 but did not inhibit IL-10 release, whereas Tyk2 mediated inhibitory effects on IL-12p70 release in this system. The mechanism by which complementary IFN-?/JAK activities affect IL-12p70 production involves STAT1 activation and de novo induction of interferon-responsive factors (IRF)-1 and IRF-8. Simultaneously, JAK1 was unique in inhibiting IL-10 synthesis via STAT1 and IRF-8 with both transcription factors binding to the IL-10 promoter. We demonstrate that CD40- and JAK/STAT/IRF-signalling pathways are strictly complementary for the induction of a pro-inflammatory cytokine profile in human APCs. This suggests that a number of CD40 effects in chronic inflammatory diseases might be weakened by targeting JAK/STAT.
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Individualized monitoring of nuclear factor of activated T cells-regulated gene expression in FK506-treated kidney transplant recipients.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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The suggested key mechanism of both cyclosporine A (CsA) and FK506 is the inhibition of calcineurin phosphatase activity, preventing nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT)-translocation into the nucleus of T cells, with a subsequent transcriptional block of crucial cytokine genes. However, the two drugs exert different clinical activities as exemplified by the ability of FK506 to treat acute rejections. Inhibition of calcineurin activity by FK506 occurs in vitro at the same or even higher dose as for CsA; however, the magnitude of clinical and experimental immunosuppression is higher, indicating that FK506 may act in a calcineurin-independent way.
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Approaches towards individualized immune intervention.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2010
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Long-term immunosuppression causes a significantly increased risk for the development of malignancies in transplanted patients. A link between immunosuppression and incidence of cancer is well documented and involves the effect of immunosuppression on antitumor surveillance and antiviral adaptive immune responses. Using a recently described pharmacodynamic assay, a strong correlation between the incidence of malignancies and the individual degree of immunosuppression after cyclosporin A treatment in patients with kidney transplants was observed. The availability of a quantitative and quick laboratory test for the assessment of the individual functional activity of immunocompetent cells crucial for transplant rejection, defense against viral infection and tumor surveillance, along with the ability to adjust doses of immunosuppressive agents such that patients are largely protected against malignant disease and/or viral infection while maintaining a stable allograft function, represents an enormous breakthrough in transplantation medicine and advances our attempts to individualize treatment in transplanted patients.
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Different profiles of cytokine expression during mild and severe acute pancreatitis.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2010
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To study secretion patterns of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, and activation of various cellular subsets of leukocytes in peripheral blood.
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Switch to high-level virus replication and HLA class I upregulation in differentiating megakaryocytic cells after infection with pathogenic hantavirus.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Hantaan virus (HTNV), the prototype member of the Hantavirus genus in the family Bunyaviridae, causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. Hemorrhage is due to endothelial barrier damage and a sharp decrease in platelet counts. The mechanisms underlying HTNV-associated acute thrombocytopenia have not been elucidated so far. Platelets are produced by mature megakaryocytes that develop during megakaryopoiesis. In this study, we show that HTNV targets megakaryocytic cells whereas rather non-pathogenic hantaviruses did not infect this cell type. After induction of differentiation megakaryocytic cells switched from low-level to high-level HTNV production without reduction in cell survival or alteration in differentiation. However, increased HTNV replication resulted in strong upregulation of HLA class I molecules although HTNV escaped type I interferon (IFN)-associated innate responses. Taken together, HTNV efficiently replicates in differentiating megakaryocytic cells resulting in upregulation of HLA class I molecules, the target structures for cytotoxic T cells (CTLs).
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Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-induced apoptosis in human dendritic cells as a result of downregulation of cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein and reduced expression of HSV-1 antiapoptotic latency-associated transcript sequences.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most frequent and successful human pathogens. It targets immature dendritic cells (iDCs) to interfere with the antiviral immune response. The mechanisms underlying apoptosis of HSV-1-infected iDCs are not fully understood. Previously, we have shown that HSV-1-induced apoptosis of iDCs is associated with downregulation of the cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (c-FLIP), a potent inhibitor of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis. In this study, we prove that HSV-1 induces degradation of c-FLIP in a proteasome-independent manner. In addition, by using c-FLIP-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) we show for the first time that downregulation of c-FLIP expression is sufficient to drive uninfected iDCs into apoptosis, underlining the importance of this molecule for iDC survival. Surprisingly, we also observed virus-induced c-FLIP downregulation in epithelial cells and many other cell types that do not undergo apoptosis after HSV-1 infection. Microarray analyses revealed that HSV-1-encoded latency-associated transcript (LAT) sequences, which can substitute for c-FLIP as an inhibitor of caspase-8-mediated apoptosis, are much less abundant in iDCs as compared to epithelial cells. Finally, iDCs infected with an HSV-1 LAT knockout mutant showed increased apoptosis when compared to iDCs infected with the corresponding wild-type HSV-1. Taken together, our results demonstrate that apoptosis of HSV-1-infected iDCs requires both c-FLIP downregulation and diminished expression of viral LAT.
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Glucagon/insulin ratio as a potential biomarker for pancreatic cancer in patients with new-onset diabetes mellitus.
Cancer Biol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most aggressive malignancies, with an overall 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. This dismal prognosis is largely due to the advanced stage of the disease at presentation, i.e., the late diagnosis. Therefore, early detection would have the potential to significantly improve the overall prognosis of PDAC patients. Diabetes mellitus (DM) has a high prevalence in PDAC patients and is frequently of new onset. The aim of this study was to analyze whether DM can be utilized as an early disease marker in PDAC. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis and immunohistochemistry for insulin and glucagon was performed in 22 PDAC and 16 normal pancreas tissues. Blood samples of 66 patients suffering from PDAC, 35 DM type 2 patients, and 29 healthy donors were analyzed for insulin, glucagon, C-peptide and glucose levels. Quantitative RT-PCR showed a two-fold increase of the glucagon/insulin ratio in pancreatic cancer tissues in comparison to the normal pancreas. By immunohistochemistry a shift in the expression pattern of glucagon and insulin, i.e., a higher glucagon/insulin ratio was found in PDAC associated islets compared to islets in the normal pancreas. Fasting insulin levels in PDAC patients were lower compared to DM patients. The calculated serum glucagon/insulin ratio was significantly different between PDAC and DM patients. At a cut-off of 7.4 ng/mU glucagon/insulin, pancreatic cancer induced new-onset DM could be discriminated from type 2 DM with 77% sensitivity and 69% specificity. In conclusion, the suggested serum glucagon/insulin ratio showed significant differences in patients with PDAC related DM and type 2 DM. Therefore, this analysis might help to identify PDAC in patients with new-onset DM in the age group at risk. Larger clinical trials have to confirm these findings.
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Infarct volume is a major determiner of post-stroke immune cell function and susceptibility to infection.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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Acute ischemic stroke in humans is associated with profound alterations in the immune system. Hallmarks of this stroke-induced immunodepression syndrome are: lymphocytopenia, impairment of T helper cell and monocyte function. We studied which stroke-specific factors predict these immunologic alterations and subsequent infections.
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Tolerability of inhaled N-chlorotaurine in the pig model.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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N-chlorotaurine, a long-lived oxidant produced by human leukocytes, can be applied in human medicine as an endogenous antiseptic. Its antimicrobial activity can be enhanced by ammonium chloride. This study was designed to evaluate the tolerability of inhaled N-chlorotaurine (NCT) in the pig model.
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TNF-alpha-induced up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines is reduced by phosphatidylcholine in intestinal epithelial cells.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2009
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Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is a major lipid of the gastrointestinal mucus layer. We recently showed that mucus from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis has low levels of PC. Clinical studies reveal that the therapeutic addition of PC to the colonic mucus using slow release preparations is beneficial. The positive role of PC in this disease is still unclear; however, we have recently shown that PC has an intrinsic anti-inflammatory property. It could be demonstrated that the exogenous application of PC inhibits membrane-dependent actin assembly and TNF-alpha-induced nuclear NF-kappaB activation. We investigate here in more detail the hypothesis that the exogenous application of PC has anti-inflammatory properties.
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Unravelling the interaction of human cytomegalovirus with dendritic cells by using SuperSAGE.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a ubiquitous pathogen with a predilection for dendritic cells (DCs). Latently infected myeloid progenitor cells develop into actively infected DCs with impaired functionality, allowing dissemination and transfer of virus throughout the body. However, the viral genes expressed in DCs and their effect on the cellular transcriptome are currently unknown. We investigated human DCs infected with HCMV by using SuperSAGE, allowing us to analyse the transcriptomes of both host and pathogen simultaneously. A small number of viral transcripts were expressed strongly and rapidly post-infection. However, only two were of the immediate-early class, including one with an unknown function. The viral genes expressed reflected the cellular milieu, with the majority having a known or suspected immune-evasion function. Several viral genes identified lack a known function and may fulfil specialized roles within DCs. The cellular response to infection included a strong interferon response, induction of cytokine and anti-apoptotic genes and alterations in genes involved in antigen presentation. We demonstrated the validity of our approach by showing that novel changes first seen in the transcriptome were reflected in the phenotype of HCMV-infected DCs. Delineation of the transcriptional changes underlying the phenotype of HCMV-infected DCs allows a better understanding of how a herpesvirus infects DCs and pinpoints linkages between phenotype and specific viral genes.
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Moesin-dependent cytoskeleton remodelling is associated with an anaplastic phenotype of pancreatic cancer.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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Cell motility is controlled by the dynamic cytoskeleton and its related proteins, such as members of the ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) family, which act as signalling molecules inducing cytoskeleton remodelling. Although ERM proteins have been identified as important factors in various malignancies, functional redundancy between these proteins has hindered the dissection of their individual contribution. The aim of the present study was to analyse the functional role of moesin in pancreatic malignancies. Cancer cells of different malignant lesions of human and transgenic mice pancreata were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. For functional analysis, cell growth, adhesion and invasion assays were carried out after transient and stable knock-down of moesin expression in pancreatic cancer cells. In vivo tumourigenicity was determined using orthotopic and metastatic mouse tumour models. We now show that moesin knock-down increases migration, invasion and metastasis and influences extracellular matrix organization of pancreatic cancer. Moesin-regulated migratory activities of pancreatic cancer cells were in part promoted through cellular translocation of beta-catenin, and re-distribution and organization of the cytoskeleton. Analysis of human and different transgenic mouse pancreatic cancers demonstrated that moesin is a phenotypic marker for anaplastic carcinoma, suggesting that this ERM protein plays a specific role in pancreatic carcinogenesis.
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Exposure of NK cells to intravenous immunoglobulin induces IFN gamma release and degranulation but inhibits their cytotoxic activity.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
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The mechanisms underlying the modulation of Natural Killer (NK) cell functions by intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) are poorly understood. Using an ex vivo whole blood assay system we demonstrate that IVIg suppresses NK cell cytotoxicity. This was paralleled by IVIg-induced degranulation of CD56(bright), CD16(positive) NK cells, reduced expression of CD16 and elevated IFN gamma release. To assess whether these findings also occur in vivo we analyzed whole blood before and after IVIg therapy of patients. Following IVIg treatment the number of NK cells in peripheral blood dropped significantly. We observed reduced CD16 expression, elevated IFN gamma-amounts in plasma, reduced NK cell cytotoxicity, and granzyme B release into the plasma, confirming our in vitro data. These effects on the functions of NK cells describe a novel immunomodulatory effect of IVIg. The in vitro assays employed here could represent informative test systems to monitor effects of in vivo IVIg treatment at an individual level.
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Regulation of NK cell function by human granulocyte arginase.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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The arginine-hydrolyzing enzyme arginase is constitutively expressed by human polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN). Upon PMN cell death arginase is liberated and depletes arginine in the microenvironment. This amino acid depletion suppresses T cell proliferation and cytokine secretion and emerges as a key mechanism of immunosuppression during chronic inflammation and tumor growth. Here we show that PMN arginase also severely impairs key functions of primary human NK cells as well as IL-2-activated NK cells. In the absence of arginine, NK cell proliferation and IL-12/IL-18-induced secretion of IFN-gamma are severely diminished. In contrast, NK cell viability, granule exocytosis, and cytotoxicity are independent of extracellular arginine. The mechanism of NK cell suppression by arginine depletion is posttranscriptional since mRNA transcript frequency is unaffected upon NK cell activation in the absence of arginine. Finally, we demonstrate that human purulent exudate ex vivo inhibits NK cell functions exclusively due to liberated arginase. Arginase inhibitors are therefore promising pharmacological agents to treat unwanted suppression of the innate (NK cell) as well as the adaptive (T cell) immune system.
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Primary human hepatocytes are protected against complement by multiple regulators.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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Inflammatory liver disorders are often associated with a potentially tissue damaging complement activation directly at the main site of complement protein synthesis. As hepatocytes may be the primary target of complement attack, we investigated the expression and protective capacity of soluble and membrane-bound complement regulatory proteins in primary human hepatocytes (PHH). Isolated PHHs were analyzed for their basal and cytokine-induced complement regulator expression by cytofluorometry, rtPCR, confocal laser microscopy and ELISA. Susceptibility to complement-mediated cell lysis was investigated with cytotoxicity tests. In contrast to previous reports, PHHs expressed CD46, CD55, CD59, soluble CD59 (sCD59) and factor H (fH), but not CD35. A low basal expression of CD55 was strongly enhanced by IFN-gamma, IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha. The expression of CD59 could be augmented by IL-1 beta, IL-6 and TNF-alpha but was suppressed by IFN-gamma. CD46 expression was not significantly altered. PHHs synthesized fH and sCD59 and fH was detected on PHH surface after exposure to IL-1 beta. Inhibition experiments revealed that CD59 was most effective in protecting PHHs from complement attack. These data clearly indicate that PHHs are protected by multiple complement regulatory proteins, which are controlled by proinflammatory cytokines. CD59 appears to be pivotal in protecting PHHs against complement-mediated lysis.
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Monitoring immunosuppression with measures of NFAT decreases cancer incidence.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Long-term immunosuppression causes a significantly increased risk for the development of malignancies in transplanted patients. A link between immunosuppression and incidence of cancer is well documented and involves the effect of immunosuppression on anti-tumor surveillance and antiviral adaptive immune responses. We present a 67-year-old patient with a history of recurrent non-melanoma skin cancer. After adjustment of immunosuppressive therapy under close pharmacodynamic control, the development of new malignant lesions could be prevented. The availability of a quantitative, quick laboratory test for an assessment of the individual functional activity of immunocompetent cells that are crucial for transplant rejection, defense against viral infection, and tumor surveillance along with the ability to adjust doses of immunosuppressive agents such that patients are largely protected against malignant disease and/or viral infection are important. NFAT-regulated gene expression measured in peripheral blood allowed us to predict "safe" immunosuppression. Thus patients could maintain a stable allograft function. This represents a breakthrough in transplantation medicine and advances our attempts to individualize treatment in transplanted patients.
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TLR8-driven IL-12-dependent reciprocal and synergistic activation of NK cells and monocytes by immunostimulatory RNA.
J. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Immunostimulatory RNA (isRNA) depending on sequence and structure can function as a ligand for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 and TLR8. Here we show that isRNA induces high levels of bioactive interleukin-12 in purified human monocytes, whereas purified natural killer (NK) cells did not respond. However, in a coculture of monocytes and NK cells, isRNA dramatically increased NK cell function. Activation of monocytes and NK cells was bidirectional, as monocytes in the presence of NK cells produced higher levels of bioactive interleukin-12. As a result of the monocyte-NK cell interaction in peripheral blood mononuclear cells isRNA induced high levels of interferon (IFN)-gamma in NK cells and strong NK cell-mediated cytotoxic activity. Induction of simultaneous IFN-gamma production and lytic activity by isRNA in NK cells was higher as compared with other established nucleic acid or small molecule TLR ligands. Our studies demonstrate that monocytes play a pivotal role in the orchestration of a strong NK cell response. With early NK cell-dependent IFN-gamma production being critical for the development of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses, newly developed isRNA-based TLR8 ligands join the list of promising oligonucleotides for immunotherapy of viral infection and cancer.
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Pancreatic neuropathy and neuropathic pain--a comprehensive pathomorphological study of 546 cases.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2009
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Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PCa) are characterized by intrapancreatic neural alterations and pain. Our aims were to: (a) Investigate whether neuropathic changes like pancreatic neuritis, increased neural density, and hypertrophy are phenomena only in CP or whether they are also evident in other pancreatic disorders as well, (b) study possible variations in neural cancer cell invasion among malignant pancreatic tumors, and (c) explore whether these neuropathic changes contribute to pain sensation.
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Endothelial progenitor cells possess monocyte-like antigen-presenting and T-cell-co-stimulatory capacity.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2009
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Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) home to sites of vascular repair and therefore have potential implications in allogenic transplantation settings and in various vascular diseases. This study was performed to investigate the antigen-presenting capacity of peripheral blood mononuclear cells-derived EPC and their T-cell co-stimulatory capacity compared with human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) or monocytes.
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Transcript levels of different cytokines and chemokines correlate with clinical and endoscopic activity in ulcerative colitis.
BMC Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2009
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A definition of disease activity in ulcerative colitis (UC) is difficult. The clinical activity index (CAI) is only an indirect assessment tool of bowel inflammation and the endoscopic activity index (EAI) sometimes cannot reflect the severity of disease to the full extent. Therefore, there is a need for an objective means to quantify inflammatory activity in mucosal biopsies. In our study, we wanted to examine the correlation between transcript levels of interleukin 8 (CXCL8), interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (CXCL10), myeloid-related protein 14 (calgranulin B), macrophage inflammatory protein 2 alpha (CXCL2) with CAI and EAI in UC.
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Selective and direct activation of human neutrophils but not eosinophils by Toll-like receptor 8.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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Granulocytes represent the largest fraction of immune cells in peripheral blood and are directly exposed to circulating Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands. Although highly relevant for TLR-based therapies, because of the technical challenge, activation of the granulocyte subsets of neutrophils and eosinophils by TLR ligands is less well studied than activation of other immune cell subsets.
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Neural fractalkine expression is closely linked to pain and pancreatic neuritis in human chronic pancreatitis.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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The chemokine fractalkine induces migration of inflammatory cells into inflamed tissues, thereby aggravating inflammatory tissue damage and fibrosis. Furthermore, fractalkine increases neuropathic pain through glial activation, which can be diminished by blocking of its receptor, CX3CR1, through neutralizing antibodies. As chronic pancreatitis (CP) is characterized by tissue infiltration of inflammatory cells, fibrosis, pancreatic neuritis and severe pain, the roles of fractalkine and CX3CR1 were investigated in CP (n=61) and normal pancreas (NP, n=21) by QRT-PCR, western blot and immunohistochemistry analyses. Their expression correlated with the severity of pancreatic neuritis, fibrosis, intrapancreatic nerve fiber density and hypertrophy, pain, CP duration and with the amount of inflammatory cell infiltrate immuno-positive for CD45 and CD68. To investigate the influence of fractalkine on pancreatic fibrogenesis, human pancreatic stellate cells (hPSCs) were isolated from patients with CP, incubated with fractalkine and then Collagen-1 and alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) expressions were measured. CX3CR1, but not fractalkine, mRNA was overexpressed in CP. In contrast, the protein levels of both CX3CR1 and fractalkine were upregulated. Neuro-immunoreactivity for fractalkine and CX3CR1 was strongest in patients suffering from severe pain and pancreatic neuritis. Long-term suffering from CP was noticeably related to increased neural immunoreactivity of fractalkine. Furthermore, fractalkine and CX3CR1 mRNA overexpressions were associated with enhanced lymphocyte and macrophage infiltration. Advanced fibrosis was associated with increased fractalkine expression, whereas in vitro fractalkine had no significant impact on collagen-1 and alpha-SMA expressions in hPSCs. Therefore, pancreatic fractalkine expression appears to be linked to visceral pain and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells into the pancreatic tissue and nerve fibers, with subsequent pancreatic neuritis. However, pancreatic fibrogenesis is probably indirectly influenced by fractalkine. Taken together, these novel findings suggest that CX3CR1 represents a potential novel therapeutic target to reduce inflammation and modulate pain in CP.
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Tumour-derived prostaglandin E and transforming growth factor-beta synergize to inhibit plasmacytoid dendritic cell-derived interferon-alpha.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2009
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In previous studies we reported that plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC) infiltrating head and neck cancer tissue are functionally impaired, but the molecular basis for the functional deficiency remained unclear. Here we demonstrate that tumour-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE(2)) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) increase interleukin-8 (IL-8) but synergistically inhibit interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7)- and Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)-stimulated PDC. The inhibitory effect of PGE(2) could be mimicked by the induction of cyclic AMP (cAMP) and by inhibitors of cyclooxygenase. The contribution of tumour-derived TGF-beta was confirmed by the TGF-beta antagonist SB-431542. Suppression of tumour-derived PGE(2) and TGF-beta restored TLR-induced IFN-alpha production of PDC. Additionally, PGE(2)- and TGF-beta-treated PDC display a tolerogenic phenotype because of a downregulation of CD40 accompanied by an upregulation of CD86. Finally, in TLR-stimulated PDC, PGE(2) and TGF-beta reduce the CCR7:CXCR4 ratio, suggesting that PDC are impaired in their ability to migrate to tumour-draining lymph nodes but are retained in stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1)-expressing tissues. Based on these data, cyclooxygenase inhibitors and TGF-beta antagonists may improve TLR7- and TLR9-based tumour immunotherapy.
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Regulatory T cells are key cerebroprotective immunomodulators in acute experimental stroke.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2009
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Systemic and local inflammatory processes have a key, mainly detrimental role in the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke. Currently, little is known about endogenous counterregulatory immune mechanisms. We examined the role of the key immunomodulators CD4(+)CD25(+) forkhead box P3 (Foxp3)(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (T(reg) cells), after experimental brain ischemia. Depletion of T(reg) cells profoundly increased delayed brain damage and deteriorated functional outcome. Absence of T(reg) cells augmented postischemic activation of resident and invading inflammatory cells including microglia and T cells, the main sources of deleterious cerebral tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), respectively. Early antagonization of TNF-alpha and delayed neutralization of IFN-gamma prevented infarct growth in T(reg) cell-depleted mice. Intracerebral interleukin-10 (IL-10) substitution abrogated the cytokine overexpression after T(reg) cell depletion and prevented secondary infarct growth, whereas transfer of IL-10-deficient T(reg) cells in an adoptive transfer model was ineffective. In conclusion, T(reg) cells are major cerebroprotective modulators of postischemic inflammatory brain damage targeting multiple inflammatory pathways. IL-10 signaling is essential for their immunomodulatory effect.
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Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and pancreatic tumor cell lines: the role of neutrophils and neutrophil-derived elastase.
Clin. Dev. Immunol.
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is frequently associated with fibrosis and a prominent inflammatory infiltrate in the desmoplastic stroma. Moreover, in PDAC, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is observed. To explore a possible connection between the infiltrating cells, particularly the polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and the tumor cell transition, biopsies of patients with PDAC (n = 115) were analysed with regard to PMN infiltration and nuclear expression of ?-catenin and of ZEB1, well-established indicators of EMT. In biopsies with a dense PMN infiltrate, a nuclear accumulation of ?-catenin and of ZEB1 was observed. To address the question whether PMN could induce EMT, they were isolated from healthy donors and were cocultivated with pancreatic tumor cells grown as monolayers. Rapid dyshesion of the tumor cells was seen, most likely due to an elastase-mediated degradation of E-cadherin. In parallel, the transcription factor TWIST was upregulated, ?-catenin translocated into the nucleus, ZEB1 appeared in the nucleus, and keratins were downregulated. EMT was also induced when the tumor cells were grown under conditions preventing attachment to the culture plates. Here, also in the absence of elastase, E-cadherin was downmodulated. PMN as well as prevention of adhesion induced EMT also in liver cancer cell line. In conclusion, PMN via elastase induce EMT in vitro, most likely due to the loss of cell-to-cell contact. Because in pancreatic cancers the transition to a mesenchymal phenotype coincides with the PMN infiltrate, a contribution of the inflammatory response to the induction of EMT and-by implication-to tumor progression is possible.
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Increased cyclosporin a sensitivity in vivo in pediatric renal transplant recipients compared with adults.
Ther Drug Monit
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Developmental regulation of the pharmacodynamics of cyclosporin A (CsA) has been suggested by in vitro studies. However, these results have not yet been reproduced in the complexity of an in vivo immune system, because reliable biomarkers of CsA effects have not been available.
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Pharmacodynamic monitoring by residual NFAT-regulated gene expression in stable pediatric liver transplant recipients.
Pediatr Transplant
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Pharmacokinetic monitoring of CNI is unsatisfactory, because at comparable CNI blood concentrations frequency and severity of adverse effects vary considerably among individual patients. Determining the RGE of NFAT-regulated genes in leukocytes is a new pharmacodynamic approach to measure directly the functional consequences of calcineurin inhibition in T-lymphocytes. We compared clinical outcome parameters and RGE of activated T-cells after pLtx. We measured prospectively RGE of NFAT regulated genes in 33 pLTX recipients in the maintenance period after pLTX. CsA-treated patients with recurrent infections had significantly lower RGE rates (27%) than children without recurrent infections (50%; p = 0.04), whereas pharmacokinetic parameters of CsA and the concomitant immunosuppressive therapy were comparable between both groups. In patients on tacrolimus-based IS therapy NFAT RGE was only slightly reduced (90%). Pharmacodynamic monitoring of CsA by measurement of RGE in T-lymphocytes has the potential to identify over-immunosuppressed pediatric liver transplant recipients on a CsA-based IS therapy, while in children on low-dose tacrolimus therapy, RGE measurement does not provide additional clinically useful information.
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In vivo expansion of naïve CD4+ CD25(high) FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in patients with colorectal carcinoma after IL-2 administration.
PLoS ONE
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Regulatory T cells (T(reg) cells) are increased in context of malignancies and their expansion can be correlated with higher disease burden and decreased survival. Initially, interleukin 2 (IL-2) has been used as T-cell growth factor in clinical vaccination trials. In murine models, however, a role of IL-2 in development, differentiation, homeostasis, and function of T(reg) cells was established. In IL-2 treated cancer patients a further T(reg)-cell expansion was described, yet, the mechanism of expansion is still elusive. Here we report that functional T(reg) cells of a naïve phenotype--as determined by CCR7 and CD45RA expression--are significantly expanded in colorectal cancer patients. Treatment of 15 UICC stage IV colorectal cancer patients with IL-2 in a phase I/II peptide vaccination trial further enlarges the already increased naïve T(reg)-cell pool. Higher frequencies of T-cell receptor excision circles in naïve T(reg) cells indicate IL-2 dependent thymic generation of naïve T(reg) cells as a mechanism leading to increased frequencies of T(reg) cells post IL-2 treatment in cancer patients. This finding could be confirmed in naïve murine T(reg) cells after IL-2 administration. These results point to a more complex regulation of T(reg) cells in context of IL-2 administration. Future strategies therefore might aim at combining IL-2 therapy with novel strategies to circumvent expansion and differentiation of naïve T(reg) cells.
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S100A9 is a biliary protein marker of disease activity in primary sclerosing cholangitis.
PLoS ONE
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Bile analysis has the potential to serve as a surrogate marker for inflammatory and neoplastic disorders of the biliary epithelium and may provide insight into biliary pathophysiology and possible diagnostic markers. We aimed to identify biliary protein markers of patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) by a proteomic approach.
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New gene-immunotherapy combining TRAIL-lymphocytes and EpCAMxCD3 Bispecific antibody for tumor targeting.
Clin. Cancer Res.
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To enhance T-cell responsiveness toward cancer cells, we overexpressed TRAIL in lymphocytes, as this death ligand induces tumor-specific apoptosis. To increase contact time of lymphocytes with tumor cells and thereby of TRAIL with its death receptors, lymphocytes were linked to the CD3 arm of bispecific antibody EpCAMxCD3, to guide the lymphocytes to tumor cells positive for the cancer stem cell marker EpCAM/ESA.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.