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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Association of health literacy with health management among diabetics].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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To understand status of health literacy among diabetics and their health management behaviors, and analyze the relationship of health literacy and health management.
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Study on the Preparation of Nifedipine-Loaded Oral Copolymer Micelles and its Pharmacokinetics in Rats.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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The objective of this paper was to prepare nifedipine-loaded oral copolymer micelles and to improve bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. The methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polycaprolactone diblock copolymer (mPEG-b-PCL) we developed was the research object; solvent evaporation method was utilized to prepare nifedipine-loaded copolymer micelles, and the drug concentration, drug-loaded amount, and entrapment efficiency were also determined. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to characterize the morphology and size distributions of micelles, and the in vivo pharmacokinetics were studied in rats with the research objects of nifedipine-loaded oral copolymer micelles. The drug concentration, drug-loaded amount, and entrapment efficiency of mPEG-b-PCL-nifedipine micelles were (69.39 ± 4.33) ?g mL(-1), (3.35 ± 0.21) %, and (8.67 ± 0.54) %, respectively. The micelles were globular shaped with a narrow size distribution and a mean diameter of (34.8 ± 3.2) nm, and the relative bioavailability of the micelles we developed was 246.20 % when compared with the tablets available in the market. The mPEG-b-PCL-nifedipine oral copolymer micelles can improve the bioavailability of hydrophobic drugs. Oral polymer micelles drug delivery system has a good prospect.
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Molecular characterisation of a sodium channel gene and identification of a Phe1538 to Ile mutation in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2014
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The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is regarded as one of the most serious citrus pests in many countries and has developed high resistance to pyrethroids as a result of the intensive use of these acaricides.
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Exposure to diflubenzuron results in an up-regulation of a chitin synthase 1 gene in citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB.
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Effect of temperatures on the growth, toxin production, and heat resistance of Bacillus cereus in cooked rice.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Bacillus cereus is capable of producing enterotoxin and emetic toxin, and Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to the consumption of food contaminated with endospores. The objectives of this study were to investigate the growth and toxin production of B. cereus in cooked rice and to determine the effect of temperature on toxin destruction. Cooked rice inoculated with B. cereus was stored at 15, 25, 35, and 45°C or treated at 80, 90, and 100°C. The results indicated that emetic toxin was produced faster than enterotoxin (which was not detected below 15°C) at all the storage temperatures (15-45°C) during the first 72?h. Emetic toxin persisted at 100°C for 2?h, although enterotoxin was easily to be destroyed by this treatment within 15 min. In addition, B. cereus in cooked rice stored at a warm temperature for a period was not inactivated due to survival of the thermostable endospores. These data indicate that the contaminated cooked rice with B. cereus might present a potential risk to consumers. Results from this study may help enhance the safety of such food, and provide valuable and reliable information for risk assessment and management, associated with the problem of B. cereus in cooked rice.
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Identification and Characterization of Seven Glutathione S-Transferase Genes from Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor).
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a global citrus pest, and has developed severe resistance to several types of acaricides. However, the molecular mechanisms of resistance in this mite remain unknown. In this study, seven full-length cDNAs encoding glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) genes were identified and characterized in P. citri. The effects of pyridaben and fenpropathrin exposure on the expression of these genes were also investigated. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the seven GSTs genes in P. citri cloned in this study belong to three different cytosolic classes, including four in mu, two in delta and one in zeta. Among these seven GSTs genes, the relative expression level of PcGSTm1 was significantly higher in adult than in the other life stages (egg, larvae and nymph). Compared with the control, the mRNA levels of the seven GST genes did not change significantly following exposure to pyridaben at LC10. However, RT-qPCR results showed that, when exposed to LC10 of fenpropathrin, six GSTs gene (PcGSTm1, PcGSTm3, PcGSTm4, PcGSTd1, PcGSTd2 and PcGSTz1) transcripts increased in a time-dependent manner. This is the first insight into the molecular characteristics of GSTs gene cDNAs in P. citri. The elevated GSTs gene transcripts following exposure to fenpropathrin might be one of the mechanisms involved in detoxification of this acaricide.
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Enzyme-free amplified detection of nucleic acids based on self-sustained replication of RNAzyme and its application in tumor cell detection.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
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A system based on exponential amplification of self-sustained replication of RNAzyme was developed for quantitative detection of linker DNA that can be recognized by base complementarity. The hybridization of the linker DNA with two RNA ligase subunits formed an RNA enzyme that catalyzes the joining of two oligonucleotide substrates. The ligated product opens a hairpin molecular beacon, resulting in the generation of a higher fluorescence intensity. The product of this reaction depends on the concentration of the linker DNA, allowing one to determine the concentration of target DNA in a sample. Furthermore, based on the high specificity and affinity of cell aptamer with its target cells, this amplification strategy has been successfully applied in detection of cancer cells. The exceptional amplification power of the RNAzyme along with the simple assay protocol makes direct cell detection possible in real-world samples with minimal sample pretreatments. This process is analogous to quantitative PCR (qPCR) but can be applied to the detection of nucleic acid and cells, as well as proteins and small molecules that are relevant to medical diagnostics.
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Oxidative responses induced by pharmacologic vitreolysis and/or long-term hyperoxia treatment in rat lenses.
Curr. Eye Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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The aim of the study was to investigate the protective effects of intact vitreous gel on the lens after pharmacologic vitreolysis and hyperoxia exposure in rats in vivo.
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A probability model for enterotoxin production of Bacillus cereus as a function of pH and temperature.
J. Food Prot.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Bacillus cereus is frequently isolated from a variety of foods, including vegetables, dairy products, meats, and other raw and processed foods. The bacterium is capable of producing an enterotoxin and emetic toxin that can cause severe nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. The objectives of this study were to assess and model the probability of enterotoxin production of B. cereus in a broth model as affected by the broth pH and storage temperature. A three-strain mixture of B. cereus was inoculated in tryptic soy broth adjusted to pH 5.0, 6.0, 7.2, 8.0, and 8.5, and the samples were stored at 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C for 24 h. A total of 25 combinations of pH and temperature, each with 10 samples, were tested. The presence of enterotoxin in broth was assayed using a commercial test kit. The probabilities of positive enterotoxin production in 25 treatments were fitted with a logistic regression to develop a probability model to describe the probability of toxin production as a function of pH and temperature. The resulting model showed that the probabilities of enterotoxin production of B. cereus in broth increased as the temperature increased and/or as the broth pH approached 7.0. The model described the experimental data satisfactorily and identified the boundary of pH and temperature for the production of enterotoxin. The model could provide information for assessing the food poisoning risk associated with enterotoxins of B. cereus and for the selection of product pH and storage temperature for foods to reduce the hazards associated with B. cereus.
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Molecular characterization of two carboxylesterase genes of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae).
Arch. Insect Biochem. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri, is known for its ability to rapidly evolve resistance to insecticides/acaricides and to adapt to hosts that produce toxins. To get better insight into the detoxification mechanism of P. citri, two carboxylesterase (CarE) genes, PCE1 and PCE2, were isolated and characterized. PCE1 and PCE2 contained open reading frames of 1,653 and 1,392 nucleotides, encoding proteins of 550 and 463 amino acid residues, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses showed that PCE1 and PCE2 were most closely related to the CarE genes from other phytophagous mites. The transcriptional profiles of two CarE genes among developmental stages (egg, larva, nymph, adult female, and adult male), after exposing to four acaricides (avermectin, azocyclotin, pyridaben, and spirodiclofen) and acid rain were investigated using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that during development, PCE1 was highly expressed at the egg stage, whereas PCE2 was abundantly expressed at the adult stage of males. The expression levels of PCE1 were highly induced upon exposure to acaricides and acid rain. On the other hand, the expression levels of PCE2 were increased after treatment with avermectin and pyridaben. These results suggest that PCE1 and PCE2 may have distinct roles in different developmental stages and participate in the detoxification of acaricides.
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Utilization of PET-CT in target volume delineation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer and atelectasis.
Multidiscip Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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To investigate the utilization of PET-CT in target volume delineation for three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and atelectasis.
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Mining Genes Involved in Insecticide Resistance of Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel by Transcriptome and Expression Profile Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Recent studies indicate that infestations of psocids pose a new risk for global food security. Among the psocids species, Liposcelis bostrychophila Badonnel has gained recognition in importance because of its parthenogenic reproduction, rapid adaptation, and increased worldwide distribution. To date, the molecular data available for L. bostrychophila is largely limited to genes identified through homology. Also, no transcriptome data relevant to psocids infection is available.
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De Novo Assembly, Gene Annotation, and Marker Discovery in Stored-Product Pest Liposcelis entomophila (Enderlein) Using Transcriptome Sequences.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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As a major stored-product pest insect, Liposcelis entomophila has developed high levels of resistance to various insecticides in grain storage systems. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying resistance and environmental stress have not been characterized. To date, there is a lack of genomic information for this species. Therefore, studies aimed at profiling the L. entomophila transcriptome would provide a better understanding of the biological functions at the molecular levels.
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Hydrogen saline prevents selenite-induced cataract in rats.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antioxidative effect and mechanism for the protective effects of hydrogen saline on selenite-induced cataract in rats.
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[Validation and analysis of water column correction algorithm at Sanya Bay].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
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Water column correction has been a substantial challenge for remote sensing. In order to improve the accuracy of coastal ocean monitoring where optical properties are complex, optical property of shallow water at Sanya Bay and the suitable water column correction algorithms were studies in the present paper. The authors extracted the bottom reflectance without water column effects by using a water column correction algorithm which is based on the simulation of the underwater light field in idealized water. And we compared the results which were calculated by the model and Christians model respectively. Based on a detailed analysis, we concluded that: Because the optical properties of Sanya Bay are complex and vary greatly with location, Christians model lost its advantage in the area. Conversely, the bottom reflectance calculating by the algorithm based on the simulation of the underwater light field in idealized water agreed well with in situ measured bottom reflectance, although the reflectance was lower than in situ measured reflectance value between 400 and 500 nm. So, it is reasonable to extract bottom information by using the water column correction algorithm in local bay area where optical properties are complex.
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A New Secondary Model Developed for the Growth Rate of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Broth.
Indian J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2011
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This study was attempted to develop a new exponential sum model to describe the effect of temperature on growth rate (GR) of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in broth. The growth rates of E. coli O157:H7 at different storage temperatures (4, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C) estimated by fitting with the modified Gompertz model were used to develop secondary models such as square root model, Ratkowsky model and exponential sum model. Measures of coefficient of determination (R(2)), root mean square error (RMSE) and the sum of squares due to error (SSE) were employed to compare the performances of these three secondary models. Based on these criteria, the developed exponential sum model showed the better goodness-of-fit and performance.
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[The effect of temperature on the PL spectra of high power LED].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2011
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Two kinds of 1 W white high power light emitting diode (LED) were made by packaging blue chips from Taiwan and US. The chips were coated by the same phosphor and transparent silica gel. Optical properties of the two kinds of LEDs were investigated in the temperature range of 15-75 degrees C and at the current of 350 mA. The results show that temperature badly affects the optical parameters such as peak wavelength, radiant flux, color temperature and so on. After analyzing the PL spectrum, the relationship between temperature and LED performance was found. The reasons for optical parameters vs. temperature were theoretically analyzed. Some suggestions were given to reduce the influence of temperature on power LED.
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Three-dimensional alteration of microvasculature in a rat model of traumatic spinal cord injury.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) always leads to severe destruction of the microvascular networks. To investigate the three-dimensional (3D) alterations of microvasculature following SCI, we utilized an established rat SCI model. Based on the hypothesis that the spinal cord would undergo reorganization and postinjury modification of the vascular networks after SCI, we reconstructed the normal and injured angioarchitecture using micro-CT images of silicone rubber microsphere-perfused specimens. Several morphometric parameters were used to study the 3D vascular alterations in the SCI rat model, including the casting-based vessel volume fraction, connectivity density, separation, thickness and thickness distribution. Our results indicated that the microvascular spatial conformations were significantly different between the normal and injured spinal cord segments. The morphometric changes showed an increase of the vessel volume fraction and separation and a decrease of vessel connectivity density during the vascular healing process after SCI. Our results may contribute to elucidation of the mechanisms of compensatory vascular reconstitution in traumatized spinal cord. The method used here has the potential to improve our understanding of changes in the spatial architecture of vascular networks after SCI compared to the conventional histomorphology techniques. In summary, we developed a new methodology to analyze neurovascular pathology based on 3D vascular network patterns and features in an experimental rat SCI model. This technique could be used as a complementary tool to investigate the efficacy and side effects of therapeutic drugs or rehabilitation regimens.
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Evaluation of suitable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR during development and abiotic stress in Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae).
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is preferred for gene expression analysis in living organisms. Currently, it is a valuable tool for biological and ecological studies as it provides a relatively straightforward way to assess the relevance of transcriptional regulation under developmental and stress tolerance conditions. However, studies have shown that some commonly used reference genes varied among different experimental treatments, thus, systematic evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of arthropods. The aim of this study is to identify the suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments involving various developmental stages and/or under abiotic stresses in citrus red mite Panonychus citri, a key pest in citrus orchards worldwide. GeNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper software analysis indicates that elongation factor-1 alpha (ELF1A), RNA polymerase II largest subunit, alpha tublin, and glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) are the most stable reference genes in various developmental stages, meanwhile, ELF1A and GAPDH were the most stable reference genes under various abiotic stresses. Furthermore, this study will serve as a resource to screen reference genes for gene expression studies in any other spider mite species.
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Distribution of human papillomavirus 16 E6/E7 variants in cervical cancer and intraepithelial neoplasia in Chinese women.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2010
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Human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 is the major etiological agents of cervical cancer. Recently, the studies have demonstrated that HPV intratypic variations could affect oncogenic potential to cervical cancer development. The objectives of this study were to identify HPV-16 E6 and E7 variants prevalent in Chinese women and to assess the risk of them for invasive cervical carcinoma and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN).
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[Advances in the study of polymeric micelles used in oral administration].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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Polymeric micelles which are self-assembled from amphiphilic copolymers are thermodynamically stable, and they can solubilize hydrophobic drugs by the hydrophilic core. Many excellent active compounds are confined because of general low oral bioavailability due to poor solubility. Take into account from the two points above, polymeric micelles may be used as proper oral carrier to improve the dissolubility of hydrophobic drugs, and enhance the permeation though gastrointestinal tract, therefore, the pharmacodynamics is elevated. Meanwhile, the segments in copolymers are multivariate, so many kinds of micelles can be obtained, such as, pH- or thermo- sensitive as well as mucoadhesive ones. The modified micelles can alter drug release profiles while solubilizing them, that is why the oral bioavailability increase further. In this review, recent progress of polymeric micelles used in oral administration is summarized, and the prospect of polymeric micelles application in this field is also evaluated.
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Distribution of human papillomavirus 58 and 52 E6/E7 variants in cervical neoplasia in Chinese women.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
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The specific intratype HPV genome variations may be associated with the development of cervical cancer in specific geographic regions and a given population. Human papillomavirus (HPV) 58 and 52 have been found to be relatively prevalent among Asian women including Chinese women. This study aimed to assess the risk of HPV 58 and 52 variants for cervical cancer and its precursors in Chinese women.
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Invasive neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast: a distinctive subtype of aggressive mammary carcinoma.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2010
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Neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the breast, a pathologic entity newly defined in the 2003 World Health Organization classification of tumors, is a rare type of tumor that is not well recognized or studied. The purpose of this first case-controlled study is to reveal the clinicopathologic features, therapeutic response, and outcomes of patients with NEC of the breast.
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DOX-loaded PEG-PLGA and Pluronic copolymer composite micelles enhances cytotoxicity and the intracellular accumulation of drug in DOX-resistant tumor cells.
Pharmazie
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2010
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In the present study, doxorubicin (DOX) loaded polyethyleneglycol-poly (DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) micelle as well as composite micelles composed polyethyleneglycol- poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PEG-PLGA) and Pluronic 105 (P105) were constructed. The micelles, with diameter around 106 nm and 85 nm respectively, were prepared by solvent evaporation method. The results showed that the encapsulation of DOX in micelles could significantly enhance its cytotoxicity in a DOX resistant tumor cell line, K562/DOX. The combination of PEG-PLGA and Pluronic further improved both the tumor-suppressive activity and the intracellular accumulation of DOX, indicating that the composite micelles would be potential to reverse the multidrug resistance in tumor cells.
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[Screen of a membrane protein molecule from Vero cells capable of binding Japanese encephalitis virus(JEV)].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2010
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Identification of membrane protein molecules Vero cells binding JEV.
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Effectiveness of low concentration electrolyzed water to inactivate foodborne pathogens under different environmental conditions.
Int. J. Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Strong acid electrolyzed water (SAEW) has a very limited application due to its low pH value (<2.7) and corrosive characteristics. Thus, we developed new low concentration electrolyzed water (LcEW). The efficacy of LcEW under various treatment conditions for the inactivation of different foodborne pathogens in pure culture was evaluated and compared with SAEW. The efficiency of LcEW and SAEW for the inactivation of predominant foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella Typhimurium) with different dipping times (1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 min), pH values (2.5, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0 and 9.0) and temperatures (4, 15, 23, 35 and 50 degrees C) were determined. Reductions of bacterial populations of 1.7 to 6.6 log(10) CFU/mL in various treated conditions in cell suspensions were observed after treatment with LcEW and SAEW, compared to the untreated control. Dip washing (1 min at 35 degrees C) of lettuce leaves in both electrolyzed water resulted in 2.5 to 4.0 log(10) CFU/g compared to the unwashed control. Strong inactivation effects were observed in LcEW, and no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed between LcEW and SAEW. The effective form of chlorine compounds in LcEW was almost exclusively hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which has strong antimicrobial activity and leaves no residuals due to the low concentration of residual chlorine. Thus, LcEW could be widely applied as a new sanitizer in the food industry.
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Inhibition of lipocalin 2 impairs breast tumorigenesis and metastasis.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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Lipocalin 2 (LCN2; also known as NGAL) is a secreted glycoprotein and its elevated expression has been observed in breast cancers. However, the importance of LCN2 in breast tumorigenesis is unclear. Here, we employed a spontaneous mammary tumor mouse model showing that MMTV-ErbB2(V664E) mice lacking mouse LCN2 had significantly delayed mammary tumor formation and metastasis with reduced matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in the blood. LCN2 expression is upregulated by HER2/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT/NF-kappaB pathway. Decreasing LCN2 expression significantly reduced the invasion and migration ability of HER2(+) breast cancer cells. Furthermore, injecting an anti-mouse LCN2 antibody into mice bearing established murine breast tumors resulted in significant blockage of lung metastasis. Our findings indicate that LCN2 is a critical factor in enhancing breast tumor formation and progression possibly in part by stabilizing matrix metalloproteinase-9. Our results suggest that inhibition of LCN2 function by an inhibitory monoclonal antibody has potential for breast cancer therapy, particularly by interfering with metastasis in aggressive types of breast cancer.
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[Osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells in patients with aplastic anemia].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
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To investigate the osteogenic and adipogenic difference of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) between patients with aplastic anemia (AA) and healthy volunteers and to explore the role of MSCs adipo-differentiation in the pathogenetic mechanism of AA.
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[Decomposing total suspended particle absorption based on the spectral correlation relationship].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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A model for estimating the contributions of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles to the total particulate absorption coefficient was developed based on their separate spectral relationships, and a constrained nonlinear optimization code was used to realize the spectral decomposition. The spectral absorption of total particulate matter including phytoplankton and nonalgal particles was measured using the filter-pad method during two cruises in autumn in Northern South China Sea. Using the dataset collected in 2004, the spectral relationships of particle absorption coefficients were examined and the results showed that the phytoplankton absorption coefficients at various wavebands could be well expressed by aph (443) as the second-order quadratic equations; and the nonalgal particle absorption (aNAP(lambda)) could be successfully modeled with the simple exponential function. Based on these spectral relationships, we developed this partition model. The model was tested using the independently measured absorption by phytoplankton and nonalgal materials which were obtained in 2005 from the same area. The test results showed that the computed spectral absorption coefficients of phytoplankton and nonalgal particles were consistent with in situ measurement. Good correlations were fo und between the comput ed phytoplankton absorption coefficient and the measured value,with the determination coefficients (r2) being higher than 0.97 and slopes being around 1.0; and the RMSE values could be controlled within 17% over the main absorption wavebands such as 443, 490 and 683 nm. Compared with the other two existing models from Bricaud et al. and Oubelkheir et al., this method shows many advantages for local applications. Moreover, this model does not need any information about pigment concentrations and the selected spectral bands are consistent with the ocean color satellite sensor. This method could also be used in the total absorption coefficient decomposition which provides much insight into the phytoplankton absorption retrieval from in situ measurement and ocean color remote sensing data.
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Do translaminar facet screws have the same stability as pedicle screws in two-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion? A biomechanical study.
Turk Neurosurg
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To determine whether translaminar facet screws can provide stability equivalent to pedicle screws in two-level anterior lumbar interbody fusion. MATERIAL and
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Ultrasound effects on the degradation kinetics, structure and rheological properties of apple pectin.
Ultrason Sonochem
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The effects of ultrasound on the molecular weight of apple pectin were investigated. The structure and rheological properties of the degradation products were also tentatively identified by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Photodiode Array Detector (HPLC-PAD), Infrared spectroscopy (IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and Rheometer. The results indicated that the weight-average molecular weight of apple pectin decreased obviously after ultrasound treatment. The molecular weight of degradation products had a uniform and narrow distribution. Ultrasound intensity and temperature play an important role in the degradation reaction. Degradation kinetics model of apple pectin fitted to 1/M(t) - 1/M(0) = kt from 5 to 45 °C. The degree of methylation of apple pectin reduced according to IR analysis when ultrasound was applied. Ultrasound treatment could not alter the primary structure of apple pectin according to the results determined by HPLC, IR and NMR. Meanwhile, the viscosity of apple pectin was 10(3) times as large as that of ultrasound-treated apple pectin. The ultrasound-treated apple pectin showed predominantly viscous responses (G < G") over the same frequency range. The results suggested that ultrasound provided a viable alternative method for the modification of pectin.
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Ligand-independent activation of the Hedgehog pathway displays non-cell autonomous proliferation during eye development in Drosophila.
Mech. Dev.
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Deregulation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is associated with the development of human cancer including medullobastoma and basal cell carcinoma. Loss of Patched or activation of Smoothened in mouse models increases the occurrence of tumors. Likewise, in a Drosophila eye model, deregulated Hedgehog signaling causes overgrowth of eye and head tissues. Surprisingly, we show that cells with deregulated Hh signaling do not or only little contribute to the tissue overgrowth. Instead, they become more sensitive to apoptosis and may eventually be eliminated. Nevertheless, these mutant cells increase proliferation in the adjacent wild-type tissue, i.e., in a non-cell autonomous manner. This non-cell autonomous effect is position-dependent and restricted to mutant cells in the anterior portion of the eye. We also observe precocious non-cell autonomous differentiation in genetic mosaics with deregulated Hh signaling. Together, these non-cell autonomous growth and differentiation phenotypes in the Drosophila eye model reveal another strategy by which oncogenes may generate a supportive micro-environment for tumor growth.
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Development of predictive models for the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on cabbage in Korea.
J. Food Sci.
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Cabbage is the main material of coleslaw, a popular side dish in Korea as well as many other countries. In the present study, the combined effect of temperature (15, 25, and 35 °C) and relative humidity (60%, 70%, and 80%) on the growth of Escherichia coli O157:H7 on cabbage was investigated. The polynomial models for growth rate (GR), lag time (LT), and maximum population density (MPD) estimated from the Baranyi model were conducted with high coefficients of determination (R(2)> 0.98). Subsequently, performance and reliability of the models were assessed through external validation, employing three indices as bias factor (B(f)), accuracy factor (A(f)), and the standard error of prediction expressed in percentage (%SEP). The B(f), A(f), and %SEP values of the predictive models for GR were 1.008, 1.127 and 18.70%, while 1.033, 1.187 and 20.79% for LT and 0.960, 1.044 and 5.22% for MPD, respectively. The results demonstrated that the developed secondary models showed a good agreement between the observed and predicted values. Therefore, the established models can be suitable to estimate and control E. coli O157:H7 growth risk on cabbage at some steps from farm to table in Korea as a valuable tool.
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Visualization of microvasculature by x-ray in-line phase contrast imaging in rat spinal cord.
Phys Med Biol
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Computed tomography combined with angiography has recently been developed to visualize three-dimensional (3D) vascular structure in experimental and clinical studies. However, there remain difficulties in using conventional x-ray angiography to detect small vessels with a diameter less than 200 ?m. This study attempted to develop a novel method for visualizing the micro-angioarchitecture of rat spinal cord. Herein, synchrotron radiation-based x-ray in-line phase contrast computed tomography (IL-XPCT) was used to obtain 3D micro-vessel structure without angiography. The digital phase contrast images were compared with conventional histological sections. Our results clearly demonstrated that the resolution limit of the spatial blood supply network in the normal rat thoracic cord appeared to be as small as ~10 ?m. The rendered images were consistent with that obtained from histomorphology sections. In summary, IL-XPCT is a potential tool to investigate the 3D neurovascular morphology of the rat spinal cord without the use of contrast agents, and it could help to evaluate the validity of the pro- or anti-angiogenesis therapeutic strategies on microvasculature repair or regeneration.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.