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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Treatment Principles for Candida and Cryptococcus.
Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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The yeasts Candida and Cryptococcus spp. are important human opportunistic pathogens. Candida spp. rely on skin or mucosal breach to cause bloodstream infection, whereas Cryptococcus spp. exploit depressed cell-mediated immunity characteristic of advanced HIV infection. The treatment for both organisms relies on the administration of rapidly fungicidal agents. In candidaemia, source control is important, with removal of prosthetic material and drainage of collections, as well as hunting for and tailoring therapy to disseminated sites of infection, particularly the eyes and heart. For cryptococcal meningitis, restoration of immune function through antiretroviral therapy (ART) is key, together with careful management of the complications of raised intracranial pressure and relapsed infection, both pre- and post-ART.
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Cryptococcosis Diagnosis and Treatment: What Do We Know Now.
Fungal Genet. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Cryptococcosis has evolved into a major invasive fungal disease over the last century. Its primary epidemiology has been focused on three major outbreaks of disease that reflects both changing environmental exposures and growth of host risk factors. The molecular understandings of yeast pathobiology have been bolstered by identification of the yeast's dynamic genomic structures and functions. It is during these new insights into epidemiology and pathobiology that we have also improved our diagnosis of this infection with a new point-of-care, simple, cheap test which utilizes a lateral flow assay for antigen detection. With methods for effective identification of Cryptococcus in the host, the principles for management of this deadly infection include both use of old drugs and new insights into treatment strategies to improve outcome. In this review there are a series of recent insights, opinions, and facts which attempt to summarize our present knowledge base for this deadly fungal central nervous system infection with a particular emphasis on its diagnosis and management.
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Very low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are not associated with immunologic changes or clinical outcome in South African patients with HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Vitamin D deficiency is associated with impaired immune responses and increased susceptibility to a number of intracellular pathogens in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It is not known whether such an association exists with Cryptococcus neoformans.
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AIDS-related mycoses: the way forward.
Trends Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The contribution of fungal infections to the morbidity and mortality of HIV-infected individuals is largely unrecognized. A recent meeting highlighted several priorities that need to be urgently addressed, including improved epidemiological surveillance, increased availability of existing diagnostics and drugs, more training in the field of medical mycology, and better funding for research and provision of treatment, particularly in developing countries.
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Efficient phagocytosis and laccase activity affect the outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcosis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of HIV-associated mortality globally. High fungal burden in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) at diagnosis and poor fungal clearance during treatment are recognized adverse prognostic markers; however, the underlying pathogenic factors that drive these clinical manifestations are incompletely understood. We profiled a large set of clinical isolates for established cryptococcal virulence traits to evaluate the contribution of C. neoformans phenotypic diversity to clinical presentation and outcome in human cryptococcosis.
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The Cryptococcus neoformans transcriptome at the site of human meningitis.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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Cryptococcus neoformans is the leading cause of fungal meningitis worldwide. Previous studies have characterized the cryptococcal transcriptome under various stress conditions, but a comprehensive profile of the C. neoformans transcriptome in the human host has not been attempted. Here, we extracted RNA from yeast cells taken directly from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of two AIDS patients with cryptococcal meningitis prior to antifungal therapy. The patients were infected with strains of C. neoformans var. grubii of molecular type VNI and VNII. Using RNA-seq, we compared the transcriptional profiles of these strains under three environmental conditions (in vivo CSF, ex vivo CSF, and yeast extract-peptone-dextrose [YPD]). Although we identified a number of differentially expressed genes, single nucleotide variants, and novel genes that were unique to each strain, the overall expression patterns of the two strains were similar under the same environmental conditions. Specifically, yeast cells obtained directly from each patient's CSF were more metabolically active than cells that were incubated ex vivo in CSF. Compared with growth in YPD, some genes were identified as significantly upregulated in both in vivo and ex vivo CSF, and they were associated with genes previously recognized for contributing to pathogenicity. For example, genes with known stress response functions, such as RIM101, ENA1, and CFO1, were regulated similarly in the two clinical strains. Conversely, many genes that were differentially regulated between the two strains appeared to be transporters. These findings establish a platform for further studies of how this yeast survives and produces disease.
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Determinants of Mortality in a Combined Cohort of 501 Patients With HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis: Implications for Improving Outcomes.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Background.?Cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is a leading cause of death in individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Identifying factors associated with mortality informs strategies to improve outcomes. Methods.?Five hundred one patients with HIV-associated CM were followed prospectively for 10 weeks during trials in Thailand, Uganda, Malawi, and South Africa. South African patients (n = 266) were followed for 1 year. Similar inclusion/exclusion criteria were applied at all sites. Logistic regression identified baseline variables independently associated with mortality. Results.?Mortality was 17% at 2 weeks and 34% at 10 weeks. Altered mental status (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7-5.9), high cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) fungal burden (OR, 1.4 per log10 colony-forming units/mL increase; 95% CI, 1.0-1.8), older age (>50 years; OR, 3.9; 95% CI, 1.4-11.1), high peripheral white blood cell count (>10 × 10(9) cells/L; OR, 8.7; 95% CI, 2.5-30.2), fluconazole-based induction treatment, and slow clearance of CSF infection were independently associated with 2-week mortality. Low body weight, anemia (hemoglobin <7.5 g/dL), and low CSF opening pressure were independently associated with mortality at 10 weeks in addition to altered mental status, high fungal burden, high peripheral white cell count, and older age. In those followed for 1 year, overall mortality was 41%. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome occurred in 13% of patients and was associated with 2-week CSF fungal burden (P = .007), but not with time to initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Conclusions.?CSF fungal burden, altered mental status, and rate of clearance of infection predict acute mortality in HIV-associated CM. The results suggest that earlier diagnosis, more rapidly fungicidal amphotericin-based regimens, and prompt immune reconstitution with ART are priorities for improving outcomes.
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Cryptococcus neoformans Ex Vivo Capsule Size Is Associated With Intracranial Pressure and Host Immune Response in HIV-associated Cryptococcal Meningitis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Background.?The Cryptococcus neoformans polysaccharide capsule is a well-characterized virulence factor with immunomodulatory properties. The organism and/or shed capsule is postulated to raise intracranial pressure (ICP) in cryptococcal meningitis (CM) by mechanical obstruction of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) outflow. Little is known regarding capsule phenotype in human cryptococcosis. We investigated the relationship of ex vivo CSF capsular phenotype with ICP and CSF immune response, as well as in vitro phenotype. Methods.?In total, 134 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Ugandan adults with CM had serial lumbar punctures with measurement of CSF opening pressures, quantitative cultures, ex vivo capsule size and shedding, viscosity, and CSF cytokines; 108 had complete data. Induced capsular size and shedding were measured in vitro for 48 C. neoformans isolates. Results.?Cryptococcal strains producing larger ex vivo capsules in the baseline (pretreatment) CSF correlated with higher ICP (P = .02), slower rate of fungal clearance (P = .02), and paucity of CSF inflammation, including decreased CSF white blood cell (WBC) count (P < .001), interleukin (IL)-4 (P = .02), IL-6 (P = .01), IL-7 (P = .04), IL-8 (P = .03), and interferon ? (P = .03). CSF capsule shedding did not correlate with ICP. On multivariable analysis, capsule size remained independently associated with ICP. Ex vivo capsular size and shedding did not correlate with that of the same isolates grown in vitro. Conclusions.?Cryptococcal capsule size ex vivo is an important contributor to virulence in human cryptococcal meningitis.
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Cryptococcal meningitis: improving access to essential antifungal medicines in resource-poor countries.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2013
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Cryptococcal meningitis is the leading cause of adult meningitis in sub-Saharan Africa, and contributes up to 20% of AIDS-related mortality in low-income and middle-income countries every year. Antifungal treatment for cryptococcal meningitis relies on three old, off-patent antifungal drugs: amphotericin B deoxycholate, flucytosine, and fluconazole. Widely accepted treatment guidelines recommend amphotericin B and flucytosine as first-line induction treatment for cryptococcal meningitis. However, flucytosine is unavailable in Africa and most of Asia, and safe amphotericin B administration requires patient hospitalisation and careful laboratory monitoring to identify and treat common side-effects. Therefore, fluconazole monotherapy is widely used in low-income and middle-income countries for induction therapy, but treatment is associated with significantly increased rates of mortality. We review the antifungal drugs used to treat cryptococcal meningitis with respect to clinical effectiveness and access issues specific to low-income and middle-income countries. Each drug poses unique access challenges: amphotericin B through cost, toxic effects, and insufficiently coordinated distribution; flucytosine through cost and scarcity of registration; and fluconazole through challenges in maintenance of local stocks--eg, sustainability of donations or insufficient generic supplies. We advocate ten steps that need to be taken to improve access to safe and effective antifungal therapy for cryptococcal meningitis.
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Comparison of the early fungicidal activity of high-dose fluconazole, voriconazole, and flucytosine as second-line drugs given in combination with amphotericin B for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2011
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HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis is associated with an estimated 600 000 deaths worldwide per year. Current standard initial therapy consists of amphotericin B (AmB) plus flucytosine (5-FC), but 5-FC remains largely unavailable in Asia and Africa. Alternative, more widely available, and/or more effective antifungal combination treatment regimens are urgently needed.
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Variation in chromosome copy number influences the virulence of Cryptococcus neoformans and occurs in isolates from AIDS patients.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2011
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The adaptation of pathogenic fungi to the host environment via large-scale genomic changes is a poorly characterized phenomenon. Cryptococcus neoformans is the leading cause of fungal meningoencephalitis in HIV/AIDS patients, and we recently discovered clinical strains of the fungus that are disomic for chromosome 13. Here, we examined the genome plasticity and phenotypes of monosomic and disomic strains, and compared their virulence in a mouse model of cryptococcosis
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Independent association between rate of clearance of infection and clinical outcome of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: analysis of a combined cohort of 262 patients.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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Progress in therapy for cryptococcal meningitis has been slow because of the lack of a suitable marker of treatment response. Previously, we demonstrated the statistical power of a novel endpoint, the rate of clearance of infection, based on serial quantitative cultures of cerebrospinal fluid, to differentiate the fungicidal activity of alternative antifungal drug regimens. We hypothesized that the rate of clearance of infection should also be a clinically meaningful endpoint.
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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a prospective study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Prospective data on incidence, characteristics, and risk factors for cryptococcal meningitis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CM-IRIS) are lacking.
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Relationship of cerebrospinal fluid pressure, fungal burden and outcome in patients with cryptococcal meningitis undergoing serial lumbar punctures.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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To assess impact of serial lumbar punctures on association between cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) opening pressure and prognosis in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis; to explore time course and relationship of opening pressure with neurological findings, CSF fungal burden, immune response, and CD4 cell count.
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The prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia in newly diagnosed HIV patients in a Southwest London cohort.
J. Infect.
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To determine the prevalence of cryptococcal antigenemia in a UK HIV cohort and compare baseline characteristics of patients with and without cryptococcal antigenemia.
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Adjunctive interferon-? immunotherapy for the treatment of HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis: a randomized controlled trial.
AIDS
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Interferon-gamma (IFN?) is of key importance in the immune response to Cryptococcus neoformans. Mortality related to cryptococcal meningitis remains high, and novel treatment strategies are needed. We performed a randomized controlled trial to determine whether addition of IFN? to standard therapy increased the rate of clearance of cryptococcal infection in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.