In view of the rapid preclinical development of cell-based therapies for neurodegenerative disorders, traumatic brain injury, and tumors, the safe and efficient delivery and targeting of therapeutic cells to the central nervous system is critical for maintaining therapeutic efficacy and safety in the respective disease models. Our previous data demonstrated therapeutically efficacious and targeted delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to the brain in the rat 6-hydroxydopamine model of Parkinson?s disease (PD). The present study examined delivery of bone marrow derived MSCs, macrophages, and microglia to the brain in a transgenic model of PD ((Thy1)-h[A30P] ?S) and an APP/PS1 model of Alzheimer?s disease (AD) via intranasal application (INA). INA of microglia in na?ve BL/6 mice led to targeted and effective delivery of cells to the brain. Quantitative PCR analysis of eGFP DNA showed that the brain contained the highest amount of eGFP-microglia (up to 2.1x10(4)) after INA of 1x10(6) cells, while the total amount of cells detected in peripheral organs did not exceed 3.4x10(3). Seven days after INA, MSCs expressing eGFP were detected in the olfactory bulb (OB), cortex, amygdala, striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, and brainstem of (Thy1)-h[A30P] ?S transgenic mice, showing predominant distribution within the OB and brainstem. INA of eGFP-expressing macrophages in 13 month-old APP/PS1 mice led to delivery of cells to the OB, hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Both, MSCs and macrophages contained Iba-1-positive population of small microglia-like cells and Iba-1-negative large rounded cells showing either intracellular Amyloid beta (macrophages in APP/PS1 model) or ?-Synuclein (MSCs in (Thy1)-h[A30P] ?S model) immunoreactivity. Here we show, for the first time, intranasal delivery of cells to the brain of transgenic PD and AD mouse models. Additional work is needed to determine the optimal dosage (single treatment regimen or repeated administrations) to achieve functional improvement in these mouse models with intranasal microglia/macrophages and MSCs. This manuscript is published as part of the International Association of Neurorestoratology (IANR) special issue of Cell Transplantation.
The adaptor protein SLy2 (Src homology domain 3 lymphocyte protein 2) is located on human chromosome 21 and was reported to be among a group of genes amplified in Down's syndrome (DS) patients. DS patients characteristically show an impaired immunity to pneumococcal infections. However, molecular mechanisms linking gene amplifications with specific DS phenotypes remain elusive. To investigate the effect of SLy2 gene amplification on the mammalian immune system, we studied SLy2 overexpressing transgenic-SLy2 (TG) mice. We found that baseline immunoglobulin M (IgM) levels as well as IgM responses following Pneumovax immunizations were reduced in TG mice. Moreover, B-1 cells, the major natural IgM-producing population in mice, were reduced in the peritoneal cavity of TG mice, while other immune cell compartments were unaltered. Mechanistically, SLy2 overexpression attenuated the expression of the IL-5 receptor ? chain on B-1 cells, resulting in decreased B-1 cell numbers and decreased differentiation into Ab-secreting cells. Since B-1 cells essentially contribute to immunity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, the present study provides a novel molecular link between SLy2 expression and pneumococcal-specific IgM responses in vivo. These studies suggest that the adaptor protein SLy2 is a potential future target for immunomodulatory strategies for pneumococcal infections.
Chitin is an essential structural polysaccharide of fungal pathogens and parasites, but its role in human immune responses remains largely unknown. It is the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose and its derivatives today are widely used for medical and industrial purposes. We analysed the immunological properties of purified chitin particles derived from the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, which led to the selective secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. We identified NOD2, TLR9 and the mannose receptor as essential fungal chitin-recognition receptors for the induction of this response. Chitin reduced LPS-induced inflammation in vivo and may therefore contribute to the resolution of the immune response once the pathogen has been defeated. Fungal chitin also induced eosinophilia in vivo, underpinning its ability to induce asthma. Polymorphisms in the identified chitin receptors, NOD2 and TLR9, predispose individuals to inflammatory conditions and dysregulated expression of chitinases and chitinase-like binding proteins, whose activity is essential to generate IL-10-inducing fungal chitin particles in vitro, have also been linked to inflammatory conditions and asthma. Chitin recognition is therefore critical for immune homeostasis and is likely to have a significant role in infectious and allergic disease.
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a T cell-mediated inflammatory skin disease, with TH2 cells initiating acute flares. This inflamed skin is immediately colonized with Staphylococcus aureus, which provides potent Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligands. However, the effect of TLR2 ligands on the development of TH2-mediated AD inflammation remains unclear.
Laminins play a fundamental role in basement membrane architecture and function in human skin. The C-terminal laminin G domain-like (LG) modules of laminin ? chains are modified by proteolysis to generate LG1-3 and secreted LG4-5 tandem modules. In this study, we provide evidence that skin-derived cells process and secrete biologically active peptides from the LG4-5 module of the laminin ?3, ?4 and ?5 chain in vitro and in vivo. We show enhanced expression and processing of the LG4-5 module of laminin ?3 in keratinocytes after infection and in chronic wounds in which the level of expression and further processing of the LG4-5 module correlated with the speed of wound healing. Furthermore, bacterial or host-derived proteases promote processing of laminin ?3 LG4-5. On a functional level, we show that LG4-5-derived peptides play a role in wound healing. Moreover, we demonstrate that LG4-derived peptides from the ?3, ?4 and ?5 chains have broad antimicrobial activity and possess strong chemotactic activity to mononuclear cells. Thus, the data strongly suggest a novel multifunctional role for laminin LG4-5-derived peptides in human skin and its involvement in physiological processes and pathological conditions such as inflammation, chronic wounds and skin infection.
Erythrocytes may enter eryptosis, a suicidal death characterized by cell shrinkage and phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte outer membrane. Susceptibility to eryptosis is enhanced in aged erythrocytes and stimulated by NF?B-inhibitors Bay 11-7082 and parthenolide. Here we explored whether expression of NF?B and susceptibility to inhibitor-induced eryptosis is sensitive to erythrocyte age.
The V600E mutation in the kinase BRAF is frequently detected in melanomas and results in constitutive activation of BRAF, which then promotes cell proliferation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Although the BRAFV600E kinase inhibitor vemurafenib has remarkable antitumor activity in patients with BRAFV600E-mutated melanoma, its effects are limited by the onset of drug resistance. We found that exposure of melanoma cell lines with the BRAFV600E mutation to vemurafenib decreased the abundance of antiapoptotic proteins and induced intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis. Vemurafenib-treated melanoma cells showed increased cytosolic concentration of calcium, a potential trigger for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which can lead to apoptosis. Consistent with an ER stress-induced response, vemurafenib decreased the abundance of the ER chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78, increased the abundance of the spliced isoform of the transcription factor X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) (which transcriptionally activates genes involved in ER stress responses), increased the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2? (which would be expected to inhibit protein synthesis), and induced the expression of ER stress-related genes. Knockdown of the ER stress response protein activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) significantly reduced vemurafenib-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the ER stress inducer thapsigargin prevented invasive growth of tumors formed from vemurafenib-sensitive melanoma cells in vivo. In melanoma cells with low sensitivity or resistance to vemurafenib, combination treatment with thapsigargin augmented or induced apoptosis. Thus, thapsigargin or other inducers of ER stress may be useful in combination therapies to overcome vemurafenib resistance.
The beneficial effects of nonpathogenic bacteria are increasingly being recognized. We reported in a placebo-controlled study with atopic dermatitis (AD) patients that cutaneous exposure to lysates of nonpathogenic bacteria alleviates skin inflammation. To now unravel underlying mechanisms, immune consequences of sensing nonpathogenic bacterium Vitreoscilla filiformis lysate (Vf) were characterized analyzing (1) differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs) and, consecutively, (2) effector functions of DCs and T helper (Th) cells in vitro and in a murine model of AD in NC/Nga mice in vivo. Topical treatment with Vf significantly reduced AD-like inflammation in NC/Nga mice. Importantly, cutaneous exposure to Vf in combination with the allergen FITC significantly also reduced subsequent allergen-induced dermatitis indicating active immune modulation. Indeed, innate sensing of Vf predominantly induced IL-10-producing DCs, which was dependent on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) activation. Vf-induced IL-10+ DCs primed naive CD4+ T helper cells to become regulatory IFN-?(low) IL-10(high) Tr1 (type 1 regulatory T) cells. These IL-10(high) Tr1 cells were also induced by Vf in vivo and strongly suppressed T effector cells and inflammation. In conclusion, we show that innate sensing of nonpathogenic bacteria by TLR2 induces tolerogenic DCs and regulatory Tr1 cells suppressing T effector cells and cutaneous inflammation. These findings indicate a promising therapeutic strategy for inflammatory skin diseases like AD.
Experimental mouse models of bacterial skin infections that have been described show that pathogenic microorganisms can readily invade the epidermis and dermis to produce localized infections. We used an epicutaneous mouse skin infection model to determine how the level of barrier disruption by tape-stripping correlates with persistence of Staphylococcus aureus skin colonization, concomitant induction of cutaneous inflammation and infection. Furthermore, we investigated how murine skin responds to S. aureus colonization in a physiologic setting by analysing proinflammatory cytokines and antimicrobial peptides in mouse skin. We show that previous cutaneous damage allows skin inflammation to develop and favours S. aureus persistence leading to cutaneous colonization, suggesting an interdependence of cutaneous bacteria and skin. Our study suggests that skin barrier defects favour S. aureus skin colonization, which is associated with profound cutaneous inflammation.
Psoriatic skin lesions are characterized by an inflammatory infiltrate, consisting of dendritic cells, monocytes, and both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Although the chemokines involved in the migration of CD4(+) T cells into psoriatic skin are well characterized, those regulating CD8(+) T-cell recruitment are less understood. We found that the percentages of peripheral blood CD8(+) T cells expressing CXCR6 were higher in psoriatic patients than in healthy or atopic individuals. In addition, CXCR6 expression in psoriatic patients was more abundant in the CD8(+) than in the CD4(+) T-cell compartment. CXCR6 mRNA expression was also stronger in skin CD8(+) T cells than in the corresponding blood-derived counterparts. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed profound upregulation of the CXCR6 ligand CXCL16 by monocytes, keratinocytes, and dendritic cells in psoriatic skin compared with healthy or atopic dermatitis skin. In line with this, CXCR6(+) CD8(+) T cells also were most prevalent in psoriatic skin. Furthermore, CXCL16 induced Ca(2+) influx and chemotactic migration of psoriatic skin-derived CD8(+) T cells in vitro. Most importantly, CXCL16 potently recruited human CD8(+) T cells to human skin grafts previously transplanted onto SCID mice in vivo. These investigations indicate that CXCL16-CXCR6 interactions mediate homing of CD8(+) T cells into human skin, and thereby contribute to psoriasis pathogenesis.
Sepsis, sepsis-induced hyperinflammation and subsequent sepsis-associated immunosuppression (SAIS) are important causes of death. Here we show in humans that the loss of the major reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger, glutathione (GSH), during SAIS directly correlates with an increase in the expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3). In endotoxin-stimulated monocytes, ROS stress strongly superinduced NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-dependent ATF3. In vivo, this ROS-mediated superinduction of ATF3 protected against endotoxic shock by inhibiting innate cytokines, as Atf3(-/-) mice remained susceptible to endotoxic shock even under conditions of ROS stress. Although it protected against endotoxic shock, this ROS-mediated superinduction of ATF3 caused high susceptibility to bacterial and fungal infections through the suppression of interleukin 6 (IL-6). As a result, Atf3(-/-) mice were protected against bacterial and fungal infections, even under conditions of ROS stress, whereas Atf3(-/-)Il6(-/-) mice were highly susceptible to these infections. Moreover, in a model of SAIS, secondary infections caused considerably less mortality in Atf3(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice, indicating that ROS-induced ATF3 crucially determines susceptibility to secondary infections during SAIS.
Interleukin (IL)-23 is involved in the pathogenesis of the chronic inflammatory Crohn disease. Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is often associated with and can even be the first manifestation of this disease and has abundant neutrophilic infiltration. Because IL-23 plays a critical role in driving inflammation associated with IL-17 production and especially neutrophil recruitment, we suspect that PG might be driven by a pathogenetic mechanism similar to that of inflammatory bowel diseases or psoriasis.
A subgroup of patients with chronic spontaneous urticaria (CU) exhibits IgE antibodies directed against autoantigens, such as thyroperoxidase (TPO). We conducted this study to investigate whether such patients with CU with IgE against TPO benefit from treatment with omalizumab, a humanized anti-IgE mAb licensed for the treatment of severe persistent allergic (IgE-mediated) asthma.
Little is known about the quality of life of patients who are allergic to insect venom. This fact is due to the lack of specific instruments assessing the interaction of type 1 allergy and its psychological burden.
Casein kinase 1 alpha (CK1alpha) is a multifunctional Ser/Thr kinase that phosphorylates several substrates. Among those is beta-catenin, an important player in cell adhesion and Wnt signaling. Phosphorylation of beta-catenin by CK1alpha at Ser45 is the priming reaction for the proteasomal degradation of beta-catenin. Interestingly, aside from this role in beta-catenin degradation, very little is known about the expression and functional role of CK1alpha in tumor cells. Here, we show that CK1alpha expression in different tumor types is either strongly suppressed or completely lost during tumor progression and that CK1alpha is a key factor determining beta-catenin stability and transcriptional activity in tumor cells. CK1alpha reexpression in metastatic melanoma cells reduces growth in vitro and metastasis formation in vivo, and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, whereas suppression of CK1alpha in primary melanoma cells induces invasive tumor growth. Inactivation of CK1alpha promotes tumor progression by regulating a switch in beta-catenin-mediated signaling. These results show that melanoma cells developed an efficient new mechanism to activate the beta-catenin signaling pathway and define CK1alpha as a novel tumor suppressor.
In mammalian host cells staphylococcal peptidoglycan (PGN) is recognized by Nod2. Whether PGN is also recognized by TLR2 is disputed. Here we carried out PGN co-localization and stimulation studies with TLR2 and Nod2 in wild type and mutant host cells. To exclude contamination with lipoproteins, polymeric staphylococcal PGN (PGN(pol)) was isolated from Staphylococcus aureus ?lgt (lacking lipidated prelipoproteins). PGN(pol) was biotinylated (PGN-Bio) for fluorescence monitoring with specific antibodies. Keratinocytes from murine oral epithelium (MK) readily internalized PGN-Bio in an endocytosis-like process. In wt MK, PGN(pol) induced intracellular accumulation of Nod2 and TLR2 and co-localized with Nod2 and TLR2, but not with TLR4. In TLR2-deficient MK Nod2 and in Nod2-deficient MK TLR2 was induced, indicating that PGN(pol) recognition by Nod2 is independent of TLR2 and vice versa. In both mutants IL-6 and IL-1B release was decreased by approximately 50% compared to wt MK, suggesting that the immune responses induced by Nod2 and TLR2 are comparable and that the two receptors act additively in MK. In TLR2-transfected HEK293 cells PGN(pol) induced NFkB-promoter fused luciferase expression. To support the data, co-localization and signaling studies were carried out with SHL-PGN, a lipase protein covalently tethered to PGN-fragments of varying sizes at its C-terminus. SHL-PGN also co-localized with Nod2 or TLR2 and induced their accumulation, while SHL without PGN did not. The results show that staphylococcal PGN not only co-localizes with Nod2 but also with TLR2. PGN is able to stimulate the immune system via both receptors.
Innate immune sensing of Staphylococcus aureus unravels basic mechanisms leading to either effective antibacterial immune responses or harmful inflammation. The nature and properties of S. aureus-derived pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs) are still not completely understood. We investigated the innate immune sensing of peptidoglycan (PGN) structures and subsequent immune consequences. Macromolecular PGN (PGN(polymer)) preparations activated NF-?B through human Toll-like receptors 2 (TLR2), as shown by luciferase reporter assays, and induced murine dendritic cell (DC) maturation and cytokine production. In contrast, PGN(polymer) from lgt-mutant S. aureus failed to stimulate human TLR2, demonstrating that lipoproteins within the macromolecular structures of PGN(polymer), but not PGN itself, activate TLR2. Thus, HPLC-purified monomeric PGN (PGN(monomer)) structures were investigated. Strikingly, PGN(monomer) completely lacked NF-?B activation, lacked TLR2 activity, and failed to functionally activate murine DCs. However, PGN(monomer) in concert with various TLR ligands most effectively stimulated DCs to up-regulate IL-12p70 and IL-23 by ?3- to 5-fold. Consequently, DCs coactivated by PGN(monomer) markedly up-regulated Th1 and Th17 while suppressing Th2 cell priming. Notably, PGN(monomer) failed to coactivate NOD2(-/-) DCs. This demonstrates that PGN(monomer) is a natural ligand of NOD2, which was previously only demonstrated for synthetic compounds like muramyl dipeptide. Interestingly, murine DCs lacking TLR2 remained mute in response to the combinative immune sensing of S. aureus-derived PAMPs, including PGN(monomer), providing for the first time an explanation of why S. aureus can colonize the nasal mucosa in the absence of inflammation. This is very likely based on the lack of TLR2 expression in mucosal epithelial cells under normal conditions, which determines the unresponsiveness to S. aureus PAMPs.
CD4(+) T cells are essential for the control of Yersinia enterocolitica (Ye) infection in mice. Ye can inhibit dendritic cell (DC) antigen uptake and degradation, maturation and subsequently T-cell activation in vitro. Here we investigated the effects of Ye infection on splenic DCs and T-cell proliferation in an experimental mouse infection model. We found that OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells had a reduced potential to proliferate when stimulated with OVA after infection with Ye compared to control mice. Additionally, proliferation of OVA-specific CD4(+) T cells was markedly reduced when cultured with splenic CD8?(+) DCs from Ye infected mice in the presence of OVA. In contrast, T-cell proliferation was not impaired in cultures with CD4(+) or CD4(-)CD8?(-) DCs isolated from Ye infected mice. However, OVA uptake and degradation as well as cytokine production were impaired in CD8?(+) DCs, but not in CD4(+) and CD4(-)CD8?(-) DCs after Ye infection. Pathogenicity factors (Yops) from Ye were most frequently injected into CD8?(+) DCs, resulting in less MHC class II and CD86 expression than on non-injected CD8?(+) DCs. Three days post infection with Ye the number of splenic CD8?(+) and CD4(+) DCs was reduced by 50% and 90%, respectively. The decreased number of DC subsets, which was dependent on TLR4 and TRIF signaling, was the result of a faster proliferation and suppressed de novo DC generation. Together, we show that Ye infection negatively regulates the stimulatory capacity of some but not all splenic DC subpopulations in vivo. This leads to differential antigen uptake and degradation, cytokine production, cell loss, and cell death rates in various DC subpopulations. The data suggest that these effects might be caused directly by injection of Yops into DCs and indirectly by affecting the homeostasis of CD4(+) and CD8?(+) DCs. These events may contribute to reduced T-cell proliferation and immune evasion of Ye.
This laboratory study was undertaken to investigate the influence of bevacizumab on apoptosis, Na(+)-K(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) and zonula occludens 1 (ZO-1) expression on cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs).
Patients sensitized to para-phenylenediamine (PPD) by semi-permanent tattoos increasingly develop threatening allergic reactions in response to black hair dye. The gold standard to diagnose allergic contact dermatitis is to perform epicutaneous patch tests, however, iatrogenic sensitizations and severe patch test reactions to PPD have been described, the latter especially in patients with severe allergic reactions. We examined nine patients with severe allergic reactions in response to permanent hair dyes. Patch tests using the standard concentration of 1% or 0.5% PPD resulted in severe and sometimes even bullous reactions in all patients responsive to PPD. Titration revealed that at 1% of the standard concentration (0.01% PPD), patch test sensitivity decreased and only 50% of patients responded. Consequently, we established an in vitro assay to diagnose PPD allergy. Freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with titrated concentrations of PPD with or without IL-2 supplementation, and cell proliferation was determined by [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Lymphocyte activation test (LAT) detected PBMC cell proliferation specific to PPD, with at least 3.5-fold increase in [3H]-thymidine uptake in all PPD allergic patients. Most importantly, PPD-LAT without IL-2 supplementation remained negative in three out of eight PPD allergic patients. Thus, PPD-LAT with IL-2 supplementation demonstrated a sensitivity of 100%, remained unresponsive in controls not sensitized to PPD, and in one patient sensitive to other p-amino compounds. These data demonstrate that LAT with PPD can be used to detect PPD sensitization as a possible alternative to patch testing at least in patients with severe allergic reactions to PPD.
The PI3K pathway plays a pivotal role in the stimulation of mast cells. PI3K-dependent kinases include the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (SGK1). The present study explored the role of SGK1 in mast cell function. Mast cells were isolated from bone marrow (BMMC) of SGK1 knockout mice (sgk1(-/-)) and their wild-type littermates (sgk1(+/+)). The BMMC number as well as CD117, CD34, and FcepsilonRI expression in BMCCs were similar in both genotypes. Upon Ag stimulation of the FcepsilonRI receptor, Ca(2+) entry but not Ca(2+) release from intracellular stores was markedly impaired in sgk1(-/-) BMMCs. The currents through Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels induced by Ag were significantly higher in sgk1(+/+) BMMCs than in sgk1(-/-) BMMCs. Treatment with the Ca(2+) ionophore ionomycin (1 microM) led to activation of the K+ channels in both genotypes, indicating that the Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels are similarly expressed and sensitive to activation by Ca(2+) in sgk1(+/+) and sgk1(-/-) BMMCs, and that blunted stimulation of Ca(2+)-activated K+ channels was secondary to decreased Ca(2+) entry. Ag-IgE-induced degranulation and early IL-6 secretion were also significantly blunted in sgk1(-/-) BMMCs. The decrease in body temperature following Ag treatment, which reflects an anaphylactic reaction, was substantially reduced in sgk1(-/-) mice, pointing to impaired mast cell function in vivo. Serum histamine levels measured 30 min after induction of an anaphylactic reaction were significantly lower in sgk1(-/-) than in sgk1(+/+)mice. The observations reveal a critical role for SGK1 in ion channel regulation and the function of mast cells, and thus disclose a completely novel player in the regulation of allergic reaction.
Emergency sets are prescribed to allow patients with anaphylaxis to treat themselves before professional aid arrives. The need for epinephrine in this setting is well-accepted, but how it should be administered is still controversial. Epinephrine preparations can be administered orally, subcutaneously, intramuscularly or as aerosols. Primatene Mist is one epinephrine inhaler, which is approved for asthma treatment in the USA, and InfectoKrupp Inhal is another one approved to support the treatment of acute laryngo-tracheitis and of allergic reactions with a nebulizer. Both are possible components of the emergency set for patients with anaphylaxis. The following review article summarizes data currently available on the use of epinephrine preparations in first-aid treatment of anaphylaxis. Studies have shown that the plasma concentrations needed for hemodynamic stabilization cannot be reached with epinephrine inhalers. Since most cases of hypotension in anaphylaxis cannot be effectively treated with epinephrine inhalers, the prescriber should be aware of this before including them in an emergency pack.
Signaling through tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) controls bacterial infections and the induction of inflammatory Th1 cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. By dissecting Th1 cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity responses (DTHRs) into single steps, we localized a central defect to the missing TNFR1 expression by endothelial cells (ECs). Adoptive transfer and mast cell knockin experiments into Kit(W)/Kit(W-v), TNF(-/-), and TNFR1(-/-) mice showed that the signaling defect exclusively affects mast cell-EC interactions but not T cells or antigen-presenting cells. As a consequence, TNFR1(-/-) mice had strongly reduced mRNA and protein expression of P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1 during DTHR elicitation. In consequence, intravital fluorescence microscopy revealed up to 80% reduction of leukocyte rolling and firm adhesion in TNFR1(-/-) mice. As substitution of TNF(-/-) mice with TNF-producing mast cells fully restored DTHR in these mice, signaling of mast cell-derived TNF through TNFR1-expressing ECs is essential for the recruitment of leukocytes into sites of inflammation.
Peptidoglycans (PGN) from bacterial cell walls may modify the course of an infection with bacterial pathogens. The present study explored the effect of PGN on cytosolic Ca2+ activity, cytokine production and phagocytosis of mouse dendritic cells (DCs), essential cells in the initiation and direction of antigen-specific T cell responses. Exposure of DCs to PGN was followed by a rapid increase in cytosolic Ca2+ activity ([Ca2+]i), which was due to Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and influx of extracellular Ca2+ across the cell membrane. In DCs isolated from Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) deficient mice the effect of PGN on [Ca2+]i was dramatically impaired. The PGN-induced increase of [Ca2+]i was dependent on voltage-gated K+ (Kv) channel activity. PGN-induced increase of [Ca2+]i was significantly blunted by margatoxin (MgTx) and perhexiline maleate (PM), inhibitors of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5, respectively. PGN further stimulated the release of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), interleukin-12 (IL-12) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), an effect significantly blunted by PM and the specific blocker of store-operated Ca2+ channels SKF-96365. Moreover, phagocytic capacity was dramatically increased in PGN-stimulated DCs in the presence of either Kv channel inhibitors or SKF-96365. The observations disclose Ca2+ and Kv channel-dependent cytokine production and phagocytosis in PGN-stimulated DCs.
C. albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen of humans, causing local and superficial mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Given that the key structure mediating host-C. albicans interactions is the fungal cell wall, we aimed to identify features of the cell wall inducing epithelial responses and be associated with fungal pathogenesis. We demonstrate here the importance of cell wall protein glycosylation in epithelial immune activation with a predominant role for the highly branched N-glycosylation residues. Moreover, these glycan moieties induce growth arrest and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Using an in vitro model of oral candidosis we demonstrate, that apoptosis induction by C. albicans wild-type occurs in early stage of infection and strongly depends on intact cell wall protein glycosylation. These novel findings demonstrate that glycosylation of the C. albicans cell wall proteins appears essential for modulation of epithelial immunity and apoptosis induction, both of which may promote fungal pathogenesis in vivo.
IMA901 is the first therapeutic vaccine for renal cell cancer (RCC) consisting of multiple tumor-associated peptides (TUMAPs) confirmed to be naturally presented in human cancer tissue. We treated a total of 96 human leukocyte antigen A (HLA-A)*02(+) subjects with advanced RCC with IMA901 in two consecutive studies. In the phase 1 study, the T cell responses of the patients to multiple TUMAPs were associated with better disease control and lower numbers of prevaccine forkhead box P3 (FOXP3)(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells. The randomized phase 2 trial showed that a single dose of cyclophosphamide reduced the number of T(reg) cells and confirmed that immune responses to multiple TUMAPs were associated with longer overall survival. Furthermore, among six predefined populations of myeloid-derived suppressor cells, two were prognostic for overall survival, and among over 300 serum biomarkers, we identified apolipoprotein A-I (APOA1) and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17 (CCL17) as being predictive for both immune response to IMA901 and overall survival. A randomized phase 3 study to determine the clinical benefit of treatment with IMA901 is ongoing.
Mast cells (MC) are key mediators of the immune system, most prominently known for their role in eliciting harmful allergic reactions. Mast cell mediator release (e.g. by degranulation) is triggered by Fc?RI recognition of antigen - IgE complexes. Until today no therapeutic targeting of this and other mast cell activation pathways is established. Among possible new candidates there are tetraspanins that have been described on MC already several years ago. Tetraspanins are transmembrane proteins acting as scaffolds, mediating local clustering of their interaction partners, and thus amplify their activities. More recently, tetraspanins were also found to exert intrinsic receptor functions. Tetraspanins have been found to be crucial components of fundamental biological processes like cell motility and adhesion. In immune cells, they not only boost the effectiveness of antigen presentation by clustering MHC molecules, they are also key players in all kinds of degranulation events and immune receptor clustering. This review focuses on the contribution of tetraspanins clustered with Fc?RI or residing in granule membranes to classical MC functions but also undertakes an outlook on the possible contribution of tetraspanins to newly described mast cell functions and discusses possible targets for drug development.
T-cell activation and the subsequent transformation of activated T cells into T-cell blasts require profound changes in cell volume. However, the impact of cell volume regulation for T-cell immunology has not been characterized. Here we studied the role of the cell-volume regulating osmolyte transporter Taut for T-cell activation in Taut-deficient mice. T-cell mediated recall responses were severely impaired in taut(-/-) mice as shown with B16 melanoma rejection and hapten-induced contact hypersensitivity. CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were unequivocally located within peripheral lymph nodes of unprimed taut(-/-) mice but significantly decreased in taut(-/-) compared with taut(+/+) mice following in vivo activation. Further analysis revealed that Taut is critical for rescuing T cells from activation-induced cell death in vitro and in vivo as shown with TCR, superantigen, and antigen-specific activation. Consequently, reduction of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in taut(-/-) mice upon antigen challenge resulted in impaired in vivo generation of T-cell memory. These findings disclose for the first time that volume regulation in T cells is an element in the regulation of adaptive immune responses and that the osmolyte transporter Taut is crucial for T-cell survival and T-cell mediated immune reactions.
Mature, circulating erythrocytes undergo senescence, which limits their life span to approximately 120 d. Upon injury, erythrocytes may undergo suicidal erythrocyte death or eryptosis, which may accelerate senescence and shorten their survival. Eryptosis is defined as cell shrinkage and exposure of phosphatidylserine at the cell surface. Triggers of eryptosis include oxidative stress. The present study addresses the impact of erythrocyte age on the relative susceptibility to eryptosis. Erythrocytes were separated into five fractions, based on age-associated differences in density and volume. Cell membrane scrambling was estimated from binding of annexin V to phosphatidylserine at the erythrocyte surface, the cell volume from forward scatter, and the Ca(2+) level from Fluo-3-dependent fluorescence. In addition, glutathione (GSH) concentrations were measured by an enzymatic/colourimetric method. After 48 h incubation in Ringer solution, Annexin V binding increased significantly with erythrocyte age. The differences were not accompanied by altered GSH concentrations, but were reversed by addition of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine in vitro. Also, N-acetyl-L-cysteine significantly prolonged the half-life of circulating mouse erythrocytes in vivo. Thus, the susceptibility to eryptosis increases with the age of the erythrocytes, and this effect is at least partially due to enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress.
During pars plana vitrectomy, the retina is exposed to several iatrogenic risk factors, including excitotoxicity. A taurine-containing irrigation solution for pars plana vitrectomy (PURI PROTECT) has been developed and is claimed to have neuroprotective properties.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.