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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Cingulum bundle diffusivity and delusions of reference in first episode and chronic schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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The goal of this study was to assess integrity of the cingulum bundle in patients diagnosed with first episode schizophrenia, chronic schizophrenia, and matched controls as well as to determine the relationship between diffusion measures of cingulum bundle integrity and severity of patients? delusions of reference. Participants, who comprised 18 first episode patients, 20 chronic patients, and two groups of matched controls (20 subjects in each), underwent 3 T MRI diffusion tensor imaging. Patients diagnosed with schizophrenia (chronic+first episode) showed decreased fractional anisotropy in the right cingulum bundle compared with controls. First episode patients exhibited higher trace bilaterally, compared with matched controls, and on the left compared with chronic patients. Axial diffusivity was increased in first episode patients, bilaterally, compared with matched controls and chronic patients. Radial diffusivity was also higher, bilaterally, in first episode patients compared with matched controls, and on the right compared with chronic patients. Trace diffusity and radial diffusivity in first episode patients were significantly correlated with increased severity of delusions of reference. Given that the abnormalities were present only in first episode patients and were not observed in chronic cases, it appears that they normalize over time. These abnormalities in first episode patients involved diffusivity measures in all directions (trace, radial and axial), suggesting a likely acute, partially reversible process in which there is an increase in brain water content, i.e., swelling, edema, or inflammation, that may reflect an early neuroinflammatory response in first episode patients.
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Cingulum bundle integrity associated with delusions of control in schizophrenia: Preliminary evidence from diffusion-tensor tractography.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Delusions of control are among the most distinctive and characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia. Several theories have been proposed that implicate aberrant communication between spatially disparate brain regions in the etiology of this symptom. Given that white matter fasciculi represent the anatomical infrastructure for long-distance communication in the brain, the present study investigated whether delusions of control were associated with structural abnormalities in four major white matter fasciculi.
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Cerebral white matter abnormalities and their associations with negative but not positive symptoms of schizophrenia.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Although diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have reported fractional anisotropy (FA) abnormalities in multiple white matter (WM) regions in schizophrenia, relationship between abnormal FA and negative symptoms has not been fully explored. DTI data were acquired from twenty-four patients with chronic schizophrenia and twenty-five healthy controls. Regional brain abnormalities were evaluated by conducting FA comparisons in the cerebral and each lobar WMs between groups. Focal abnormalities were also evaluated with a voxel-wise tract specific method. Associations between structural WM changes and negative symptoms were assessed using the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS). The patient group showed decreased FA in the cerebrum, especially in the frontal lobe, compared with controls. A voxel-wise analysis showed FA decreases in almost all WM tracts in schizophrenia. Correlation analyses demonstrated negative relationships between FA in the cerebrum, particularly in the left hemisphere, and SANS global and global rating scores (Anhedonia-Asociality, Attention, and Affective-Flattening), and also associations between FA of left frontal lobe and SANS global score, Anhedonia-Asociality, and Attention. This study demonstrates that patients with chronic schizophrenia evince widespread cerebral FA abnormalities and that these abnormalities, especially in the left hemisphere, are associated with negative symptoms.
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Localized abnormalities in the cingulum bundle in patients with schizophrenia: A Diffusion Tensor tractography study.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The cingulum bundle (CB) connects gray matter structures of the limbic system and as such has been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. There is growing evidence to suggest that the CB is actually comprised of a conglomeration of discrete sub-connections. The present study aimed to use Diffusion Tensor tractography to subdivide the CB into its constituent sub-connections, and to investigate the structural integrity of these sub-connections in patients with schizophrenia and matched healthy controls. Diffusion Tensor Imaging scans were acquired from 24 patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and 26 matched healthy controls. Deterministic tractography was used in conjunction with FreeSurfer-based regions-of-interest to subdivide the CB into 5 sub-connections (I1 to I5). The patients with schizophrenia exhibited subnormal levels of FA in two cingulum sub-connections, specifically the fibers connecting the rostral and caudal anterior cingulate gyrus (I1) and the fibers connecting the isthmus of the cingulate with the parahippocampal cortex (I4). Furthermore, while FA in the I1 sub-connection was correlated with the severity of patients' positive symptoms (specifically hallucinations and delusions), FA in the I4 sub-connection was correlated with the severity of patients' negative symptoms (specifically affective flattening and anhedonia/asociality). These results support the notion that the CB is a conglomeration of structurally interconnected yet functionally distinct sub-connections, of which only a subset are abnormal in patients with schizophrenia. Furthermore, while acknowledging the fact that the present study only investigated the CB, these results suggest that the positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia may have distinct neurobiological underpinnings.
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Multiple white matter volume reductions in patients with panic disorder: relationships between orbitofrontal Gyrus volume and symptom severity and social dysfunction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Numerous brain regions are believed to be involved in the neuropathology of panic disorder (PD) including fronto-limbic regions, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. However, while several previous studies have demonstrated volumetric gray matter reductions in these brain regions, there have been no studies evaluating volumetric white matter changes in the fiber bundles connecting these regions. In addition, although patients with PD typically exhibit social, interpersonal and occupational dysfunction, the neuropathologies underlying these dysfunctions remain unclear. A voxel-based morphometry study was conducted to evaluate differences in regional white matter volume between 40 patients with PD and 40 healthy control subjects (HC). Correlation analyses were performed between the regional white matter volumes and patients' scores on the Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS) and the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Patients with PD demonstrated significant volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions including fronto-limbic, thalamo-cortical and cerebellar pathways (p<0.05, FDR corrected). Furthermore, there was a significant negative relationship between right orbitofrontal gyrus (OFG) white matter volume and the severity of patients' clinical symptoms, as assessed with the PDSS. A significant positive relationship was also observed between patients' right OFG volumes and their scores on the GAF. Our results suggest that volumetric reductions in widespread white matter regions may play an important role in the pathology of PD. In particular, our results suggest that structural white matter abnormalities in the right OFG may contribute to the social, personal and occupational dysfunction typically experienced by patients with PD.
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Globally and locally reduced MRI gray matter volumes in neuroleptic-naive men with schizotypal personality disorder: association with negative symptoms.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Some, but not all, previous magnetic resonance imaging studies have indicated smaller cortical and local gray matter volumes (GMVs) in men with schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) compared with healthy control (HC) subjects. Thus, there is need for a whole-brain comparison to resolve inconsistencies and provide hitherto generally absent data on the association between GMV and symptoms.
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Abnormalities of middle longitudinal fascicle and disorganization in patients with schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a long association fiber connecting the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and temporal pole with the angular gyrus through the white matter of the STG, structures which are known to play a crucial role in the pathology of schizophrenia. Functions of MdLF are thought to be related to language and thought processing in the left hemisphere, and with attention in the right hemisphere. While deficits of these functions are core clinical features of schizophrenia, no study has investigated the structural abnormalities of MdLF in schizophrenia.
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Fiber geometry in the corpus callosum in schizophrenia: evidence for transcallosal misconnection.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Structural abnormalities in the callosal fibers connecting the heteromodal association areas of the prefrontal and temporoparietal cortices bilaterally have been suggested to play a role in the etiology of schizophrenia.
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Understanding aberrant white matter development in schizophrenia: an avenue for therapy?
Expert Rev Neurother
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2011
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Although historically gray matter changes have been the focus of neuropathological and neuroradiological studies in schizophrenia, in recent years an increasing body of research has implicated white matter structures and its constituent components (axons, their myelin sheaths and supporting oligodendrocytes). This article summarizes this body of literature, examining neuropathological, neurogenetic and neuroradiological evidence for white matter pathology in schizophrenia. We then look at the possible role that antipsychotic medication may play in these studies, examining both its role as a potential confounder in studies examining neuronal density and brain volume, but also the possible role that these medications may play in promoting myelination through their effects on oligodendrocytes. Finally, the role of potential novel therapies is discussed.
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Dynamic changes in brain functional connectivity during concurrent dual-task performance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
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This study investigated the spatial, spectral, temporal and functional proprieties of functional brain connections involved in the concurrent execution of unrelated visual perception and working memory tasks. Electroencephalography data was analysed using a novel data-driven approach assessing source coherence at the whole-brain level. Three connections in the beta-band (18-24 Hz) and one in the gamma-band (30-40 Hz) were modulated by dual-task performance. Beta-coherence increased within two dorsofrontal-occipital connections in dual-task conditions compared to the single-task condition, with the highest coherence seen during low working memory load trials. In contrast, beta-coherence in a prefrontal-occipital functional connection and gamma-coherence in an inferior frontal-occipitoparietal connection was not affected by the addition of the second task and only showed elevated coherence under high working memory load. Analysis of coherence as a function of time suggested that the dorsofrontal-occipital beta-connections were relevant to working memory maintenance, while the prefrontal-occipital beta-connection and the inferior frontal-occipitoparietal gamma-connection were involved in top-down control of concurrent visual processing. The fact that increased coherence in the gamma-connection, from low to high working memory load, was negatively correlated with faster reaction time on the perception task supports this interpretation. Together, these results demonstrate that dual-task demands trigger non-linear changes in functional interactions between frontal-executive and occipitoparietal-perceptual cortices.
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Hearing voices: a role of interhemispheric auditory connectivity?
World J. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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Auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) are among the most common symptoms in schizophrenia. Earlier studies suggest changes in the structural connectivity of auditory areas involved in the pathophysiology of auditory hallucinations. Combining diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and fibre tractography provides a unique opportunity to visualize and quantify entire fibre bundles.
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Diffusion tensor imaging of anterior commissural fibers in patients with schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Alterations in white matter connections in schizophrenia have been investigated using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). There is also evidence from post-mortem studies as well as from magnetic resonance imaging morphometry studies that the anterior commissure (AC) might be implicated in schizophrenia, but no studies, to date, have investigated the AC using DTI or tractography.
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Diffusion tensor imaging, structural connectivity, and schizophrenia.
Schizophr Res Treatment
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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A fundamental tenet of the "disconnectivity" theories of schizophrenia is that the disorder is ultimately caused by abnormal communication between spatially disparate brain structures. Given that the white matter fasciculi represent the primary infrastructure for long distance communication in the brain, abnormalities in these fiber bundles have been implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique that enables the visualization of white matter macrostructure in vivo, and which has provided unprecedented insight into the existence and nature of white matter abnormalities in schizophrenia. The paper begins with an overview of DTI and more commonly used diffusion metrics and moves on to a brief review of the schizophrenia literature. The functional implications of white matter abnormalities are considered, particularly with respect to myelins role in modulating the transmission velocity of neural discharges. The paper concludes with a speculative hypothesis about the relationship between gray and white matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia.
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Longitudinal loss of gray matter volume in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: DARTEL automated analysis and ROI validation.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Region of Interest (ROI) longitudinal studies have detected progressive gray matter (GM) volume reductions in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FESZ). However, there are only a few longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies, and these have been limited in ability to detect relationships between volume loss and symptoms, perhaps because of methodologic issues. Nor have previous studies compared and validated VBM results with manual Region of Interest (ROI) analysis. In the present VBM study, high-dimensional warping and individualized baseline-rescan templates were used to evaluate longitudinal volume changes within subjects and compared with longitudinal manual ROI analysis on the same subjects. VBM evaluated thirty-three FESZ and thirty-six matched healthy control subjects (HC) at baseline (cross-sectionally) and longitudinally evaluated 21 FESZ and 23 HC after an average of 1.5 years from baseline scans. Correlation analyses detected the relationship between changes in regional GM volumes in FESZ and clinical symptoms derived from the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, as well as cognitive function as assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination. At baseline, patients with FESZ had significantly smaller GM volume compared to HC in some regions including the left superior temporal gyrus (STG). On rescan after 1.5 years, patients showed significant GM volume reductions compared with HC in the left STG including Heschls gyrus, and in widespread brain neocortical regions of frontal, parietal, and limbic regions including the cingulate gyrus. FESZ showed an association of positive symptoms and volume loss in temporal (especially STG) and frontal regions, and negative symptoms and volume loss in STG and frontal regions. Worse cognitive function was linked to widespread volume reduction, in frontal, temporal and parietal regions. The validation VBM analyses showed results similar to our previous ROI findings for STG and cingulate gyrus. We conclude FESZ show widespread, progressive GM volume reductions in many brain regions. Importantly, these reductions are directly associated with a worse clinical course. Congruence with ROI analyses suggests the promise of this longitudinal VBM methodology.
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Stochastic tractography study of Inferior Frontal Gyrus anatomical connectivity in schizophrenia.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Abnormalities within language-related anatomical structures have been associated with clinical symptoms and with language and memory deficits in schizophrenia. Recent studies suggest disruptions in functional connectivity within the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) network in schizophrenia. However, due to technical challenges, anatomical connectivity abnormalities within this network and their involvement in clinical and cognitive deficits have not been studied.
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Structural neuroimaging in schizophrenia: from methods to insights to treatments.
Dialogues Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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Historically, Kraepelin speculated that dementia praecox resulted from damage to the cerebral cortex, most notably the frontal and temporal cortices. It is only recently, however, that tools have been available to test this hypothesis. Now, more than a century later, we know that schizophrenia is a brain disorder. This knowledge comes from critical advances in imaging technology--including computerized axial tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and diffusion imaging--all of which provide an unprecedented view of neuroanatomical structures, in vivo. Here, we review evidence for structural neuroimaging abnormalities, beginning with evidence for focal brain abnormalities, primarily in gray matter, and proceeding to the quest to identify abnormalities in brain systems and circuits by focusing on damage to white matter connections in the brain. We then review future prospects that need to be explored and pursued in order to translate our current knowledge into an understanding of the neurobiology of schizophrenia, which can then be translated into novel treatments.
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Schizophrenia, myelination, and delayed corollary discharges: a hypothesis.
Schizophr Bull
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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Any etiological theory of schizophrenia must account for at least 3 distinctive features of the disorder, namely its excessive dopamine neurotransmission, its frequent periadolescent onset, and its bizarre, pathognomonic symptoms. In this article, we theorize that each of these features could arise from a single underlying cause--namely abnormal myelination of late-developing frontal white matter fasciculi. Specifically, we suggest that abnormalities in frontal myelination result in conduction delays in the efference copies initiated by willed actions. These conduction delays cause the resulting corollary discharges to be generated too late to suppress the sensory consequences of the willed actions. The resulting ambiguity as to the origins of these actions represents a phenomenologically and neurophysiologically significant prediction error. On a phenomenological level, the perception of salience in a self-generated action leads to confusion as to its origins and, consequently, passivity experiences and auditory hallucinations. On a neurophysiological level, this prediction error leads to the increased activity of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain. This dopaminergic activity causes previously insignificant events to be perceived as salient, which exacerbates the budding hallucinations and passivity experiences and triggers additional first-rank symptoms such as delusions of reference. The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the theory and some testable predictions which may form a worthwhile basis for future research.
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Predicting inter-hemispheric transfer time from the diffusion properties of the corpus callosum in healthy individuals and schizophrenia patients: a combined ERP and DTI study.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2010
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Several theories of schizophrenia have emphasized the role of aberrant neural timing in the etiology of the disease, possibly as a consequence of conduction delays caused by structural damage to the white-matter fasciculi. Consistent with this theory, increased inter-hemispheric transmission times (IHTTs) to unilaterally-presented visual stimuli have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. The present study investigated whether or not these IHTT abnormalities could be underpinned by structural damage to the visual fibers of the corpus callosum.
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Corpus callosum abnormalities and their association with psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia.
Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2010
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While the neuroanatomical underpinnings of the functional brain disconnectivity observed in patients with schizophrenia (SZ) remain elusive, white matter fiber bundles of the brain are a likely candidate, given that they represent the infrastructure for long-distance neural communication.
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Duration of posttraumatic stress disorder predicts hippocampal grey matter loss.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2009
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To examine the impact of environmental stress on grey matter volume in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), we investigated the relationship between duration of PTSD and grey matter volume of hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex. Twenty-one participants with PTSD and 17 trauma-exposed controls, matched for age and sex and with no history of substance dependence, underwent a T1-weighted structural MRI scan and voxel-based morphometry was employed. After controlling for age, depression and whole-brain volume, analysis of covariance revealed significant reductions in hippocampus and rostral anterior cingulate cortex in PTSD, and there was a significant negative correlation between right hippocampal volume and PTSD duration. This pattern suggests that prolonged PTSD may have cumulative adverse effects on hippocampal volume, highlighting the potential role of genetic-environmental interactions.
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Delusions and dorso-medial frontal cortex volume in first-episode schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometry study.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Of the few studies that have directly investigated the neuroanatomical correlates of delusions in patients with recent-onset schizophrenia, a number have paradoxically reported a positive correlation between delusion severity and regional grey matter volume. In order to explore this relationship, 31 patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) underwent a clinical interview and a T1-weighted structural MRI scan. Patients scores on the Delusions subscale of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale were correlated with the volume of every voxel in their grey matter images in SPM99. Patients delusion scores were found to correlate with the volume of a cluster of voxels located in the dorso-medial frontal cortex, centred on the medial frontal gyrus. Post-hoc analysis revealed that this region-of-correlation was volumetrically reduced in the FES patients relative to a group of 21 matched healthy controls. The results of this study support the hypothesis that while a certain level of structural brain atrophy is necessary for delusion formation in patients with FES, excessive structural atrophy may in fact preclude the formation of highly systematized delusions.
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Workshop on defining the significance of progressive brain change in schizophrenia: December 12, 2008 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) all-day satellite, Scottsdale, Arizona. The rapporteurs report.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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In 1990 a satellite session of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology (ACNP) Annual Meeting was held that focused on the question of whether progressive changes in brain structure occur in schizophrenia and this session raised considerable controversy. Eighteen years later, on December 12, 2008, after much data have since accumulated on this topic, a group of approximately 45 researchers gathered after the annual ACNP meeting to participate in a similar workshop on several unresolved questions still remaining: (1) How strong and consistent is the evidence? (2) Is there anatomic specificity to changes and is it disease specific or subject specific? (3) What is the time course? (4) What is the underlying pathophysiology (i.e. is it central to the disease process or is it due to neuroleptic treatment or other epiphenomena? (5) What is its clinical significance? and (6) Are there treatment implications? The day was chaired by Lynn E. DeLisi and co-chaired by Stephen J. Wood. Christos Pantelis and Jeffrey A. Lieberman extensively helped with its planning. The ACNP assisted in its organization as an official satellite of its annual meeting and several pharmaceutical companies provided support with unrestricted educational grants. The following is a summary of the sessions as recounted by rapporteurs whose job was to record as closely as possible the outcome of discussions on the above outlined questions.
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Spatio-temporal EEG waves in first episode schizophrenia.
Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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Schizophrenia is characterized by a deficit in context processing, with physiological correlates of hypofrontality and reduced amplitude P3b event-related potentials. We hypothesized an additional physiological correlate: differences in the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical activity along the anterior-posterior axis of the scalp.
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Neural synchrony in patients with a first episode of schizophrenia: tracking relations with grey matter and symptom profile.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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Although schizophrenia has been characterized by disruptions to neural synchrony, it remains unknown whether these disturbances are related to symptoms and loss of grey matter. We examined relations between 40 Hz Gamma band synchrony and grey matter in patients with schizophrenia at first episode and after 2.5 years.
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Emotion-elicited gamma synchrony in patients with first-episode schizophrenia: a neural correlate of social cognition outcomes.
J Psychiatry Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2009
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Schizophrenia may be understood as a disorder of neural synchrony. There is also increasing evidence that emotional and social cognitive impairments are central to this disorder. In patients with first-episode schizophrenia, we examined whether emotion perception is associated with disruptions to high-frequency (40 Hz) gamma synchrony and whether these disruptions predict self-regulatory adaptive compensations reflected in social cognitive behaviours.
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Whole brain resting state functional connectivity abnormalities in schizophrenia.
Schizophr. Res.
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Schizophrenia has been associated with disturbances in brain connectivity; however the exact nature of these disturbances is not fully understood. Measuring temporal correlations between the functional MRI time courses of spatially disparate brain regions obtained during rest has recently emerged as a popular paradigm for estimating brain connectivity. Previous resting state studies in schizophrenia explored connections related to particular clinical or cognitive symptoms (connectivity within a-priori selected networks), or connections restricted to functional networks obtained from resting state analysis. Relatively little has been done to understand global brain connectivity in schizophrenia.
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Frontal delta power associated with negative symptoms in ultra-high risk individuals who transitioned to psychosis.
Schizophr. Res.
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It has recently been shown that treatment with long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) could decrease the rate of transition to psychosis, and improve psychiatric symptoms and global functioning in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Previous studies have suggested that resting state brain activity measured with electroencephalography (EEG) may represent an objective biomarker of changes in neural function associated with supplementation with omega-3 PUFAs. It has also been proposed that although resting state EEG cannot, by itself, predict transition to psychosis in UHR individuals, the combination of resting state EEG with negative symptoms may be a valid predictor of transition. The present study investigated whether treatment with omega-3 PUFAs influenced resting state EEG in UHR participants, and whether or not the association of the participants resting state EEG with their levels of negative symptoms was dependent on their transition status. The brain activity of 73 UHR participants was recorded in the context of a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of the effects of supplementation with omega-3 PUFAs. The UHR participants who subsequently transitioned to psychosis (UHR+) did not differ from those who did not transition (UHR-) in terms of resting state EEG power in any frequency band. However, negative symptom scores were associated with increased delta activity in the frontal region of the UHR+ participants, but not in the UHR- participants. Treatment with omega-3 PUFAs did not induce changes in resting state EEG in either group. The results suggest that decreased frontal delta activity, in combination with high levels of negative symptoms, may be a risk factor for subsequent transition to psychosis in UHR individuals.
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Structural abnormalities in the cuneus associated with Herpes Simplex Virus (type 1) infection in people at ultra high risk of developing psychosis.
Schizophr. Res.
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It has been suggested that some cases of schizophrenia may be caused by an interaction between physiological risk factors and exposure to certain neurotropic infectious agents such as Herpes Simplex Virus type 1 (HSV1). This study investigated whether HSV1 exposure was associated with structural brain abnormalities in individuals who, because of genetic or other factors, were deemed at ultra high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis. Twenty-five UHR individuals with a history of HSV1 exposure (HSV1+), 33 UHR participants without a history of HSV1 exposure (HSV1-) and 19 healthy controls participated in the study. All participants underwent a T1-weighted structural MRI scan, and HSV1 exposure was determined based on the presence of IgG class antibodies in the blood serum. Voxel based morphometry revealed that the HSV1+ participants exhibited volumetric gray matter reductions in the cuneus, relative to both the HSV1--and healthy control participants (p<0.05, small volume corrected for familywise error). The results of the study suggest that a history of HSV1 infection is associated with volumetric gray matter reductions in individuals at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis, and are consistent with previous studies that have identified structural gray matter abnormalities in HSV1-infected patients with established schizophrenia.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.