JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sequential Actions of SIRT1-RelB-SIRT3 Coordinate Nuclear-Mitochondrial Communication during Immunometabolic Adaptation to Acute Inflammation and Sepsis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We reported that NAD+-dependent SIRT1, RelB, and SIRT6 nuclear proteins in monocytes regulate a switch from the glycolysis-dependent acute inflammatory response to fatty-acid- oxidation-dependent sepsis adaptation. We also found that disrupting SIRT1 activity during adaptation restores immunometabolic homeostasis and rescues septic mice from death. Here, we show that nuclear SIRT1 guides RelB to differentially induce SIRT3 expression and also increases mitochondrial biogenesis, which alters bioenergetics during sepsis adaptation. We constructed this concept using TLR4-stimulated THP1 human promonocytes, a model that mimics the initiation and adaptation stages of sepsis. Following increased expression, mitochondrial SIRT3 deacetylase activates the rate-limiting tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2), concomitant with increases in citrate synthase activity. Mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increases early and decreases during adaptation, parallel with modifications to membrane depolarization, ATP generation, and production of mitochondrial superoxide and whole-cell hydrogen peroxide. Evidence of SIRT1-RelB induction of mitochondrial biogenesis included increases in mitochondrial mass, mitochondrial-to-nuclear DNA ratios, and both nuclear and mitochondrial encoded proteins. We confirmed the SIRT-RelB-SIRT3 adaptation link to mitochondrial bioenergetics in both TLR4-stimulated normal and sepsis-adapted human blood monocytes and mouse splenocytes. We also found that SIRT1 inhibition ex vivo reversed the sepsis-induced changes in bioenergetics.
Related JoVE Video
Five miRNAs as Novel Diagnostic Biomarker Candidates for Primary Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an essential role in the development and progression of nasopharyngeal carcinomas (NPC). Despite advances in the field of cancer molecular biology and biomarker discovery, the development of clinically validated biomarkers for primary NPC has remained elusive. In this study, we investigated the expression and clinical significance of miRNAs as novel primary NPC diagnostic biomarkers. We used an array containing 2, 500 miRNAs to identify 22 significant miRNAs, and these candidate miRNAs were validated using 67 fresh NPC and 25 normal control tissues via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Expression and correlation analyses were performed with various statistical approaches, in addition to logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses to evaluate diagnostic efficacy. qRT-PCR revealed five differentially expressed miRNAs (miR-93-5p, miR-135b-5p, miR-205-5p and miR-183-5p) in NPC tissue samples relative to control samples (p<0.05), with miR-135b-5p and miR-205-5p being of significant diagnostic value (p<0.01). Moreover, comparison of NPC patient clinicopathologic data revealed a negative correlation between miR-93-5p and miR- 183-5p expression levels and lymph node status (p<0.05). These findings display an altered expression of many miRNAs in NPC tissues, thus providing information pertinent to pathophysiological and diagnostic research. Ultimately, miR-135b-5p and miR-205-5p may be implicated as novel NPC candidate biomarkers, while miR- 93-5p, miR-650 and miR-183-5p may find application as relevant clinical pathology and diagnostic candidate biomarkers.
Related JoVE Video
Influence of propofol, isoflurane and enflurance on levels of serum interleukin-8 and interleukin-10 in cancer patients.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the influence of propofol, isoflurane and enflurance on interleukin-8 (IL-8) and IL-10 levels in cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
[Resonance raman spectra of linear polymer molecule].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present paper summarizes the characteristics of resonance Raman spectra of the linear polymer molecule, and its relations with the molecular structure, including: electronic spectra(ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum), Raman spectra characteristics and its relations with external field; Modulation relation between the electron energy gap and CC atom vibration; Several experimental results were obtained: The UV-visible absorption spectra are red-shifted with decreasing temperature, increasing solvent density and reducing solution concentration, and because the linear polymer molecule has high structured order, decreasing pi electron energy gap; extended pi electronic delocalization, large effective conjugation length, large intensity of the Raman activity, Ramrnan spectrum are red-shifted, with large scattering cross section. "Am plitude modes" are the ideal theory models to study the linear polymer molecule.
Related JoVE Video
Whole body vibration improves osseointegration by up-regulating osteoblastic activity but down-regulating osteoblast-mediated osteoclastogenesis via ERK1/2 pathway.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Due to the reduction in bone mass and deterioration in bone microarchitecture, osteoporosis is an important risk factor for impairing implant osseointegration. Recently, low-magnitude, high-frequency (LMHF) vibration (LM: <1×g; HF: 20-90Hz) has been shown to exhibit anabolic, but anti-resorptive effects on skeletal homeostasis. Therefore, we hypothesized that LMHF loading, in terms of whole body vibration (WBV), may improve implant fixation under osteoporotic status. In the in vivo study, WBV treatment (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h, 5days/week) was applied after hydroxyapatite-coated titanium implants were inserted in the bilateral tibiae of ovariectomized rats. The bone mass and the osteospecific gene expressions were measured at 12weeks post implantation. In the in vitro study, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were fully investigated using various experimental assays. Micro-CT examination showed that WBV could enhance osseointegration by improving microstructure parameters surrounding implants. WBV-regulated gene levels in favor of bone formation over resorption may be the reason for the favorable adaptive bone remolding on bone-implant surface. The in vitro study showed that vibration (magnitude: 0.3g, frequency: 40Hz, time: 30min/12h) up-regulated osteoblast differentiation, matrix synthesis and mineralization. However, mechanically regulated osteoclastic activity was mainly through the effect on osteoblastic cells producing osteoclastogenesis-associated key soluble factors, including RANKL and M-CSF. Osteoblasts were therefore the direct target cells during the mechanotransduction process. The ERK1/2 pathway was demonstrated to play an essential role in vibration-induced enhancement of bone formation and decreased bone resorption. Our data suggests that WBV was a helpful non-pharmacological intervention for improving osseointegration under osteoporosis.
Related JoVE Video
New evidence on the relationship between Microsporidia and Fungi: a genome-wide analysis by DarkHorse software.
Can. J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microsporidia are a group of obligate intracellular eukaryotic parasites that infect a wide variety of species, including humans. Phylogenetic analysis indicates a relationship between the Microsporidia and the Fungi. However, most results are based on the analysis of relatively few genes. DarkHorse analysis involves the transformation of BLAST results into a lineage probability index (LPI) value and allows for the comparison of genes for an entire genome with those of other genomes. Thus, we can see which genes from the microsporidia score most closely based on the LPI with other eukaryotic organisms. In this analysis, we calculated the LPI for each gene from the genomes of 7 Microsporidia, Antonospora locustae, Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Encephalitozoon intestinalis, Nosema bombycis, Nosema ceranae, and Nematocida parisii, to analyze the genetic relationships between Microsporidia and other species. It was found that many (91%) genes were most closely correlated with genes from other microsporidial genomes and had the highest mean LPI (0.985), indicating a monophyletic origin of the Microsporidia. In a subsequent analysis, we excluded the other Microsporidia from the analysis to look for relationships before the divergence of Microsporidia, and found that 43% of the microsporidial genes scored highest with fungal genes, and a higher mean LPI was found with Fungi than with other kingdoms, suggesting that Microsporidia is closely related to Fungi at the genomic level. Microsporidial genes were functionally clustered based on the KOG (Eukaryotic COG) database, and the possible lineages for each gene family were discussed in concert with the DarkHorse results.
Related JoVE Video
[Establishment and identification of a H-2 completely mismatched microtransplantation model of leukemia mouse].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was purposed to establish and identify a H-2 completely mismatched microtransplantation model of leukemia mouse. The recipients were female BALB/c mice, while donors were male C57BL/6J mice. Recipients were inoculated intravenously with 1×10(6) of WEHI-3 cells, a cell line of myelomonocytic leukemia. Donors received 100 µg/kg G-CSF mobilization through hypodermic injection, every 12 hours, and it last 5 days. Chemotherapy regimens was MA (mitoxantrone+cytarabine), and it last 4 days. Recipients were given chemotherapy conditioning without GVHD prophylaxis after inoculation of leukemic cells for 2 days, and within 8 hours after last chemotherapy received donor mobilized spleen mononuclear cells (sMNC). The number of sMNC was (3, 6, 12) ×10(7), respectively. The early death rate, recovery level of WBC in peripheral blood and leukemia load were compared between chemotherapy and microtransplantation groups. The donor chimerism was detected by RT-PCR. From the clinical manifestation and pathological features, the GVHD in recipients was evaluated. The results showed that the early mortality in chemothearpy group was 25%, meanwhile those in the (3, 6, 12)×10(7) groups were 16.67%, 8.33%, 8.33%, respectively. The(3, 6)×10(7) groups has a stronger hematopoietic recovery capability than that in chemotherapy and 12×10(7) groups (P < 0.05) . There were more leukemic cells in chemotherapy mice than that in microtransplantation mice (P < 0.01) , and (12, 6)×10(7) groups had lower leukemia load than that in 3×10(7) group (P < 0.05) . No signs of GVHD were observed in microtransplantation mice. The donor microchimerism could be discovered at eraly 2 weeks after donor cell transfusion. It is concluded that a H-2 completely mismatched microtransplantation model of leukemia mouse has been successfully established, and it will provide a experimental base for studying microtransplantation in clinic.
Related JoVE Video
Direct detection of FoxP3 expression in thymic double-negative CD4-CD8- cells by flow cytometry.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Foxp3 expression is a marker of regulatory T cells (Treg), but how early it is expressed in the thymus is still not fully defined. In this study, we examined Foxp3 expression in double-negative (DN) CD4(-)CD8(-) T cell precursors in the thymus by flow cytometry. By increasing the number of collected cells from the conventional 10(4) cells up to more than 10(6) cells during flow cytometry, we found that DN cells exhibited higher Foxp3 expression than double-positive (DP) CD4(+)CD8(+) and single-positive (SP) CD4(+) or CD8(+) (SP) T cells. CD44(+) expression positively correlated with Foxp3 in thymic DN cells. Furthermore, TCR-?(-)CD25(+) DN cells exhibited the highest frequency of Foxp3-expressing cells. Almost all Foxp3(+) cells expressed CD25in DN cells. These results suggest that Foxp3 expression in DN cells can directly be detected by flow cytometry and it was positively corelated with CD25 and CD44 in DN cells.
Related JoVE Video
Sagittal plane analysis of selective posterior thoracic spinal fusion in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a comparison study of all pedicle screw and hybrid instrumentation.
J Spinal Disord Tech
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare sagittal profiles of selective posterior thoracic instrumentation with segmental pedicle screws instrumentation and hybrid (hook and pedicle screw).
Related JoVE Video
Splenectomy improves anaemia but does not reduce iron burden in patients with haemoglobin H Constant Spring disease.
Blood Transfus
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Splenectomy is reported to increase the haemoglobin level in patients with haemoglobin H Constant Spring (HbH CS) disease; however, its impact on iron burden and the underlying mechanism remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
NbHSWP11, a Microsporidia Nosema bombycis Protein, Localizing in the Spore Wall and Membranes, Reduces Spore Adherence to Host Cell BME.
J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites, and a derivative of fungi, which harbor a rigid spore wall to resist adverse environmental pressures. The spore wall protein, which is thought to be the first and direct protein interacting with the host cell, may play a key role in the process of microsporidia infection. In this study, we report a protein, NbHSWP11, with a dnaJ domain. The protein also has 6 heparin-binding motifs which are known to interact with extracellular glycosaminoglycans. Syntenic analysis indicated that gene loci of Nbhswp11 are conserved and syntenic between Nosema bombycis and Nosema ceranae. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that Nbhswp11 clusters with fungal dnaJ proteins and has 98% identity with an N. bombycis dnaJ protein. Nbhswp11 was transcribed throughout the entire life stages, and gradually increased during 1-7 days, in a silkworm that was infected by N. bombycis, as determined by reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR). The recombinant protein NbHSWP11 (rSWP11-HIS) was obtained and purified using gene cloning and prokaryotic expression. Western blotting analysis displayed NbHSWP11 expressed in the total mature spore proteins and spore coat proteins. Indirect immunofluorescence assay revealed NbHSWP11 located at the spore wall of mature spores and the spore coats. Furthermore, immune electron microscopy showed that NbHSWP11 localized in the cytoplasm of the sporont. Within the developmental process of N. bombycis, a portion of NbHSWP11 is targeted to the spore wall of sporoblasts and mature spores. However, most of NbHSWP11 distributes on the membraneous structures of the sporoblast and mature spore. In addition, using a host cell binding assay, native protein NbHSWP11 in the supernatant of total soluble mature spore proteins is shown to bind to the host cell BmE surface. Finally, an antibody blocking assay showed that purified rabbit antibody of NbHSWP11 inhibits spore adherence and decreases the adherence rate of spores by 20% compared to untreated spores. Collectively, the present results suggest that NbHSWP11 is involved in host cell adherence in vitro. Therefore NbHSWP11, which has a dnaJ domain, may modulate protein assembly, disassembly, and translocation in N. bombycis.
Related JoVE Video
[The optimal insertion position of the lumbar interspinous dynamic stabilization device(Coflex):a biomechanical evaluation].
Zhonghua Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the optimal insertion position of the Coflex lumbar interspinous dynamic stabilization device.
Related JoVE Video
Morphological and molecular studies of Vairimorpha necatrix BM, a new strain of the microsporidium V. necatrix (Microsporidia, Burenellidae) recorded in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.
Exp. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vairimorpha sp. BM (2012) is a recent isolate of the microsporidia from the silkworm in Shandong, China. The ultrastructure, tissue pathology and molecular characterization of this isolate is described in this study. This pathogenic fungus causes pebrine disease in silkworms which manifests as a systemic infection. Meanwhile, the silkworm eggs produced by the infected moths were examined using a microscope and PCR amplification. Neither spores nor the expected PCR band were observed, suggesting that no vertical transmission occurred in Bombyx mori. In addition, the ultrastructure of the isolate was studied by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Two types of spores were observed: diplokaroytic spores with 13-17 coils of polar tubes and monokaryotic spores with less coils of polar tubes which could form octospores; however, no sporophorous vesicles were observed. Finally, phylogenetic analysis of the small subunit rRNA genes of Vairimorpha species showed that this isolate has a closer relationship to Vairimorpha necatrix than the other species studied. This result also is supported by phylogenetic analysis based on their actin genes, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and RNA polymerase II (RPB1). Based on the information gained during this study, we propose that this microsporidian species infecting B. mori should be given the name V. necatrix BM.
Related JoVE Video
AKT/mTOR and c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chrysotile asbestos is closely associated with excess mortality from pulmonary diseases such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Although multiple mechanisms in which chrysotile asbestos fibers induce pulmonary disease have been identified, the role of autophagy in human lung epithelial cells has not been examined. In this study, we evaluated whether chrysotile asbestos induces autophagy in A549 human lung epithelial cells and then analyzed the possible underlying molecular mechanism. Chrysotile asbestos induced autophagy in A549 cells based on a series of biochemical and microscopic autophagy markers. We observed that asbestos increased expression of A549 cell microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3-II), an autophagy marker, in conjunction with dephosphorylation of phospho-AKT, phospho-mTOR, and phospho-p70S6K. Notably, AKT1/AKT2 double-knockout murine embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) had negligible asbestos-induced LC3-II expression, supporting a crucial role for AKT signaling. Chrysotile asbestos also led to the phosphorylation/activation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 MAPK. Pharmacologic inhibition of JNK, but not p38 MAPK, dramatically inhibited the protein expression of LC3-II. Moreover, JNK2(-/-) MEFs but not JNK1(-/-) MEFs blocked LC3-II levels induced by chrysotile asbestos. In addition, N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, attenuated chrysotile asbestos-induced dephosphorylation of P-AKT and completely abolished phosphorylation/activation of JNK. Finally, we demonstrated that chrysotile asbestos-induced apoptosis was not affected by the presence of the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine or autophagy-related gene 5 siRNA, indicating that the chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy may be adaptive rather than prosurvival. Our findings demonstrate that AKT/mTOR and JNK2 signaling pathways are required for chrysotile asbestos-induced autophagy. These data provide a mechanistic basis for possible future clinical applications targeting these signaling pathways in the management of asbestos-induced lung disease.
Related JoVE Video
A functional fetal HSD11B2[CA]n microsatellite polymorphism is associated with maternal serum cortisol concentrations in pregnant women.
Kidney Blood Press. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cortisol plays an important role during pregnancy. It controls maternal glucose metabolism and fetal development. Cortisol metabolism is partially controlled by the 11b-HSD2. This enzyme is expressed in the kidney and human placenta. The activity of the enzyme is partially controlled by functional polymorphisms: the HSD11B2[CA]n microsatellite polymorphism. The impact of this functional gene polymorphism on cortisol metabolism and potential effects on the newborn's is unknown so far.
Related JoVE Video
Improved detection of host cell proteins (HCPs) in a mammalian cell-derived antibody drug using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in conjunction with an HCP-enrichment strategy.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Host cell proteins (HCPs), which are process-related impurities typically present at low levels in recombinant biopharmaceutical products, are often measured using an immunological technique, such as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In contrast to ELISA which only provides the total amount of HCP, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) can provide both qualitative and quantitative information about the major HCP species. In this study, an HCP-enrichment step was optimized and combined with LC/MS to identify and determine the relative abundance of HCPs present in a monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug product.
Related JoVE Video
Construction of pancreatic cancer double-factor regulatory network based on chip data on the transcriptional level.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transcription factor (TF) and microRNA (miRNA) have been discovered playing crucial roles in cancer development. However, the effect of TFs and miRNAs in pancreatic cancer pathogenesis remains vague. We attempted to reveal the possible mechanism of pancreatic cancer based on transcription level. Using GSE16515 datasets downloaded from gene expression omnibus database, we first identified the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in pancreatic cancer by the limma package in R. Then the DEGs were mapped into DAVID to conduct the kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis. TFs and miRNAs that DEGs significantly enriched were identified by Fisher's test, and then the pancreatic cancer double-factor regulatory network was constructed. In our study, total 1117 DEGs were identified and they significantly enriched in 4 KEGG pathways. A double-factor regulatory network was established, including 29 DEGs, 24 TFs, 25 miRNAs. In the network, LAMC2, BRIP1 and miR155 were identified which may be involved in pancreatic cancer development. In conclusion, the double-factor regulatory network was found to play an important role in pancreatic cancer progression and our results shed new light on the molecular mechanism of pancreatic cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) in patients with mood disorders: a multicenter trial across China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to test the ability of the Chinese version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) to identify Bipolar Disorders (BD) in patients diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) or Unipolar Disorder (UD) in the clinical setting.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking among Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the prevalence rate of cigarette smoking and its socio-demographic and clinical correlates in Chinese schizophrenia inpatients receiving antipsychotic mono-therapy.
Related JoVE Video
[Spatial distribution of electrons with high energy in atmospheric pressure glow discharge excited by DC voltage].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Atmospheric pressure glow discharge excited by a DC voltage was realized in a 6 mm air gap by using a needle-water electrode discharge device. The atompheric pressure glow discharge has characteristic regions such as a cathode fall, a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, a positive column and an anode glow. The discharge is a normal glow through analyzing its voltage-current curve. The emission intensity of 337.1 nm spectral line from the second positive system of N2 was investigated because it can indicate the electron density with high energy. Results show that the maxima of high energy electrons appears in the vicinity of the needle tip, and it almost remains constant at other locations. The density of high energy electrons decreases with increasing the voltage. Similarly, it decreases with increasing the value of the ballast resistor. Oxygen atom is important for the sterilization and disinfection. The distribution of oxygen atom was also investigated by optical emission spectroscopy. It was found that the oxygen distribution is similar with the distribution of high energy electrons. These results are important for the application of atmospheric pressure glow discharge in environmental protection and biological treatment.
Related JoVE Video
DMF as Carbon Source: Rh-Catalyzed ?-Methylation of Ketones.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An unprecedented Rh-catalyzed direct methylation of ketones with N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) is disclosed. The reaction shows a broad substrate scope, tolerating both aryl and alkyl ketones with various substituents. Mechanistic studies suggest that DMF delivers a methylene fragment followed by a hydride in the methylation process.
Related JoVE Video
Establishing a framework for the Ad/abaxial regulatory network of Arabidopsis: ascertaining targets of class III homeodomain leucine zipper and KANADI regulation.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The broadly conserved Class III homeodomain leucine zipper (HD-ZIPIII) and KANADI transcription factors have opposing and transformational effects on polarity and growth in all tissues and stages of the plants life. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of how these factors work, we have identified transcripts that change in response to induced HD-ZIPIII or KANADI function. Additional criteria used to identify high-confidence targets among this set were presence of an adjacent HD-ZIPIII binding site, expression enriched within a subdomain of the shoot apical meristem, mutant phenotype showing defect in polar leaf and/or meristem development, physical interaction between target gene product and HD-ZIPIII protein, opposite regulation by HD-ZIPIII and KANADI, and evolutionary conservation of the regulator-target relationship. We find that HD-ZIPIII and KANADI regulate tissue-specific transcription factors involved in subsidiary developmental decisions, nearly all major hormone pathways, and new actors (such as indeterminate domain4) in the ad/abaxial regulatory network. Multiple feedback loops regulating HD-ZIPIII and KANADI are identified, as are mechanisms through which HD-ZIPIII and KANADI oppose each other. This work lays the foundation needed to understand the components, structure, and workings of the ad/abaxial regulatory network directing basic plant growth and development.
Related JoVE Video
Large Conductance Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Modulate Uterine ?1-Adrenergic Sensitivity in Ovine Pregnancy.
Reprod Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The uteroplacental vasculature is refractory to ?-adrenergic stimulation, and large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (BKCa) may contribute. We examined the effects of uterine artery (UA) BKCa inhibition with tetraethylammonium (TEA) on hemodynamic responses to phenylephrine (PE) at 101 to 117 days and 135 to 147 days of ovine gestation, obtaining dose responses for mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and uteroplacental blood flow (UPBF) and vascular resistance (UPVR) before and during UA TEA infusions. The UA ?1-adrenergic receptors (?1-ARs) were assessed. The PE increased MAP and UPVR and decreased HR and UPBF dose dependently at both gestations (P < .001, analysis of variance). The %?MAP was less at 135 to 147 days before and during TEA infusions (P ? .008); however, responses during TEA were greater (P ? .002). The PE increased %?UPVR>%?MAP, thus %?UPBF fell. The TEA enhanced PE-mediated increases in %?UPVR at 135 to 147 days (P ? .03). The UA ?1-AR expression was unchanged in pregnancy. Uterine vascular responses to PE exceed systemic vascular responses throughout pregnancy and are attenuated by BKCa activation, suggesting BKCa protect UPBF.
Related JoVE Video
Deacetylation by SIRT1 Reprograms Inflammation and Cancer.
Genes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase SIRT1 is a master regulator of nucleosome positioning and chromatin structure, thereby reprogramming gene expression. In acute inflammation, chromatin departs from, and returns to, homeostasis in an orderly sequence. This sequence depends on shifts in NAD(+) availability for SIRT1 activation and deacetylation of signaling proteins, which support orderly gene reprogramming during acute inflammation by switching between euchromatin and heterochromatin. In contrast, in chronic inflammation and cancer, limited availability of NAD(+) and reduced expression of SIRT1 may sustain aberrant chromatin structure and functions. SIRT1 also influences inflammation and cancer by directly deacetylating targets like NF?B p65 and p53. Here, we review SIRT1 in the context of inflammation and cancer.
Related JoVE Video
ALDH2 is associated to alcohol dependence and is the major genetic determinant of "daily maximum drinks" in a GWAS study of an isolated rural chinese sample.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alcohol dependence (AD) is a moderately heritable phenotype with a small number of known risk genes mapped via linkage or candidate gene studies. We considered 313 males from among 595 members of documented, extended pedigrees in which AD segregates collected in Northern Hunan Province, China. A joint analysis of both males and females could not be performed as the difference in alcohol consumption variance was too large. Genome-wide association analyses were performed for approximately 300,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Significant associations found in the ALDH2 region for AD (minimum P?=?4.73?×?10(-8) ) and two AD-related phenotypes: flushing response (minimum P?=?4.75?×?10(-26) ) and maximum drinks in a 24-hr period (minimum P?=?1.54?×?10(-16) ). Association of previous candidate SNP, rs10774610 in CCDC63, was confirmed but resulted from linkage disequilibrium with ALDH2. ALDH2 is strongly associated with flushing response, AD, and maximum drinks in males, with nonsynonymous SNP rs671 explaining 29.2%, 7.9%, and 22.9% of phenotypic variation, respectively, in this sample. When rs671 was considered as a candidate SNP in females, it explained 23.6% of the variation in flushing response, but alcohol consumption rates were too low among females-despite familial enrichment for AD-for an adequate test of association for either AD or maximum drinks. These results support a mediating effect of aldehyde dehydrogenase deficiency on alcohol consumption in males and a secondary, culturally mediated limitation on alcohol consumption by females that should be appropriately modeled in future studies of alcohol consumption in populations where this may be a factor. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Device related complications of the Coflex interspinous process implant for the lumbar spine.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Coflex, a type of interspinous process implant, can provide intervertebral dynamic stability for surgical segments and effectively relieve lumbocrural pain. However, few studies have described therapeutic strategies and the avoidance of Coflex implant complications.
Related JoVE Video
[Different changes of serum cytokines following HLA-identical and HLA haploidentical non-myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was aimed to investigate the expression difference of serum cytokines in 20 patients receiving HLA-identical nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (iNAHSCT) and HLA-haploidentical nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (hiNAHSCT). IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-?, ?-IFN and IL-17 were detected by flow cytometric bead array before and on week 1, 2, 4 after transplantation respectively. The results showed that the IL-2 level was found to be up-regulated at week 1 and 2 after transplantation in iNAHSCT group and in hiNAHSCT group respectively, but there was no difference between these two groups (P > 0.05). The ?-IFN levels was up-regulated at week 4 after transplantation in above-mentioned two groups, but no difference was found between these two groups. The IL-4 level increased at week 2 and 1 after transplantation in iNAHSCT and hiNAHCT groups respectively, but the IL-4 level in iNAHSCT group was higher than that in hiNAHSCT group. The IL-6 level rose at week 1 and 2 after transplant in above mentioned groups respectively, and reached to peak level at week 4 after transplantation, but IL-6 level in hiNAHSCT was higher than that in iNAHSCT group (P < 0.02). The IL-10 level was up-regulated at week 1 and 2 in iNAHSCT and hiNAHSCT groups respectively, but the IL-10 level in iNAHSC was higher than that in hiNAHSCT group. The TNF-? level was up-regulated at week 1 in hiNAHSCT group, but at week 2 in iNAHSCT group after transplantation. The TNF-? level in hiNHASCT group was higher than that in iNAHSCT group (P < 0.01). The IL-17 level was up-regulated at week 1 and week 4 after transplantation in hiNAHSCT and iNAHSCT groups respectively, the IL-17 level in hiNAHSCT group was high as compared with that in iNAHSCT group. It is concluded that the serum cytokine levels are obviously up-regulated in iNAHSCT and hiNHASCT groups, and reach to peak level at week 4 after transplantation. The IL-6, TNF-? and IL-17 level up-regulated significantly in hiNAHSCT group, but the IL-4 and IL-10 level up-regulated significantly in iNAHSCT.
Related JoVE Video
[Vacuum therapy for erectile dysfunction that fails to respond to PDE-5i: report of 70 cases].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the efficacy and safety of the Osbon ErecAid Vacuum Therapy System in the treatment of erectile dysfunction (ED) that fails to respond to PDE-5i.
Related JoVE Video
[Changes of Th1/Th2/Th17 in patients received non-myeloablative haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation detected by flow cytometric bead array].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was purposed to investigate the changes of Th1/Th2/Th17 in patients received non-myeloblastic haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NAHSCT). The levels of IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF-? and IFN-?, as well as IL-17 level were determined by flow cytometric bead array (CBA) in samples from 18 patients underwent allo-peripheral NAHSCT at different time points before and after transplantation. The results showed that all cytokines changed obviously after transplantation, and their serum levels were higher than that before transplantation. The expression levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-17 changed early, and their obviously up-regulation was found after transplantation. The expression levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-? changed significantly, and were high as compared with that before transplantation. The change of INF-? serum level was observed late, its rising occurred at week 4 after transplantation. The expression of all cytokines kept increasing during 4 weeks after transplantation and peaked at week 4. It is concluded that the serum levels of all cytokines from the patients after NAHSCT increased significantly, in which the levels of IL-2, IL-4 and IL-17 increased early, but the level of INF-? changed late. The detection of cytokines is helpful for deep understanding the pathophysiologic mechanism of transplant-related complications.
Related JoVE Video
Downregulation of MicroRNA-19b Contributes to Angiotensin II-Induced Overexpression of Connective Tissue Growth Factor in Cardiomyocytes.
Cardiology
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objectives: The present study was designed to decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying angiotensin (Ang) II-induced overexpression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in cultured cardiomyocytes. Methods: Cardiomyocytes isolated from 1- to 3-day-old neonatal rats were cultured and treated with 100 nM Ang II with or without pretreatment with 10 nM telmisartan, an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist. The role of microRNA (miR)-19b in the regulation of Ang II-induced CTGF expression was evaluated in cultured cardiomyocytes with quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Results: We provide several lines of evidence to show that miR-19b contributes to the Ang II-induced overexpression of CTGF in cultured cardiomyocytes. Firstly, administration of Ang II decreased the level of miR-19b dramatically (p < 0.05 vs. control), which was abolished by telmisartan. Secondly, Ang II increased the level of CTGF significantly (p < 0.05 vs. control), which was also prevented by pretreatment with telmisartan. Thirdly, overexpression of miR-19b decreased CTGF levels (p < 0.05 vs. control). Finally, transfection of miR-19b into cardiomyocytes prevented the upregulation of CTGF induced by Ang II. Conclusion: Downregulation of miR-19b contributes to Ang II-induced overexpression of CTGF in cultured cardiomyocytes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Related JoVE Video
Deproteinized bovine bone functionalized with the slow delivery of BMP-2 for the repair of critical-sized bone defects in sheep.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As an alternative to an autologous bone graft, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB) is widely used in the clinical dentistry. Although DBB provides an osteoconductive scaffold, it is not capable of enhancing bone regeneration because it is not osteoinductive. In order to render DBB osteoinductive, bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) has previously been incorporated into a three dimensional reservoir (a biomimetic calcium phosphate coating) on DBB, which effectively promoted the osteogenic response by the slow delivery of BMP-2. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effectiveness of such coating on the DBB granules in repairing a large cylindrical bone defect (8 mm diameter, 13 mm depth) in sheep. Eight groups were randomly assigned to the bone defects: (i) no graft material; (ii) autologous bone; (iii) DBB only; (iv) DBB mixed with autologous bone; (v) DBB bearing adsorbed BMP-2; (vi) DBB bearing a coating but no BMP-2; (vii) DBB bearing a coating with adsorbed BMP-2; and (viii) DBB bearing a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2. 4 and 8 weeks after implantation, samples were withdrawn for a histological and a histomorphometric analysis. Histological results confirmed the excellent biocompatibility and osteoconductivity of all the grafts tested. At 4 weeks, DBB mixed with autologous bone or functionalized with coating-incorporated BMP-2 showed more newly-formed bone than the other groups with DBB. At 8 weeks, the volume of newly-formed bone around DBB that bore a coating-incorporated depot of BMP-2 was greatest among the groups with DBB, and was comparable to the autologous bone group. The use of autologous bone and BMP-2 resulted in more bone marrow formation. Multinucleated giant cells were observed in the resorption process around DBB, whereas histomorphometric analysis revealed no significant degradation of DBB. In conclusion, it was shown that incorporating BMP-2 into the calcium phosphate coating of DBB induced strong bone formation around DBB for repairing a critical-sized bone defect.
Related JoVE Video
A Novel BMP2-Coprecipitated, Layer-by-Layer Assembled Biomimetic Calcium Phosphate Particle: A Biodegradable and Highly Efficient Osteoinducer.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PURPOSE: To repair large-size bone defects, most bone-defect-filling materials in clinic need to obtain osteoinductivity either by mixing them with particulate autologous bone or adsorbing bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2). However, both approaches encounter various limitations. In this study, we hypothesized that our novel particles of biomimetic BMP2-coprecipitated calcium phosphate (BMP2-cop.BioCaP) could serve as an independent and biodegradable osteoinducer to induce bone formation efficiently for these bone-defect-filling materials, for example, deproteinized bovine bone (DBB). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We alternately layer-by-layer assembled amorphous and crystalline CaP triply to enable a "bamboo-like" growth of the particles. We functionalized BioCaP by coprecipitating BMP2 into the most outer layer of BioCaP. We monitored the degradation, osteoinductivity, and foreign-body reaction of either BMP2-cop.BioCaP or its combination with DBB in an ectopic site in rats. RESULTS: After 5 weeks, the BMP2-cop.BioCaP significantly induced new bone formation not only alone but also when mixed with DBB. Its osteoinductive efficiency was 10-fold higher than the adsorbed BMP2. Furthermore, BMP2-cop.BioCaP also reduced significantly the host foreign-body reaction to DBB in comparison with the adsorbed BMP2. After a 5-week implantation, more than 90% of BMP2-cop.BioCaP degraded. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate a promising clinical potential for BMP2-cop.BioCaP in the repair of large-size bone defects.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative genomics of parasitic silkworm microsporidia reveal an association between genome expansion and host adaptation.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microsporidian Nosema bombycis has received much attention because the pébrine disease of domesticated silkworms results in great economic losses in the silkworm industry. So far, no effective treatment could be found for pébrine. Compared to other known Nosema parasites, N. bombycis can unusually parasitize a broad range of hosts. To gain some insights into the underlying genetic mechanism of pathological ability and host range expansion in this parasite, a comparative genomic approach is conducted. The genome of two Nosema parasites, N. bombycis and N. antheraeae (an obligatory parasite to undomesticated silkworms Antheraea pernyi), were sequenced and compared with their distantly related species, N. ceranae (an obligatory parasite to honey bees).
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of psychological symptoms in contemporary Chinese rural-to-urban migrant workers: an exploratory meta-analysis of observational studies using the SCL-90-R.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
(1) To estimate the pooled prevalence of psychological symptoms in Chinese migrant workers (CMWs), as measured using the Symptom Checklist-90-R (SCL-90-R) in observational studies conducted in China, and (2) to explore the potential variables associated with the SCL-90-R Global Severity Index (GSI), the overall mental health indicator of CMWs.
Related JoVE Video
WITHDRAWN: The majority of T cells, including Treg cells, are developed from CD4(-)CD8(-)T progenitor cells without the involvement of the CD4(+)CD8(+) stage in the thymus.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article has been withdrawn at the request of the editor. The Publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
Related JoVE Video
Pulmonary hypertension risk in patients with hemoglobin h disease: low incidence and absence of correlation with splenectomy.
Acta Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pulmonary hypertension (PHT) is a common complication for patients with ? thalassemia intermediate (TI), especially splenectomized patients. However, the frequency and risk factors of PHT in patients with hemoglobin H (HbH) disease is unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of PHT risk manifested as tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity (TRV) ?2.5 m/s in patients with HbH disease and its correlation with splenectomy. One hundred and ninety-eight patients with HbH disease who visited the 303rd Hospital of the Peoples Liberation Army (Nanning, China) were investigated. Thirteen subjects (6.5%) were diagnosed as having a risk of PHT. Regression analyses showed that the prevalence of PHT risk was correlated only with age (r = 0.195, p = 0.006) and not with splenectomy. The risk of PHT in patients older than 35 years was 5.7 times (range 1.8-18.6) greater than that for patients younger than 35 years. For splenectomized patients compared to those with HbH disease, patients with TI had a higher frequency of PHT risk, higher nucleated red blood cell counts (46.03 ± 41.11 × 10(9)/l vs. 0.18 ± 1.19 × 10(9)/l, p < 0.001) and a higher platelet counts (837.6 ± 178.9 × 10(9)/l vs. 506.7 ± 146.2 × 10(9)/l, p < 0.001). PHT risk is low in patients with HbH disease and does not correlate with splenectomy. Patients older than 35 years should be monitored regularly.
Related JoVE Video
Icariin: Does It Have An Osteoinductive Potential for Bone Tissue Engineering?
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Traditional Chinese medicines have been recommended for bone regeneration and repair for thousands of years. Currently, the Herba Epimedii and its multi-component formulation are the attractive native herbs for the treatment of osteoporosis. Icariin, a typical flavonol glycoside, is considered to be the main active ingredient of the Herba Epimedii from which icariin has been successfully extracted. Most interestingly, it has been reported that icariin can be delivered locally by biomaterials and that it has an osteoinductive potential for bone tissue engineering. This review focuses on the performance of icariin in bone tissue engineering and on blending the information from icariin with the current knowledge relevant to molecular mechanisms and signal pathways. The osteoinductive potential of icariin could be attributed to its multiple functions in the musculoskeletal system which is involved in the regulation of multiple signaling pathways in anti-osteoporosis, osteogenesis, anti-osteoclastogenesis, chondrogenesis, angiogenesis, and anti-inflammation. The osteoinductive potential and the low price of icariin make it a very attractive candidate as a substitute of osteoinductive protein-bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), or as a promoter for enhancing the therapeutic effects of BMPs. However, the effectiveness of the local delivery of icariin needs to be investigated further. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
Carboxylic acid anhydrides via Pd-catalyzed carbonylation of aryl halides at atmospheric CO pressure.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A convenient method has been developed, which allows for the direct transformation of aryl iodides into the corresponding carboxylic acid anhydrides via Pd-catalyzed carbonylation under atmospheric CO pressure.
Related JoVE Video
Defining the differential sensitivity to norepinephrine and angiotensin II in the ovine uterine vasculature.
Am. J. Physiol. Regul. Integr. Comp. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The intact ovine uterine vascular bed (UVB) is sensitive to ?-agonists and refractory to angiotensin II (ANG II) during pregnancy; the converse occurs in the systemic circulation. The mechanism(s) responsible for these differences in uterine sensitivity are unclear and may reflect predominance of nonconstricting AT(2) receptors (AT(2)R) in uterine vascular smooth muscle (UVSM). The contribution of the placental vasculature also is unclear. Third generation and precaruncular/placental arteries from nonpregnant (n = 16) and term pregnant (n = 23) sheep were used to study contraction responses to KCl, norepinephrine (NE), and ANG II (with/without ATR specific inhibitors) and determine UVSM ATR subtype expression and contractile protein content. KCl and NE increased third generation and precaruncular/placental UVSM contractions in a dose- and pregnancy-dependent manner (P ? 0.001). ANG II only elicited modest contractions in third generation pregnant UVSM (P = 0.04) and none in precaruncular/placental UVSM. Moreover, compared with KCl and NE, ANG II contractions were diminished ? 5-fold. Whereas KCl and ANG II contracted third generation>precaruncular/placental UVSM, NE-induced contractions were similar throughout the UVB. However, each agonist increased third generation contractions ? 2-fold at term, paralleling increased actin/myosin and cellular protein content (P ? 0.01). UVSM AT(1)R and AT(2)R expression was similar throughout the UVB and unchanged during pregnancy (P > 0.1). AT(1)R inhibition blocked ANG II-mediated contractions; AT(2)R blockade, however, did not enhance contractions. AT(2)R predominate throughout the UVB of nonpregnant and pregnant sheep, contributing to an inherent refractoriness to ANG II. In contrast, NE elicits enhanced contractility throughout the ovine UVB that exceeds ANG II and increases further at term pregnancy.
Related JoVE Video
Differential sensitivity to angiotensin II and norepinephrine in human uterine arteries.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During pregnancy, uteroplacental responses to norepinephrine (NE) exceed systemic responses. In contrast, uteroplacental responses to angiotensin II (ANG II) are less than systemic. The explanation for these differences in uteroplacental sensitivity remain unclear but may reflect type 2 ANG II receptor (AT(2)R) predominance in uterine artery (UA) vascular smooth muscle (VSM).
Related JoVE Video
[Research on trace gas spectral measurement on intra-cavity fiber optic laser].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Due to the advantages of immunity of electrical/electronic, high performance cost ratio, remote detection and multiplexing capability, intra-cavity fiber optic gas measurement has aroused wide concern. The trace gas measurement system has been developed based on the elaborated gas cell and reflector. The wavelength sweeping technique (WST) is realized when the Fabry-Perot type tunable optical filter is applied by the sawtooth driver voltage. Multi absorption lines can be obtained and one scanning measurement with WST is equal to multiple independent detections, so the gas measurement sensitivity is improved remarkably. The experimental results show that the acetylene detection sensitivity is reduced to less than 100 ppm and the relative measurement error is less than 3% of practical gas concentration.
Related JoVE Video
Low-dose rhBMP2/7 heterodimer to reconstruct peri-implant bone defects: a micro-CT evaluation.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To delineate the dynamic micro-architectures of bone induced by low-dose bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2/7 heterodimer in peri-implant bone defects compared to BMP2 and BMP7 homodimer.
Related JoVE Video
Minimally invasive treatment for Neer IIb distal clavicle fractures with titanium cable.
J Trauma
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neer IIB distal clavicle fracture is associated with disruption of the coracoclavicular ligament and a variable degree of displacement. Surgical treatment using various implants such as intramedullary wires, screws, and plates has been described in the literature with satisfactory results.
Related JoVE Video
[Role of G-CSF in the proliferation, differentiation and cell cycle distribution of mouse thymocytes after acute radiation].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was purposed to investigate the effect of G-CSF on the proliferation, differentiation, and cell cycle distribution of thymocytes in sublethally irradiated mice. Female BALB/c mice were exposed to 6.0 Gy ?-ray irradiation and then randomly divided into control and G-CSF treatment group. In the treatment group rhG-CSF 100 µg/(kg·d) was given subcutaneously for 14 continuous days and to make sure the first injection was given within 1 hour after irradiation. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis of thymocytes were detected within 72 hours after irradiation. Subpopulations of CD4(-)CD8(-) cells and sequential changes in the distribution of CD4(+)CD8(+), CD8(+)CD4(-), CD8(-)CD4(+) cells were detected by a three-color flow cytometry during a four-weeks period after irradiation. The results showed that in G-CSF treatment group marked increase of cells in G(0)/G(1) phase (G-CSF vs control: 82.0 ± 5.0% vs 75.9 ± 2.8%) (p < 0.05) and a decrease of cells in S phase (G-CSF vs control: 10.2 ± 4.8% vs 15.7 ± 2.3%) (p < 0.05)could be observed as early as 6 hours after irradiation, but G-CSF seems have no evident effects on the cells in G(2)/M phase. G-CSF could also protect thymocytes against apoptosis. 6 and 12 hours after irradiation the apoptosis rates of thymic cells in G-CSF treatment group were 11.5 ± 2.4% and 15.5 ± 3.3% respectively, while in the control group the apoptosis rates were 16.5 ± 2.2% and 22.6 ± 0.7% respectively. Comparison between the two group demonstrated significant difference (p < 0.05). CD4(-)CD8(-) double negative thymocytes (DN)can be defined as DN1-4 according to their maturation. G-CSF treatment resulted in a significant increase in DN1 thymocytes and promoted their proliferation and differentiation to a more mature DN3 and DN4 stage. G-CSF could enhance the recovery of CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes and mitigate their relapse during reconstitution. The percentage of CD4(+)CD8(+) thymocytes in the G-CSF treatment group 28 days after irradiation was significantly higher than that of the control group (71.0 ± 6.3% vs 25.5 ± 6.3%) (p < 0.05). It is concluded that G-CSF has a positive effects on the thymic cell cycle distribution, proliferation and differentiation, which may contribute to the reconstitution of central immune system after acute irradiation.
Related JoVE Video
Validity of the 32-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32) in a clinical sample with mood disorders in China.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The 32-item Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32), a questionnaire for screening bipolar disorders, has been utilised in several countries, but it unclear if the Chinese version of the HCL-32 is valid.
Related JoVE Video
[Meta analysis on the association between parental 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism and the neural tube defects of their offspring].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the relationship between 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene polymorphism of the parents and the susceptibility to their offspring having neural tube defects. To forecast and evaluate the onset risk of neural tube defects (NTDs) on the basis of 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism on parents of the patients.
Related JoVE Video
Construction of eukaryotic expression plasmid of hTGF-?3 and its inducing effect on differentiation of precartilaginous stem cells into chondroblasts.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined the construction of eukaryotic expression plasmid of human transforming growth factor-?3 (hTGF-?3) and its inducing effect on the differentiation of precartilaginous stem cells (PSCs) into chondroblasts. hTGF-?3 gene was amplified by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and then inserted into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1 to construct the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-hTGF-?3. Rat PSCs were isolated and purified by employing an immunomagnetic cell sorting system. pcDNA3.1(+)-hTGF-?3 was transfected into purified PSCs with the use of linear polyamines. The expression of TGF-?3 and cartilage-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) components was detected after transfection by real-time quantitative PCR, ELISA, immunochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that the eukaryotic expression plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)-hTGF-?3 was successfully established as identified by enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing. Real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA revealed that hTGF-?3 was strongly expressed in pcDNA3.1(+)-hTGF-?3-transfected PSCs. Real-time quantitative PCR, immunochemistry and Western blotting showed that the cartilage-specific ECM markers, i.e., cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP), Aggrecan, collagen type X and II were intensely expressed in the pcDNA3.1(+)-hTGF-?3-transfected cells. It was concluded that hTGF-?3 could be stably expressed in pcDNA3.1(+)-hTGF-?3-transfected PSCs and induce the differentiation of PSCs into chondroblasts.
Related JoVE Video
[Relationship between WT1-specific T-cell subsets and graft-versus-host disease after nonmyeloablative allogeneic transplantation].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the relationship between WT1-induced T-cell subsets and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (NST).
Related JoVE Video
[Studies on the interaction of gatifloxacin with bovine serum albumin in the presence of carbon nanotubes by fluorescence spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to investigate the influences of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the fluorescence of bovine serum albumin (BSA), the influences of CNTs on that of gatifloxacin (GFLX), and the influences of GFLX on that of BSA with or without coexisting CNTs under imitated physiological condition. The experimental results demonstrate that both gatifloxacin and carbon nanotubes could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA, and the quenching mechanism is mainly static quenching. The fluorescence quenching action of GFLX on BSA was weakened in the presence of CNTs. The fluorescence quenching data were analyzed according to Stern-Volmer equation and double-reciprocal Lineweaver-Burk equation. It was shown that the quenching constant (K(sv)) and the binding constant (K) are decreased with the concentration of carbon nanotubes increasing. The effects of coexisting CNTs on GFLX-BSA interactions were discussed to offer a reference for the studies on the action mechanism of CNTs or GFLX with albumins in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Thymic carcinoma with primary spine metastasis.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thymic carcinomas (TC) are rare tumors, representing 0.2% to 1.5% of all malignancies, with extrathoracic metastases to liver, kidney and bone occurring in 1% to 15% of patients. Although TC exhibit highly aggressive biological behavior, spinal metastasis with cord compression is rare. We describe a 57-year-old man with a 2-month history of cervicodorsal pain diagnosed with TC with primary spinal metastasis. We conclude that TC should be considered in the differential diagnosis in patients who have developed spine metastatic tumors. Early detection and appropriate surgical treatment can lead to preservation of spinal stability and neurologic improvement.
Related JoVE Video
Photonic ultrawideband signal generator using an optically injected chaotic semiconductor laser.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We propose and demonstrate a method to generate ultrawideband (UWB) signals in the optical domain based on the chaotic dynamics of an optically injected semiconductor laser with optical feedback. The chaotic-UWB pulses with a fractional bandwidth of 116% and central frequency of 6.88?GHz are experimentally generated by controlling the injection strength and frequency detuning of the chaotic laser. The spectrum of the UWB signals is in full compliance with the Federal Communications Commission spectral mask, and the experimental results are qualitatively consistent with the simulated results.
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic value of 64-slice dual-source CT coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation: comparison with invasive coronary angiography.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We wanted to evaluate the image quality and diagnostic value of 64-slice dual-source computed tomography (DSCT) coronary angiography in patients with atrial fibrillation (Afib).
Related JoVE Video
Validity of the Chinese version Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the optimal cutoff screening bipolar disorders.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the validity of the Chinese version of Mood Disorder Questionnaire (C-MDQ) in China. Patients with bipolar disorders (BP, N=284) and patients with unipolar depressive disorder (UP, N=134) were assessed with the C-MDQ. The Eigenvalues of the first two factors were 3.15 and 2.09, respectively. The Cronbachs alpha of the C-MDQ was 0.79. The frequency of positive responses of UP patients was significantly lower than those of BP patients for 12 items except the seventh item. A C-MDQ screening score of seven or more was the best cutoff between BP and UP. The C-MDQ could distinguish between bipolar II disorder (BP-II) and UP, and the best cutoff was five. A cutoff of five had a sensitivity of 0.80 and a specificity of 0.54 between BP and UP. This study demonstrated the good validity of C-MDQ in China. The best cutoff between BP-II and UP can be regarded as the optimal cutoff between BP and UP to improve the sensitivity of screening for BP-II. Five should be the optimal cutoff between the BP and UP when only the 13 items of the questionnaire are used in China.
Related JoVE Video
Interactions between GIPC-APPL and GIPC-TRP1 regulate melanosomal protein trafficking and melanogenesis in human melanocytes.
Arch. Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
By virtue of the presence of multiple protein-protein interaction and signaling domains, PDZ proteins play important roles in assembling protein complexes that participate in diverse cell biological processes. GIPC is a versatile PDZ protein that binds a variety of target proteins in different cell types. In previous studies we showed that, in epidermal melanocytes, GIPC interacts with newly synthesized melanosomal protein TRP1 in the Golgi region and proposed that this interaction may facilitate intracellular trafficking of TRP1. However, since GIPC contains a single PDZ domain and no other known protein interaction motifs, it is not known how GIPC-TRP1 interaction affects melanosome biogenesis and/or melanin pigmentation. Here, we show that in human primary melanocytes GIPC interacts with AKT-binding protein APPL (adaptor protein containing pleckstrin homology, leucine zipper and phosphotyrosine binding domains), which readily co-precipitates with newly synthesized TRP1. Knockdown of either GIPC or APPL inhibits melanogenesis by decreasing tyrosinase protein levels and enzyme activity. In melanocytes, APPL exists in a complex with GIPC and phospho-AKT. Inhibition of AKT phosphorylation using a PI3-kinase inhibitor abolishes this interaction and results in retardation TRP1 in the Golgi. These data suggest that interactions between TRP1-GIPC and GIPC-APPL-AKT provide a potential link between melanogenesis and PI3 kinase signaling.
Related JoVE Video
NAD+-dependent SIRT1 deacetylase participates in epigenetic reprogramming during endotoxin tolerance.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gene-selective epigenetic reprogramming and shifts in cellular bioenergetics develop when Toll-like receptors (TLR) recognize and respond to systemic life-threatening infections. Using a human monocyte cell model of endotoxin tolerance and human leukocytes from acute systemic inflammation with sepsis, we report that energy sensor sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) coordinates the epigenetic and bioenergy shifts. After TLR4 signaling, SIRT1 rapidly accumulated at the promoters of TNF-? and IL-1?, but not I?B?; SIRT1 promoter binding was dependent on its co-factor, NAD(+). During this initial process, SIRT1 deacetylated RelA/p65 lysine 310 and nucleosomal histone H4 lysine 16 to promote termination of NF?B-dependent transcription. SIRT1 then remained promoter bound and recruited de novo induced RelB, which directed assembly of the mature transcription repressor complex that generates endotoxin tolerance. SIRT1 also promoted de novo expression of RelB. During sustained endotoxin tolerance, nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), the rate-limiting enzyme for endogenous production of NAD(+), and SIRT1 expression increased. The elevation of SIRT1 required protein stabilization and enhanced translation. To support the coordination of bioenergetics in human sepsis, we observed elevated NAD(+) levels concomitant with SIRT1 and RelB accumulation at the TNF-? promoter of endotoxin tolerant sepsis blood leukocytes. We conclude that TLR4 stimulation and human sepsis activate pathways that couple NAD(+) and its sensor SIRT1 with epigenetic reprogramming.
Related JoVE Video
Learning to detect a salient object.
IEEE Trans Pattern Anal Mach Intell
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this paper, we study the salient object detection problem for images. We formulate this problem as a binary labeling task where we separate the salient object from the background. We propose a set of novel features, including multiscale contrast, center-surround histogram, and color spatial distribution, to describe a salient object locally, regionally, and globally. A conditional random field is learned to effectively combine these features for salient object detection. Further, we extend the proposed approach to detect a salient object from sequential images by introducing the dynamic salient features. We collected a large image database containing tens of thousands of carefully labeled images by multiple users and a video segment database, and conducted a set of experiments over them to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.
Related JoVE Video
[Study on the correlation between knee osteoarthritis imaging and effects of arthroscope].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the indications of arthroscope for the treatment of knee osteoarthritis and investigate the correlation between knee osteoarthritis imaging and effects of arthroscope.
Related JoVE Video
[Clinical study of resiniferatoxin on neurogenic bladder].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand the effect of resiniferatoxin on neurogenic bladder by intravesical filling.
Related JoVE Video
[The effect of pressure on binary solution phase transition and fermi resonance--comparing pressure effect for binary solution and pure liquid].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Raman spectra of binary solution (CCl4 and C6 H6) and pure liquid were measured up to pressures of 11 GPa. The results show that pressure effect on binary solution is different from that on pure liquid: When mixing two liquids, owing to the changes in the density of the solution, intermolecular distance decreases and interaction energy increases, the frequency shift (blue shift) of spectral bands increases, and the frequency shift of binary liquid is faster than pure liquid frequency shift. Phase transitions (spectral bands splitting) change earlier and natural frequency difference delta0 increases with increasing pressure, while the Fermi resonance bands nu1 + nu6 and nu8 of benzene and nu1 + nu4 and nu3 of CCl4 disappear as the pressure decreases gradually, the spectral bands with different compressibility have different speed, whereas CCl4 has smaller density, longer bond, smaller force constant and larger compressibility and is easy to compress, C6H6 has larger density, smaller bond, larger force constant, smaller compressibility and is hard to compress. The frequency shift of CCl4 is faster than benzene. In this paper we provide good reference on Raman bands assignment and certification under high pressure, and also provide methods and ideas for study of the different environment of high pressure effect, intermolecular interaction and solvent effect.
Related JoVE Video
[Effective analysis of the posterior vertebral pedicle screw fixation, vertebral body removal, decompression and titanium mesh reconstruction for the treatment of the lower lumbar fractures].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the effect of the treatment of the lower lumbar fractures by posterior vertebral pedicle screw fixation, vertebral canal decompression,bone graft and titanium mesh reconstruction.
Related JoVE Video
[Review on label-free optical bio-sensing technology based on whisper-gallery-mode].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Optical biosensors are becoming an important tool for drug research and life science, and the label-free optical biosensor based on whisper-gallery-mode (WGM) is reviewed in the present paper. The WGM-based sensors are categorized into three types according to the microcavity structure. The biosensor using microsphere got extensive research because of high quality factor, and its response to protein, virus, and bacteria had been studied. The models based on single photon resonant state and perturbation theory were established. The biosensor using microdisk was proposed early since it can make use of mature lithography technology; however, the quality factor was increased greatly only after the thermal reflow process was introduced and single molecule measurement was then realized. The biosensor using microring has simpler mode structure and materials such as polymer, silicon nitride and silicon-on-insulator had been used for sensor fabrication. As a 3-dimension expansion, sensor using microtube can combine the optical channel and fluidic channel, which attracting more and more attention.
Related JoVE Video
[Inhibitory effect of TRPV6 silencing on prostate cancer cell line LNCaP in vitro].
Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of the TRPV6 gene silencing by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. Methods: We constructed two siRNA sequences (siTRPV6-1 and siTRPV6-2) targeting the TRPV6 gene and then transfected them into LNCaP cells mediated by liposome. The transcription of TRPV6 mRNA was detected by RT-PCR, and the effects of siRNA on the proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis of the LNCaP cells were determined by MITT and flow cytometry.
Related JoVE Video
[Variation feature of receptor binding sites of H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin in different hosts].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent outbreak of H1N1 virus worldwide has caused 16 226 deaths in over 213 countries and districts. Binding between the virus and the receptor on the host cell surface is the key initial event for the infection, which results in the fusion of viral host cell membrane. Hemagglutinin (HA) is the viral protein that mediates the receptor binding and membrane fusion. The receptor binding sites (RBSs) are located at the membrane-distal part of each subunit of the HA trimer and are formed by three secondary structure elements, 190 helix (residues 190 to 198), 130 loop (residues 135 to 138), and 220 loop (residues 221 to 228). HA1 with 327 amino acid sequences in length was collected from 1221 H1N1 viruses between 1918 and 2009, and bioinformatic studies were carried out through sequence comparison, entropy calculation for each amino acid residue, and 3D structure modeling. The results showed that the RBSs of different viruses with different hosts have different entropies, and the RBSs in HA1 with different hosts have different favorite amino acid sequences. The 3D modeling indicates the subtly conformation changes in the 190 helix region between different HA1s in H1N1. This study explores new characters of the RBS structure in different HA1s, and provides new information for the further investigation of the infection mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
[Diagnostic and prognostic significance of FOXA1 expression in molecular subtypes of breast invasive ductal carcinomas].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the expression of FOXA1 in breast invasive ductal carcinomas, observe its expression in all molecular subtypes of breast invasive ductal carcinomas and understand its diagnostic and prognostic significance.
Related JoVE Video
[Biomechanical performance of different wires and cable fixation devices in posterior instrumentation for atlantoaxial instability].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To compare the biomechanical performances of different wires and cable fixation devices in posterior instrumentation for atlantoaxial instability, and test the effect of different fixation strengths and fixation approaches on the surgical outcomes.
Related JoVE Video
[Application of HLA-A*0201/WT1 pentamer combined with intracellular IFNgamma+ staining in detecting circulating WT1 specific T cells in leukemia].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was purposed to investigate the value of combination of pentamer and intracellular IFNgamma staining in the qualitative and quantitative detection of circulating antigen-specific T cells. WT1 expressions in 14 HLA-A*0201+ patients and their matched donors were detected by RT-PCR, and circulating WT1 specific T cells were assayed by HLA-A*0201/WT1 pentamer combined with intracellular IFNgamma+ staining. The results showed that the low level of WT1 expression was found only in 2 cases out of 14 donors, but different levels of WT1 expression could be observed in all leukemic patients. The WT1+CD8+ CTL and WT1+IFNgamma+ cells did not detected in all 14 donors, but WT1+CD8+ CTL cells in 2 patients and WT1+IFNgamma+ cells in 3 patients could be detected before transplantation respectively, there was no significant difference between them, while the WT1+CD8+ CTL cells and WT1+IFNgamma+ cells both could be detected in all 14 patients after transplantation, the positive detection rate after transplantation was obviously higher than that before transplantation. The WT1+CD8+ and WT1+ IFNgamma+ cells could be detected within 30 days after transplantation, but the positive detection rate of WT1+IFNgamma+ cells was higher than that of WT1+CD8+ CTL cells (p=0.014). The median peak value of WT1+CD8+ CTL cells was 0.18% in 14 patients, and the median peak value of WT1+IFNgamma+ cells was 0.83% in 14 patients, the later was significantly higher than former. The median peak time of WT1+CD8+ CTL cells was 75 days after transplantation, while the WT1+IFNgamma+ cells was 105 days after transplantation, there was no significant difference between them. It is concluded that pentamer and intracellular IFNgamma staining may effectively detect circulating WT1 specific T cells in leukemic patients, and the combination of these two methods profit to the exact qualitation and quantitation of circulating antigen-specific T cells.
Related JoVE Video
Arbuscular mycorrhizae reducing water loss in maize plants under low temperature stress.
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic mycorrhizal symbiotic associations with the roots of approximately 80% of all terrestrial plant species while facilitate the uptake of soil mineral nutrients by plants and in exchange obtain carbohydrates, thus representing a large sink for photosynthetically fixed carbon. Also, AM symbiosis increase plants resistance to abiotic stress such as chilling. In a recent study we reported that AM fungi improve low temperature stress in maize plants via alterations in host water status and photosynthesis. Here, the influence of AM fungus, Glomus etunicatum, on water loss rate and growth of maize plants was studied in pot culture under low temperature stress. The results indicated that low temperature stress significantly decreases the total fresh weight of maize plants, and AM symbiosis alleviate the water loss in leaves of maize plants.
Related JoVE Video
[Simulation model of barley leaf area index].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To simulate leaf area index (LAI) accurately is the key for the prediction of crop growth and yield in a crop growth model. Based on the analysis of the dynamic changes in the LAI of high-yielding barley cultivars in Wuhan and Yangzhou, a simulation model of barley LAI was established, in which, the LAI was the function of expansion coefficient of LAI for cultivar genetic property, climatic factors such as daily air temperature difference, sunshine hours, and accumulation of photosynthetic available radiation after sowing (sigma PAR), and limitation indices of water and nutrients. It was indicated that the maximum LAI and optimal LAI at the stages of booting and heading were not the same conception, but differed significantly. The model was tested by the field experiments with different barley cultivars under different sowing dates and nitrogen application rates in Yangzhou, Nanjing, and Kunming. The results showed that this model gave the good predictions of LAI at different development stages, with the RMSE values ranged in 0.742 and 2.865, and averaged 1.348. The simulated and observed LAI values were significantly positively correlated, and the correlation coefficient from y = x regression analysis was between 0.511 and 0.954.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.