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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Utilization of HIV voluntary counseling and testing in Vietnam: an evaluation of 5 years of routine program data for national response.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
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This study evaluated the utilization of HIV voluntary counseling-and-testing (VCT) services targeting high-risk populations in Vietnam in order to inform decisions on program improvement and expansion. A total of 158,888 records collected from 55 VCT sites supported by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Preventions Global AIDS Program in the period of 2002 to 2007 were used to analyze sociodemographic characteristics, risk exposures, seropositivity, test refusal, and failure to return for test results among VCT clients. High-risk exposures, such as injection drug use, commercial sex work, homosexual contacts or heterosexual contacts with high-risk sex partners, were reported in 126,815 (81%) records. Among high-risk clients, any condom use in the past month ranged from 34% to 71%. During the study period, 19% of the VCT encounters resulted in a positive HIV test; of those persons tested, 23% of men and 13% of women were HIV-positive. High HIV positivity rates were associated with injection drug use, being ill/recommended by health care provider, and having an HIV-infected sex partner. Of all records, 6.1% documented refusal of HIV testing. Failure to return for results was reported in 3.5% of records for clients who were tested. Previously testing positive was the strongest predictor of test refusal, and being referred by peer educators was associated with failure to return for results. The VCT program in Vietnam successfully targeted high-risk populations, and clients had high return rates using a standard testing strategy. Interventions to increase consistent condom use and promote access to prevention services among sex partners of high-risk individuals should be implemented and evaluated.
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Prevalence of HIV type 1 antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in Vietnam: a multicenter study.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2011
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The prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) was determined for a cross-section of individuals (n=8654) in five centers across Vietnam (Hanoi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa, and Can Tho) between 2008 and 2009. Following serological screening for HIV infection, HIV-1 viral load was determined, using an in-house real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Samples with quantifiable viral loads [all either commercial sex workers (CSW) or intravenous drug users (IDU)] underwent DRM analysis. Sequences were obtained for 92 treatment-naive individuals, the majority of whom were infected with HIV-1 CRF01_AE (99%), with one instance of subtype A1 also detected. DRMs were detected in seven treatment-naive individuals (7.6%). The most common DRMs observed were M184V, V75A/M, M41L, and K65R (NRTI) and K103N, G190A, and Y181C (NNRTI). Overall, the data from this first multicenter survey of DRMs in Vietnam indicate that the problem of transmitted drug resistance is of major concern in the highest-risk groups of IDU and CSW.
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Hepatitis C virus in Vietnam: high prevalence of infection in dialysis and multi-transfused patients involving diverse and novel virus variants.
PLoS ONE
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a genetically diverse pathogen infecting approximately 2-3% of the worlds population. Herein, we describe results of a large, multicentre serological and molecular epidemiological study cataloguing the prevalence and genetic diversity of HCV in five regions of Vietnam; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. Individuals (n=8654) with varying risk factors for infection were analysed for the presence of HCV Ab/Ag and, in a subset of positive specimens, for HCV RNA levels (n=475) and genotype (n=282). In lower risk individuals, including voluntary blood donors, military recruits and pregnant women, the prevalence of infection was 0.5% (n=26/5250). Prevalence rates were significantly higher (p<0.001) in intravenous drug users (IDUs; 55.6%, n=556/1000), dialysis patients (26.6%, n=153/575) commercial sex workers (CSWs; 8.7%, n=87/1000), and recipients of multiple blood transfusions (6.0%, n=32/529). The prevalence of HCV in dialysis patients varied but remained high in all regions (11-43%) and was associated with the receipt of blood transfusions [OR: 2.08 (1.85-2.34), p=0.001], time from first transfusion [OR: 1.07 (1.01-1.13), p=0.023], duration of dialysis [OR: 1.31 (1.19-1.43), p<0.001] and male gender [OR: 1.60 (1.06-2.41), p=0.026]. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high genetic diversity, particularly amongst dialysis and multi-transfused patients, identifying subtypes 1a (33%), 1b (27%), 2a (0.4%), 3a (0.7%), 3b (1.1%), 6a (18.8%), 6e (6.0%), 6h (4.6%), 6l (6.4%) and 2 clusters of novel genotype 6 variants (2.1%). HCV genotype 1 predominated in Vietnam (60%, n=169/282) but the proportion of infections attributable to genotype 1 varied between regions and risk groups and, in the Southern part of Vietnam, genotype 6 viruses dominated in dialysis and multi-transfused patients (73.9%). This study confirms a high prevalence of HCV infection in Vietnamese IDUs and, notably, reveals high levels of HCV infection associated with dialysis and blood transfusion.
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A multicentre molecular analysis of hepatitis B and blood-borne virus coinfections in Viet Nam.
PLoS ONE
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Hepatitis B (HBV) infection is endemic in Viet Nam, with up to 8.4 million individuals estimated to be chronically infected. We describe results of a large, multicentre seroepidemiological and molecular study of the prevalence of HBV infection and blood-borne viral coinfections in Viet Nam. Individuals with varying risk factors for infection (n = 8654) were recruited from five centres; Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Da Nang, Khanh Hoa and Can Tho. A mean prevalence rate of 10.7% was observed and levels of HBsAg were significantly higher in injecting drug users (IDUs) (17.4%, n = 174/1000) and dialysis patients (14.3%, n = 82/575) than in lower-risk groups (9.4%; p<0.001). Coinfection with HIV was seen in 28% of HBV-infected IDUs (n = 49/174) and 15.2% of commercial sex workers (CSWs; n = 15/99). HCV infection was present in 89.8% of the HBV-HIV coinfected IDUs (n = 44/49) and 40% of HBV-HIV coinfected CSWs (n = 16/40). Anti-HDV was detected in 10.7% (n = 34/318) of HBsAg positive individuals. Phylogenetic analysis of HBV S gene (n = 187) showed a predominance of genotype B4 (82.6%); genotypes C1 (14.6%), B2 (2.7%) and C5 (0.5%) were also identified. The precore mutation G1896A was identified in 35% of all specimens, and was more frequently observed in genotype B (41%) than genotype C (3%; p<0.0001). In the immunodominant a region of the surface gene, point mutations were identified in 31% (n = 58/187) of sequences, and 2.2% (n = 4/187) and 5.3% (n = 10/187) specimens contained the major vaccine escape mutations G145A/R and P120L/Q/S/T, respectively. 368 HBsAg positive individuals were genotyped for the IL28B SNP rs12979860 and no significant association between the IL28B SNP and clearance of HBsAg, HBV viral load or HBeAg was observed. This study confirms the high prevalence of HBV infection in Viet Nam and also highlights the significant levels of blood-borne virus coinfections, which have important implications for hepatitis-related morbidity and development of effective management strategies.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.