JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[The synergism and mechanism of action of rClone30-hDR5 in combination with TRAIL on HCC].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the cell-killing effect and its possible mechanism of rClone30-hDR5 in combination with TRAIL on human hepatic carcinoma (HCC) cell line, first of all, recombinant plasmid pee12.4-hDR5 was introduced into HepG2 cells by liposome transfection. After five rounds of screening by flow cytometry, HepG2 cells expressing high levels of DR5 on cell surface were isolated. The cytotoxicity of TRAIL to selected cells was higher than that of TRAIL to HepG2 cells by MTT method (P < 0.01). The result suggested that the cloned hDR5 gene had biological activity. MTT assay showed that, rClone30- hDR5 in combination with TRAIL more efficiently inhibited the tumor growth of HepG2 cells compared to rClone30-hDR5 or TRAIL in vitro. The results of Annexin V-FITC/PI staining and Quantitative Real-time PCR indicated that rClone30-hDR5 in combination with TRAIL significantly increased the mRNA levels of caspase 3 and caspase 8, and induced the apoptosis of tumor cells. HepG2 cells were infected with rClone30-hDR5 or rClone30 at MOI of 1. The expression of hDR5 on tumor surface increased significantly by rClone30-hDR5 compared to that by rClone30, which contributed to the sensitivity to TRAIL. In conclusion, rClone30-hDR5 in combination with TRAIL has potential application value in cancer treatment.
Related JoVE Video
[The synergistic effect of FGF-21 and insulin on regulating glucose metabolism and its mechanism].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies proposed that the synergistic effect of fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and insulin may be due to the improvement of insulin sensitivity by FGF-21. However, there is no experimental evidence to support this. This study was designed to elucidate the mechanism of synergistic effect of FGF-21 and insulin in the regulation of glucose metabolism. The synergistic effect of FGF-21 and insulin on regulating glucose metabolism was demonstrated by investigating the glucose absorption rate by insulin resistance HepG2 cell model and the blood glucose chances in type 2 diabetic db/db mice after treatments with different concentrations of FGF-21 or/and insulin; The synergistic metabolism was revealed through detecting GLUT1 and GLUT4 transcription levels in the liver by real-time PCR method. The experimental results showed that FGF-21 and insulin have a synergistic effect on the regulation of glucose metabolism. The results of real-time PCR showed that the effective dose of FGF-21 could up-regulate the transcription level of GLUT1 in a dose-dependent manner, but had no effect on the transcription level of GLUT4. Insulin (4 u) alone could up-regulate the transcription level of GLUT4, yet had no effect on that of GLUT1. Ineffective dose 0.1 mg kg(-1) FGF-21 alone could not change the transcription level of GLUT1 or GLUT4. However, when the ineffective dose 0.1 mg x kg(-1) FGF-21 was used in combination with insulin (4 u) significantly increased the transcription levels of both GLUT1 and GLUT4, the transcription level of GLUT1 was similar to that treated with 5 time concentration of FGF-21 alone; the transcription level of GLUT4 is higher than that treated with insulin (4 u) alone. In summary, in the presence of FGF-21, insulin increases the sensitivity of FGF-21 through enhancing GLUT1 transcription. Vice versa, FGF-21 increases the sensitivity of insulin by stimulating GLUT4 transcription in the presence of insulin. FGF-21 and insulin exert a synergistic effect on glucose metabolism through mutual sensitization.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical Features and Endoscopic Treatment of Chinese Patients With Hereditary Pancreatitis.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) has been rarely investigated in China. We aimed to describe clinical features and mutation frequency of Chinese patients with HP and to evaluate outcomes of endoscopic treatments.
Related JoVE Video
[Antitumor efficacy of the recombinant Newcastle disease virus rNDV-IL15 on melanoma models].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to enhance the antitumor efficacy of recombinant Newcastle disease virus, rNDV-IL15 was rescued in this study. Recombinant plasmid prNDV-IL15 was constructed, and BHK21 cells were transfected with the recombinant plasmid. Finally, the recombinant Newcastle disease virus rNDV-IL15 was successfully rescued. The growth curves of these two recombinant viruses were determined. Murine melanoma B16F10 cells were infected with rNDV-IL15 at MOI of 0.1, and the expression level of IL15 in the supernatant was detected by ELISA. The antitumor efficacy of rNDV-IL15 and rNDV was compared in vitro and in vivo. Results showed that prNDV-IL15 was constructed and recombinant virus rNDV-IL15 was successfully rescued. The growth curve of rNDV-IL15 showed that the growth of rNDV-IL15 had not been changed after insertion of IL15 gene. Results showed that there was high level of IL15 expression in the supernatant of rNDV-IL5-infected B16F10 cells (1 044.3 +/- 27.7 ng x mL(-1)). rNDV-IL15 and rNDV significantly inhibited the growth of B16F10 cells in vitro in a time-dependent manner. However, there was no significant difference between them. In animal experiments, rNDV-IL15 efficiently suppressed tumor growth in vivo when compared with rNDV, and the difference was statistically significant. The results suggested that rNDV-IL15 is a more effective antitumor agent.
Related JoVE Video
Global metabolite profiling of mice with high-fat diet-induced obesity chronically treated with AMPK activators R118 or metformin reveals tissue-selective alterations in metabolic pathways.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The novel small molecule R118 and the biguanide metformin, a first-line therapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D), both activate the critical cellular energy sensor 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) via modulation of mitochondrial complex I activity. Activation of AMPK results in both acute responses and chronic adaptations, which serve to restore energy homeostasis. Metformin is thought to elicit its beneficial effects on maintenance of glucose homeostasis primarily though impacting glucose and fat metabolism in the liver. Given the commonalities in their mechanisms of action and that R118 also improves glucose homeostasis in a murine model of T2D, the effects of both R118 and metformin on metabolic pathways in vivo were compared in order to determine whether R118 elicits its beneficial effects through similar mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Trivalent methylated arsenic metabolites induce apoptosis in human myeloid leukemic HL-60 cells through generation of reactive oxygen species.
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has remarkable therapeutic efficacy against leukemia. However, after As2O3 biotransformation, the role of arsenic metabolites in the clinical efficacy against leukemia still needs to be elucidated. Therefore, to explore the contribution of trivalent methylated arsenicals in the therapeutic effects, we investigated and compared the effects of arsenite (iAs(III)), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III)) on HL-60 cells. Methylated arsenic species MMA(III) and DMA(III) showed potentially reduced cell survival with IC50 values of 3 and 2 ?M, respectively. We found that methylated metabolites caused apoptosis through oxidative stress and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, we found that the caspase-9 and -3 were markedly activated by exposure to methylated metabolites, with cleavage of poly-ADP ribose polymerase (PARP). Conversely, cellular apoptosis, generation of ROS, activation of caspase-3, -9 as well as PARP cleavage were significantly attenuated by pretreatment with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC). DNA damage was also markedly observed in HL-60 cells exposed to either MMA(III) or DMA(III), while iAs(III) did not show any relevant effects in HL-60 cells. Likewise, phosphorylation of the histone H2A variant (?-H2AX), a biomarker of DNA damage, significantly occurred in cellular nuclei following exposure to two methylated species, which was reduced in the presence of NAC, suggesting that the induction of DNA damage was predominantly caused by the two metabolites via oxidative stress. In conclusion, we suggest that arsenic intermediate metabolites; MMA(III) and DMA(III) might prove to be of clinical relevance in future as such approaches may help in the treatment of leukemia and other types of cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Iron and copper as virulence modulators in human fungal pathogens.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fungal pathogens have evolved sophisticated machinery to precisely balance the fine line between acquiring essential metals and defending against metal toxicity. Iron and copper are essential metals for many processes in both fungal pathogens and their mammalian hosts, but reduce viability when present in excess. However, during infection, the host uses these two metals differently. Fe has a long-standing history of influencing virulence in pathogenic fungi, mostly in regards to Fe acquisition. Numerous studies demonstrate the requirement of the Fe acquisition pathway of Candida, Cryptococcus and Aspergillus for successful systemic infection. Fe is not free in the host, but is associated with Fe-binding proteins, leading fungi to develop mechanisms to interact with and to acquire Fe from these Fe-bound proteins. Cu is also essential for cell growth and development. Essential Cu-binding proteins include Fe transporters, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and cytochrome c oxidase. Although Cu acquisition plays critical roles in fungal survival in the host, recent work has revealed that Cu detoxification is extremely important. Here, we review fungal responses to altered metal conditions presented by the host, contrast the roles of Fe and Cu during infection, and outline the critical roles of fungal metal homeostasis machinery at the host-pathogen axis.
Related JoVE Video
[Our considerations about research on regularities of acupoint combination based on bipartite network community structure partition].
Zhen Ci Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acupoint compatibility is not only a foundation for formulating acupoint recipes in clinical practice, but also a core of meridian and acupoint theory. Many studies have revealed that the application of multiple-acupoints combination in the treatment of different clinical conditions or illnesses may lead to three outcomes, i.e., synergistic effect, antagonistic effect and no effect. Therefore, the application of multiple acupoints combination is definitely not a simple result of 1 + 1 = 2, or 2 - 1 = 1 in the management of many clinical disorders, and rather, the reasonable combination of multiple acupoints is a non-liner, dynamic and complicated issue. It has been well documented that the complex biological network consists of modules/communities, a set of nodes that are more densely inter-connected among themselves than with the rest of the network, which can be detected by community detection according to their modularity. After analyzing the current status and development trends of acupoint comparability researches in both China and other countries of the world, the authors of the present paper put forward some ideas and methods for the research of correlation, composing characteristics and dynamically evolutionary regularities of acupoint combination from the macroscopic and local aspects, dynamic and static angles on the basis of the theory of community structure theory of complex networks.
Related JoVE Video
Endoscopic management of early-stage chronic pancreatitis based on M-ANNHEIM classification system: a prospective study.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to evaluate the M-ANNHEIM classification system to categorize patients with chronic pancreatitis (CP).
Related JoVE Video
Exercise performance and peripheral vascular insufficiency improve with AMPK activation in high-fat diet-fed mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Intermittent claudication is a form of exercise intolerance characterized by muscle pain during walking in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD). Endothelial cell and muscle dysfunction are thought to be important contributors to the etiology of this disease, but a lack of preclinical models that incorporate these elements and measure exercise performance as a primary end point has slowed progress in finding new treatment options for these patients. We sought to develop an animal model of peripheral vascular insufficiency in which microvascular dysfunction and exercise intolerance were defining features. We further set out to determine if pharmacological activation of 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) might counteract any of these functional deficits. Mice aged on a high-fat diet demonstrate many functional and molecular characteristics of PAD, including the sequential development of peripheral vascular insufficiency, increased muscle fatigability, and progressive exercise intolerance. These changes occur gradually and are associated with alterations in nitric oxide bioavailability. Treatment of animals with an AMPK activator, R118, increased voluntary wheel running activity, decreased muscle fatigability, and prevented the progressive decrease in treadmill exercise capacity. These functional performance benefits were accompanied by improved mitochondrial function, the normalization of perfusion in exercising muscle, increased nitric oxide bioavailability, and decreased circulating levels of the endogenous endothelial nitric oxide synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine. These data suggest that aged, obese mice represent a novel model for studying exercise intolerance associated with peripheral vascular insufficiency, and pharmacological activation of AMPK may be a suitable treatment for intermittent claudication associated with PAD.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial DNA induces inflammation and increases TLR9/NF-?B expression in lung tissue.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) contains unmethylated CpG motifs that exhibit immune stimulatory capacities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mtDNA activates the Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9)/nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway, thereby contributing to post-traumatic systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and lung injury in rats. The effects of mtDNA on macrophage culture were examined in order to elucidate the putative cellular mechanisms. Rats and macrophage cultures were treated with phosphate-buffered saline, nuclear DNA, or mtDNA for 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. Histological analysis of lung tissue was undertaken following hematoxylin and eosin staining, and cytokine levels were assessed by ELISA. NF-?B and I?B-? phosphorylation levels, as well as TLR9 protein expression were determined by western blot analysis; NF-?B, I?B-? and TLR9 mRNA levels were analyzed by RT-PCR. A greater degree of inflammation and lung injury was observed in response to mtDNA. In addition, mtDNA increased serum tumor necrosis factor-?, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 levels in vivo and increased their secretion by cultured macrophages (p<0.05). In lung tissue, mtDNA increased NF-?B, I?B-? and TLR9 mRNA levels (p<0.05); it also increased phosphorylated NF-?B p65 and TLR9 protein levels in the macrophage cultures. Thus, mtDNA may be part of the danger-associated molecular patterns, contributing to the initiation of sterile SIRS through the activation of the TLR9/NF-?B pathway and the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine production.
Related JoVE Video
Bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The transmembrane protein with epidermal growth factor and two follistatin motifs 2 (TMEFF2) is a single-pass transmembrane protein, and it is downregulated in human gastric cancer and levels correlate with tumor progression and time of survival. However, the mechanism of its dysregulation in gastric cancer is little known. Here we investigate its regulatory mechanism and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 in gastric carcinogenesis. TMEFF2 expression was decreased after Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in vivo and in vitro. STAT3 directly binds to the promoter of TMEFF2 and regulates H. pylori-induced TMEFF2 downregulation in normal gastric GES-1 cells and gastric cancer AGS cells. Conversely, TMEFF2 may suppress the phosphorylation of STAT3 and TMEFF2-induced downregulation of STAT3 phosphorylation may depend on SHP-1. A highly inverse correlation between the expression of TMEFF2 and pSTAT3 was also revealed in gastric tissues. We now show the deregulation mechanism of TMEFF2 in gastric carcinogenesis and identify TMEFF2 as a new target gene of STAT3. The phosphorylation of STAT3 may be negatively regulated by TMEFF2, and the bidirectional regulation between TMEFF2 and STAT3 may contribute to H. pylori-associated gastric carcinogenesis.© 2014 UICC.
Related JoVE Video
Resistance to apoptosis should not be taken as a hallmark of cancer.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the research community, resistance to apoptosis is often considered a hallmark of cancer. However, pathologists who diagnose cancer via microscope often see the opposite. Indeed, increased apoptosis and mitosis are usually observed simultaneously in cancerous lesions. Studies have shown that increased apoptosis is associated with cancer aggressiveness and poor clinical outcome. Furthermore, overexpression of Bcl-2, an antiapoptotic protein, is linked with better survival of cancer patients. Conversely, Bax, CD95, Caspase-3, and other apoptosis-inducing proteins have been found to promote carcinogenesis. This notion of the role of apoptosis in cancer is not new; cancer cells were found to be short-lived 88 years ago. Given these observations, resistance to apoptosis should not be considered a hallmark of cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Role of N-acyl amino acid ligands in Pd(II)-catalyzed remote C-H activation of tethered arenes.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A combined experimental/computational study on the amino acid ligand-assisted Pd-catalyzed C-H bond activation reveals a mechanism in which the amino acid acts as both a dianionic bidentate ligand and a proton acceptor. This new model explains the effects of amino acids on reactivity and selectivity and unveils the dual roles of amino acids: stabilizing monomeric Pd complexes and serving as the internal base for proton abstraction.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-194 Deregulation Contributes To Colorectal Carcinogenesis via Targeting AKT2 Pathway.
Theranostics
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have increasingly linked microRNAs to colorectal cancer (CRC). MiR-194 has been reported deregulated in different tumor types, whereas the function of miR-194 in CRC largely remains unexplored. Here we investigated the biological effects, mechanisms and clinical significance of miR-194. Functional assay revealed that overexpression of miR-194 inhibited CRC cell viability and invasion in vitro and suppressed CRC xenograft tumor growth in vivo. Conversely, block of miR-194 in APC(Min/+) mice promoted tumor growth. Furthermore, miR-194 reduced the expression of AKT2 both in vitro and in vivo. Clinically, the expression of miR-194 gradually decreased from 20 normal colorectal mucosa (N-N) cases through 40 colorectal adenomas (CRA) cases and then to 40 CRC cases, and was negatively correlated with AKT2 and pAKT2 expression. Furthermore, expression of miR-194 in stool samples was gradually decreased from 20 healthy cases, 20 CRA cases, then to 28 CRC cases. Low expression of miR-194 in CRC tissues was associated with large tumor size (P=0.006), lymph node metastasis (P=0.012) and shorter survival (HR =2.349, 95% CI = 1.242 to 4.442; P=0.009). In conclusion, our data indicated that miR-194 acted as a tumor suppressor in the colorectal carcinogenesis via targeting PDK1/AKT2/XIAP pathway, and could be a significant diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for CRC.
Related JoVE Video
Palladium-Catalyzed Meta-Selective C-H Bond Activation with a Nitrile-Containing Template: Computational Study on Mechanism and Origins of Selectivity.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Density functional theory investigations have elucidated the mechanism and origins of meta-regioselectivity of Pd(II)-catalyzed C-H olefinations of toluene derivatives that employ a nitrile-containing template. The reaction proceeds through four major steps: C-H activation, alkene insertion, ?-hydride elimination, and reductive elimination. The C-H activation step, which proceeds via a concerted metalation-deprotonation (CMD) pathway, is found to be the rate- and regioselectivity-determining step. For the crucial C-H activation, four possible active catalytic species-monomeric Pd(OAc)2, dimeric Pd2(OAc)4, heterodimeric PdAg(OAc)3, and trimeric Pd3(OAc)6-have been investigated. The computations indicated that the C-H activation with the nitrile-containing template occurs via a Pd-Ag heterodimeric transition state. The nitrile directing group coordinates with Ag while the Pd is placed adjacent to the meta-C-H bond in the transition state, leading to the observed high meta-selectivity. The Pd2(OAc)4 dimeric mechanism also leads to the meta-C-H activation product but with higher activation energies than the Pd-Ag heterodimeric mechanism. The Pd monomeric and trimeric mechanisms require much higher activation free energies and are predicted to give ortho products. Structural and distortion energy analysis of the transition states revealed significant effects of distortions of the template on mechanism and regioselectivity, which provided hints for further developments of new templates.
Related JoVE Video
[Metallic modular radial head prostheses for Mason III and IV unreconstructable radial head fractures].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the early efficacy of metallic modular radial head prostheses in patients with Mason III and IV unreconstructable radial head fractures.
Related JoVE Video
Dynesys dynamic stabilization system for the lumbar degenerative disease: a preliminary report from China.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dynesys dynamic stabilization system was first implanted in patients in 1994, and introduced to China in 2007. Therefore, it was a new technique for Chinese orthopedics and hence necessary to collect clinical data about Dynesys in China. The objective of this study was to report the preliminary results of Dynesys for the lumbar degenerative disease in China.
Related JoVE Video
[Correlations between standing trees trunk decay degree and soil physical-chemical properties in Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xingan Mountains of Northeast China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Standing trees decay often causes vast loss of timber resources. To investigate the correlations between the standing trees decay and the site conditions is of importance to scientifically and reasonably manage forests and to decrease wood resources loss. By using Resistograph and meter ruler, a measurement was made on the decay degree of the trunk near root and the diameter at breast height (DBH) of 15 mature Korean pine standing trees in a Korean pine-broadleaved mixed forest in Xiao Xing an Mountains in May, 2011. In the meantime, soil samples were collected from the root zones of standing trees and the upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks, respectively. Five physical-chemical properties including moisture content, bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content of the soil samples were tested. The regression equations concerning the trunk decay degree of the standing trees, their DBH, and the 5 soil properties were established. The results showed that the trunk decay degree of the mature Korean pine standing trees had higher correlations with the bulk density, total porosity, pH value, and organic matter content (R = 0.687), and significant positive correlation with the moisture content (R = 0.507) of the soils at the root zones of standing trees, but less correlation with the 5 properties of the soils at both upslope and downslope 5 meters away from the trunks. The trunk decay degree was decreased when the soil moisture content was below 18.4%. No significant correlation was observed between the trunk decay degree of mature Korean pine standing trees and the tree age.
Related JoVE Video
[Application of confocal technology based on polycapillary X-ray lens in measuring thickness].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A confocal micro X-ray fluorescence thickness gauge based on a polycapillary focusing X-ray lens, a polycapillary parallel X-ray lens and a laboratory X-ray source was designed in order to analyze nondestructively the thickness of thin film and cladding material. The performances of this confocal thickness gauge were studied. Two Ni films with a thickness of about 25 and 15 microm respectively were measured. The relative errors corresponding to them were 3.5% and 7.1%, respectively. The thickness uniformity of a Ni films with a thickness of about 10 microm was analyzed. This confocal technology for measuring the thickness was both spatially resolved and elemental sensitive, and therefore, it could be used to measure the thickness of the multilayer sample and analyze the thickness uniformity of the sample. This confocal thickness gauge had potential applications in analyzing the thickness of sample.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of unipedicular and bipedicular percutaneous kyphoplasty for treating osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures: a meta-analysis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Percutaneous vertebroplasty (PKP) has proved its effectiveness regarding minimal invasion, rapid pain reduction, safe cement augmentation, restoring vertebral height, and accelerating complete recovery of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs). Whether unipedicular or bipedicular PKP provides a better outcome is controversial.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on reflectance spectra morphological character of the hyperspectral mixed pixels at different component proportion].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Under the experimental condition, the hyperspectral reflectance spectra of the mixed pixel of lotus and water body were acquired using the multi-angles dichotic reflex platform and ASD spectrum instrument. The reflectance spectral morphological character index variation of the hyperspectral mixed pixel at different component proportion was analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: the correlation between these morphological indexes was obvious, and the best morphological index was chosen by removing the index whose R2 was greater than 0.5 (R is correlation coefficient); the variation of different morphological index was obvious; the cluster analysis shows that there was a critical value in the progress of the transformation from the pure pixel (water) to mixed pixel. If the proportion was less than the critical value, the reflectance spectra reflected the reflection characteristics of pure pixel; otherwise, it was the reflection of characteristics of mixed pixel.
Related JoVE Video
Comprehensive screening for PRSS1, SPINK1, CFTR, CTRC and CLDN2 gene mutations in Chinese paediatric patients with idiopathic chronic pancreatitis: a cohort study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genetic alterations may contribute to chronic pancreatitis (CP) in Chinese young patients. This study was designed to investigate mutations of cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1), pancreatic secretory trypsin inhibitor or serine protease inhibitor Kazal type 1 (SPINK1), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), chymotrypsin C (CTRC) and CLDN2 genes and the copy number variations (CNVs) of PRSS1 and asses associations with the development of idiopathic CP (ICP) in Chinese children.
Related JoVE Video
Psychological trauma of funnel chest in adolescents and the appropriate age for minimally invasive surgery repair.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Funnel chest has a negative effect on adolescents and it has a strong effect on adolescents psychological and behavior. This study aimed to investigate the psychological characteristics and factors that affect adolescents with funnel chest and to evaluate the relationship between the patients age and their physiological and psychological health. We aimed to establish an age model for maximum surgery benefits for funnel chest patients to provide an objective basis for choosing surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Chimeric anti-IL-17 full-length monoclonal antibody is a novel potential candidate for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease, primarily manifesting as inflammatory arthritis. It is associated with chronic inflammation of the synovial joints, mostly in the hands and feet, as well as with systemic extra-articular inflammation. The chimeric anti-interleukin (IL)-17 full-length monoclonal antibody (CMa17Aab) targets IL-17A, which is an important cytokine in the pathogenesis of RA and other inflammatory disorders. In this study, we investigated whether CMa17Aab exerts therapeutic effects in a mouse model of type II collagen?induced arthritis (CIA). Mice with CIA were subcutaneously injected with the humanized CMa17Aab antibody. The effects of treatment were assessed by estimating the arthritis severity score, the extent of histological damage and bone destruction, the autoreactive humoral and cellular immune responses and the production of cytokines. Treatment with CMa17Aab exerted beneficial effects in the mice with CIA as regards clinical and histological parameters. Compared with the controls, treatment with CMa17Aab resulted in a significant alleviation of the severity of the symptoms of arthritis, by preventing bone damage and cartilage destruction, reducing humoral and cellular immune responses, and downregulating the expression of IL-6, IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-3, IL-17, IL-1?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, receptor activator for nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) and interferon (IFN)-? in inflamed tissues. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that treatment with CMa17Aab exerts beneficial effects in mice with CIA, by preventing joint inflammation, cartilage destruction and bone damage. These preliminary results suggest that CMa17Aab is an important regulator in RA, and that it may represent a novel therapeutic agent that may prove useful in the treatment of this disease.
Related JoVE Video
Cancer stem cell therapy using doxorubicin conjugated to gold nanoparticles via hydrazone bonds.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nanoparticle-mediated delivery of chemotherapies has demonstrated enhanced anti-cancer efficacy, mainly through the mechanisms of both passive and active targeting. Herein, we report other than these well-elucidated mechanisms, rationally designed nanoparticles can efficiently deliver drugs to cancer stem cells (CSCs), which in turn contributes significantly to the improved anti-cancer efficacy. We demonstrate that doxorubicin-tethered gold nanoparticles via a poly(ethylene glycol) spacer and an acid-labile hydrazone bond mediate potent doxorubicin delivery to breast CSCs, which reduces their mammosphere formation capacity and their cancer initiation activity, eliciting marked enhancement in tumor growth inhibition in murine models. The drug delivery mediated by the nanoparticles also markedly attenuates tumor growth during off-therapy stage by reducing breast CSCs in tumors, while the therapy with doxorubicin alone conversely evokes an enrichment of breast CSCs. Our findings suggest that with well-designed drug delivery system, the conventional chemotherapeutic agents are promising for cancer stem cell therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Factors influencing postoperative mortality one year after surgery for hip fracture in Chinese elderly population.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Disability and death following hip fracture is becoming more common as the population ages. Previous reports have focused on the selection of internal fixation methods and the analysis of the perioperative therapeutic results in the Chinese population. Few studies have focused on factors influencing medium and long term survival after surgery for hip fracture. We conducted a retrospective study on the factors influencing survival one year after hip fracture surgery in our elderly Chinese population to provide a reference for improved treatment and to enhance efficacy.
Related JoVE Video
DUSP 4 expression identifies a subset of colorectal cancer tumors that differ in MAPK activation, regardless of the genotype.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As dual-specificity phosphatase (DUSP) expression has been correlated to sensitivity to MEK inhibitors, DUSP expression levels may indicate activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in many tumor types. In this study, we investigate if DUSP levels can indicate different levels of MAPK activation within colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. In three different CRC patient microarray datasets, we analyzed the expression of DUSP1. DUSP4 and DUSP6 according to mutational status, their correlation with survival and their association with different clinical characteristics. DUSP4 was significantly differentially expressed between all mutational subgroups with the highest expression in BRAF mutated tumors. Moreover, high DUSP4 expression was associated with a worse overall survival and with clinical characteristics typical for BRAF mutant patients. The use of DUSP expression as a predictive biomarker towards MAPK targeted therapy in CRC patients needs further investigation.
Related JoVE Video
Comprehensive probabilistic modelling of environmental emissions of engineered nanomaterials.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Concerns about the environmental risks of engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are growing, however, currently very little is known about their concentrations in the environment. Here, we calculate the concentrations of five ENM (nano-TiO2, nano-ZnO, nano-Ag, CNT and fullerenes) in environmental and technical compartments using probabilistic material-flow modelling. We apply the newest data on ENM production volumes, their allocation to and subsequent release from different product categories, and their flows into and within those compartments. Further, we compare newly predicted ENM concentrations to estimates from 2009 and to corresponding measured concentrations of their conventional materials, e.g. TiO2, Zn and Ag. We show that the production volume and the compounds inertness are crucial factors determining final concentrations. ENM production estimates are generally higher than a few years ago. In most cases, the environmental concentrations of corresponding conventional materials are between one and seven orders of magnitude higher than those for ENM.
Related JoVE Video
Trastuzumab-Peptide interactions: mechanism and application in structure-based ligand design.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Understanding of protein-ligand interactions and its influences on protein stability is necessary in the research on all biological processes and correlative applications, for instance, the appropriate affinity ligand design for the purification of bio-drugs. In this study, computational methods were applied to identify binding site interaction details between trastuzumab and its natural receptor. Trastuzumab is an approved antibody used in the treatment of human breast cancer for patients whose tumors overexpress the HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) protein. However, rational design of affinity ligands to keep the stability of protein during the binding process is still a challenge. Herein, molecular simulations and quantum mechanics were used on protein-ligand interaction analysis and protein ligand design. We analyzed the structure of the HER2-trastuzumab complex by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The interaction energies of the mutated peptides indicate that trastuzumab binds to ligand through electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. Quantitative investigation of interactions shows that electrostatic interactions play the most important role in the binding of the peptide ligand. Prime/MM-GBSA calculations were carried out to predict the binding affinity of the designed peptide ligands. A high binding affinity and specificity peptide ligand is designed rationally with equivalent interaction energy to the wild-type octadecapeptide. The results offer new insights into affinity ligand design.
Related JoVE Video
Rs12218 In SAA1 gene was associated with serum lipid levels.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serum amyloid A (SAA) is a kind of apolipoprotein. Several studies indicated that SAA genetic polymorphism rs12218 was associated with carotid atherosclerosis, peripheral arterial disease, and serum uric acid levels. However, the relation between rs12218 and lipid levels remains unclear. This study assessed the correlation between SAA1 gene rs12218 polymorphism and lipid levels in a Chinese population.
Related JoVE Video
Colorectal cancer intrinsic subtypes predict chemotherapy benefit, deficient mismatch repair and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In most colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, outcome cannot be predicted because tumors with similar clinicopathological features can have differences in disease progression and treatment response. Therefore, a better understanding of the CRC biology is required to identify those patients who will benefit from chemotherapy and to find a more tailored therapy plan for other patients. Based on unsupervised classification of whole genome data from 188 stages I-IV CRC patients, a molecular classification was developed that consist of at least three major intrinsic subtypes (A-, B- and C-type). The subtypes were validated in 543 stages II and III patients and were associated with prognosis and benefit from chemotherapy. The heterogeneity of the intrinsic subtypes is largely based on three biological hallmarks of the tumor: epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, deficiency in mismatch repair genes that result in high mutation frequency associated with microsatellite instability and cellular proliferation. A-type tumors, observed in 22% of the patients, have the best prognosis, have frequent BRAF mutations and a deficient DNA mismatch repair system. C-type patients (16%) have the worst outcome, a mesenchymal gene expression phenotype and show no benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy treatment. Both A-type and B-type tumors have a more proliferative and epithelial phenotype and B-types benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. B-type tumors (62%) show a low overall mutation frequency consistent with the absence of DNA mismatch repair deficiency. Classification based on molecular subtypes made it possible to expand and improve CRC classification beyond standard molecular and immunohistochemical assessment and might help in the future to guide treatment in CRC patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on the nonlinear characteristics of the mixed pixels reflectance in hyperspectral space].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Under the experimental condition of the 50 degree incidence zenith angle and 45 degree detection azimuth, 24 groups of reflectance spectral of the mixed pixel of lotus and water body acquired using the reflex platform and FieldSpec 3 Hi-Res portable spectrum instrument. The hyperspectral space was built based on the reflectance character. The relationship between similarity and the index of lotus area ratio was analyzed using the linear, logarithm and quadratic curve fitting, and the goodness of fitting is 63.6%, 76.2% and 82.9% respectively. According to the real relationship of the mixed pixel spectral vector and the reference spectral, the best fitting model has nonlinear characteristics. The idea that the mixed pixel may have the critical value was proposed on the base of the analysis. The research result will help understand the mixed pixel further, and provide a new direction for unmixing the mixed pixel.
Related JoVE Video
Gemcitabine alone or in combination with Cisplatin for advanced biliary tract carcinomas: an overview of clinical evidence.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There has been no universally agreed standard chemotherapy regimen for patients with advanced biliary tract carcinomas (BTC). We aimed to fully display and evaluate the clinical evidence for gemcitabine or gemcitabine-cisplatin combination for advanced BTC.
Related JoVE Video
Contribution of water molecules in the spontaneous release of protein by graphene sheets.
Chemphyschem
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Applications of graphene sheets in the fields of biosensors and biomedical devices are limited by the aqueous solubility of graphene. Consequently, understanding the role of water molecules in the aggregation or dispersion of graphene in aqueous solution with a biomolecule is of vital importance to its application. Herein, protein is spontaneously released by the layer-to-layer aggregation of two single-layer graphene sheets due to van der Waals force between the sheets. The properties of water molecules, including density and dynamics, are discussed in detail. The dynamic behavior of aggregation of graphene sheets is triggered by the dynamics of water molecules. To stabilize dispersed graphene sheets in aqueous solution, the density of water molecules between the graphene sheets should be larger than 0.83 g cm(-3), and graphene modified by hydroxyl groups could be a good choice. The stability of a model protein on the graphene sheet is studied to investigate the biological compatibility of graphene sheets. To be a material with good biocompatibility, graphene should be functionalized by hydrophilic groups. The results presented herein could be helpful in the research and application of graphene sheets in the fields of biomaterials, biosensors, and biomedical devices.
Related JoVE Video
[Studies of the thermal radiation multi-angle polarization properties of snow].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This paper, catering to the need of the study of remote sensing for thermal radiation polarization properties of ground features, detects the thermal radiation multi-angle polarization properties of snow, and makes analysis of effects of four factors, i. e. detecting zenith angle, detecting azimuth angle, bands and polarizing angle, on the thermal radiation properties of snow. The results show that the radiance and brightness temperature of snow increases with the detecting zenith angle. When the detecting zenith angle is greater than 30 degrees, the growth accelerated, and the effect of detecting zenith angle on the brightness temperature of snow is more significant than that of the radiance; the changes in detecting azimuth angle have some effect on the radiance and brightness temperature of snow, and have much influence on the brightness temperature than that of the radiance; the radiance and brightness temperature of snow is significantly affected by the changes in bands, and the effect on the radiance is more significant; the changes in polarizing angle have some effect on the radiance and brightness temperature of the snow, and have much influence on its brightness temperature. The results of the study provide new ideas and methods for the application of remote sensing technology to carrying out the thermal infrared quantitative study of snow, and have important theoretical significance and potential applications.
Related JoVE Video
[Analysis of the polarization properties of snow in a different melting state].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nowdays, under the circumstance of global warming, the traditional study of solid-state snow can not meet the current needs. The present paper involves qualitative analysis of the polarization reflectance spectrum of snow in a different melting state. Special attention is paid to the investigation of the relationship among polarization angles, azimuth angles, the light incidence zenith angles, the detection zenith angles and the different types of snowmelt. It turns out that all these factors have certain influences on the polarization reflectance spectrum of different types of snowmelt. At the waveband of the visible light, the polarization reflectance of snowmelt is the largest at 90 degrees, and the smallest at 0 degrees. The wider the detection angles and the incidence angles, the larger the polarization reflectance. Anomalies (unusual phenomena), different from other spectra, occur when the polarization reflectance spectrum of snowmelt is observed at different azimuth angles. The characteristics of polarization spectra at some certain wavebands play an important role in determining the water content of snowmelt, and meanwhile with the increase of which, the polarization reflectance will go down obviously. These rules have laid a solid foundation for the quantitative analysis of snowmelt properties by using polarization spectrum in the future and are also of great importance in fresh water management as well as monitoring natural disasters such as the spring flood.
Related JoVE Video
Knockdown of ZFX inhibits gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo via downregulating the ERK-MAPK pathway.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zinc finger protein X-linked (ZFX) is a zinc finger transcription factor encoded on the X chromosome. Here, we found that ZFX expression was significantly upregulated in gastric cancer (GC) cell lines and tissues. Knockdown of ZFX induced significant apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in SGC7901 and MGC803 cells. Moreover, we demonstrated for the first time that knockdown of ZFX inhibited gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo via downregulating the extracellular signal-regulated kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK-MAPK) pathway. Therefore, ZFX play a prominent role in GC tumorigenicity and may have potential applications in the diagnosis or treatment of GC.
Related JoVE Video
A novel model of burn-blast combined injury and its phasic changes of blood coagulation in rats.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Burn-blast combined injury has a complex pathological process that may cause adverse complications and difficulties in treatment. This study aims to establish a standard animal model of severe burn-blast combined injury in rats and also to investigate early phasic changes of blood coagulation. By using 54 Wistar rats, distance from explosion source (Hexogen) and size of burned body surface area were determined to induce severe burn-blast combined injury. Thereafter, 256 rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 64): blast injury group, burn injury group, burn-blast combined injury group, and sham injury group. Gross anatomy and pathological changes in lungs were investigated at 3, 24, 72, and 168 h, respectively. Blood was also collected for analyzing coagulation parameters as prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and plasma levels of fibrinogen, D-dimer, antithrombin III, and ?2-antiplasmin from 0 to 168 h after injury. Severe burn-blast combined injury was induced by inflicting rats with a moderate blast injury when placing rats 75 cm away from explosion source and a full-thickness burn injury of 25% total body surface area. The rats with burn-blast combined injury had more severe lung injuries when compared with the other three groups. Pathological examination in the BBL group showed diffused alveolar hemorrhage, fluid filling, alveolar atelectasis, rupture and hyperplasia of partial alveolar septum, emphysema-like change, reduced capillary bed, and infiltration of extensive polymorphonuclear cells after injury. The blood of combined injured rats was in a hypercoagulable state within 24 h, shortly restored from 24 to 48 h, and rehypercoagulated from 48 to 72 h after injury. A secondary excessively fibrinolytic function was also found thereafter. The rat model of burn-blast combined injury was successfully established by simulating real explosion characteristics. Rats with burn-blast combined injuries suffered from more severe lung injuries and abnormal coagulation and fibrinolytic function than those induced by a burn injury or a blast injury component. Hence, a time-dependent treatment strategy on coagulation function should be emphasized in clinical therapy of burn-blast combined injury.
Related JoVE Video
Bimodal optical diagnostics of oral cancer based on Rose Bengal conjugated gold nanorod platform.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early detection of cancer often requires time consuming protocols and expensive instrumentation. To address these limitations, a Rose Bengal conjugated gold nanorod (RB-GNR) platform is developed for optical detection of cancer cells. The GNRs are modified by poly(allylamine hydrochloride) and conjugated with RB molecules to produce RB-GNRs which exhibit strong optical absorption in the near-infrared (NIR) region, good stability in aqueous solution, low cytotoxicity, and high specificity to oral cancer cells. The label-free sensing assay utilizes RB-GNRs as the sensing probe and by monitoring the aggregation-induced red-shift in the NIR absorption wavelength, specific and quantitative analysis of the oral cancer cell lysate is accomplished down to a detection limit of 2000 cells/mL. By employing the RB-GNRs as an imaging probe, an imaging assay is established on a home-made NIR absorption imaging system. Based on the NIR absorption by the RB-GNRs specifically conjugated with the oral cancer cells, multi-channel, rapid and quantitative detection of oral cancer cells is demonstrated. The high sensitivity and specificity of the RB-GNR platform as demonstrated by the two complementary assays provide non-invasive optical diagnostics of oral cancer cells enabling convenient screening and monitoring.
Related JoVE Video
Dual-emitting nanocomposites derived from rare-earth compound nanotubes for ratiometric fluorescence sensing applications.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new class of ratiometric fluorescence sensors composed of rare-earth (RE) compound nanotubes is described. Polyethylenimine-coated yttrium hydroxide fluoride nanotubes (YHF NTs) that were synthesized hydrothermally exhibit highly efficient fluorescence when doped with RE ions. The polyethylenimine on the NTs facilitates the incorporation of phosphors such as quantum dots or organic dyes onto the NT surface to produce dual-emitting nanocomposites which are excellent ratiometric fluorescence sensors. The phosphor layer and underlying tubes in the nanocomposites act as the indicator and reference probes, respectively. This ratiometric fluorescence method which can be applied to the detection of heavy metals in solutions, temperature sensing, and pH sensing boasts high sensitivity and selectivity as well as better accuracy than traditional intensity-based fluorescence methods.
Related JoVE Video
Role of STAT3 and vitamin D receptor in EZH2-mediated invasion of human colorectal cancer.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The polycomb group protein enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), which has histone methyltransferase (HMT) activity, is overexpressed in malignant tumours. However, the role of EZH2 in colorectal cancer (CRC) invasion is little known. Here we investigated the clinical significance, biological effects, and mechanisms of EZH2 signalling. Knockdown of EZH2 significantly reduced cell invasion and secretion of matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP2/9) in in vitro studies. Knockdown of EZH2 dramatically increased overall survival and decreased metastasis of lung in in vivo studies. Conversely, overexpression of EZH2 significantly increased lung metastasis and shortened overall survival when compared with control tumours. EZH2-induced CRC cell invasion may depend on down-regulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR), which is considered to be a marker of CRC invasion. EZH2 regulates the histone trimethylation of lysine 27 (H3K27me3) in the VDR promoter. Moreover, we found that STAT3 directly binds to the EZH2 promoter and regulates VDR down-regulation in CRC cells. Significant inverse correlations were observed between the expression of EZH2 and pSTAT3 and that of VDR in CRC tissues compared with normal tissue in patients. We show the role of EZH2 in CRC metastasis and identify VDR as a target gene of EZH2. EZH2 expression may be directly regulated by STAT3, and STAT3 may play an important role in EZH2-mediated VDR down-regulation in CRC. This pathway may provide potential targets in aggressive CRC.
Related JoVE Video
Optimization of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell isolation and culture methods.
Cytotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are considered to be an ideal replacement for bone marrow MSCs. However, up to date, there is no convenient and efficient method for hUCMSC isolation and culture. The present study was carried out to explore the modified enzyme digestion for hUCMSC in vitro. Conventional enzyme digestion, modified enzyme digestion, and tissue explant were used on hUCMSCs to compare their efficiencies of isolation and culture, to observe primary cell growth and cell subculture. The results show that the cells cultured using the tissue explant method had a longer culture cycle (P < 0.01) and lower yield of primary cells per centimetre of umbilical cord (P < 0.01) compared with the two enzyme digestion methods. Subculture adherence and cell doubling took significantly less time with the tissue explant method (P < 0.05) than with the conventional enzyme digestion method; however, there was no significant difference between the tissue explant method and the modified enzyme digestion method (P > 0.05). Comparing two enzyme digestion methods, the modified method yielded more cells than did the conventional method (P < 0.01), and primary cell adherence took significantly less time with the modified method than with the conventional method (P < 0.05). Cell cycle analysis of the third-generation hUCMSCs cultured by modified enzyme digestion method indicated that most cells were quiescent. Immunofluorescence staining showed that these cells expressed MSC markers CD44 and CD90. And Von Kossa and oil red O staining detection showed that they could be differentiated into osteoblasts and adipocytes with induction medium in vitro. This study suggests that hUCMSC isolation and culture using 0.2 % collagenase II at 37 °C for digestion of 16-20 h is an effective and simple modified enzyme digestion method.
Related JoVE Video
AMPK Activation through Mitochondrial Regulation Results in Increased Substrate Oxidation and Improved Metabolic Parameters in Models of Diabetes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Modulation of mitochondrial function through inhibiting respiratory complex I activates a key sensor of cellular energy status, the 5-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Activation of AMPK results in the mobilization of nutrient uptake and catabolism for mitochondrial ATP generation to restore energy homeostasis. How these nutrient pathways are affected in the presence of a potent modulator of mitochondrial function and the role of AMPK activation in these effects remain unclear. We have identified a molecule, named R419, that activates AMPK in vitro via complex I inhibition at much lower concentrations than metformin (IC50 100 nM vs 27 mM, respectively). R419 potently increased myocyte glucose uptake that was dependent on AMPK activation, while its ability to suppress hepatic glucose production in vitro was not. In addition, R419 treatment of mouse primary hepatocytes increased fatty acid oxidation and inhibited lipogenesis in an AMPK-dependent fashion. We have performed an extensive metabolic characterization of its effects in the db/db mouse diabetes model. In vivo metabolite profiling of R419-treated db/db mice showed a clear upregulation of fatty acid oxidation and catabolism of branched chain amino acids. Additionally, analyses performed using both (13)C-palmitate and (13)C-glucose tracers revealed that R419 induces complete oxidation of both glucose and palmitate to CO2 in skeletal muscle, liver, and adipose tissue, confirming that the compound increases mitochondrial function in vivo. Taken together, our results show that R419 is a potent inhibitor of complex I and modulates mitochondrial function in vitro and in diabetic animals in vivo. R419 may serve as a valuable molecular tool for investigating the impact of modulating mitochondrial function on nutrient metabolism in multiple tissues and on glucose and lipid homeostasis in diabetic animal models.
Related JoVE Video
[Minimally invasive percutanuous cannulated pedicle screw system fixation for the treatment of thoracolumbar flexion-distraction fracture without neurologic impairment].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the feasibility and effect of percutanuous cannulated pedicle screw AF system fixation for the treatment of thoracolumbar flexion-distraction fracture without neurologic impairment.
Related JoVE Video
Quality of RCTs exploring Helicobacter pylori eradication for the prevention of gastric cancer and preneoplastic lesions.
Expert Rev Anticancer Ther
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are considered the gold standard for evaluating the efficacy of clinical interventions and developing evidence-based clinical practice guidelines; however, they can yield biased results when their methodology is less than rigorous, or their published reports fail to report key items. A number of RCTs have been carried out to explore the relationship between Helicobacter pylori eradication and gastric cancer, but their results remain controversial. In this article, we will comprehensively review searched medical electronic databases, and appraise the reporting and methodological quality of these relevant RCTs according to the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials 2010 statement and the Cochrane Handbook in order to learn about the internal and external validity of these RCTs.
Related JoVE Video
Redox-responsive nanoparticles from the single disulfide bond-bridged block copolymer as drug carriers for overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer cells.
Bioconjug. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major impediment to the success of cancer chemotherapy. The intracellular accumulation of drug and the intracellular release of drug molecules from the carrier could be the most important barriers for nanoscale carriers in overcoming MDR. We demonstrated that the redox-responsive micellar nanodrug carrier assembled from the single disulfide bond-bridged block polymer of poly(?-caprolactone) and poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PCL-SS-PEEP) achieved more drug accumulation and retention in MDR cancer cells. Such drug carrier rapidly released the incorporated doxorubicin (DOX) in response to the intracellular reductive environment. It therefore significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of DOX to MDR cancer cells. It was demonstrated that nanoparticular drug carrier with either poly(ethylene glycol) or poly(ethyl ethylene phosphate) (PEEP) shell increased the influx but decreased the efflux of DOX by the multidrug resistant MCF-7/ADR breast cancer cells, in comparison with the direct incubation of MCF-7/ADR cells with DOX, which led to high cellular retention of DOX. Nevertheless, nanoparticles bearing PEEP shell exhibited higher affinity to the cancer cells. The shell detachment of the PCL-SS-PEEP nanoparticles caused by the reduction of intracellular glutathione significantly accelerated the drug release in MCF-7/ADR cells, demonstrated by the flow cytometric analyses, which was beneficial to the entry of DOX into the nuclei of MCF-7/ADR cells. It therefore enhanced the efficiency in overcoming MDR of cancer cells, which renders the redox-responsive nanoparticles promising in cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Electrodialytic remediation of suspended soil--Comparison of two different soil fractions.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Electrodialytic remediation (EDR) can be used for removal of heavy metals from suspended soil, which allows for the soil remediation to be a continuous process. The present paper focused on the processing parameters for remediation of a soil polluted with Cu and As from wood preservation. Six electrodialytic treatments lasting from 5 to 22 days with different liquid to solid ratio (L/S) and current intensity were conducted. Among treatments, the highest removal was obtained from the soil fines with 5 mA current at L/S 3.5 after 22 days where 96% of Cu and 64% of As were removed. Comparing the removal from the original soil and the soil fines in experiments with identical charge transportation, higher removal efficiency was observed from the soil fines. Constant current with 5 mA could be maintained at L/S 3.5 for the soil fines while not for the original soil. Doubling current to 10 mA could not be maintained for the soil fines either, and doubling L/S to 7 at 5 mA entailed a very fast acidification which impeded the removal. The results showed that a very delicate balancing of current density and L/S must be maintained to obtain the most efficient removal.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of different concentration of tamoxifen ointment on the expression of TGF-beta2 of hypertrophic scar at rabbit ears].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the effect of different concentration of Tamoxifen ointment on the fibroblasts and transforming growth factor (TGF-beta2) of hypertrophic scar at rabbit ears, so as to explore the possibility of treatment of hypertrophic scar with Tamoxifen.
Related JoVE Video
Methodological reporting of randomized controlled trials in major hepato-gastroenterology journals in 2008 and 1998: a comparative study.
BMC Med Res Methodol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It was still unclear whether the methodological reporting quality of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in major hepato-gastroenterology journals improved after the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement was revised in 2001.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects on collagen I and III after transplantation of porcine acellular dermal matrix with hyaluronic acid].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the changes of collagens I and III after the addition of hyaluronic acid in the transplantation of porcine acellular dermal matrix.
Related JoVE Video
[Distribution patterns of PAHs in soils from coking plant and the particle-size cut points of soil washing].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Soil particle size distribution and contaminants distribution patterns in different soil size fractions are the basis of soil treatability using soil washing method. Soil particle-size cut points are important parameters of soil washing process. According to ex situ soil washing technology, soil samples were collected in a former coking plant. The soil particle size distribution and the concentrations of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in USEPA priority list were analyzed. Tween 80 and Triton X-100 solutions were used to clean the polluted soil with different particle size. Results showed that the total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 6.27 to 40.18 mg/kg dry weight in the six soil size fractions and present a bimodal distribution. The maximum individual PAH concentration mostly occurred in the 250-500 microm size fraction. The lowest individual PAH concentration was in the 50-75 microm size fraction. The removal efficiencies of PAHs in different soil size fractions depended on their initial concentrations and the characteristics of soil. The PAHs removal efficiencies in coarser size fractions were lower than that in the finer size fractions owing to their higher organic carbon content. Based on the removal efficiency of PAHs in each soil size fractions by surfactant solution and the requirements of waste volume reduction, 50 microm was determined as the particle-size cut point. Then, 82.95% volume reduction can be achieved.
Related JoVE Video
[Reconstruction intramedullary nailing for the treatment of ipsilateral fractures of shaft of femur and hip].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the curative effect and surgical skills of reconstruction intramedullary nailing for ipsilateral fractures of shaft of femur and hip.
Related JoVE Video
[Observation on biochemical indicator of multiple organ functional dysfunction after femoral shaft fracture combined with brain injury in rats].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the features of rats organs functional changes after femur shaft fracture combined with brain injury through testing biochemical indicators in rats.
Related JoVE Video
[Growth and migration of umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells on polycarbonate membrane with different pore sizes].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the growth and migration of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) on polycarbonate membrane with different pore sizes and explore the criteria of selecting optimal Transwell insert for indirect co-culture to induce the differentiation of hUCMSCs.
Related JoVE Video
Systemic delivery of siRNA with cationic lipid assisted PEG-PLA nanoparticles for cancer therapy.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Delivery of small interfering RNA (siRNA) has been one of the major hurdles for the application of RNA interference in therapeutics. Here, we describe a cationic lipid assisted polymeric nanoparticle system with stealthy property for efficient siRNA encapsulation and delivery, which was fabricated with poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(d,l-lactide), siRNA and a cationic lipid, using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. By incorporation of the cationic lipid, the encapsulation efficiency of siRNA into the nanoparticles could be above 90% and the siRNA loading weight ratio was up to 4.47%, while the diameter of the nanoparticles was around 170 to 200nm. The siRNA retained its integrity within the nanoparticles, which were effectively internalized by cancer cells and escaped from the endosome, resulting in significant gene knockdown. This effect was demonstrated by significant down-regulation of luciferase expression in HepG2-luciferase cells which stably express luciferase, and suppression of polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) expression in HepG2 cells, following delivery of specific siRNAs by the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the nanoparticles carrying siRNA targeting the Plk1 gene were found to induce remarkable apoptosis in both HepG2 and MDA-MB-435s cancer cells. Systemic delivery of specific siRNA by nanoparticles significantly inhibited luciferase expression in an orthotopic murine liver cancer model and suppressed tumor growth in a MDA-MB-435s murine xenograft model, suggesting its therapeutic promise in disease treatment.
Related JoVE Video
A diagnostic gene profile for molecular subtyping of breast cancer associated with treatment response.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Classification of breast cancer into molecular subtypes maybe important for the proper selection of therapy, as tumors with seemingly similar histopathological features can have strikingly different clinical outcomes. Herein, we report the development of a molecular subtyping profile (BluePrint), that enables rationalization in patient selection for either chemotherapy or endocrine therapy prescription. An 80-Gene Molecular Subtyping Profile (BluePrint) was developed using 200 breast cancer patient specimens and confirmed on four independent validation cohorts (n = 784). Additionally, the profile was tested as a predictor of chemotherapy response in 133 breast cancer patients, treated with T/FAC neoadjuvant chemotherapy. BluePrint classification of a patient cohort that was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy (n = 133) shows improved distribution of pathological Complete Response (pCR), among molecular subgroups compared with local pathology: 56% of the patients had a pCR in the Basal-type subgroup, 3% in the MammaPrint Low-risk, Luminal-type subgroup, 11% in the MammaPrint High-risk, Luminal-type subgroup, and 50% in the HER2-type subgroup. The group of genes identifying Luminal-type breast cancer is highly enriched for genes having an Estrogen Receptor binding site proximal to the promoter-region, suggesting that these genes are direct targets of the Estrogen Receptor. Implementation of this profile may improve the clinical management of breast cancer patients, by enabling the selection of patients who are most likely to benefit from either chemotherapy or from endocrine therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Doxorubicin-tethered responsive gold nanoparticles facilitate intracellular drug delivery for overcoming multidrug resistance in cancer cells.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major impediment to the success of cancer chemotherapy. Through the development of a drug delivery system that tethers doxorubicin onto the surface of gold nanoparticles with a poly(ethylene glycol) spacer via an acid-labile linkage (DOX-Hyd@AuNPs), we have demonstrated that multidrug resistance in cancer cells can be significantly overcome by a combination of highly efficient cellular entry and a responsive intracellular release of doxorubicin from the gold nanoparticles in acidic organelles. DOX-Hyd@AuNPs achieved enhanced drug accumulation and retention in multidrug resistant MCF-7/ADR cancer cells when it was compared with free doxorubicin. It released doxorubicin in response to the pH of acidic organelles following endocytosis, opposite to the noneffective drug release from doxorubicin-tethered gold nanoparticles via the carbamate linkage (DOX-Cbm@AuNPs), which was shown by the recovered fluorescence of doxorubicin from quenching due to the nanosurface energy transfer between the doxorubicinyl groups and the gold nanoparticles. DOX-Hyd@AuNPs therefore significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin and induced elevated apoptosis of MCF-7/ADR cancer cells. With a combined therapeutic potential and ability to probe drug release, DOX-Hyd@AuNPs represent a model with dual roles in overcoming MDR in cancer cells and probing the intracellular release of drug from its delivery system.
Related JoVE Video
Using laser ablation/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to bioimage multiple elements in mouse tumors after hyperthermia.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, we employed laser ablation/inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to map the spatial distribution of Gd-doped iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) in one tumor slice that had been subjected to magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The mapping results revealed the high resolution of the elemental analysis, with the distribution of Gd atoms highly correlated with that of the Fe atoms. The spatial distributions of C, P, S, and Zn atoms revealed that the effect of MFH treatment was significantly dependent on the diffusion of the magnetic fluid in the tissue. An observed enrichment of Cu atoms after MFH treatment was probably due to inflammation in the tumor. The abnormal distribution of Ni atoms suggests a probable biochemical reaction in the tumor. Therefore, this LA-ICP-MS mapping technique can provide novel information regarding the spatial distribution of elements in tumors after cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
[Treatment of vertical unstable pelvic fracture by percutaneous iliosacral screws fixation].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To retrospectively analyze the patients of vertically unstable pelvic fractures treated with percutaneous iliosacral screws fixation and to explore the operative techniques and its therapeutic efficacy.
Related JoVE Video
Deoxycytidine kinase is overexpressed in poor outcome breast cancer and determines responsiveness to nucleoside analogs.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Only a minority of breast cancer patients responds to chemotherapy and we lack predictive biomarkers that help to select a patient-tailored therapy that takes into consideration the molecular heterogeneity of the cancer type. Responsiveness to the clinically important nucleoside analogs gemcitabine and decitabine may be critically determined by Deoxycytidine kinase (DCK) expression as this enzyme is required to convert the inactive prodrugs into their pharmacologically active forms. Here, we examined whether DCK is differentially expressed in breast cancer and evaluated whether DCK expression levels control responsiveness to these nucleoside analogs in vitro by experimentally modulating DCK expression levels. We examined DCK expression in gene expression data sets of breast tumors including the series of 295 consecutive patients that have been classified into low or high risk for recurrence using the MammaPrint 70 gene profile. We found that DCK is expressed at higher levels in patients having poor clinical outcome as judged by the MammaPrint assay. As such, patients that have a poor prognosis may thus be susceptible to treatment with nucleoside analogs. In support of this, we found a causal relationship between DCK levels and sensitivity to these nucleoside analogs in breast cancer cell lines. The data indicate that breast cancers that are at high risk of recurrence express higher levels of DCK, which we find to be strongly correlated to a favorable response to nucleoside analogs. The data suggest that DCK expression in breast cancer could be exploited to select patients that are likely to respond to treatment with nucleoside analogs.
Related JoVE Video
Physical and mental health status of soldiers responding to the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.
Aust N Z J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While internationally major disasters occur frequently, for any one country they are unusual events. In this project we aimed to identify public health issues arising from the physical and mental health symptoms suffered by the soldier volunteers deployed in an emergency relief task during the Wenchuan earthquake.
Related JoVE Video
Transcriptome analysis of probiotic Lactobacillus casei Zhang during fermentation in soymilk.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lactobacillus casei Zhang is a widely recognized probiotic bacterium, which is being commercially used in China. To study the gene expression dynamics of L. casei Zhang during fermentation in soymilk, a whole genome microarray was used to screen for differentially expressed genes when grown to the lag phase, the late logarithmic phase, and the stationary phase. Comparisons of different transcripts next to each other revealed 162 and 63 significantly induced genes in the late logarithmic phase and stationary phase, of which the expression was at least threefold up-regulated and down-regulated, respectively. Approximately 38.4% of the up-regulated genes were associated with amino acid transport and metabolism notably for histidine and lysine biosynthesis, followed by genes/gene clusters involved in carbohydrate transport and metabolism, lipid transport and metabolism, and inorganic ion transport and metabolism. The analysis results suggest a complex stimulatory effect of soymilk-based ecosystem on the L. casei Zhang growth. On the other hand, it provides the very first insight into the molecular mechanism of L. casei strain for how it will adapt to the protein-rich environment.
Related JoVE Video
FurinDB: A Database of 20-Residue Furin Cleavage Site Motifs, Substrates and Their Associated Drugs.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
FurinDB (freely available online at http://www.nuolan.net/substrates.html) is a database of furin substrates. This database includes experimentally verified furin cleavage sites, substrates, species, experimental methods, original publications of experiments and associated drugs targeting furin substrates. The current database release contains 126 furin cleavage sites from three species: mammals, bacteria and viruses. A main feature of this database is that all furin cleavage sites are recorded as a 20-residue motif, including one core region (eight amino acids, P6-P2) and two flanking solvent accessible regions (eight amino acids, P7-P14, and four amino acids, P3-P6), that represent our current understanding of the molecular biology of furin cleavage. This database is important for understanding the molecular evolution and relationships between sequence motifs, 3D structures, cellular functions and physical properties required by furin for cleavage, and for elucidating the molecular mechanisms and the progression of furin cleavage associated human diseases, including pathogenic infections, neurological disorders, tumorigenesis, tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. FurinDB database will be a solid addition to the publicly available infrastructure for scientists in the field of molecular biology.
Related JoVE Video
A biodegradable amphiphilic and cationic triblock copolymer for the delivery of siRNA targeting the acid ceramidase gene for cancer therapy.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One of the key challenges in the development of RNA interference-based cancer therapy is the lack of an efficient delivery system for synthetic small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that would enable efficient uptake by tumor cells and allow for significant knockdown of a target transcript in vivo. Here, we describe a micelleplex system based on an amphiphilic and cationic triblock copolymer, which can systemically deliver siRNA targeting the acid ceramidase (AC) gene for cancer therapy. This triblock copolymer, consisting of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol), poly(?-caprolactone) and poly(2-aminoethyl ethylene phosphate), self-assembles into micellar nanoparticles (MNPs) in aqueous solution with an average diameter of 60 nm and a zeta potential of approximately 48 mV. The resulting micelleplex, formed by the interaction of MNPs and siRNA, was effectively internalized by BT474 breast cancer cells and siRNA was subsequently released, resulting in significant gene knockdown. This effect was demonstrated by significant down-regulation of luciferase expression in BT474-luciferase cells which stably express luciferase, and suppression of AC expression in BT474 cells at both the transcriptional and protein level, following delivery of specific siRNAs by the micelleplex. Furthermore, a micelleplex carrying siRNA targeting the AC (micelleplex(siAC)) gene was found to induce remarkable apoptosis and reduce the proliferation of cancer cells. Systemic delivery of micelleplex(siAC) significantly inhibited tumor growth in a BT474 xenograft murine model, with depressed expression of AC and no positive activation of the innate immune response, suggesting therapeutic promise for micelleplex siRNA delivery in cancer therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Simultaneous delivery of siRNA and paclitaxel via a "two-in-one" micelleplex promotes synergistic tumor suppression.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Combination of two or more therapeutic strategies with different mechanisms can cooperatively prohibit cancer development. Combination of chemotherapy and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-based therapy represents an example of this approach. Hypothesizing that the chemotherapeutic drug and the siRNA should be simultaneously delivered to the same tumoral cell to exert their synergistic effect, the development of delivery systems that can efficiently encapsulate two drugs and successfully deliver payloads to targeted sites via systemic administration has proven to be challenging. Here, we demonstrate an innovative "two-in-one" micelleplex approach based on micellar nanoparticles of a biodegradable triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(?-caprolactone)-b-poly(2-aminoethyl ethylene phosphate) to systemically deliver the siRNA and chemotherapeutic drug. We show clear evidence that the micelleplex is capable of delivering siRNA and paclitaxel simultaneously to the same tumoral cells both in vitro and in vivo. We further demonstrate that systemic administration of the micelleplex carrying polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) specific siRNA and paclitaxel can induce a synergistic tumor suppression effect in the MDA-MB-435s xenograft murine model, requiring a thousand-fold less paclitaxel than needed for paclitaxel monotherapy delivered by the micelleplex and without activation of the innate immune response or generation of carrier-associated toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
The cauliflower Orange gene enhances petiole elongation by suppressing expression of eukaryotic release factor 1.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
• The cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis) Orange (Or) gene affects plant growth and development in addition to conferring ?-carotene accumulation. This study was undertaken to investigate the molecular basis for the effects of the Or gene mutation in on plant growth. • The OR protein was found to interact with cauliflower and Arabidopsis eukaryotic release factor 1-2 (eRF1-2), a member of the eRF1 family, by yeast two-hybrid analysis and by bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assay. Concomitantly, the Or mutant showed reduced expression of the BoeRF1 family genes. Transgenic cauliflower plants with suppressed expression of BoeRF1-2 and BoeRF1-3 were generated by RNA interference. • Like the Or mutant, the BoeRF1 RNAi lines showed increased elongation of the leaf petiole. This long-petiole phenotype was largely caused by enhanced cell elongation, which resulted from increased cell length and elevated expression of genes involved in cell-wall loosening. • These findings demonstrate that the cauliflower Or gene controls petiole elongation by suppressing the expression of eRF1 genes, and provide new insights into the molecular mechanism of leaf petiole regulation.
Related JoVE Video
Targeted delivery of antisense inhibitor of miRNA for antiangiogenesis therapy using cRGD-functionalized nanoparticles.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MiRNAs are viable therapeutic targets for cancer therapy, but the targeted delivery of miRNA or its anti-miRNA antisense oligonucleotides (AMOs) remains a challenge. We report here a PEGylated LPH (liposome-polycation-hyaluronic acid) nanoparticle formulation modified with cyclic RGD peptide (cRGD) for specific and efficient delivery of AMO into endothelial cells, targeting ?(v)?? integrin present on the tumor neovasculature. The nanoparticles effectively delivered anti-miR-296 AMO to the cytoplasm and downregulated the target miRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), which further efficiently suppressed blood tube formulation and endothelial cell migration, owing to significant upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor-regulated tyrosine kinase substrate (HGS), whereas nanoparticles without cRGD modification showed only little AMO uptake and miRNA silencing activity. In vivo assessment of angiogenesis using Matrigel plug assay also demonstrated that cRGD modified LPH nanoparticles have potential for antiangiogenesis in miRNA therapeutics. With the delivery of anti-miR-296 AMO by targeted nanoparticles, significant decrease in microvessel formulation within Matrigel was achieved through suppressing the invasion of CD31-positive cells into Matrigel and prompting HGS expression in angiogenic endothelial cells.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.