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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Iron, Inflammation, and Early Death in Adults with Sickle Cell Disease.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Rationale: Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) have markers of chronic inflammation but the mechanism of inflammation and its relevance to patient survival are unknown. Objective: To assess the relationship between iron, inflammation and early death in SCD. Methods and Results: Using peripheral blood mononuclear cell transcriptome profile hierarchical clustering, we classified 24 patients and 10 controls in clusters with significantly different expression of genes known to be regulated by iron. Subsequent gene set enrichment analysis showed that many genes associated with the high iron cluster were involved in the toll-like receptor system (TLR4, TLR7 and TLR8) and inflammasome complex pathway (NLRP3, NLRC4, and CASP1). Quantitative PCR confirmed this classification and showed that ferritin light chain, TLR4 and interleukin-6 expression were more than 100-fold higher in patients than in controls (P<0.001). Further linking intracellular iron and inflammation, 14 SCD patients with a ferroportin Q248H variant that causes intracellular iron accumulation had significantly higher levels of interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein compared to 14 matched SCD patients with the wild type allele (P<0.05). Finally, in a cohort of 412 patients followed for a median period of 47 months, (IQR 24-82), C-reactive protein was strongly and independently associated with early death (HR 3.0, 95%CI 1.7-5.2, P<0.001). Conclusions: Gene expression markers of high intracellular iron in patients with SCD are associated with markers of inflammation and mortality. The results support a model in which intracellular iron promotes inflammatory pathways such as the TLR system and the inflammasome, identifying important new pathways for additional investigation.
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Heat-Shock Protein 70 as a Tumor Antigen for in vitro Dendritic Cell Pulsing in Renal Cell Carcinoma Cases.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Immunological functions of heat shock proteins (HSPs) have long been recognized. In this study we aimed to efficiently purify HSP70 from renal cell carcinoma and test it as a tumor antigen for pulsing dendritic cells in vitro. HSP70 was purified from renal cell carcinoma specimens by serial column chromatography on Con A-sepharose, PD-10, ADP-agarose and DEAE-cellulose, and finally subjected to fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC). Dendritic cells derived from the adherent fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured in the presence of IL-4 and GM-CSF and exposed to tumor HSP70. After 24 hours, dendritic cells were phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry. T cells obtained from the non-adherent fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then co-cultured with HSP70-pulsed dendritic cells and after 3 days T cell cytotoxicity towards primary cultured renal cell carcinoma cells was examined by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Dendritic cells pulsed in vitro with tumor-derived HSP70 expressed higher levels of CD83, CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR maturation markers than those pulsed with tumor cell lysate and comparable to that of dendritic cells pulsed with tumor cell lysate plus TNF-?. Concomitantly, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes induced by HSP70-pulsed dendritic cells presented the highest cytotoxic activity. There were no significant differences when using homologous or autologous HSP70 as the tumor antigen. HSP70 can be efficiently purified by chromatography and induces in vitro dendritic cell maturation in the absence of TNF-?. Conspecific HSP70 may effectively be used as a tumor antigen to pulse dendritic cells in vitro.
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Research Progress in Applying Proteomics Technology to Explore Early Diagnosis Biomarkers of Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer and Ovarian Cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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According to the China tumor registry 2013 annual report , breast cancer, lung cancer, and ovarian cancer are three common cancers in China nowadays, with high mortality due to the absence of early diagnosis technology. However, proteomics has been widespreadly implanted into every field of life science and medicine as an important part of post-genomics era research. The development of theory and technology in proteomics has provided new ideas and research fields for cancer research. Proteomics can be used not only for elucidating the mechanisms of carcinogenesis focussing on whole proteins of the tissue or cell, but also seeking the biomarkers for diagnosis and therapy of cancer. In this review, we introduce proteomics principles, covering current technology used in exploring early diagnosis biomarkers of breast cancer, lung cancer and ovarian cancer.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves of cold-tolerant and -sensitive spring soybean cultivars.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2014
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Cold stress adversely affects the growth and development of seedling of spring soybean. Revealing responses in seedling to cold stress at proteomic level will help us to breed cold-tolerant spring soybean cultivars. In this study, to understand the responses, a proteomic analysis on the leaves of seedlings of one cold-tolerant soybean cultivar and one cold-sensitive soybean cultivar at 5 °C for different times (12 and 24 h) was performed, with some proteomic results being further validated by physiological and biochemical analysis. Our results showed that 57 protein spots were found to be significantly changed in abundance and identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS. All the identified proteins were found to be involved in 13 metabolic pathways and cellular processes, including photosynthesis, protein folding and assembly, cell rescue and defense, cytoskeletal proteins, transcription and translation regulation, amino acid and nitrogen metabolism, protein degradation, storage proteins, signal transduction, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid metabolism, energy metabolism, and unknown. Based on the majority of the identified cold-responsive proteins, the effect of cold stress on seedling leaves of the two spring soybean cultivars was discussed. The reason that soybean cv. Guliqing is more cold-tolerant than soybean cv. Nannong 513 was due to its more protein, lipid and polyamine biosynthesis, more effective sulfur-containing metabolite recycling, and higher photosynthetic rate, as well as less ROS production and lower protein proteolysis and energy depletion under cold stress. Such a result will provide more insights into cold stress responses and for further dissection of cold tolerance mechanisms in spring soybean.
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[The effects of different mechanical ventilation flow model on the peak airway pressure during cardiopulmonary resuscitation].
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
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To observe the method of mechanical ventilation in the chest compressions during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), and to explore the influence of the flow pattern selection of square-wave and decelerating-wave on airway pressure of patients.
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Airway Ciliary Dysfunction and Sinopulmonary Symptoms in Congenital Heart Disease Patients.
Ann Am Thorac Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Rationale: Congenital heart disease patients with heterotaxy exhibit high prevalence of abnormal airway ciliary motion and low nasal nitric oxide, characteristics associated with primary ciliary dyskinesia, a reflection of the role of motile cilia in airway clearance and left-right patterning. Objectives: To assess the potential broader clinical significance of airway ciliary dysfunction in congenital heart disease, we assessed prevalence of ciliary dysfunction versus respiratory symptoms in congenital heart disease patients with or without heterotaxy. Methods: Patients with a broad spectrum of congenital heart disease were recruited (n=218), 39 with heterotaxy. Nasal nitric oxide measurements and nasal biopsies for ciliary motion videomicroscopy were conducted. Sinopulmonary symptoms were reviewed by questionnaire. Measurements and Main Results: High prevalence of ciliary motion defects (51.8%) and low or borderline low nasal nitric oxide levels (35.5%) were observed in congenital heart disease patients with or without heterotaxy. Patients with ciliary motion defects or low nasal nitric oxide showed increased sinopulmonary symptoms, with most respiratory symptoms seen in those with both abnormal ciliary motion and low nitric oxide. Multivariate analysis showed abnormal ciliary motion and low nasal nitric oxide were more important in determining risk of sinopulmonary symptoms than heterotaxy status. Conclusions: Congenital heart disease patients without heterotaxy exhibit high prevalence of abnormal ciliary motion and low nasal nitric oxide. This was associated with more sinopulmonary symptoms. These findings suggest patients with a broad spectrum of congenital heart disease and respiratory symptoms may benefit from screening for ciliary dysfunction and implementation of medical interventions to reduce sinopulmonary morbidities.
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Impact of IL-2 and IL-2R SNPs on Proliferation and Tumor- killing Activity of Lymphokine-Activated Killer Cells from Healthy Chinese Blood Donors.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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One of the goals of tumor immunotherapy is to generate immune cells with potent anti-tumor activity through in vitro techniques using peripheral blood collected from patients. However, cancer patients generally have poor immunological function. Thus using patient T cells, which have reduced in vitro proliferative capabilities and less tumor cell killing activity to generate lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells, fails to achieve optimal clinical efficacy. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a potent activating cytokine for both T cells and natural killer cells. Thus, this study aimed to identify optimal donors for allogeneic LAK cell immunotherapy based on single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the IL-2 and IL-2R genes. IL-2 and IL-2R SNPs were analyzed using HRM- PCR. LAK cells were derived from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing with IL-2. The frequency and tumor-killing activity of LAK cells in each group were analyzed by flow cytometry and tumor cell killing assays, respectively. Regarding polymorphisms at IL-2-330 (rs2069762) T/G, LAK cells from GG donors had significantly greater proliferation, tumor-killing activity, and IFN-? production than LAK cells from TT donors (P<0.05). Regarding polymorphisms at IL-2R rs2104286 A/G, LAK cell proliferation and tumor cell killing were significantly greater in LAK cells from AA donors than GG donors (P<0.05). These data suggest that either IL- 2-330(rs2069762)T/G GG donors or IL-2R rs2104286 A/G AA donors are excellent candidates for allogeneic LAK cell immunotherapy.
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[Complete genomic analysis of a novel infectious bronchitis virus isolate].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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The genome of CK/CH/SD09/005, an isolate of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), was characterized to enable the further understanding of the epidemiology and evolution of IBV in China. Twenty-five pairs of primers were designed to amplify the full-length genome of CK/CH/SD09/005. The nucleotide sequence of CK/CH/SD09/005 was compared with reference IBV strains retrieved from GenBank. The phylogenic relationship between CK/CH/SD09/005 and the reference strains was analyzed based on S1 gene sequences. The complete genome of CK/CH/SD09/005 consisted of 27691 nucleotides (nt), excluding the 5' cap and 3' poly A tail. The whole-genome of CK/CH/SD09/005 shared 97 - 99% nucleotide sequence homology with the GX-NN09032 strain, which was the only complete genome that was closely related to CK/CH/SD09/005. When compared with all reference strains except GX-NN09032, CK/CH/SD09/005 showed the highest similarity to ck/CH/LDL/091022 and SDIB821/2012 (QX-like) in the replicase gene (Gene 1) and 3'UTR, with a sequence identity rate of 97% and 98%, respectively. However, CK/CH/SD09/005 exhibited lower levels of similarity with ck/CH/LDL/091022 and SDIB821/2012 in S-3a-3b-3c/ E-M-5a-5b-N with a sequence identity of 72% - 90%. CK/CH/SD09/005 showed the highest level of nucleotide identity with Korean strain 1011, and Chinese strains CK/CH/LXJ/02I, DK/CH/HN/ZZ2004 and YX10, in ORF 3c/E (97%), 5a (96%), 5b (99%) and N (96%), respectively. ORFs 3a, 3b and M of CK/CH/SD09/005 exhibited no more than 90% homology with the reference strains, excluding GX-NN09032. The phylogenic analysis based on the S1 gene revealed that CK/CH/SD09/005 and 39 published strains were classified into seven clades (genotypes). CK/CH/SD09/005 was distributed in clade IV with several isolates collected between 2007 and 2012. CK/CH/SD09/005 showed 66% - 69% and 72% - 81% nucleotide identities with the IBV strains of other six clades in the S1 and S2 subunits, respectively. More over, multiple substitutions were found throughout the entire S gene of CK/CH/SD09/005, while insertions and deletions were located within the S1 gene. These results indicated that CK/CH/SD09/005 is a novel variant that may be derived from the QX-like strains that are prevalent in China. Multiple genetic mechanisms, including recombinations, mutations, insertions and deletions, are likely to have contributed to the emergence of this IBV strain.
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[Identification of Placenta hominis and its adulterants using COI barcode].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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In order to provide a new method for the identification of Placenta hominis, the COI barcode has been employed to identify the P. hominis medicinal materials and its adulterants. Genomic DNA was extracted from the experimental samples. The COI sequences were amplified and sequenced bi-directionally. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. NJ tree was constructed by MEGA6.0 software. COI sequences can be successfully obtained from all experimental samples. The intra-specific variation and inter-specific divergence were calculated. The average intra-specific K2P distance of P. hominis was 0.001 and the maximum intra-specific distance was 0.008. The cluster dendrogram constructed can be seen that the same genus is together, and distinguished from its adulterants. It is concluded that P. hominis and its adulterants can be correctly identified by DNA barcoding method.
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Identification of TGF-?-activated kinase 1 as a possible novel target for renal cell carcinoma intervention.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is common renal malignancy within poor prognosis. TGF-?-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) plays vital roles in cell survival, apoptosis-resistance and carcinogenesis through regulating nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) and other cancer-related pathways. Here we found that TAK1 inhibitors (LYTAK1, 5Z-7-oxozeanol (5Z) and NG-25) suppressed NF-?B activation and RCC cell (786-O and A489 lines) survival. TAK1 inhibitors induced apoptotic cytotoxicity against RCC cells, which was largely inhibited by the broad or specific caspase inhibitors. Further, shRNA-mediated partial depletion of TAK1 reduced 786-O cell viability whiling activating apoptosis. Significantly, TAK1 was over-expressed in human RCC tissues, and its level was correlated with phosphorylated NF-?B. Finally, kinase inhibition or genetic depletion of TAK1 enhanced the activity of vinblastine sulfate (VLB) in RCC cells. Together, these results suggest that TAK1 may be an important oncogene or an effective target for RCC intervention.
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Spectrum-Effect Relationships as a Systematic Approach to Traditional Chinese Medicine Research: Current Status and Future Perspectives.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Component fingerprints are a recognized method used worldwide to evaluate the quality of traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). To foster the strengths and circumvent the weaknesses of the fingerprint technique in TCM, spectrum-effect relationships would complementarily clarify the nature of pharmacodynamic effects in the practice of TCM. The application of the spectrum-effect relationship method is crucial for understanding and interpreting TCM development, especially in the view of the trends towards TCM modernization and standardization. The basic requirement for using this method is in-depth knowledge of the active material basis and mechanisms of action. It is a novel and effective approach to study TCMs and great progress has been made, but to make it more accurate for TCM research purposes, more efforts are needed. In this review, the authors summarize the current knowledge about the spectrum-effect relationship method, including the fingerprint methods, pharmacodynamics studies and the methods of establishing relationships between the fingerprints and pharmacodynamics. Some speculation regarding future perspectives for spectrum-effect relationship approaches in TCM modernization and standardization are also proposed.
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Expression of TRAP1 Predicts Poor Survival of Malignant Glioma Patients.
J. Mol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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TRAP1/Hsp75 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1), a paralogue of the Hsp90 family, has been recently described as a molecular marker and novel therapeutic target in local and metastatic prostate cancer. It has been proved to be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis in various human malignancies. In our study, the protein expression level of TRAP1 in 236 cases of glioma is investigated by immunohistochemistry assay. Statistical analysis was utilized to evaluate the association of TRAP1 with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of patients. It was proved that TRAP1 protein expression was increased in glioma compared with that in normal brain tissue. Moreover, TRAP1 immunohistochemical staining was correlated with World Health Organization (WHO) grade and Karnofsky performance score (KPS). Strong positive TRAP1 staining is more frequently detected in glioma of advanced grade or low KPS. It is also demonstrated that TRAP1 could be an independent negative prognostic factor in glioma, for patients with glioma of strong TRAP1 staining tend to have high risk of death. These results proved that TRAP1 is associated with prognosis of glioma, which may also suggest the potential role of TRAP1 in glioma management.
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Catalpol Suppresses Proliferation and Facilitates Apoptosis of OVCAR-3 Ovarian Cancer Cells through Upregulating MicroRNA-200 and Downregulating MMP-2 Expression.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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Catalpol is expected to possess diverse pharmacological actions including anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and hypoglycemic properties. Matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) is closely related to the pathogenesis of ovarian cancer. In addition, microRNA-200 (miR-200) can modulate phenotype, proliferation, infiltration and transfer of various tumors. Here, OVCAR-3 cells were employed to investigate whether the effect of catalpol (25, 50 and 100 ?g/mL) promoted apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells and to explore the potential mechanisms. Our results demonstrate that catalpol could remarkably reduce the proliferation and accelerate the apoptosis of OVCAR-3 cells. Interestingly, our findings show that catalpol treatment significantly decreased the MMP-2 protein level and increased the miR-200 expression level in OVCAR-3 cells. Further, microRNA-200 was shown to regulate the protein expression of MMP-2 in OVCAR-3 cells. It is concluded that catalpol suppressed cellular proliferation and accelerated apoptosis in OVCAR-3 ovarian cancer cells via promoting microRNA-200 expression levels and restraining MMP-2 signaling.
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ER-? variant ER-?36 mediates antiestrogen resistance in ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Accumulating evidence indicates that cancer stem cells (CSC) play important roles in breast cancer occurrence, recurrence and metastasis as well as resistance to therapy. However, the roles of breast cancer stem cells in antiestrogen resistance and the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well established. Previously, we identified and cloned a novel variant of estrogen receptor ?, ER-?36, with a molecular weight of 36kDa. ER-?36 mediates rapid antiestrogen signaling and is highly expressed in ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. In this study, we investigated the function and the underlying mechanism of ER-?36-mediated antiestrogen signaling in ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. ER-positive breast cancer cells MCF7 and T47D as well as variants with different levels of ER-?36 expression were used. The effects of antiestrogens tamoxifen and ICI 182, 780 on breast CSC's ability of growth, self-renewal, differentiation and tumor seeding were examined using tumorsphere formation, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorences and in vivo xenograft assays. The underlying mechanisms were also analyzed with Western blot analysis. We found that the cancer stem/progenitor cells enriched from ER-positive breast cancer cells were more resistant to antiestrogens than the bulk cells. Antiestrogens increased the percentages of the stem/progenitor cells from ER-positive breast cancer cell through stimulation of luminal epithelial lineage specific ER-positive breast cancer progenitor cells while failed to do so in the cells with knocked-down levels of ER-?36 expression. Our results thus indicated that ER-?36-mediated antiestrogen signaling such as the PI3K/AKT plays an important role in antiestrogen resistance of ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells.
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Functional connectivity among spike trains in neural assemblies during rat working memory task.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Working memory refers to a brain system that provides temporary storage to manipulate information for complex cognitive tasks. As the brain is a more complex, dynamic and interwoven network of connections and interactions, the questions raised here: how to investigate the mechanism of working memory from the view of functional connectivity in brain network? How to present most characteristic features of functional connectivity in a low-dimensional network? To address these questions, we recorded the spike trains in prefrontal cortex with multi-electrodes when rats performed a working memory task in Y-maze. The functional connectivity matrix among spike trains was calculated via maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). The average connectivity value Cc, mean of the matrix, was calculated and used to describe connectivity strength quantitatively. The spike network was constructed by the functional connectivity matrix. The information transfer efficiency Eglob was calculated and used to present the features of the network. In order to establish a low-dimensional spike network, the active neurons with higher firing rates than average rate were selected based on sparse coding. The results show that the connectivity Cc and the network transfer efficiency Eglob vaired with time during the task. The maximum values of Cc and Eglob were prior to the working memory behavior reference point. Comparing with the results in the original network, the feature network could present more characteristic features of functional connectivity.
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Functional roles of long non-coding RNA in human breast cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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The discovery of long noncoding RNA (LncRNA) changes our view of transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of gene expression. With application of new research techniques such as high-throughput sequencing, the biological functions of LncRNAs are gradually becoming to be understood. Multiple studies have shown that LncRNAs serve as carcinogenic factors or tumor suppressors in breast cancer with abnormal expression, prompts the question of whether they have potential value in predicting the stages and survival rate of breast cancer patients, and also as therapeutic targets. Focusing on the latest research data, this review mainly summarizes the tumorigenic mechanisms of certain LncRNAs in breast cancer, in order to provide a theoretical basis for finding safer, more effective treatment of breast cancer at the LncRNA molecular level.
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Childhood renal tumor: a report from a Chinese Children's Cancer Group.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Here we investigated the establishment of multicenter cooperative treatment groups in China, as well as radiotherapy compliance and effectiveness among children with renal tumors. Medical records were reviewed for 316 children with renal tumors diagnosed by a multicenter cooperative group from 14 hospitals in China from 1998 to 2012. Median patient age was 29.5 months (range, 2-173 months old), and male-to-female ratio was 1.4 : 1. After a median follow-up of 22 months (range, 1-177 months), five-year event-free survival rates were 72% overall; 76.1% for favorable histology (251 cases); 59% for unfavorable histology (27 cases); and 91%, 75%, 71%, 53%, and 48.5%, respectively for Stages I, II, III, IV, and V. Following standardized criteria, radiation therapy was indicated for 153 patients, among whom five-year event-free survival was 72.8% for the 95 who received radiation and 24% for the 58 patients who did not. Our results are reasonable but can be further improved and show the feasibility of a multicenter cooperative group model for childhood renal tumor treatment in China. Radiation therapy is important for stage III and IV patients but remains difficult to implement in some parts of China. Government management departments and medical professionals must pay attention to this situation. This clinical trial is registered with ChiCTR-PRCH-14004372.
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Oscillatory haematopoiesis in adults with sickle cell disease treated with hydroxycarbamide.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Hydroxycarbamide therapy has been associated with significant oscillations in peripheral blood counts from myeloid, lymphoid and erythroid lineages in patients with polycythaemia vera and chronic myeloid leukaemia. We retrospectively evaluated serial blood counts over an 8-year period from 44 adult patients with sickle cell disease receiving hydroxycarbamide. Platelet counts, leucocyte counts, haemoglobin values and reticulocyte counts, apportioned by hydroxycarbamide status, were analysed using a Lomb-Scargle periodogram algorithm. Significant periodicities were present in one or more counts in 38 patients receiving hydroxycarbamide for a mean duration of 4·81 years. Platelet and leucocyte counts oscillated in 56·8% and 52·3% of patients, respectively. These oscillations generally became detectable within days of initiating therapy. During hydroxycarbamide therapy, the predominant periods of oscillation were 27 ± 1 d for platelet counts and 15 ± 1 d for leucocyte counts. Despite an absolute decrease in leucocyte and platelet counts during hydroxycarbamide treatment, the amplitudes between nadirs and zeniths remained similar regardless of exposure. Our observations appear consistent with previously proposed models of cyclic haematopoiesis, and document that hydroxycarbamide-induced oscillations in blood counts are innocuous phenomena not limited to myeloproliferative disorders as described previously. We speculate the known cell cycle inhibitory properties of hydroxycarbamide may accentuate otherwise latent constitutive oscillatory haematopoiesis.
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Gene profiling analysis for patients with oral verrucous carcinoma and oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Oral verrucous carcinoma (OVC) is one malignant tumor which was carved out from the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, the clinical and pathological features as well as the treatment strategies of OVC are different from OSCC. Here, global transcript abundance of tumor tissues from five patients with primary OVC and six patients with primary OSCC including their matched adjacently normal oral mucosa were profiled using the Affymetrix HGU133 Plus 2.0. Ingenuity Systems IPA software was used to analyse the gene function and biological pathways. There were 109 differentially expressed genes (more than 2-fold) between OVC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 66 were up-regulated and 43 were down-regulated; 1172 differentially expressed genes (2-fold) between OSCC and the adjacently normal tissue, among them 608 were up-regulated and 564 were down-regulated. There were 39 common differentially expressed genes in OVC and OSCC compared with their matched normal oral mucosa, among them 22 up-regulated and 17 down-regulated, and 8 of them different between OVC and OSCC. In addition, the gene expression profile was further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (Q-RT-PCR) analysis for four of those 39 selected genes.
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Functional protection of learning and memory abilities in rats with vascular dementia.
Restor. Neurol. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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The present study clarified the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in rats with vascular dementia (VaD) and explored the underlying mechanisms.
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Ultrastructural study of symmetrical acral keratoderma.
Ultrastruct Pathol
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Abstract Background: Symmetrical acral keratoderma is characterized by symmetrical brown hyperkeratotic patches on the acral extremities. However, no studies about its electron microscopic examination have been documented.
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Hispidanins A-D: four new asymmetric dimeric diterpenoids from the rhizomes of Isodon hispida.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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Hispidanins A-D (1-4), four unprecedented asymmetric dimeric diterpenoids, were obtained from the rhizomes of Isodon hispida. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis (1D and 2D NMR, MS, UV, IR), as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Hispidanin B showed significant cytotoxicities against tumor cell lines SGC7901, SMMC7721, and K562, with IC50 values of 10.7, 9.8, and 13.7 ?M, respectively.
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Paenibacillus abyssi sp. nov., isolated from an abyssal sediment sample from the Indian Ocean.
Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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A Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, designated strain SCSIO N0306(T), was isolated from an abyssal sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. The isolate was found to grow optimally at 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl, pH 7.0 and 30 °C. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate SCSIO N0306(T) belongs phylogenetically to the genus Paenibacillus, and to be most closely related to P. algorifonticola XJ259(T) (with 95.47 % sequence similarity), sharing less than 95.0 % sequence similarity with all other taxa of this genus. Chemotaxonomic analysis revealed MK-7 as the major isoprenoid quinone, the DNA G+C content was determined to be 45.5 mol%, and anteiso-C15:0, C16:0, and iso-C15:0 were identified as the major fatty acids. On the basis of this polyphasic taxonomic data, isolate SCSIO N0306(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus abyssi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCSIO N0306(T) (= DSM 26238(T) = CGMCC 1.12987(T)).
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One-step synthesis of graphene/polyaniline hybrids by in situ intercalation polymerization and their electromagnetic properties.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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A new method is introduced for the preparation of graphene/polyaniline hybrids using a one-step intercalation polymerization of aniline inside the expanded graphite. The structural and morphological characterizations were performed by X-ray diffraction analysis, transmission electron microscopy and field emission scanning electron microscopy. Both the experimental and first-principles simulated results show that the aniline cation formed by aniline and H(+) tends to be drawn towards the electron-enriched zone and to intercalate into the interlayer of graphite. Subsequently, an in situ polymerization leads to the separation of graphite into graphene sheet, resulting from the exothermic effect and more vigorous movements of the chain molecules of polyaniline. The interactions between polyaniline and graphene were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectra. In addition, the graphene/polyaniline hybrid exhibited a breakthrough in the improvement of microwave absorption.
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Pim-1 kinase is a target of miR-486-5p and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E, and plays a critical role in lung cancer.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Pim-1 kinase is a proto-oncogene and its dysregulation contributes to tumorigenesis and progression of a variety of malignancies. Pim-1 was suggested as a therapeutic target of cancers. The functional relevance of Pim-1 and the mechanism underlying its dysregulation in lung tumorigenesis remained unclear. This study aimed to investigate if Pim-1 has important functions in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by: 1) evaluating the clinicopathologic significance of Pim-1 through analysing its expression in 101 human NSCLCs tissues using quantitative PCR, Western Blot and immunohistochemical studies, 2) determining its role in NSCLC and drug resistance using in vitro assays, and 3) investigating the regulatory mechanism of Pim-1 dysregulation in lung tumorigenesis.
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Effects of nanoparticle size and gestational age on maternal biodistribution and toxicity of gold nanoparticles in pregnant mice.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have considerable applications in biomedicine, such as in bio-sensing, bio-imaging, drug delivery and photothermal therapeutics. However, currently there are limited information regarding the impact of pregnancy on their biodistribution, elimination and toxicity. In this study, we investigated the biodistribution and potential toxic effects of different-sized GNPs (1.5, 4.5, 13, 30 and 70 nm in diameter) in non-pregnant and pregnant mice at different gestational ages (E5.5, 7.5, 9.5, 11.5 and 13.5). 5h after intravenous injection, GNPs exhibited size-dependent biodistribution profiles; however, regardless of size, no significant biodistribution changes were observed between non-pregnant and pregnant mice. Kinetic studies showed that 4.5 nm GNPs were primarily excreted through urine within 5h, whereas 30 nm GNPs had a more prolonged blood circulation time. No apparent toxic effects (e.g., increased mortality, altered behavior, reduced animal weight, abnormal organ morphology or reduced pregnancy duration) were observed with different-sized GNPs in pregnant mice. However, treatment with 30 nm GNPs induced mild emphysema-like changes in lungs of pregnant mice. These results indicated that the maternal biodistribution patterns of GNPs in pregnant mice depended on particle size, but not gestational age; organ-specific adverse effects may arise with treatment with some GNPs according to their size.
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Functional Connectivity in a Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease during a Working Memory Task.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of memory. Impairment of working memory was typically observed in AD. The concept of brain functional connectivity plays an important role in neuroscience as a useful tool to understand the organized behavior of brain. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate the possible mechanism of working memory deficits in AD from a new perspective of functional connectivity. Rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: A? injection group (A?1-42-induced toxicity rat model) and control group. Multi-channel local field potentials (LFPs) were obtained from rat prefrontal cortex with implanted microelectrode arrays while the rats performed a Y-maze working memory task. The short-time Fourier transform was utilized to analyze the power changes in LFPs and sub-bands (in particular theta and low gamma bands) were extracted via band filtering. Then the Directed transfer function (DTF) method was applied to calculate the functional connections among LFPs. From the DTF calculation, the causal networks in the sub-bands were identified. DTFmean(mean of connectivity matrix elements) was used to quantify connection strength as well as global efficiency (Eglob) was calculated to quantitatively describe the efficient of information transfer in the network. Our results showed that both connection strength and efficient of information transfer increased during the working memory task in the control group; by contrast, there was no significantly change in the A? injection group. These findings could lead to improve the understanding of the mechanism of working memory deficits in AD.
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Actinophytocola sediminis sp. nov., an actinomycete isolated from a marine sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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A novel actinomycete strain, designated YIM M13705(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample of the South China Sea and its characteristics were determined by a polyphasic approach. The slowly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic strain produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment was produced on the media tested. At maturity, spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and substrate mycelium was not fragmented. Whole-cell hydrolysates of the strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and galactose, glucose, ribose and rhamnose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H4) and MK-10(H2). The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, hydroxyphosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and ninhydrin-positive phosphoglycolipids. The major fatty acid was iso-C(16?:?0). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.2 mol%. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence, the strain was shown to be most closely related to species of the genus Actinophytocola. DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness values (<70%) of the isolate with its closest neighbour Actinophytocola xinjiangensis QAIII60(T) supported classification of the isolate as a representative of a novel species. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the new isolate belongs to a novel species of the genus Actinophytocola, for which the name Actinophytocola sediminis sp. nov. (type strain YIM M13705(T)?=?DSM 45939(T)?=?BCRC 16956(T)) is proposed.
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Nocardioides nanhaiensis sp. nov., an actinobacterium isolated from a marine sediment sample.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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A rod- to coccus-shaped, non-spore-forming actinobacterium, strain YIM M13091(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the South China Sea and examined by a polyphasic approach to clarify its taxonomic position. This Gram-staining-positive, aerobic actinobacterium did not produce substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigments were produced on the media tested. The optimum growth occurred at 30 °C, 1% (w/v) NaCl and pH 8.0. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the isolate belongs to the genus Nocardioides, with low levels (?96.2%) of sequence similarity with respect to Nocardioides kribbensis KSL-2(T) and other members of the genus Nocardioides. Whole-organism hydrolysates of the strain contained ll-2,6-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4), with MK-8 in a minor amount. Diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, hydroxyphosphatidylinositol and phosphatidylcholine, were the main polar lipids detected, while iso-C(16?:?0) and C(18?:?1)?9c were the major fatty acids. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 68.5 mol%. Based on phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the isolate represents a member of the genus Nocardioides, and the name Nocardioides nanhaiensis sp. nov. (Type strain YIM M13091(T)?=?JCM 18127(T)?=?CCTCC AA 2011020(T)) is proposed for the novel species.
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Bufalin loaded biotinylated chitosan nanoparticles: an efficient drug delivery system for targeted chemotherapy against breast carcinoma.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Bufalin is a traditional oriental medicine which is known to induce apoptosis in many tumor cells, and it is thus considered as a new anticancer therapeutic. By now, most of the studies of bufalin are in vitro, however in vivo evaluations of its therapeutic efficacy are less and are in great demand for its development toward anticancer drug. One of the problems probably hampering the development of bufalin is the lack of tumor selectivity, which may reduce the therapeutic effect as well as showing side effects. To overcome this drawback, in this study, we designed a tumor-targeted drug delivery system of bufalin based on enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, by using biotinylated chitosan, resulting in bufalin encapsulating nanoparticles (Bu-BCS-NPs) with mean hydrodynamic size of 171.6 nm, as evidenced by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscope. Bu-BCS-NPs showed a relative slow and almost linear release of bufalin, and about 36.8% of bufalin was released in 24 h when dissolved in sodium phosphate buffer. Compared to native bufalin, Bu-BCS-NPs exhibited a stronger cytotoxicity against breast cancer MCF-7 cells (IC50 of 0.582 ?g/ml vs 1.896 ?g/ml of native bufalin). Similar results were also obtained in intracellular reactive oxygen species production, apoptosis induction, and decrease in mitochondria membrane potential. These results may contribute to the rapid intracellular uptake of nanoparticles, partly benefiting from the highly expressed biotin receptors in tumor cells. In vivo studies using MCF-7 tumor models in nude mice confirmed the remarkable therapeutic effect of Bu-BCS-NPs. These findings suggest the potential of Bu-BCS-NPs as an anticancer drug with tumor targeting property.
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Exploring China's materialization process with economic transition: analysis of raw material consumption and its socioeconomic drivers.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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China's rapidly growing economy is accelerating its materialization process and thereby creating serious environmental problems at both local and global levels. Understanding the key drivers behind China's mass consumption of raw materials is thus crucial for developing sustainable resource management and providing valuable insights into how other emerging economies may be aiming to accomplish a low resource-dependent future. Our results show that China's raw material consumption (RMC) rose dramatically from 11.9 billion tons in 1997 to 20.4 billion tons in 2007, at an average annual growth rate at 5.5%. In particular, nonferrous metal minerals and iron ores increased at the highest rate, while nonmetallic minerals showed the greatest proportion (over 60%). We find that China's accelerating materialization process is closely related to its levels of urbanization and industrialization, notably demand for raw materials in the construction, services, and heavy manufacturing sectors. The growing domestic final demand level is the strongest contributor of China's growth in RMC, whereas changes in final demand composition are the largest contributors to reducing it. However, the expected offsetting effect from changes in production pattern and production-related technology level, which should be the focus of future dematerialization in China, could not be found.
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Altered trafficking and stability of polycystins underlie polycystic kidney disease.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The most severe form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease occurs in patients with mutations in the gene (PKD1) encoding polycystin-1 (PC1). PC1 is a complex polytopic membrane protein expressed in cilia that undergoes autoproteolytic cleavage at a G protein-coupled receptor proteolytic site (GPS). A quarter of PKD1 mutations are missense variants, though it is not clear how these mutations promote disease. Here, we established a cell-based system to evaluate these mutations and determined that GPS cleavage is required for PC1 trafficking to cilia. A common feature among a subset of pathogenic missense mutations is a resulting failure of PC1 to traffic to cilia regardless of GPS cleavage. The application of our system also identified a missense mutation in the gene encoding polycystin-2 (PC2) that prevented this protein from properly trafficking to cilia. Using a Pkd1-BAC recombineering approach, we developed murine models to study the effects of these mutations and confirmed that only the cleaved form of PC1 exits the ER and can rescue the embryonically lethal Pkd1-null mutation. Additionally, steady-state expression levels of the intramembranous COOH-terminal fragment of cleaved PC1 required an intact interaction with PC2. The results of this study demonstrate that PC1 trafficking and expression require GPS cleavage and PC2 interaction, respectively, and provide a framework for functional assays to categorize the effects of missense mutations in polycystins.
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Stable knockdown of protein kinase CK2-alpha (CK2?) inhibits migration and invasion and induces inactivation of hedgehog signaling pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cells.
Acta Histochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Protein kinase CK2-alpha (CK2?), one isoform of the catalytic subunits of serine/threonine kinase CK2, has been indicated to participate in tumorigenesis of various malignancies, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In the present study, in order to explore the potential role of CK2? in human HCC, we employed short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated RNA interference (RNAi) technology to inhibit the endogenous CK2? expression in HCC cells and established a Hep G2 cell line with stable knockdown of CK2?. Results from wound healing and transwell invasion assays indicated that stable knockdown of CK2? markedly inhibited Hep G2 cell migration and invasion as compared with those transfected with a negative control plasmid. This alteration was accompanied with expression down-regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, Snail, Slug, Vimentin, and up-regulation of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin). Moreover, CK2? silencing also induced inactivation of Hedgehog signaling pathway by inhibiting Gli1 and Patched homolog 1 (PTCH1) expressions in HCC cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that knockdown of CK2? can suppress cell migration and invasion, reduces expression of MMPs, inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) process and induces inactivation of Hedgehog pathway in HCC cells in vitro. Our study provides in vitro evidence to demonstrate that the pathogenesis of human HCC may be correlated with the high expression of CK2?.
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High Levels of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen are Associated with Poorer Survival and Early Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Low Hepatitis B Viral Loads.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Recurrence is a disastrous outcome in patients with hepatitis-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who have undergone curative resection, and little is known about whether high levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) increase the risk of HCC recurrence.
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Suppression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 expression induces inhibition of cell proliferation and tumor growth in human esophageal cancer cells.
FEBS J.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 (TRAP1) is a molecular chaperone involved in multidrug resistance and antiapoptosis in some human tumors, but its regulatory mechanisms have not been revealed in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). In this study, 138 specimens of ESCC were analyzed. TRAP1 was overexpressed in ESCC, particularly in poorly differentiated tumors. To further explore the molecular regulatory mechanism, we constructed specific small interfering RNA-expressing vectors targeting Trap1, and knocked down Trap1 expression in the esophageal cancer cell lines ECA109 and EC9706. Knockdown of Trap1 induced increases in reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial depolarization, which have been proposed as critical regulators of apoptosis. The cell cycle was arrested in G2/M phase, and in vitro inhibition of cell proliferation was confirmed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide and bromodeoxyuridine assays. Furthermore, re-expression of TRAP1 in Trap1 small interfering RNA-transfected ESCC cells restored cell proliferation and cell apoptosis. Bioluminescence of subcutaneously xenografted ESCC tumor cells demonstrated significant inhibition of in vivo tumor growth by Trap1 knockdown. This study shows that TRAP1 was overexpressed in most patients with ESCC, and caused an increase in antiapoptosis potency. TRAP1 may be regarded as a target in ESCC biotherapy.
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Long-term outcome of fludarabine-based reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for debilitating paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) is characterized by intravascular hemolysis, venous thrombosis, and bone marrow failure. Seventeen patients with debilitating PNH, including 8 who were HLA-alloimmunized, underwent a reduced-intensity allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). All received cyclophosphamide/fludarabine +/- antithymocyte globulin followed by a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized HCT from an HLA-matched relative. Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-negative neutrophils were detectable after engraftment but disappeared completely at a median 100 days after transplantation. With a median follow-up of nearly 6 years, 15 patients (87.8%) survived, all without any evidence of PNH, transfusion independent, and off anticoagulation. Allogeneic reduced-intensity HCT remains a curative therapeutic option for PNH patients who are not candidates for eculizumab treatment.
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Axinelline A, a new COX-2 inhibitor from Streptomyces axinellae SCSIO02208.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Axinelline A, a new cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, was isolated from Streptomyces axinellae SCSIO02208. The structures of compounds 1-9 were determined by analysing the NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by using optical rotation and comparing with the reported data. Compound 1 exhibited COX-2 inhibitory activity, the IC50 value being 2.8 ?M.
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Survey using incognito standardized patients shows poor quality care in China's rural clinics.
Health Policy Plan
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Over the past decade, China has implemented reforms designed to expand access to health care in rural areas. Little objective evidence exists, however, on the quality of that care. This study reports results from a standardized patient study designed to assess the quality of care delivered by village clinicians in rural China. To measure quality, we recruited individuals from the local community to serve as undercover patients and trained them to present consistent symptoms of two common illnesses (dysentery and angina). Based on 82 covert interactions between the standardized patients and local clinicians, we find that the quality of care is low as measured by adherence to clinical checklists and the rates of correct diagnoses and treatments. Further analysis suggests that quality is most strongly correlated with provider qualifications. Our results highlight the need for policy action to address the low quality of care delivered by grassroots providers.
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Genomic characterization of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 isolate from swine.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The SD0803 strain of the bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) was isolated from a piglet in China in 2008 and has been classified as a novel subgenotype of BVDV-1. To describe the molecular features of this novel subgenotype, we sequenced and characterized the complete genome of the SD0803 virus. The genome is 12,271 bp in length and contains 5' and 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) that flank an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 3,898-amino-acid polypeptide. The full-length genome of the SD0803 strain shares 78.8% to 83.3% identity with those of other BVDV-1 strains, 70.0% to 70.7% identity with those of BVDV-2 strains, and less than 67.6% identity with those of other pestiviruses. The highest level of shared identity was 83.3% between the complete SD0803 genome and that of the ZM-95 strain of BVDV-1. Phylogenetic analysis of the 5' UTR and the coding sequence for the N-terminal protease fragment of the SD0803 polyprotein indicated that the SD0803 virus is a member of the novel subgenotype BVDV-1q, isolates of which have been identified recently in dairy cattle and camels in China.
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Inhibition of propofol on single neuron and neuronal ensemble activity in prefrontal cortex of rats during working memory task.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Working memory (WM) refers to the temporary storage and manipulation of information necessary for performance of complex cognitive tasks. There is a growing interest in whether and how propofol anesthesia inhibits WM function. The aim of this study is to investigate the possible inhibition mechanism of propofol anesthesia from the view of single neuron and neuronal ensemble activities. Adult SD rats were randomly divided into two groups: propofol group (0.9 mg kg(-1)min(-1), 2h via a tail vein catheter) and control group. All the rats were tested for working memory performances in a Y-maze-rewarded alternation task (a task of delayed non-matched-to-sample) at 24, 48, 72 h after propofol anesthesia, and the behavior results of WM tasks were recorded at the same time. Spatio-temporal trains of action potentials were obtained from the original signals. Single neuron activity was characterized by peri-event time histograms analysis and neuron ensemble activities were characterized by Granger causality to describe the interactions within the neuron ensemble. The results show that: comparing with the control group, the percentage of neurons excited and related to WM was significantly decreased (p<0.01 in 24h, p<0.05 in 48 h); the interactions within neuron ensemble were significantly weakened (p<0.01 in 24h, p<0.05 in 48 h), whereas no significant difference in 72 h (p>0.05), which were consistent with the behavior results. These findings could lead to improved understanding of the mechanism of anesthesia inhibition on WM functions from the view of single neuron activity and neuron ensemble interactions.
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Evaluation of the effects of comprehensive reform on primary healthcare institutions in Anhui Province.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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In 2009, the Chinese Central Communist Party and the China State Council started to implement comprehensive healthcare reforms. The first round of reforms, involving Anhui province, was from 2009 to 2011, and focused on primary healthcare institutions. This study conducts an initial assessment of the effects of specific parts of the reforms in Anhui.
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Bacillus tianshenii sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment sample.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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A novel Gram-stain-positive, motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, aerobic, endospore-forming, peritrichous, rod-shaped bacterium, designated YIM M13235(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the South China Sea. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM M13235(T) belonged to the genus Bacillus. The strain grew optimally at 30 °C, pH 7.0 and in the presence of 2-4% (w/v) NaCl. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was present in the cell-wall peptidoglycan. Strain YIM M13235(T) exhibited a menaquinone system with MK-7, and the major polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, four unknown phospholipids and one unknown glycolipid. The major fatty acids (>5%) were iso-C(15?:?0), anteiso-C(15?:?0), anteiso-C(17?:?0), iso-C(17?:?1)?10c and summed feature 4 (anteiso-C(17?:?1) and/or iso-C(17?:?1)). The genomic DNA G+C content was 42.1 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness values between strain YIM M13235(T) and its close relatives (16S rRNA gene sequence similarities >97%) including Bacillus halmapalus DSM 8723(T), Bacillus horikoshii DSM 8719(T) and Bacillus zhanjiangensis JSM 099021(T) were 41%, 44% and 44%, respectively. On the basis of genotypic, phenotypic and DNA-DNA relatedness data, it is apparent that strain YIM M13235(T) represents a novel species of the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus tianshenii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M13235(T) (?=?DSM 25879(T)?=?KCTC 33044(T)).
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Relationship of PTTG expression with tumor invasiveness and microvessel density of pituitary adenomas: a meta-analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Many existing studies have demonstrated that pituitary tumor transforming gene (PTTG) expression may contribute to the development of pituitary adenomas (PAs), but individually published studies showed inconclusive results. This meta-analysis aimed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationships of PTTG expression with tumor invasiveness and microvessel density of pituitary adenomas.
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High expression of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 is associated with favorable prognosis after curative resection of hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Exp. Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The expression of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) is frequently downregulated in numerous cancers. 5-hmC and IDH2 expression in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has yet to be determined.
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Persistence of recipient human leucocyte antigen (HLA) antibodies and production of donor HLA antibodies following reduced intensity allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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The effects of reduced intensity conditioning (RIC) on human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-alloimmunization and platelet transfusion refractoriness (PTR) following allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) are unknown. We studied HLA-alloantibodies in a cohort of 16 patients (eight HLA-alloimmunized with pre-transplant histories of PTR and eight non-alloimmunized controls) undergoing Allo-HSCT using fludarabine/cyclophosphamide-based RIC. Pre- and post-transplant serum samples were analysed for HLA-antibodies and compared to myeloid, T-cell and bone marrow plasma cell chimaerism. Among alloimmunized patients, the duration that HLA-antibodies persisted post-transplant correlated strongly with pre-transplant HLA-antibody mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) and PRA levels (Spearman's rank correlation = 0·954 (P = 0·0048) and 0·865 (P = 0·0083) respectively). Pre-transplant MFI >10,000 was associated with post-transplant HLA antibody persistence >100 d (P = 0·029). HLA-antibodies persisted ?100 d in 3/8 patients despite recipient chimaerism being undetectable in all lympho-haematopoietic lineages including plasma cells. Post-transplant de-novo HLA-antibodies developed in three control patients with two developing PTR; the donors for two of these patients demonstrated pre-existing HLA-antibodies of equivalent specificity to those in the patient, confirming donor origin. These data show HLA-antibodies may persist for prolonged periods following RIC. Further study is needed to determine the incidence of post-transplant PTR as a consequence of donor-derived HLA alloimmunization before recommendations on donor HLA-antibody screening can be made.
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The association between VDR polymorphisms and renal cell carcinoma susceptibility: a meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene polymorphisms have previously been associated with susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma, although the findings are inconsistent. This study therefore evaluated the association of three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in VDR (FokI, BsmI, and TaqI) with the risk of renal cell carcinoma in five previous studies of a total of 1,510 cases and 2,101 controls identified from PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Wanfang databases. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated, and stratified analysis by ethnicity was conducted for further estimation. All statistical analyses were conducted using STATA software. Obvious heterogeneity was noted among the five studies. The VDR BsmI polymorphism was not found to be associated with renal cell carcinoma risk, although subgroup analysis revealed a significant association with renal cell carcinoma risk in Asians (b vs B OR=1.479, 95 % CI=1.171-1.869, P OR=0.001 and bb vs BB OR=2.608, 95 % CI=1.529-4.449, P OR=0.001). No significant association was found between renal cell carcinoma risk and either FokI or TaqI polymorphisms in different models and populations. Further large-scale studies are required to confirm these conclusions.
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One-year outcomes of out-of-hospital administration of intravenous glucose, insulin, and potassium (GIK) in patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (from the IMMEDIATE [Immediate Myocardial Metabolic Enhancement During Initial Assessment and Treatment in Emerge
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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The Immediate Myocardial Metabolic Enhancement During Initial Assessment and Treatment in Emergency care Trial of very early intravenous glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in out-of-hospital emergency medical service (EMS) settings showed 80% reduction in infarct size at 30 days, suggesting potential longer-term benefits. Here we report 1-year outcomes. Prespecified 1-year end points of this randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, effectiveness trial included all-cause mortality and composites including cardiac arrest, mortality, or hospitalization for heart failure (HF). Of 871 participants randomized to GIK versus placebo, death occurred within 1 year in 11.6% versus 13.5%, respectively (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.83, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.57 to 1.23, p = 0.36). The composite of cardiac arrest or 1-year mortality was 12.8% versus 17.0% (HR 0.71, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.02, p = 0.06). The composite of hospitalization for HF or mortality within 1 year was 17.2% versus 17.2% (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.70 to 1.37, p = 0.92). The composite of mortality, cardiac arrest, or HF hospitalization within 1 year was 18.1% versus 20.4% (HR 0.85, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.16, p = 0.30). In patients presenting with suspected ST elevation myocardial infarction, HRs for 1-year mortality and the 3 composites were, respectively, 0.65 (95% CI 0.33 to 1.27, p = 0.21), 0.52 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.92, p = 0.03), 0.63 (95% CI 0.35 to 1.16, p = 0.14), and 0.51 (95% CI 0.30 to 0.87, p = 0.01). In patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes, serious end points generally were lower with GIK than placebo, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, in those with ST elevation myocardial infarction, the composites of cardiac arrest or 1-year mortality, and of cardiac arrest, mortality, or HF hospitalization within 1 year, were significantly reduced.
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Early exposure to sevoflurane inhibits Ca(2+) channels activity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of developing rats.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Sevoflurane is one of inhalation anesthetics and has been commonly used in obstetric and pediatric anesthesia. The widespread use of sevoflurane in newborns and infants has made its safety a health issue of concern. Voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) play an important role in neuronal excitability and are essential for normal brain development. However, the role of sevoflurane on regulating Ca(2+) channels during the period of rapid brain development is still not well understood. The aim of this study is to explore the effects of sevoflurane on voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels for hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons during the period of rapid brain development. 1-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups: control group, 2.1% sevoflurane group (exposed to 2.1% sevoflurane for 6h) and 3% sevoflurane group (exposed to 3% sevoflurane for 6h). Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used. I-V curve, steady-state activation and inactivation curves of Ca(2+) channels were studied in rats of the both 3 treated groups at 5 different ages (1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 and 5 weeks old). After anesthesia with sevoflurane at 1-week-old rats, Ca(2+) channels current density was significantly decreased at week 1 and week 2 (p<0.01). And 3% sevoflurane exposure resulted in a rightward shift in steady-state activation curve at week 1 and week 2, as well as the inactivation curve from week 1 to week 3. However, the 2.1% sevoflurane-induced rightward shift was only found in steady-state inactivation curve of Ca(2+) channels at week 1 and week 2. Both the slope factor (k) of Ca(2+) channels activation and inactivation curves increased by 3% sevoflurane at week 1 (p<0.05). Therefore, early exposure to sevoflurane persistently inhibits Ca(2+) channels activity in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons of developing rats but the development of Ca(2+) channels recovers to normal level at juvenile age. Moreover, the inhibition of 3% sevoflurane on VGCCs is greater than that of 2.1% sevoflurane.
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Dual imaging-guided photothermal/photodynamic therapy using micelles.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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We report a type of photosensitizer (PS)-loaded micelles integrating cyanine dye as potential theranostic micelles for precise anatomical tumor localization via dual photoacoustic (PA)/near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) imaging modalities, and simultaneously superior cancer therapy via sequential synergistic photothermal therapy (PTT)/photodynamic therapy (PDT). The micelles exhibit enhanced photostability, cell internalization and tumor accumulation. The dual NIRF/PA imaging modalities of the micelles cause the high imaging contrast and spatial resolution of tumors, which provide precise anatomical localization of the tumor and its inner vasculature for guiding PTT/PDT treatments. Moreover, the micelles can generate severe photothermal damage on cancer cells and destabilization of the lysosomes upon PTT photoirradiation, which subsequently facilitate synergistic photodynamic injury via PS under PDT treatment. The sequential treatments of PTT/PDT trigger the enhanced cytoplasmic delivery of PS, which contributes to the synergistic anticancer efficacy of PS. Our strategy provides a dual-modal cancer imaging with high imaging contrast and spatial resolution, and subsequent therapeutic synergy of PTT/PDT for potential multimodal theranostic application.
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Increase of spike-LFP coordination in rat prefrontal cortex during working memory.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Working memory (WM) refers to the short-term maintenance of information with higher cognitive functions. Recent researches show that local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes, as different modes of neural signals, encode WM, respectively. There is a growing interest in how these two signals encode WM in coordination. The aim of this study is to investigate spike-LFP coupling coding of WM via the joint entropy analysis. The experimental data were multi-channel spikes and LFPs obtained from SD rat prefrontal cortex through the implanted microelectrode array during the WM tasks in Y-maze. The short-time Fourier transform (STFT) was applied to analyze the power changes of WM related frequency bands in the LFPs. The joint entropy indexes (JEIs) between spikes and the principle components of LFPs were calculated for each pair of the spike and the LFP series during WM. The results showed that the power of theta (4-12 Hz), low gamma (LG, 30-60 Hz) and high gamma band (HG, 60-100 Hz) in LFPs increased during the WM tasks. In addition, the JEIs between spikes and LFPs components (theta, LG and HG) significantly increased in the correct trials. Besides, the coupling levels were low when the rats waiting in the starting area. These results suggest that the JEIs between spikes and LFPs components (theta, LG and HG) encode WM effectively. These findings could lead to improved understanding of the WM mechanism from the view of spike-LFP joint encoding.
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The suppression of epileptiform discharges in cultured hippocampal neurons is regulated via alterations in full-length tropomyosin-related kinase type B receptors signalling activity.
Eur. J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Epilepsy is a common neurological disease. Understanding the mechanisms of epileptogenesis at the cellular and molecular levels may provide novel targets for preventing this disorder. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its receptor tropomyosin-related kinase type B (TrkB) are believed to be critical for epileptogenesis. Previous studies have revealed possible changes in the expression of full-length TrkB receptors (TrkB.FL) and truncated TrkB receptors (TrkB.T) in neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated alterations in TrkB receptor expression and TrkB signalling activity in a rat hippocampal neuronal model of spontaneous recurrent epileptiform discharges (SREDs) and the effects on the epileptiform discharges. To induce epileptiform discharges, we established a model with Mg(2+) -free treatment. We found a dramatic upregulation of TrkB.T and a decrease in TrkB.FL in the SREDs model. Calpain contributed to the downregulation of TrkB.FL. The upregulation of TrkB.T required transcription and translation activity. Furthermore, BDNF induced the activation of TrkB.FL signalling. However, TrkB.FL signalling was inhibited in the SREDs model. Although calpain inhibitors prevented a decrease in TrkB.FL, they did not restrain the downregulation of TrkB.FL signalling activity in the model. However, a SREDs model with a translation inhibitor prevented the increase in TrkB.T and re-activated TrkB.FL signalling activity. Finally, we used electrophysiology to observe that a downregulation of TrkB.T could relieve the representative epileptiform discharges in the model. These results, taken together, demonstrate that alterations in TrkB.FL signalling may be regulated via TrkB.T receptors. Upregulation of TrkB.FL signalling suppresses epileptiform discharges in the SREDs model.
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The effects of temperature and anesthetic agents on ciliary function in murine respiratory epithelia.
Front Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Mucus transport mediated by motile cilia in the airway is an important defense mechanism for prevention of respiratory infections. As cilia motility can be depressed by hypothermia or exposure to anesthetics, in this study, we investigated the individual and combined effects of dexmedetomidine (dex), fentanyl (fen), and/or isoflurane (iso) at physiologic and low temperatures on cilia motility in mouse tracheal airway epithelia. These anesthetic combinations and low temperature conditions are often used in the setting of cardiopulmonary bypass surgery, surgical repair of congenital heart disease, and cardiac intensive care.
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Docosahexaenoic acid has an anti-diabetic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Consumption of fish oil-rich foods containing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) can result in a low incidence of diabetes. The underlying mechanisms of these anti-hyperglycemic effects are ambiguous. This study aims to investigate the role of DHA in the prevention and treatment of type 1 diabetes in a murine model. Forty streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice were divided into control with diabetes, diabetes prevention (500 ?g/kg DHA orally for 5 days) or diabetes treatment groups (DHA solvent in DMSO into the colon for 5 days). The groups were observed for 25 days after administration of DHA. Mice in the prevention and treatment group had shinier fur, increased body weight, significantly lower food and water intake and were more active compared with the control group with diabetes. Elevated insulin and liver SOD and T-AOC levels were also observed. Furthermore, islet cell apoptosis was reduced and islet cell GLP-1R expression increased.
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Disruption of the ER-?36-EGFR/HER2 positive regulatory loops restores tamoxifen sensitivity in tamoxifen resistance breast cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tamoxifen provided a successful treatment for ER-positive breast cancer for many years. However, most breast tumors develop tamoxifen resistance and are eventually refractory to tamoxifen therapy. The molecular mechanisms underlying development of tamoxifen resistance have not been well established. Recently, we reported that breast cancer cells with high levels of ER-?36, a variant of ER-?, were resistant to tamoxifen and knockdown of ER-?36 expression in tamoxifen resistant cells with the shRNA method restored tamoxifen sensitivity, indicating that gained ER-?36 expression is one of the underlying mechanisms of tamoxifen resistance. Here, we found that tamoxifen induced expression of ER-?36-EGFR/HER2 positive regulatory loops and tamoxifen resistant MCF7 cells (MCF7/TAM) expressed enhanced levels of the loops. Disruption of the ER-?36-EGFR/HER2 positive regulatory loops with the dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor Lapatinib or ER-?36 down-regulator Broussoflavonol B in tamoxifen resistant MCF7 cells restored tamoxifen sensitivity. In addition, we also found both Lapatinib and Broussoflavonol B increased the growth inhibitory activity of tamoxifen in tumorsphere cells derived from MCF7/TAM cells. Our results thus demonstrated that elevated expression of the ER-?36-EGFR/HER2 loops is one of the mechanisms by which ER-positive breast cancer cells escape tamoxifen therapy. Our results thus provided a rational to develop novel therapeutic approaches for tamoxifen resistant patients by targeting the ER-?36-EGFR/HER2 loops.
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Biomass allocation patterns across China's terrestrial biomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Root to shoot ratio (RS) is commonly used to describe the biomass allocation between below- and aboveground parts of plants. Determining the key factors influencing RS and interpreting the relationship between RS and environmental factors is important for biological and ecological research. In this study, we compiled 2088 pairs of root and shoot biomass data across China's terrestrial biomes to examine variations in the RS and its responses to biotic and abiotic factors including vegetation type, soil texture, climatic variables, and stand age. The median value of RS (RSm) for grasslands, shrublands, and forests was 6.0, 0.73, and 0.23, respectively. The range of RS was considerably wide for each vegetation type. RS values for all three major vegetation types were found to be significantly correlated to mean annual precipitation (MAP) and potential water deficit index (PWDI). Mean annual temperature (MAT) also significantly affect the RS for forests and grasslands. Soil texture and forest origin altered the response of RS to climatic factors as well. An allometric formula could be used to well quantify the relationship between aboveground and belowground biomass, although each vegetation type had its own inherent allometric relationship.
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Functional connectivity among spikes in low dimensional space during working memory task in rat.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Working memory (WM) is critically important in cognitive tasks. The functional connectivity has been a powerful tool for understanding the mechanism underlying the information processing during WM tasks. The aim of this study is to investigate how to effectively characterize the dynamic variations of the functional connectivity in low dimensional space among the principal components (PCs) which were extracted from the instantaneous firing rate series. Spikes were obtained from medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) of rats with implanted microelectrode array and then transformed into continuous series via instantaneous firing rate method. Granger causality method is proposed to study the functional connectivity. Then three scalar metrics were applied to identify the changes of the reduced dimensionality functional network during working memory tasks: functional connectivity (GC), global efficiency (E) and casual density (CD). As a comparison, GC, E and CD were also calculated to describe the functional connectivity in the original space. The results showed that these network characteristics dynamically changed during the correct WM tasks. The measure values increased to maximum, and then decreased both in the original and in the reduced dimensionality. Besides, the feature values of the reduced dimensionality were significantly higher during the WM tasks than they were in the original space. These findings suggested that functional connectivity among the spikes varied dynamically during the WM tasks and could be described effectively in the low dimensional space.
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ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling positively regulates ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The breast cancer stem cells (BCSC) play important roles in breast cancer occurrence, recurrence and metastasis. However, the role of estrogen signaling, a signaling pathway important in development and progression of breast cancer, in regulation of BCSC has not been well established. Previously, we identified and cloned a variant of estrogen receptor ?, ER-?36, with a molecular weight of 36 kDa. ER-?36 lacks both transactivation domains AF-1 and AF-2 of the 66 kDa full-length ER-? (ER-?66) and mediates rapid estrogen signaling to promote proliferation of breast cancer cells. In this study, we aim to investigate the function and the underlying mechanism of ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling in growth regulation of the ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. ER-positive breast cancer cells MCF7 and T47D as well as the variants with different levels of ER-?36 expression were used. The effects of estrogen on BCSC's abilities of growth, self-renewal, differentiation and tumor-seeding were examined using tumorsphere formation, flow cytometry, indirect immunofluorence staining and in vivo xenograft assays. The underlying mechanisms were also studied with Western-blot analysis. We found that 17-?-estradiol (E2?) treatment increased the population of ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells while failed to do so in the cells with knocked-down levels of ER-?36 expression. Cells with forced expression of recombinant ER-?36, however, responded strongly to E2? treatment by increasing growth in vitro and tumor-seeding efficiency in vivo. The rapid estrogen signaling via the AKT/GSK3? pathway is involved in estrogen-stimulated growth of ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells. We concluded that ER-?36-mediated rapid estrogen signaling plays an important role in regulation and maintenance of ER-positive breast cancer stem/progenitor cells.
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Contribution of baicalin on the plasma protein binding displacement and CYP3A activity inhibition to the pharmacokinetic changes of nifedipine in rats in vivo and in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Baicalin purified from the root of Radix scutellariae is widely used in clinical practices. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of baicalin on the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine, a CYP3A probe substrate, in rats in vivo and in vitro. In a randomised, three-period crossover study, significant changes in the pharmacokinetics of nifedipine (2 mg/kg) were observed after treatment with a low (0.225 g/kg) or high (0.45 g/kg) dose of baicalin in rats. In the low- and high-dose groups of baicalin-treated rats, C max of total nifedipine decreased by 40%±14% (P<0.01) and 65%±14% (P<0.01), AUC0-? decreased by 41%±8% (P<0.01) and 63%±7% (P<0.01), Vd increased by 85%±43% (P<0.01) and 224%±231% (P<0.01), and CL increased by 97%±78% (P<0.01) and 242%±135% (P<0.01), respectively. Plasma protein binding experiments in vivo showed that C max of unbound nifedipine significantly increased by 25%±19% (P<0.01) and 44%±29% (P<0.01), respectively, and there was a good correlation between the unbound nifedipine (%) and baicalin concentrations (P<0.01). Furthermore, in vitro results revealed that baicalin was a competitive displacer of nifedipine from plasma proteins. In vitro incubation experiments demonstrated that baicalin could also competitively inhibit CYP3A activity in rat liver microsomes in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the pharmacokinetic changes of nifedipine may be modulated by the inhibitory effects of baicalin on plasma protein binding and CYP3A-mediated metabolism.
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Mariniluteicoccus flavus gen. nov. sp. nov. a new member of the family Propionibacteriaceae , isolated from a deep-sea sediment of South China Sea.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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A Gram staining positive, aerobic, non-motile, irregular coccus, designated strain YIM M13146T was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the South China Sea at a depth of 2439 m, and its taxonomic position was determined by a polyphasic approach. Good growth of the strain was observed at 30°C (5-40°C), pH 7.0 (6.0-9.0) and 0-1% NaCl (0-6%, w/v) on tryptic soy agar/broth medium. Strain YIM M13146T had the major cellular fatty acid of anteiso-C15:0, the predominant respiratory menaquinone of MK-9(H4), the peptidoglycan type of A3? (LL-DAP-Gly) containing alanine, glycine, glutamic acid and LL-diaminopimelic acid, and the polar lipids of phosphatidylcholine, diphosphatidylglycerol, one unknown phospholipid and several glycolipids. The G+C content of the DNA was 67.2 mol%. Phenotypic and chemotaxonomic characteristics together with 16S rRNA gene sequences analyses showed that strain YIM M13146T was distinct from its closely related phylogenetic relatives Propioniferax and Granulicoccus of the family Propionibacteriaceae. Hence, a new genus with species Mariniluteicoccus flavus gen. nov., sp. nov. was proposed. The type strain is YIM M13146T (=DSM 25892T =CCTCC AB 2012055T).
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Mangrovibacterium diazotrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing bacterium isolated from a mangrove sediment, and proposal of Prolixibacteraceae fam. nov.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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A nitrogen-fixing bacterium, designated strain SCSIO N0430T, was isolated from a mangrove sediment sample. An analysis of the nifH gene responsible for nitrogen fixation in this strain indicated a close relationship to an uncultured bacterium ZNZ-D11 (JF896696). 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that this isolate had less than 93% similarity to the closest relative Sunxiuqinia elliptica DQHS4T. Phylogenetic tree reconstructed based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain SCSIO N0430T was a member of the phylum Bacteroidetes. Chemotaxonomic and physiological characteristics of phospholipids, major fatty acids, etc., could readily distinguish this isolate from established members in phylum Bacteroidetes. It was concluded that strain SCSIO N0430T represents a novel genus and species, for which the name Mangrovibacterium diazotrophicum gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed with the type strain of the species SCSIO N0430T (=KCTC 32129T =DSM 27148T= JCM 19152T ). Based on phylogenetic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene signature nucleotide patterns, the three on-rank genera Sunxiuqinia, Prolixibacter and Mangrovibacterium are proposed to a novel family Prolixibacteraceae fam. nov in the order Bacteroidales.
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Pseudonocardia sediminis sp. nov., isolated from a marine sediment of South China Sea.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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An actinomycete strain, designated YIM M13141T was isolated from a marine sediment sample from South China Sea, and the taxonomic position was determined by a polyphasic approach. This Gram staining positive, aerobic strain produced branched substrate mycelium and aerial hyphae, and no diffusible pigment were produced on the media tested. At maturity, substrate mycelium was fragmented and spore chains were formed on aerial hyphae and substrate mycelium. The optimum growth occurred at 28°C, 1-3% (w/v) NaCl and pH 7.0. Comparative analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that the isolate belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia, showing the highest level of sequence similarities with respect to Pseudonocardia sichuanensis KLBMP 1115T (97.1%), Pseudonocardia tetrahydrofuranoxydans K1T (97.1%) and Pseudonocardia kunmingensis YIM 63158T (97.0%). However, it adjoined and clustered with the species of Pseudonocardia tetrahydrofuranoxydans with 97.1% sequence similarity. Whole-organism hydrolysates of the strain contained meso-diaminopimelic acid and the sugars: galactose, glucose, mannose and arabinose. The predominant menaquinone was MK-8(H4). The polar lipids detected were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, two unknown phosphoglycolipids and two glycolipids. The major fatty acid was iso-C16:0. The G + C content of the genomic DNA was 73.1%. DNA-DNA hybridization relatedness values with Pseudonocardia tetrahydrofuranoxydans DSM 44239T was 42.8±3.5%. Based on phylogenetic analysis, phenotypic and genotypic data, it is concluded that the isolate belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia, and Pseudonocardia sediminis sp. nov. (Type strain YIM M13141T=DSM 45779T=JCM 18540T) is proposed for the novel species.
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Melghirimyces profundicolus sp. nov., isolated from a deep-sea sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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A novel filamentous bacterium, strain SCSIO 11153(T), was isolated from a sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean (80° 03.099 E 01° 03.300 N) at a depth of 4593 m. Good growth was observed at 50-55 °C and pH 7.0 with 3?% NaCl. It formed ivory-white colonies with radial wrinkles. Aerial mycelium was absent on the media tested. Phenotypic characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain SCSIO 11153(T) belonged to the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. It exhibited 96.4?% and 96.2?% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarities to Melghirimyces algeriensis NariEX(T) and Melghirimyces thermohalophilus Nari11A(T), respectively, while lower sequence similarity values (<95.4?%) were observed between strain SCSIO 11153(T) and other species of genera in the family Thermoactinomycetaceae. The menaquinone type was MK-7. Major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15?:?0, anteiso-C15?:?0 and iso-C17?:?0. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol. The DNA G+C content of strain SCSIO 11153(T) was 52.6 mol%. On the basis of the genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, it is proposed that strain SCSIO 11153(T) represents a novel species of the genus Melghirimyces with the name Melghirimyces profundicolus sp. nov. The type strain is SCSIO 11153(T) (?=?DSM 45787(T)?=?CCTCC AA 2012007(T)?=?NBRC 109068(T)).
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Loss of cilia suppresses cyst growth in genetic models of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Kidney cysts occur following inactivation of polycystins in otherwise intact cilia or following complete removal of cilia by inactivation of intraflagellar transport-related proteins. We investigated the mechanisms of cyst formation in these two distinct processes by combining conditional inactivation of polycystins with concomitant ablation of cilia in developing and adult kidney and liver. We found that loss of intact cilia suppressed cyst growth following inactivation of polycystins and that the severity of cystic disease was directly related to the length of time between the initial loss of the polycystin proteins and the subsequent involution of cilia. This cilia-dependent cyst growth was not explained by activation of the MAPK/ERK, mTOR or cAMP pathways and is likely to be distinct from the mechanism of cyst growth following complete loss of cilia. These data establish the existence of a new pathway defined by polycystin-dependent inhibition and cilia-dependent activation that promotes rapid cyst growth.
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Georgenia sediminis sp. nov., a moderately thermophilic actinobacterium isolated from sediment.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
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A Gram-stain-positive actinobacterium, designated strain SCSIO 15020(T), was isolated from sediment of the South China Sea, and characterized by using a polyphasic approach. The temperature range for growth was 24-60 °C, with optimal growth occurring at 50 °C. The pH range for growth was 6-10 (optimum pH 8-9). The NaCl concentration range for growth was 0-5?% (w/v). The peptidoglycan type was A4?. Polar lipids contained diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unknown polar lipid. The major menaquinone was MK-8(H4); MK-7(H4) was present as a minor component. The major fatty acids (>5?%) were anteiso-C15?:?0, iso-C15?:?0 and iso-C16?:?0. The DNA G+C content of strain SCSIO 15020(T) was 73.2 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain SCSIO 15020(T) belonged to the genus Georgenia, with the closest neighbours being Georgenia muralis 1A-C(T) (96.3?% similarity), Georgenia thermotolerans TT02-04(T) (95.7?%) and Georgenia ruanii YIM 004(T) (95.6?%). Based on evidence from the present polyphasic study, strain SCSIO 15020(T) is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Georgenia, for which the name Georgenia sediminis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is SCSIO 15020(T) (?=?DSM 25884(T)?=?NBRC 108941(T)).
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Comprehensive assessment of the association between tumor necrosis factor alpha G238A polymorphism and liver cancer risk.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) has been suggested to play an important role in the development and liver cancer. TNF-? 238 G/A polymorphism was hypothesized to increase the risk of liver cancer, but findings from previous studies were controversial. To explore a more precise estimation of the relationship between TNF-? 238 G/A polymorphism and liver cancer, we performed a meta-analysis. PubMed, Embase, and China Biology Medicine databases were searched for all publications on this association through March 12, 2013. Odds ratios (ORs) with its 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of this association. Eleven studies with 1,406 liver cancer cases and 2,386 noncancer controls were included into this meta-analysis. Overall, there was a significant association between TNF-? 238 G/A polymorphism and increased risk of liver cancer under all three genetic models (A vs. G, OR 1.51, 95 % CI 1.20-1.89, P?
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Effects of molecular structure on kinetics and dynamics of the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay with ABTS(+•).
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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Reaction kinetics in the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay between ABTS(+•) [2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) cation radical] and compounds with different structure, molecular weight, number of OH groups, and redox potential were investigated by recording loss of ABTS(+•) absorbance (734 nm) continuously over time. Curves showed six distinguishable kinetic patterns, including both immediate and extended reaction components. Radical quenching rates in the immediate component most relevant to reactions in foods and tissues depended on phenol structure and steric accessibility to the hindered radical, while reaction stoichiometry correlated with the number of phenol groups (>0.81) but not redox potential. Current assay procedures measure antioxidant capacity under conditions not relevant to actual applications and do not determine radical quenching rates. Results raise serious questions regarding the ability of reactions with the hindered ABTS(+•) to rank actual radical quenching by compounds with different structures and invalidate reporting antioxidant activity as Trolox equivalents.
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No overt structural or functional changes associated with PEG-coated gold nanoparticles accumulation with acute exposure in the mouse heart.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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In this study, we investigated the cardiac biodistribution of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-coated AuNPs and their effects on cardiac function, structure and inflammation in both normal and cardiac remodeling mice. The model of cardiac remodeling was induced by subcutaneously injection of isoproterenol (ISO), a non-selective beta-adrenergic agonist, for 7 days. After AuNPs were injected intravenously in mice for 7 consecutive days, Au content in different organs was determined quantitatively by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), cardiac function and structure were measured by echocardiography, cardiac fibrosis was examined with picrosirius red staining, the morphology of cardiomyocytes was observed with hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) staining. The accumulation of AuNPs in hearts did not affect cardiac function or induce cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis and cardiac inflammation under normal physiological condition. Cardiac AuNPs content was 6-fold higher in the cardiac remodeling mouse than normal mice. However, the increased accumulation of AuNPs in the heart did not aggravate ISO-induced cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis or cardiac inflammation. These observations suggest that PEG-coated AuNPs possess excellent biocompatibility under both physiological and pathological conditions. Thus, AuNPs may be safe for cardiac patients and hold great promise for further development for various biomedical applications.
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Association between MDM2 SNP309 T>G and risk of gastric cancer: a meta-analysis.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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As a negative regulator of P53, MDM2 plays an important role in carcinogenesis; a polymorphism in its promoter region. SNP309 T>G, is known to increase the expression of MDM2, thus being considered related to higher susceptibility to neoplasia. However, no agreement has been achieved regarding its effects on gastric cancer.
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[Principles for molecular identification of traditional Chinese materia medica using DNA barcoding].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Since the research of molecular identification of Chinese Materia Medica (CMM) using DNA barcode is rapidly developing and popularizing, the principle of this method is approved to be listed in the Supplement of the Pharmacopoeia of the Peoples Republic of China. Based on the study on comprehensive samples, the DNA barcoding systems have been established to identify CMM, i.e. ITS2 as a core barcode and psbA-trnH as a complementary locus for identification of planta medica, and COI as a core barcode and ITS2 as a complementary locus for identification of animal medica. This article introduced the principle of molecular identification of CMM using DNA barcoding and its drafting instructions. Furthermore, its application perspective was discussed.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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