JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pulmonary Pyoderma Gangrenosum Without Cutaneous Manifestations.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pyoderma gangrenosum is a chronic sterile skin disorder that is frequently seen in association with systemic disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease. Extracutaneous pyoderma gangrenosum is rare and most commonly occurs in the lungs. It is particularly unusual for extracutaneous pyoderma gangrenosum to manifest prior to skin findings and without an associated systemic disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Interstitial Pneumonia Related to Undifferentiated Connective Tissue Disease: Pathologic Pattern and Prognosis.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background:Undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD) involves conditions characterized by both having symptoms of connective tissue disease (CTD) and autoantibodies but they do not fulfill the criteria of a specific CTD. The frequency or prognosis of the usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern in UCTD is unknown, which may be confused with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). This study aimed to investigate the frequency of the UIP pattern in interstitial pneumonia related to UCTD and compare its prognosis with that of IPF and UCTD-nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (UCTD-NSIP). Methods:The medical records of 788 patients presumptively diagnosed with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) at Asan Medical Center from January 2005 to December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed. UCTD was diagnosed according to the criteria by Corte et al1 and the prognoses were compared between UCTD-UIP and UCTD-NSIP and between UCTD-UIP and IPF. Results:Among 105 UCTD patients (13.3% of total subjects), 44 had an UIP pattern (by surgical lung biopsy: 24; by high-resolution computed tomography: 20), 29 had an NSIP pattern (by surgical lung biopsy), and 9 had an organizing pneumonia pattern (by biopsy). The overall survival of the UCTD-UIP group was shorter than that of the UCTD-NSIP group (P=0.021) but significantly better than that of the IPF group (P=0.042). Conclusions:A UIP pattern, which seems to be frequent in UCTD, showed a poorer prognosis than that of UCTD-NSIP. However, the prognosis of UCTD-UIP was significantly better than that of IPF, highlighting the importance of searching for underlying UCTD in suspected IPF cases.
Related JoVE Video
Pulmonary Pathology: LC22-1 DIAGNOSIS OF IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY FIBROSIS (IPF): HISTOLOGIC AND HRCT DIAGNOSIS.
Pathology
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neither the pathologist nor the radiologist makes the diagnosis of IPF. It is a clinical diagnosis. Current recommendations are that the diagnosis of IPF follows multidisciplinary discussion (MDD) involving clinicians, radiologists and, if tissue is take, pathologists. According to the 2011 IPF guidelines, the diagnosis of IPF requires the pathologic and/or radiologic pattern of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) on surgical lung biopsy or HRCT respectively.IPF represents UIP of unknown cause. UIP ? IPF. There are other causes of UIP including chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, connective tissue diseases, familial pulmonary fibrosis, some drug reactions and miscellaneous rare conditions. Clues to these other causes of UIP can be histologic, radiologic, serologic, or clinical. Chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis may have giant cells, granulomas, and central lobular pathologic changes. Connective tissue diseases may have clues in the serology, clinical history, or prominent inflammatory infiltrate and/or numerous germinal centers histologically. Clues to familial fibrosis and drug reactions are often historical.The radiologic features of UIP on HRCT can be summarized as peripheral basal honeycombing with little or no ground glass change; some recent studies suggest that there may be some modification to these criteria and honeycombing may not always be required.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic profiling of Botrytis cinerea conidial germination.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Botrytis cinerea is one of the most relevant plant pathogenic fungi. The first step during its infection process is the germination of the conidia. Here, we report on the first proteome analysis during the germination of B. cinerea conidia, where 204 spots showed significant differences in their accumulation between ungerminated and germinated conidia by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and qPCR. The identified proteins were grouped by gene ontology revealing that the infective tools are mainly preformed inside the ungerminated conidia allowing a quick fungal development at the early stages of conidial germination. From 118 identified spots, several virulence factors have been identified while proteins, such as mannitol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase or uracil phosphoribosyltransferase, have been disclosed as a new potential virulence factors in botrytis whose role in pathogenicity needs to be studied to gain new insights about the role of these proteins as therapeutic targets and virulence factors.
Related JoVE Video
Smoking-related idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cigarette smoking is a key factor in the development of numerous pulmonary diseases. An international group of clinicians, radiologists and pathologists evaluated patients with previously identified idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (IIP) to determine unique features of cigarette smoking. Phase 1 (derivation group) identified smoking-related features in patients with a history of smoking (n=41). Phase 2 (validation group) determined if these features correctly predicted the smoking status of IIP patients (n=100) to participants blinded to smoking history. Finally, the investigators sought to determine if a new smoking-related interstitial lung disease phenotype could be defined. Phase 1 suggested that preserved forced vital capacity with disproportionately reduced diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide, and various radiographic and histopathological findings were smoking-related features. In phase 2, the kappa coefficient among clinicians was 0.16 (95% CI 0.11-0.21), among the pathologists 0.36 (95% CI 0.32-0.40) and among the radiologists 0.43 (95% CI 0.35-0.52) for smoking-related features. Eight of the 100 cases were felt to represent a potential smoking-related interstitial lung disease. Smoking-related features of interstitial lung disease were identified in a minority of smokers and were not specific for smoking. This study is limited by its retrospective design, the potential for recall bias in smoking history and lack of information on second-hand smoke exposure. Further research is needed to understand the relationship between smoking and interstitial lung disease.
Related JoVE Video
Broad-range glycosidase activity profiling.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Plants produce hundreds of glycosidases. Despite their importance in cell wall (re)modeling, protein and lipid modification, and metabolite conversion, very little is known of this large class of glycolytic enzymes, partly because of their post-translational regulation and their elusive substrates. Here, we applied activity-based glycosidase profiling using cell-permeable small molecular probes that react covalently with the active site nucleophile of retaining glycosidases in an activity-dependent manner. Using mass spectrometry we detected the active state of dozens of myrosinases, glucosidases, xylosidases, and galactosidases representing seven different retaining glycosidase families. The method is simple and applicable for different organs and different plant species, in living cells and in subproteomes. We display the active state of previously uncharacterized glycosidases, one of which was encoded by a previously declared pseudogene. Interestingly, glycosidase activity profiling also revealed the active state of a diverse range of putative xylosidases, galactosidases, glucanases, and heparanase in the cell wall of Nicotiana benthamiana. Our data illustrate that this powerful approach displays a new and important layer of functional proteomic information on the active state of glycosidases.
Related JoVE Video
Consensus guidelines for the diagnosis and clinical management of Erdheim-Chester disease.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD) is a rare, non-Langerhans histiocytosis. Recent findings suggest that ECD is a clonal disorder, marked by recurrent BRAFV600E mutations in >50% of patients, in which chronic uncontrolled inflammation is an important mediator of disease pathogenesis. Although ?500 to 550 cases have been described in the literature to date, increased physician awareness has driven a dramatic increase in ECD diagnoses over the last decade. ECD frequently involves multiple organ systems and has historically lacked effective therapies. Given the protean clinical manifestations and the lack of a consensus-derived approach for the management of ECD, we provide here the first multidisciplinary consensus guidelines for the clinical management of ECD. These recommendations were outlined at the First International Medical Symposium for ECD, comprised of a comprehensive group of international academicians with expertise in the pathophysiology and therapy of ECD. Detailed recommendations on the initial clinical, laboratory, and radiographic assessment of ECD patients are presented in addition to treatment recommendations based on critical appraisal of the literature and clinical experience. These formalized consensus descriptions will hopefully facilitate ongoing and future research efforts in this disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Lung tumors masquerading as desquamative interstitial pneumonia (DIP): report of 7 cases and review of the literature.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malignant tumors in the lung (both primary and metastatic) rarely may be associated with markedly discohesive tumor cells, resulting in airspace filling reminiscent of "desquamative interstitial pneumonia" (DIP) on histopathology evaluation. A peculiar aspect of this growth pattern is the relatively bland appearance of the tumor cells, in many cases simulating benign alveolar macrophages at scanning magnification. We searched the Charles Carrington Memorial consultation files in the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology at Mayo Clinic Arizona for instances of malignant tumors in lung simulating DIP, from 1992 to 2011. We identified 7 cases involving transbronchial biopsies, needle core samples, or resected lung specimens. Clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical analyses of these 7 patients were performed, including detailed morphometric analysis of the individual tumor cells using calibrated measurement tools on digital images. We compared the results with those of a control group of 4 patients with benign DIP-macrophage reactions in smoking-related lung disease. The study group comprised 5 male and 2 female patients, 48 to 86 years in age (median: 67 y). The radiologic findings included lobar consolidation, localized ground-glass opacities, and 1 or more nodules. None of the patients had typical bilateral infiltrates of DIP. Microscopically, the lung parenchyma was dominated by the presence of prominent tumor cells filling alveolar spaces. Four patients had primary lung carcinoma (adenocarcinoma), whereas 3 had metastases from other sites, including a melanoma. Immunohistochemical staining studies were performed on 6 of 7 cases to establish the diagnosis. Nuclear diameter, cytoplasmic diameter, and nuclear/cytoplasmic (N/C) ratios in patient and control groups were compared using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. No significant difference in the diameters of nucleus and cytoplasm between cases and control groups (P=0.3447 and 0.7055, respectively) was seen, and only a marginally significant difference in N/C ratios (P=0.0890) was seen. A more complex analysis, generalized estimating equation analysis, showed a significant difference in N/C ratio between the 2 groups (P=0.0278). A "DIP-growth pattern" of malignant tumors in the lung is presented. Although the N/C ratio differences approached statistical significance when compared with controls, the key to diagnosis is the recognition of the malignant cytology of the tumor nuclei. Immunohistochemical studies (keratin or other markers) are helpful in establishing an accurate diagnosis in this setting.
Related JoVE Video
Perplexing lesions of the sinonasal cavity and skull base: IgG4-related and similar inflammatory diseases.
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
IgG4-related disease (IgG4RD) causing sinonasal and skull base pathology is uncommonly described. We present a series of suspected IgG4RD patients, with a pertinent review of the literature to highlight diagnostic challenges.
Related JoVE Video
Contrasting Roles of the Apoplastic Aspartyl Protease APOPLASTIC, ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1-DEPENDENT1 and LEGUME LECTIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 in Arabidopsis Systemic Acquired Resistance.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is an inducible immune response that depends on ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Here, we show that Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) EDS1 is required for both SAR signal generation in primary infected leaves and SAR signal perception in systemic uninfected tissues. In contrast to SAR signal generation, local resistance remains intact in eds1 mutant plants in response to Pseudomonas syringae delivering the effector protein AvrRpm1. We utilized the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant to identify new SAR regulatory proteins in plants conditionally expressing AvrRpm1. Comparative proteomic analysis of apoplast-enriched extracts from AvrRpm1-expressing wild-type and eds1 mutant plants led to the identification of 12 APOPLASTIC, EDS1-DEPENDENT (AED) proteins. The genes encoding AED1, a predicted aspartyl protease, and another AED, LEGUME LECTIN-LIKE PROTEIN1 (LLP1), were induced locally and systemically during SAR signaling and locally by salicylic acid (SA) or its functional analog, benzo 1,2,3-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester. Because conditional overaccumulation of AED1-hemagglutinin inhibited SA-induced resistance and SAR but not local resistance, the data suggest that AED1 is part of a homeostatic feedback mechanism regulating systemic immunity. In llp1 mutant plants, SAR was compromised, whereas the local resistance that is normally associated with EDS1 and SA as well as responses to exogenous SA appeared largely unaffected. Together, these data indicate that LLP1 promotes systemic rather than local immunity, possibly in parallel with SA. Our analysis reveals new positive and negative components of SAR and reinforces the notion that SAR represents a distinct phase of plant immunity beyond local resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Histopathologic, immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma is an uncommon but distinctive manifestation of mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma occurs in adults and children and can cause diagnostic problems, especially in small biopsies. Few studies have characterized the histologic and immunophenotypic features of pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. t(11;19)(q21;p13) is considered disease-defining for mucoepidermoid carcinoma; its significance in pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma warrants further study. Forty three pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinomas were re-reviewed and graded according to the Brandwein grading system for mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Four cases were excluded because of a split opinion between pathology report and re-review. These cases were negative for MAML2 rearrangement by FISH. TTF-1, napsin A, p40 and p63 immunostains were scored: 0 (negative), 1 (1-25% tumor cells), 2 (26-50%), 3 (51-75%) or 4 (>75%). FISH to detect MAML2 rearrangement used a MAML2-11q21 break-apart probe. Thirty nine pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma (4 low, 30 intermediate, 5 high grade) contained mucous, epidermoid and intermediate cells and lacked keratinization and in situ carcinoma of the overlying epithelium. All cases with available gross description (n=22) had a central/endo- or peribronchial location. All 25 cases tested for immunohistochemistry were positive (scores 1-4) for p63; 23 also expressed p40. In six cases, the p63 score was higher than p40. TTF-1 and napsin were uniformly negative in all 25 cases. MAML2 rearrangement was identified by FISH in each of the 24 cases tested (3 low, 19 intermediate, 2 high grade). Clinical history was available in 29 patients (15 men) (median age, 48 years) with follow-up in 24 (median, 8.4 years). Five patients died of unrelated causes; one developed metastatic pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma. In conclusion, features helpful in distinguishing pulmonary mucoepidermoid carcinoma from other lung cancers include its central/endo- or peribronchial location together with the presence of mucous cells, p63 expression, lack of keratinization and MAML2 rearrangement. TTF-1 and napsin are typically not expressed.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with high-resolution CT in patients with little or no radiological evidence of honeycombing: secondary analysis of a randomised, controlled trial.
Lancet Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Present guidelines for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis require histological confirmation of surgical lung biopsy samples when high-resolution CT images are not definitive for usual interstitial pneumonia. We aimed to assess the predictive value of high-resolution CT in a cohort of patients with suspected idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from a previous randomised trial.
Related JoVE Video
The diagnosis of thoracic malignant mesothelioma: practical considerations and recent developments.
Turk Patoloji Derg
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pleural biopsies for the evaluation of malignant mesothelioma can be some of the most challenging cases faced by the practicing surgical pathologist. We review the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and imaging studies in patients with malignant mesothelioma, and then present a practical approach to the diagnosis using the cytologic features for malignancy and whether there is an epithelioid or spindled morphology; four main scenarios are discussed. The pertinent immunohistochemical work-up is reviewed for each scenario. Following this general overview, more unusual histologic patterns are compared and unusual presentations are discussed. Brief mention of grading systems for malignant mesothelioma and the use of electron microscopy and molecular studies is made. Practical considerations in the diagnosis of malignant mesothelioma are made throughout.
Related JoVE Video
Lung cancer histologic and immunohistochemical heterogeneity in the era of molecular therapies: analysis of 172 consecutive surgically resected, entirely sampled pulmonary carcinomas.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
On the basis of seminal studies in the 1980s, appreciable histologic heterogeneity, ranging from 45% to 70% of cases, may be encountered in lung cancer. However, the epidemiologic and histologic landscape of lung cancer in the last 3 decades has radically changed. In this study, 172 consecutive surgically resected primary lung carcinomas evaluated from 2010 to 2012 were entirely sampled and examined according to current histologic classifications. In 129 cases, a positive preoperative biopsy was also available. Major histologic heterogeneity (a single tumor showing at least 2 different histologic types) and minor histologic heterogeneity (a single tumor showing just 1 histologic type but at least 2 different growth patterns) were evaluated in all cases. Immunohistochemical heterogeneity (ie, "aberrant" staining) was also assessed using a panel of markers of adenocarcinoma (TTF-1, napsin, and CK7), squamous cell carcinoma (p63, CK5/6), and neuroendocrine differentiation (chromogranin and synaptophysin), both on positive biopsies and surgical specimens. Overall, major and minor histologic heterogeneity on resections were disclosed in 4% (7 cases) and 50.6% (87 cases), respectively, whereas just 1 case of minor heterogeneity (pleomorphic carcinoma) was observed on biopsies. Minor heterogeneity was limited to adenocarcinomas (82.6%, 81/98 cases) and sarcomatoid carcinomas (6 pleomorphic types among 8 sarcomatoid carcinomas). Immunohistochemical heterogeneity was recorded in 22.6% of the cases, with expression of p63 and CK5/6 in a subset of adenocarcinomas (25 cases, 25.5%), CK7 in 17.4% of squamous cell carcinomas, and synaptophysin in 6 cases of non-neuroendocrine tumors (4%, 6/155). The high rate of adenocarcinomas, accounting for 57% (98 cases) of 172 consecutively resected lung cancers, reflects the new scenario of thoracic oncology and may explain the significant lower rate of major histologic heterogeneity (4%) and the higher frequency of different architectural patterns (minor heterogeneity) that we found in lung cancer compared with previous studies.
Related JoVE Video
Surgical pathology of pleural coccidioidomycosis: a clinicopathological study of 36 cases.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Most pulmonary coccidioidal infections are intraparenchymal; the pleurae are rarely involved. Pleuritis is a recognized complication of ruptured cavitary infections and occasionally occurs in other settings but has not been fully characterized. To define the clinical and histopathologic characteristics of pleural coccidioidomycosis as encountered by surgical pathologists, we reviewed the clinical history, imaging, and histology of 36 biopsy-, resection-, or autopsy-confirmed cases (with coccidioidal spherules present in pleural tissue; median age, 39 years; 22 men). These represented 7% of all pulmonary coccidioidal infections and showed 2 modes of presentation, including ruptured cavitary infection (26) and pleural-predominant disease with milder parenchymal involvement (10). Risk factors included immunodeficiency, smoking, and occupational exposure to soil. Common symptoms (median, 5 weeks) included cough (47%), chest pain (44%), and dyspnea (39%). Imaging often showed pleural adhesions (64%) and effusions (61%). Treatment included lobectomy or decortication, with antifungal medications. All cases showed granulomatous pleuritis. Both modes of presentation showed similar histologic features, including the composition of inflammatory infiltrates, degree of fibrosis, and extent of necrosis. Spherules were usually few (mean density, <1/10 high-power field). Three deaths occurred (all with ruptured cavities); the remaining patients recovered. Differential diagnosis of pleural effusions should include coccidioidomycosis, particularly in endemic areas, even without significant intrapulmonary disease. Most cases of coccidioidomycotic pleuritis are encountered by pathologists after resection of ruptured cavities with decortication, but pleural-predominant infections may be biopsied for diagnostic purposes. Spherules are usually rare in pleural tissue, and liberal sampling, cultures, or serologic studies may be required to confirm the diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Usual interstitial pneumonia preceding collagen vascular disease: a retrospective case control study of patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence and the predictive factors for collagen vascular disease (CVD) in patients initially diagnosed with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and to examine the features of patients who then developed CVD.
Related JoVE Video
Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy in the diagnosis of fibrotic interstitial lung diseases.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Histology is a key element for the multidisciplinary diagnosis of fibrotic diffuse parenchymal lung diseases (f-DPLD) when the clinical-radiological picture is nondiagnostic. Transbronchial lung cryobiopsy (TBLC) have been shown to be useful for obtaining large and well-preserved biopsies of lung parenchyma, but experience with TBLC in f-DPLD is limited.
Related JoVE Video
Rheumatoid Arthritis-associated Interstitial Lung Disease: Radiologic Identification of Usual Interstitial Pneumonia Pattern.
Radiology
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose:To determine the accuracy of computed tomography (CT) in identifying the histopathologic usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD).Materials and Methods:All patients were enrolled into institutional review board-approved longitudinal cohorts at their respective institution, and informed consent was obtained at the time of enrollment. Images of patients with surgical lung biopsy-proved RA-ILD (n = 69) were collected from three tertiary care centers. Two experienced thoracic radiologists independently reviewed the CT scans. The CT pattern was categorized as definite UIP, possible UIP, or inconsistent with UIP in accordance with published criteria. Findings of biopsies were reviewed by an experienced lung pathologist. The sensitivity and specificity of definite CT UIP pattern to histopathologic UIP pattern were determined. The agreement between radiologists was assessed by calculating a ? score.Results:The histopathologic UIP pattern was present in 42 of 69 (61%) patients. Men were more likely than women to have a histopathologic UIP pattern (P = .02). Twenty patients (29%, 20 of 69) had a definite UIP pattern on CT scans. The specificity of CT UIP pattern was 96% (26 of 27; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 81%, 100%), with a negative predictive value of 53% (26 of 49). The sensitivity of CT UIP pattern was 45% (19 of 42; 95% CI: 30%, 61%), with a positive predictive value of 95% (19 of 20). The agreement between radiologists for definite UIP pattern versus not was 87% (? = 0.67, P < .0001).Conclusion:Definite UIP pattern on a CT scan in RA-ILD is highly specific and moderately sensitive for histopathologic UIP pattern. CT can therefore help accurately identify the UIP pattern in RA-ILD.© RSNA, 2013Supplemental material: http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13130187/-/DC1.
Related JoVE Video
Endobronchial lipomatous tumors: clinicopathologic analysis of 12 cases with molecular cytogenetic evidence supporting classification as "lipoma".
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lipomatous lesions rarely involve the bronchial tree, and detailed morphologic and molecular cytogenetic analysis of these tumors is lacking. The clinicopathologic features of 12 endobronchial lipomatous neoplasms were studied, with ancillary fluorescence in situ hybridization performed in subsets of cases for CPM, which is amplified in atypical lipomatous tumors/well-differentiated liposarcomas (ALT/WDL), and HMGA1 and HMGA2, which are often rearranged in lipomas. The cases occurred predominately in older men (91%) (age range 44 to 80 y, mean 65 y). Most patients (80%) had a former or current history of heavy smoking (20 to 100 pack-years). Three patients had concurrent pulmonary squamous cell carcinoma, and 1 had a history of multiple lung cancers. Most lesions were small (<2.5 cm) and discovered incidentally. A subset of tumors showed atypical morphologic features that would be suggestive of ALT/WDL in soft tissue sites, including regions of fibrosis and scattered hyperchromatic stromal cells. However, all cases with atypia were CPM negative and behaved in a clinically benign manner. Seven cases were tested for HMGA1 and HMGA2 rearrangement; 4 showed HMGA2 rearrangement, and 1 showed HMGA1 rearrangement, consistent with lipomas. Two cases were negative for HMGA1/2 rearrangements. We conclude that endobronchial lipomatous neoplasms represent lipomas, even in the presence of morphologic features suggestive of ALT/WDL. Ancillary fluorescence in situ hybridization testing may be very valuable in the analysis of these rare tumors, as true ALT/WDL seem to be very rare or nonexistent at this anatomic site.
Related JoVE Video
Acute exacerbation in rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease: a retrospective case control study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the risk factors and prognosis associated with acute exacerbation (AE) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis-associated interstitial lung disease (RA-ILD).
Related JoVE Video
An official American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society statement: Update of the international multidisciplinary classification of the idiopathic interstitial pneumonias.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In 2002 the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society (ATS/ERS) classification of idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) defined seven specific entities, and provided standardized terminology and diagnostic criteria. In addition, the historical "gold standard" of histologic diagnosis was replaced by a multidisciplinary approach. Since 2002 many publications have provided new information about IIPs.
Related JoVE Video
Is immunohistochemistry always required to diagnose lung cancer?
Adv Anat Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Non-small cell lung cancer is possibly the solid tumor with more potential drugable molecular targets, but the smallest tumor specimens. An optimization of tumor tissue handling is then mandatory. In this landscape, the precise definition of non-small cell lung cancer histologic type had a renewal role in selecting different therapeutic strategies, also leading to a large use of immunohistochemistry even in malignancies showing an overt morphologic differentiation. We suggest here 4 different clinicopathologic scenarios with some helpful rules aimed at preventing unnecessary and expensive immunostains, then underlining the ageless value of morphology and preserving tumor tissues for molecular investigations.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of functional cis-regulatory elements by sequential enrichment from a randomized synthetic DNA library.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The identification of endogenous cis-regulatory DNA elements (CREs) responsive to endogenous and environmental cues is important for studying gene regulation and for biotechnological applications but is labor and time intensive. Alternatively, by taking a synthetic biology approach small specific DNA binding sites tailored to the needs of the scientist can be generated and rapidly identified.
Related JoVE Video
Diffuse intrapulmonary malignant mesothelioma masquerading as interstitial lung disease: a distinctive variant of mesothelioma.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malignant mesothelioma typically encases lungs as a thick rind, while relatively sparing lung parenchyma. We describe an unusual presentation of mesothelioma characterized by diffuse intrapulmonary growth, with absent or inconspicuous pleural involvement, clinically simulating interstitial lung disease (ILD). We identified 5 patients (median age 56 y, all men) with diffuse intrapulmonary malignant mesothelioma in our pathology consultation practice from 2009 to 2012. Clinical history, imaging, and pathology materials were reviewed. Symptoms included chronic dyspnea (4 cases), cough (3), and acute dyspnea with bilateral pneumothorax (1). Chest imaging showed irregular opacities (5), reticulation (4), pleural effusions (2), and subpleural nodular densities (1), without radiologic evidence of pleural disease or masses. A clinicoradiologic diagnosis of ILD was made in all cases, and wedge biopsies were performed. Histologic evaluation revealed a neoplastic proliferation of bland epithelioid or spindled cells, showing various growth patterns simulating silicotic nodules, desquamative interstitial pneumonia, organizing pneumonia, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Some areas mimicked adenocarcinoma, with lepidic, acinar, micropapillary, and solid patterns. Initial diagnoses by referring pathologists included reactive changes (1), hypersensitivity pneumonitis versus drug reaction (1), desquamative interstitial pneumonia versus neoplasm (1), and mesothelioma (2). Microscopic pleural involvement was identified in 4 cases. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the characteristic immunophenotype of mesothelioma in all cases. Median survival of 3 patients treated with chemotherapy was 28 months. Two patients received no therapy and survived 3 and 4 weeks, respectively. "Diffuse intrapulmonary malignant mesothelioma" is a rare variant with a distinctive presentation that clinically mimics ILD. Recognition is essential to avoid misdiagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Blood biomarkers MMP-7 and SP-A: predictors of outcome in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because of the variable course of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), it is important to generate an accurate prognosis at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of blood biomarkers in IPF.
Related JoVE Video
Predicting response to bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) in patients with carcinoma in situ of the bladder.
Urol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Currently, there is no reliable tool to predict response to intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Based on the fact that BCG is a Th1-polarizing immunotherapy, we attempt to correlate the pretreatment immunologic tumor microenvironment (Th1 or Th2) with response to therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Localized pleuropulmonary crystal-storing histiocytosis: 5 cases of a rare histiocytic disorder with variable clinicoradiologic features.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Crystal-storing histiocytosis (CSH) localized to the thoracic region is a rare occurrence, often secondary to lymphoproliferative or plasma cell diseases. About 10 case reports have been previously published, and 3 of these have no relationship with clonal hematologic disorders. We collected here the first series of 5 consecutive cases of CSH involving lungs (4 cases) and pleura (1 case). There were 3 women and 2 men with a mean age at diagnosis of 65 years. All cases had an underlying hematologic disorder (2 B-cell marginal-zone lymphomas, 2 monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 1 pulmonary plasmacytoma). Despite a common morphology characterized by a dense and irregular growth of large eosinophilic histiocytes with intracytoplasmic refractile crystals, 2 cases presented with cystic changes at gross and imaging examinations, calcified amyloid was found in 2 cases, and 1 case showed an interstitial lung disease with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia pattern. Histiocytes were immunoreactive for CD68 (clones PGM-1 and KP-1) but were not for CD1a and S100; the associated lymphoplasmacellular disorder had a clonal profile on molecular analysis with ? light-chain restriction. Two cases were originally misdiagnosed as cystic fibrohistiocytic tumor and carcinoid tumor, thus confirming that CSH localized to this site may result in a diagnostic challenge with a broad spectrum of differential diagnoses. The presence of intracytoplasmic crystals and a plasma cell infiltrate around a histiocytic proliferation should alert the pathologist to consider CSH and to carefully investigate the presence of clonal hematologic disease.
Related JoVE Video
UIP diagnosed at surgical lung biopsy, 2000-2009: HRCT patterns and proposed classification system.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
High resolution CT (HRCT) is diagnostic of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) if honeycombing is present. However, biopsy-proven UIP also occurs in patients without honeycombing. Identification of specific HRCT patterns may enable specific diagnosis and allow more patients to enter clinical trials. Pattern may also predict prognosis. We sought to identify specific HRCT patterns in patients with biopsy-proven UIP (2000-2009) and to assess outcomes and serial change in pattern.
Related JoVE Video
Airspace enlargement with fibrosis shows characteristic histology and immunohistology different from usual interstitial pneumonia, nonspecific interstitial pneumonia and centrilobular emphysema.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The histologic characteristics of air space enlargement with fibrosis (AEF) are compared with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) and centrilobular emphysema (CLE) to determine similarities and differences. Lung specimens from 39 patients were studied; 9 with AEF, 13 with UIP and 5 with CLE identified in lobectomy specimens for cancer and 12 NSIP cases identified on surgical lung biopsies. We determined the characteristics of cystic structures (i.e. abnormal airspace), degree of inflammation and severity of pneumocyte injury semi-quantitatively. In AEF, the wall thickness of the cystic lesions (0.8?mm) was thinner than in UIP (2.1?mm) and thicker than in CLE (0.07?mm). The degree of inflammation and granulation tissue were milder in AEF than in UIP and NSIP and CLE showed milder inflammatory cells than AEF. As for pneumocyte injury, AEF had fewer erosions (0.1/case) and fewer ubiquitin-positive pneumocytes than UIP (4.8 cells/slide) and NSIP (9.8 cells/slide). Our data suggested that the histological characteristics of AEF differed significantly from UIP, NSIP and CLE.
Related JoVE Video
Novel candidate genes influencing natural variation in potato tuber cold sweetening identified by comparative proteomics and association mapping.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Higher plants evolved various strategies to adapt to chilling conditions. Among other transcriptional and metabolic responses to cold temperatures plants accumulate a range of solutes including sugars. The accumulation of the reducing sugars glucose and fructose in mature potato tubers during exposure to cold temperatures is referred to as cold induced sweetening (CIS). The molecular basis of CIS in potato tubers is of interest not only in basic research on plant adaptation to environmental stress but also in applied research, since high amounts of reducing sugars affect negatively the quality of processed food products such as potato chips. CIS-tolerance varies considerably among potato cultivars. Our objective was to identify by an unbiased approach genes and cellular processes influencing natural variation of tuber sugar content before and during cold storage in potato cultivars used in breeding programs. We compared by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis the tuber proteomes of cultivars highly diverse for CIS. DNA polymorphisms in genomic sequences encoding differentially expressed proteins were tested for association with tuber starch content, starch yield and processing quality.
Related JoVE Video
Disease progression in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis without pulmonary function impairment.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite significant recent progress in the understanding of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), the early phase of the disease is still poorly understood. We studied patients with IPF without pulmonary function impairment in order to determine the clinical features, natural history and key findings for physiological progression.
Related JoVE Video
Intrapulmonary solitary fibrous tumors: clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 24 cases.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a ubiquitous neoplasm that arises most commonly from the pleura. SFT arising within lung parenchyma (intrapulmonary SFT) has been rarely reported and is therefore not well recognized. We present a clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical study of 24 cases of primary intrapulmonary SFT. Patients ages ranged from 44 to 83 years (mean, 58 y). None of the patients had evidence or history of a similar tumor elsewhere. Tumor size ranged from 2.3 to 22 cm (mean, 8.5 cm). On the basis of the degree of cytologic atypia, cellularity, mitotic activity, and areas of necrosis, the lesions were divided into low-grade, intermediate-grade, and high-grade histology. Twenty-one tumors showed the conventional features of SFT of low-grade histology (<5 mitoses per 10 high-power fields), with alternating bands of rope-like collagen flanked by a bland-appearing spindle cell proliferation. Hemangiopericytic, angiofibromatous, and a neural-like plexiform growth pattern were also observed. Five of 21 cases showed an "adenofibromatous" appearance imparted by entrapped normal airspaces at the advancing edges of the lesion. One intermediate-grade tumor showed overall increased cellularity with plump, pleomorphic nuclei, 5 to 10 mitoses per 10 high-power fields, and focal areas of classic SFT. Two cases showed high-grade features at initial presentation, with areas resembling a pleomorphic high-grade sarcoma admixed with foci of conventional, low-grade SFT. Immunohistochemical staining analyses performed in 13 cases showed positivity of the tumor cells for CD34, bcl-2, and CD99 in the majority of cases tested. Clinical follow-up was available in 18 patients, with long-term follow-up (>5 y) in 6. Fourteen (14/18) patients were alive and well without evidence of disease 1 month to 14 years after initial diagnosis. Three patients died of their tumors after 4, 5, and 7 years; in 2 of them the initial tumor was of low-grade histology, but the recurrence/metastases showed a high-grade histology; the third fatal case showed a tumor with high-grade histology at initial diagnosis. One patient with intermediate-grade histology also had chest wall metastases at 5 years but was subsequently lost to follow-up. The results of our study indicate that although tumors with overtly malignant histologic features can be expected to behave as high-grade sarcomas, tumors with bland-appearing morphologic features at presentation may also follow an aggressive behavior. Adequate excision with close clinical follow-up, thus, appears to be the most prudent course of action for the management of primary intrapulmonary fibrous tumors.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical significance of serum autoantibodies in idiopathic interstitial pneumonia.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although autoantibodies are routinely screened in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, there are no reliable data on their clinical usefulness. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of autoantibodies for predicting the development of new connective tissue disease in these patients and also mortality. We conducted retrospective analysis of the baseline, and follow-up data for 688 patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia (526 with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, 85 with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia, and 77 with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia) at one single tertiary referral center. The median follow-up period was 33.6 months. Antinuclear antibody was positive in 34.5% of all subjects, rheumatoid factor in 13.2%, and other specific autoantibodies were positive between 0.7%-6.8% of the cases. No significant difference in patient survival was found between the autoantibody-positive and -negative groups. However, the presence of autoantibodies, especially antinuclear antibody with a titer higher than 1:320, was a significant predictor for the future development of new connective tissue diseases (relative risk, 6.4), although the incidence was low (3.8% of all subjects during follow-up). In conclusion, autoantibodies are significant predictors for new connective tissue disease development, although they have no prognostic value.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamics of amino acid utilization in Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Time-resolved utilization of multiple amino acids by Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 was studied during growth with casamino acids. The 15 detected amino acids could be grouped according to depletion rate into four different categories, i.e. from rapid (category I) to nondepletion (category IV). Upon entry into stationary growth phase, amino acids of category I (e.g. glutamate) were (almost) completely depleted, while those of categories II (e.g. leucine) and III (e.g. serine) were further consumed at varying rates and to different extents. Thus, cultures entered stationary growth phase despite the ample presence of organic nutrients, i.e. under nonlimiting conditions. Integrated proteomic and metabolomic analysis identified 1747 proteins and 94 intracellular metabolites. Of these, 180 proteins and 86 metabolites displayed altered abundance levels during growth. Most strikingly, abundance and activity profiles of alanine dehydrogenase concomitantly increased with the onset of enhanced alanine utilization during transition into stationary growth phase. Most enzymes of amino acid and central metabolism, however, displayed unaltered abundances across exponential and stationary growth phases. In contrast, metabolites of the Entner-Doudoroff pathway and gluconeogenesis as well as cellular fatty acids increased markedly in abundance in early stationary growth phase.
Related JoVE Video
Adaptation of Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395 to growth with complex nutrients.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phaeobacter inhibens DSM 17395, a member of the Roseobacter clade, was studied for its adaptive strategies to complex and excess nutrient supply, here mimicked by cultivation with Marine Broth (MB). During growth in process-controlled fermenters, P. inhibens DSM 17395 grew faster (3.6-fold higher ?max ) and reached higher optical densities (2.2-fold) with MB medium, as compared to the reference condition of glucose-containing mineral medium. Apparently, in the presence of MB medium, metabolism was tuned to maximize growth rate at the expense of efficiency. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of cells harvested at ½ ODmax identified 1783 (2D DIGE, membrane and extracellular protein-enriched fractions, shotgun) different proteins (50.5% coverage), 315 (based on 2D DIGE) of which displayed differential abundance profiles. Moreover, 145 different metabolites (intra- and extracellular combined) were identified, almost all of which (140) showed abundance changes. During growth with MB medium, P. inhibens DSM 17395 specifically formed the various proteins required for utilization of phospholipids and several amino acids, as well as for gluconeogenesis. Metabolic tuning on amino acid utilization is also reflected by massive discharge of urea to dispose the cell of excess ammonia. Apparently, P. inhibens DSM 17395 modulated its metabolism to simultaneously utilize diverse substrates from the complex nutrient supply.
Related JoVE Video
Large-scale proteomic analysis of the grapevine leaf apoplastic fluid reveals mainly stress-related proteins and cell wall modifying enzymes.
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The extracellular space or apoplast forms a path through the whole plant and acts as an interface with the environment. The apoplast is composed of plant cell wall and space within which apoplastic fluid provides a means of delivering molecules and facilitates intercellular communications. However, the apoplastic fluid extraction from in planta systems remains challenging and this is particularly true for grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.), a worldwide-cultivated fruit plant. Large-scale proteomic analysis reveals the protein content of the grapevine leaf apoplastic fluid and the free interactive proteome map considerably facilitates the study of the grapevine proteome.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of conidia germination in Colletotrichum acutatum.
Arch. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colletotrichum acutatum is an important phytopathogenic fungus causing anthracnose in commercially important fruit crops, such as strawberry. The conidia produced by the fungus are survival structures which play a key role in host infection and fungal propagation. Despite its relevance to the fungal life cycle, conidial biology has not been extensively investigated. Here, we provide the first proteomic description of the conidial germination in C. acutatum by comparing the proteomic profiles of ungerminated and germinated conidia. Using two-dimensional electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry, we have identified 365 proteins in 354 spots, which represent 245 unique proteins, including some proteins with key functions in pathogenesis. All these proteins have been classified according to their molecular function and their involvement in biological processes, including cellular energy production, oxidative metabolism, stress, fatty acid synthesis, protein synthesis, and folding. This report constitutes the first comprehensive study of protein expression during the early stage of the C. acutatum conidial germination. It advances our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the conidial germination process, and provides a useful basis for the further characterization of proteins involved in fungal biology and fungus life cycles.
Related JoVE Video
Changes in the airway lumen and surrounding parenchyma in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the airway lumen and parenchyma in relation to lung function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared with controls.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of margin status at 37 months after robot assisted radical prostatectomy.
Can J Urol
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We evaluate the impact of margin length, location, and pathologic stage on biochemical recurrence (BCR) after robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) at 37 months of follow up.
Related JoVE Video
Analysis of natural variation of the potato tuber proteome reveals novel candidate genes for tuber bruising.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Potato (Solanum tuberosum) presents a challenging organism for the genetic and molecular dissection of complex traits due to its tetraploidy and high heterozygosity. One such complex trait of high agronomic interest is the tuber susceptibility to bruising upon mechanical impact, which involves an enzymatic browning reaction. We have compared the tuber proteome of two groups of 10 potato cultivars differing in bruising susceptibility to (i) identify de novo proteins that contribute to bruising, based on differential protein expression, and (ii) validate these proteins by combining proteomics with association genetics. The comparison of 20 potato varieties yields insight into the high natural variation of tuber protein patterns due to genetic background. Seven genes or gene families were found that were both differentially expressed on the protein level between groups and for which DNA polymorphisms were associated with the investigated traits. A putative class III lipase was identified as a novel factor contributing to the natural variation of bruising. Additionally, tuber proteome changes triggered by mechanical impact, within and between groups, were monitored over time. Differentially expressed proteins were found, notably lipases, patatins, and annexins, showing remarkable time-dependent protein variation.
Related JoVE Video
Fibrosing mediastinitis: clinical presentation, therapeutic outcomes, and adaptive immune response.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibrosing mediastinitis (FM) is a rare disorder characterized by the invasive proliferation of fibrous tissue within the mediastinum. FM frequently results in the compression of vital mediastinal structures and has been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Its pathogenesis remains unknown. However, in North America most cases are thought to represent an immune-mediated hypersensitivity response to Histoplasma capsulatum infection. To characterize the clinical disease spectrum, natural disease progression, responses to therapy, and overall survival, we retrospectively analyzed all 80 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of FM evaluated at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, from 1998 to 2007. Furthermore, we characterized the adaptive immune response in 15 representative patients by immunohistochemistry. The majority of patients presented with nonspecific respiratory symptoms due to the compression of mediastinal broncho-vascular structures. Chest radiographic imaging most frequently revealed localized, invasive, and frequently calcified right-sided mediastinal masses. Most patients had radiographic or serologic evidence of previous histoplasmosis. In contrast to earlier reports summarizing previously reported FM cases, the clinical course of our patients appeared to be more benign and less progressive. The overall survival was similar to that of age-matched controls. There were only 5 deaths, 2 of which were attributed to FM. These differences may reflect publication bias associated with the preferential reporting of more severely affected FM patients in the medical literature, as well as the more inclusive case definition used in our consecutive case series. Surgical and nonsurgical interventions effectively relieved symptoms caused by the compression of mediastinal vascular structures in these carefully selected patients. In contrast, antifungal and antiinflammatory agents appeared ineffective. Histologic examination and immunostaining revealed mixed inflammatory infiltrates consistent with a fibroinflammatory tissue response in these histoplasmosis-associated FM cases. The immune cell infiltrates included large numbers of CD20-positive B lymphocytes. As B lymphocytes may contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease, therapeutic B-cell depletion should be investigated as a therapeutic strategy for FM.
Related JoVE Video
The fake fat phenomenon in organizing pleuritis: a source of confusion with desmoplastic malignant mesotheliomas.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report 9 patients with pleural biopsies referred because of concern about infiltration of what appeared to be chest wall fat by pan-keratin-positive spindled cells, a finding that led to a consideration of desmoplastic mesothelioma. All patients showed pleural effusions/pleural thickening on computed tomographic scan. Pleural biopsy showed a greatly thickened and fibrotic paucicellular pleura with circular fat-like spaces and, sometimes, adjacent oblate spaces mostly deep in the fibrotic area. Indistinct, keratin-positive, spindle cells arranged parallel to the pleural surface coursed between these fat-like spaces. S-100 stains were negative around the fat-like spaces. Vimentin stains showed that the spaces did not have a cellular lining of any kind. Sometimes the spaces contained faintly hematoxyphilic material that was Alcian blue positive, and similar material was seen in the fibrotic stroma. Follow-up with periods ranging from 6 to 30 months revealed that 8 cases had stable disease on chest imaging or by clinical findings. One case had slowly progressive pleural thickening. These observations suggest that spaces resembling fat may be encountered in fibrotic pleurae and that horizontally oriented keratin-positive spindled cells between the fat-like spaces deep in the fibrotic portion of a thickened pleura represent a benign finding seen in some cases of organizing pleuritis/fibrothorax. The spaces themselves are probably artifacts derived from the biopsy procedure and/or cutting artifacts. In contrast, in true desmoplastic mesotheliomas there is downward, rather than horizontal, growth of keratin-positive spindled cells running between clearly definable fat cells.
Related JoVE Video
Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: prognostic significance of high-resolution computed tomography in 59 patients.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To retrospectively analyze the prognostic implications of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings for patients with biopsy-proven nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP).
Related JoVE Video
Modified metal-oxide affinity enrichment combined with 2D-PAGE and analysis of phosphoproteomes.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protein phosphorylation is a dynamic process of widespread regulatory significance. Phosphoproteomics attempts to provide a global view of this process during biological processes, but the approach is generally limited by the low relative amounts of phosphoproteins in biological samples. Although mass spectrometry (MS)-based technologies exist for the in-depth characterization of protein phosphorylation, these techniques are typically highly focused, have low throughput, and generally require special equipment and expertise. These specialized techniques are best used to support hypotheses generated by an initial broad-based survey, like the one described here. In this chapter, we outline a 2D gel-based phosphoproteomic methodology based on relatively inexpensive materials and basic, widely available MS technology. The goal is to provide a preparative and analytical laboratory framework that can generate the samples and hypotheses for phosphoproteomic MS, as well as a set of tools for biologically relevant phosphoproteomics for investigators who do not have ready access to phospo-MS technology. The combination of 2D gel-compatible metal-oxide affinity chromatography (MOAC)-based phosphoprotein enrichment and phospho-specific staining provides both the sensitivity necessary to make low-level phosphoproteins observable and identifiable, and the twofold phospho-selectivity to support their identity as phosphoproteins. An on-blot dephosphorylation assay for verifying the phospho-specificity of the enrichment method is also described here and provides a general tool for the validation of protein phosphorylation.
Related JoVE Video
Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma: unusual sites and unusual morphology.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma is a soft tissue neoplasm of low malignant potential, typically occurring in the superficial soft tissues of the extremities in children and young adults. Occurrence outside somatic soft tissues is most uncommon. This report describes eight such cases, involving the lung (three cases), mediastinum (one case), vulva (two cases), retroperitoneum (one case) and ovary (one case), with the latter three locations being hitherto unreported sites of occurrence. Patients had a median age of 48 years, and presented with symptoms related to the mass lesion (five cases) or were incidentally found to harbor a tumor (three cases). Besides the typical histological features such as an outer shell of lymphoid tissue, multinodular aggregates of dendritic-like tumor cells, blood-filled spaces and abundant admixed plasma cells, unusual features were found focally in some cases, including clear cells, rhabdomyoblast-like cells, pulmonary edema-like pattern and tumor cell cords lying in a myxoid stroma. Immunoreactivity for the epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, smooth-muscle actin, CD68 and CD99 was found in 100, 63, 43, 100 and 100% of cases, respectively. Molecular studies provided support for the diagnosis in all seven tested cases-EWS gene translocation in six cases (partner gene being CREB1 in three and ATF1 in two in which information was available) and FUS gene translocation in one case. Comparison of the reported cases of extrasomatic angiomatoid fibrous histiocytoma with their somatic soft tissue counterparts showed a number of differences: higher mean age, slight male predominance (particularly for bone lesions), larger tumors, higher frequency of systemic symptoms, higher recurrence rate, myxoid change being more common and a much higher frequency of EWS/ATF1 gene fusion.
Related JoVE Video
Usual interstitial pneumonia and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: correlation between CT findings at the site of biopsy with pathological diagnoses.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings at the site of biopsy with the whole lung CT and pathologic diagnoses in usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) and nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP).
Related JoVE Video
An official ATS/ERS/JRS/ALAT statement: idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: evidence-based guidelines for diagnosis and management.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This document is an international evidence-based guideline on the diagnosis and management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and is a collaborative effort of the American Thoracic Society, the European Respiratory Society, the Japanese Respiratory Society, and the Latin American Thoracic Association. It represents the current state of knowledge regarding idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and contains sections on definition and epidemiology, risk factors, diagnosis, natural history, staging and prognosis, treatment, and monitoring disease course. For the diagnosis and treatment sections, pragmatic GRADE evidence-based methodology was applied in a question-based format. For each diagnosis and treatment question, the committee graded the quality of the evidence available (high, moderate, low, or very low), and made a recommendation (yes or no, strong or weak). Recommendations were based on majority vote. It is emphasized that clinicians must spend adequate time with patients to discuss patients values and preferences and decide on the appropriate course of action.
Related JoVE Video
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia: a systematic overview.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diffuse idiopathic pulmonary neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia (DIPNECH) is being recognized with increasing frequency. Diagnostic and treatment information is limited. A systematic review is presented, focusing on patient demographics, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment options, and outcomes. A systematic electronic literature search was conducted for adult DIPNECH cases reported in the English literature during the past 6 years. Twenty-four DIPNECH cases were identified. Another case from our institution is contributed. Women represent 92% (23 of 25). Mean age at diagnosis was 58 years (range, 36-76 yr). Most were nonsmokers (16 of 24). Symptoms included cough (71%), dyspnea (63%), and wheezing (25%) occurring days to years before diagnosis. Pulmonary function testing showed obstructive ventilatory disease in 54%. Lung nodules were seen in 15 patients (63%), ground-glass attenuation in 7 patients (29%), and bronchiectasis in 5 patients (21%). Histological confirmation required surgical lung biopsy for 88%; however, transbronchial biopsies alone were diagnostic in three patients. Treatments strategies included systemic and inhaled corticosteroids, bronchodilators, and lung resection. Available follow-up data in 17 patients showed 6 clinically improved, 7 who remained stable, and 4 clinically deteriorated. The majority of patients presenting with DIPNECH are middle-aged females with symptoms of cough and dyspnea; obstructive abnormalities on pulmonary function testing; and radiographic imaging showing pulmonary nodules, ground-glass attenuation, and bronchiectasis. In general, the clinical course remains stable; however, progression to respiratory failure does occur. Long-term follow-up and treatment remains incomplete. Establishment of a national multicenter DIPNECH registry would allow formulation of optimal evidence-based guidelines for management of these patients.
Related JoVE Video
Pleuropulmonary infection by Paragonimus westermani in the United States: a rare cause of Eosinophilic pneumonia after ingestion of live crabs.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Infections caused by the parasite Paragonimus westermani are endemic to Southeast Asia. Most infections reported in the United States are among immigrants who acquired the disease abroad. Due to the nonspecific nature of its presentation and rarity in the United States, the diagnosis may first be suggested by the pathologist on biopsy review. Definitive diagnosis may need serologic testing for confirmation. We report 4 cases of pleuropulmonary disease caused by United States-acquired P. westermani, which were identified in the consultation files of the authors. Patients (3 men and 1 woman; aged, 20 to 66 y) presented with pulmonary complaints and chest imaging abnormalities including cavitary infiltrates (2), lung mass (1), pleural effusion (1), and pneumothorax (1). Biopsies showed chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and organizing pneumonia in all cases. Other pathologic findings included granulomatous inflammation with geographic necrosis (3), vasculitis (3), and pleuritis (3). Paragonimus organisms and/or eggs were identified in 2 cases. Serologic studies were positive for P. westermani in 3 cases (2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and 1 immunoblot). Three patients ate live crabs at sushi bars (including crabs in martinis, a previously unreported mechanism for infection). In 1 patient, the source of infection was uncertain. Paragonimiasis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with eosinophilic pleuropulmonary disease in the United States. Although eosinophilic pneumonia was a consistent finding, the biopsies may be nonspecific as the organisms and/or eggs are not always visualized. Unusual features include marked pleuritis, foci of geographic necrosis and granulomatous vasculitis. A history of ingestion and targeted serologies are the keys to diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and safety of sirolimus in lymphangioleiomyomatosis.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a progressive, cystic lung disease in women; it is associated with inappropriate activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling, which regulates cellular growth and lymphangiogenesis. Sirolimus (also called rapamycin) inhibits mTOR and has shown promise in phase 1-2 trials involving patients with LAM.
Related JoVE Video
One hundred consecutive granulomas in a pulmonary pathology consultation practice.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lung biopsies showing granulomatous disease are commonly sent for expert pathology consultation. On the basis of features we and others have identified, an algorithmic approach to diagnosis of these cases was developed. We hypothesized that applying this approach would increase the likelihood of rendering a more specific diagnosis, or by rendering either a narrower or broader differential diagnosis, offer a more clinically useful diagnosis. One hundred consecutive lung biopsies from patients with granulomatous and giant cell reactions were retrieved from our consultation files. Cases were categorized into those in which a confident diagnosis was made at sign out, ones in which a specific diagnosis was strongly favored, and those in which a differential diagnosis was suggested. One year later follow-up information was obtained and consultation diagnoses were compared with clinical diagnoses to determine the reliability of the approach. A confident diagnosis was rendered in 27 cases, a specific diagnosis was strongly favored in 34, and in 39 a differential diagnosis was provided. Consultant diagnoses were more specific in 47 of 75 (63 %) cases. In 15 cases, the differential diagnosis was expanded. The most common unrecognized diagnosis was aspiration pneumonia and the most common diagnosis omitted from the differential diagnosis by the primary pathologist was hypersensitivity pneumonia. Follow-up in 49% of cases in which it was sought, confirmed the consultants diagnosis or was inconclusive in 97% of cases. The use of a standardized algorithmic approach to the interpretation of granulomatous disease in lung biopsies yields more specific and clinically useful diagnoses for consideration.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment with bortezomib of a patient having hyper IgG4 disease.
Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyper IgG4 disease is a recently described inflammatory disease characterized by lymphoplasmacytic infiltration leading to fibrosis and tissue destruction. Whereas most cases have been successfully treated with corticosteroids, recurrent or refractory cases may benefit from alternative therapies. Bortezomib has proven to be successful in the treatment of multiple myeloma, and its mechanism indicates that it may have merit in autoimmune or other plasmacytic disorders. We report a patient with recurrent pulmonary infiltration with IgG4 plasma cells, consistent with hyper IgG4 disease, who was successfully treated using a bortezomib-based combination with minimal therapy-related toxicities.
Related JoVE Video
2-DE proteomic approach to the Botrytis cinerea secretome induced with different carbon sources and plant-based elicitors.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus infecting a number of crops (tomatoes, grapes and strawberries), which has been adopted as a model system in molecular phytopathology. B. cinerea uses a wide variety of infection strategies, which are mediated by a set of genes/proteins called pathogenicity/virulence factors. Many of these factors have been described as secreted proteins, and thus the study of this sub-proteome, the secretome, under changing circumstances can help us to understand the roles of these factors, possibly revealing new loci for the fight against the pathogen. A 2-DE, MALDI TOF/TOF-based approach has been developed to establish the proteins secreted to culture media supplemented with different carbon sources and plant-based elicitors (in this study: glucose, cellulose, starch, pectin and tomato cell walls). Secreted proteins were obtained from the culture media by deoxycholate-trichloroacetic acid/phenol extraction, and 76 spots were identified, yielding 95 positive hits that correspond to 56 unique proteins, including several known virulence factors (i.e. pectin methyl esterases, xylanases and proteases). The observed increases in secretion of proteins with established virulence-related functions indicate that this in vitro-induction/proteome-mining approach is a promising strategy for discovering new pathogenicity factors and dissecting infection mechanisms in a discrete fashion.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct prognosis of idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) fulfilling criteria for undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD).
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although idiopathic nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP) was initially identified as a provisional diagnosis, the 2008 American Thoracic Society Project concluded that idiopathic NSIP is a distinct form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. However, an association between idiopathic NSIP and autoimmune diseases still attracts interest. In this context, a recent study proposed an intriguing concept that idiopathic NSIP is the pulmonary manifestation of undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD). However, this has not been confirmed in a large number of patients with idiopathic NSIP. The present study was conducted to investigate the proportion and characteristics of patients with idiopathic NSIP who meet the criteria for UCTD.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical predictors of a diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) and other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIPs) have similar clinical and radiographic features, but their histopathology, response to therapy, and natural history differ. A surgical lung biopsy is often required to distinguish between these entities.
Related JoVE Video
Distinctive pulmonary histopathology with increased IgG4-positive plasma cells in patients with autoimmune pancreatitis: report of 6 and 12 cases with similar histopathology.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autoimmune pancreatitis (AP) is one manifestation of a systemic, steroid-responsive disease with elevated serum IgG4 and characteristic histopathology, including increased IgG4-positive (+) plasma cells in the tissue. The histopathology of pulmonary IgG4 disease has not been well established. Six lung biopsies from patients with documented AP were studied, along with 12 additional cases showing similar pulmonary histopathology. For comparison, we examined Erdheim-Chester disease (n=3), pulmonary Sjögren syndrome (n=19), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (n=10), various inflammatory and interstitial lung disease (n=61), and nodal or extranodal Rosai-Dorfman disease (RD) in adults (n=8). All cases were stained for IgG4 and scored as 1, 2, and 3 as described in AP according to the following criteria: 0, <5 (per high power field); 1, 5 to 10; 2, 11 to 30; and 3, >30. Five lung biopsies from AP patients showed IgG4 score of 3, and 1 had a score of 2. Consistent findings in lung biopsies of AP patients included endothelialitis of pulmonary vessels, active fibrosis, lymphangitic inflammatory infiltrates rich in plasma cells and histiocytes with or without nodule formation, and fibrinous pleuritis. Prominent lymphatic dilatation with histiocytes showing emperipolesis of lymphocytes was also seen. All 12 additional cases showing these histologic features also had the IgG4 score of 2 or 3. Among other conditions, an IgG4 score of 2 or 3 was seen in 6 of 8 RD, 4 of 10 inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors, and 8 of 61 inflammatory and interstitial lung disease, but in none of the rest. In conclusion, distinctive pulmonary histopathology was associated with increased IgG4+ cells in both AP patients and those unknown for AP status. The significance of increased IgG4+ cells in high proportion of RD cases merits further study as does overlap of RD and IgG4 disease.
Related JoVE Video
Nonspecific interstitial pneumonia: histologic correlation with high-resolution CT in 29 patients.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the pathological correlation with various high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings in cases with nonspecific interstitial pneumonia (NSIP), paying special attention to pathological subgroups.
Related JoVE Video
Proteomic analysis of the phytopathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea during cellulose degradation.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The ascomycete Botrytis cinerea is a phytopathogenic fungus infecting and causing significant yield losses in a number of crops. Moreover, in the last few years, B. cinerea has been adopted as an important model system in molecular phytopathology. In spite of these contributions, the molecular basis of the infection cycle remains unclear. Proteomic approaches have revealed significant information about the infective cycle of several pathogens, including B. cinerea. The main aim of this study is to make available a proteomic database containing a significant number of identified proteins from B. cinerea. In brief, three independent B. cinerea cultures supplemented with carboxymethylcellulose were used, and the extracted proteins were independently separated by 2-D PAGE to obtain the proteome map from B. cinerea. Two hundred and sixty-seven spots were selected for MALDI TOF/TOF MS analysis, resulting in 303 positive identifications, mostly representing unannotated proteins. Identified proteins were then classified into categories using the PANTHER classification system (www.pantherdb.org), showing the relevance of protein metabolism and modification process and oxidoreductase activity. Since cellulose is one of the major components of the plant cell wall, many of the identified proteins may have a crucial role in the pathogenicity process. In brief, this proteomic map of B. cinerea will be a useful basis for exploring the proteins involved in the infection cycle, which will in turn provide new targets for crop diagnosis and focused fungicide design.
Related JoVE Video
The prognostic value of cardiopulmonary exercise testing in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by progressive dyspnea, impaired gas exchange, and ultimate mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Pathologic and radiologic differences between idiopathic and collagen vascular disease-related usual interstitial pneumonia.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) have been reported to have a better prognosis than those with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with a UIP pattern (IPF/UIP) seen on histology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pathologic and radiologic differences between the two conditions and their relationship with clinical outcome.
Related JoVE Video
A proteomic analysis of powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) conidiospores.
Mol. Plant Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Conidiospores are the asexual propagation units of many plant-pathogenic fungi. In this article, we report an annotated proteome map of ungerminated conidiospores of the ascomycete barley powdery mildew pathogen, Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Using a combination of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we have identified the proteins in 180 spots, which probably represent at least 123 distinct fungal gene products. Most of the identified proteins have a predicted function in carbohydrate, lipid or protein metabolism, indicating that the spore is equipped for the catabolism of storage compounds as well as for protein biosynthesis and folding on germination.
Related JoVE Video
Placental transmogrification of the lung presenting as a small solitary nodule.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Placental transmogrification of the lung is a rare cystic lesion of the lung, which has some histologic resembling to placental tissue. Placental transmogrification of the lung has been considered a variant of unilateral bullous emphysema, but in our case, the patient was a 47-year-old man who had no coexisting emphysema of the lung. Histologically our case showed an interstitial proliferation of clear cells with cystic change interpreted as secondary; we also agree with our colleagues that this proliferation may be the primary event pathogenetically. Surgical resection of this lesion seems to be curative.
Related JoVE Video
Acute exacerbation of interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular diseases.
Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute exacerbation (AE) is currently established as a distinct condition with acute deterioration of respiratory status in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Recently, several studies have reported that AE also occurred in interstitial pneumonias other than IPF, such as collagen vascular disease-associated interstitial pneumonia (CVD-IP). However, the incidence of AE in CVD-IP and its clinical characteristics remain to be fully determined. This study was conducted to elucidate cumulative incidence of AE in CVD-IP and its clinical features.
Related JoVE Video
Substrates related to chromatin and to RNA-dependent processes are modified by Arabidopsis SUMO isoforms that differ in a conserved residue with influence on desumoylation.
Plant Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The higher plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has eight genes potentially coding for small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins. However, two well-expressed isoforms differ from fungal and animal consensus in a conserved glutamine (Gln) residue situated four residues from the carboxyl terminus. We tested deviations in this position in the background of SUMO1, the isoform with the highest expression level, and found that changes do not prevent conjugation to substrate proteins in vivo. Replacement of this conserved Gln by alanine resulted in a protein that was less readily removed from a substrate by SUMO protease EARLY IN SHORT DAYS4 in an in vitro reaction and apparently led to higher levels of SUMO conjugates when expressed in vivo. We used the SUMO1 variant with the Gln-to-alanine substitution, as well as SUMO3 and SUMO5 (which carry methionine and leucine, respectively, at this position), to enrich in vivo substrates. Identification of the most abundant proteins contained in these fractions indicated that they are involved in DNA-related, or in RNA-dependent, processes, such as regulation of chromatin structure, splicing, or translation. The majority of the identified bona fide substrates contain predicted sumoylation sites. A subset of the proteins was expressed in Escherichia coli and could be sumoylated in vitro.
Related JoVE Video
Classification of hypersensitivity pneumonitis: a hypothesis.
Int. Arch. Allergy Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regardless of the causative antigen, hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is usually classified as acute, subacute or chronic. Considerable confusion still surrounds this classification because there are no widely accepted criteria to distinguish the various stages. The objective of this study was to determine whether the current classification of HP truly reflects categories of patients with distinct clinical features.
Related JoVE Video
Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis: consideration of a clinicopathological entity in a series of Japanese patients.
BMC Pulm Med
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Idiopathic pleuroparenchymal fibroelastosis (IPPFE) is a recently reported group of disorders characterized by fibrotic thickening of the pleural and subpleural parenchyma predominantly in the upper lobes. We report five Japanese cases fulfilling the criteria of IPPFE and address whether it should be considered a separate clinicopathologic entity. And this study was an attempt to identify features in common between IPPFE and previously described idiopathic upper lobe fibrosis (IPUF), allowing IPPFE to be considered as a distinct entity in our Japanese series.
Related JoVE Video
Activity profiling of vacuolar processing enzymes reveals a role for VPE during oomycete infection.
Plant J.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vacuolar processing enzymes (VPEs) are important cysteine proteases that are implicated in the maturation of seed storage proteins, and programmed cell death during plant-microbe interactions and development. Here, we introduce a specific, cell-permeable, activity-based probe for VPEs. This probe is highly specific for all four Arabidopsis VPEs, and labeling is activity-dependent, as illustrated by sensitivity for inhibitors, pH and reducing agents. We show that the probe can be used for in vivo imaging and displays multiple active isoforms of VPEs in various tissues and in both monocot and dicot plant species. Thus, VPE activity profiling is a robust, simple and powerful tool for plant research for a wide range of applications. Using VPE activity profiling, we discovered that VPE activity is increased during infection with the oomycete pathogen Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis (Hpa). The enhanced VPE activity is host-derived and EDS1-independent. Sporulation of Hpa is reduced on vpe mutant plants, demonstrating a role for VPE during compatible interactions that is presumably independent of programmed cell death. Our data indicate that, as an obligate biotroph, Hpa takes advantage of increased VPE activity in the host, e.g. to mediate protein turnover and nutrient release.
Related JoVE Video
Transbronchial biopsy is useful in predicting UIP pattern.
Respir. Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP), is a necessary feature pathologically or radiologically for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The predictive value of transbronchial biopsy (TBB) in identifying UIP is currently unknown. The objective of this study is to assess the accuracy with which histopathologic criteria of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) can be identified in transbronchial biopsy (TBB) and to assess the usefulness of TBBx in predicting a the diagnosis of UIP pattern. We conducted a retrospective blinded and controlled analysis of TBB specimens from 40 established cases of UIP and 24 non-UIP interstitial lung diseases.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.