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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Autosomal dominant immune dysregulation syndrome in humans with CTLA4 mutations.
Nat. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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The protein cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is an essential negative regulator of immune responses, and its loss causes fatal autoimmunity in mice. We studied a large family in which five individuals presented with a complex, autosomal dominant immune dysregulation syndrome characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia, recurrent infections and multiple autoimmune clinical features. We identified a heterozygous nonsense mutation in exon 1 of CTLA4. Screening of 71 unrelated patients with comparable clinical phenotypes identified five additional families (nine individuals) with previously undescribed splice site and missense mutations in CTLA4. Clinical penetrance was incomplete (eight adults of a total of 19 genetically proven CTLA4 mutation carriers were considered unaffected). However, CTLA-4 protein expression was decreased in regulatory T cells (Treg cells) in both patients and carriers with CTLA4 mutations. Whereas Treg cells were generally present at elevated numbers in these individuals, their suppressive function, CTLA-4 ligand binding and transendocytosis of CD80 were impaired. Mutations in CTLA4 were also associated with decreased circulating B cell numbers. Taken together, mutations in CTLA4 resulting in CTLA-4 haploinsufficiency or impaired ligand binding result in disrupted T and B cell homeostasis and a complex immune dysregulation syndrome.
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Rotavirus disease in Germany--a prospective survey of very severe cases.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis is a notifiable disease in Germany. The reports to the authorities contain few data concerning the severity of disease. The aims of this study were to determine incidence and outcome of very severe cases of RV disease.
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The febrile child: diagnosis and treatment.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Fever accounts for 70% of all consultations with pediatricians and family physicians. Fever without an identi - fiable cause (<7 days duration) and fever of unknown origin (FUO, ? 7 days duration) are particularly challenging clinical situations.
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Risk adapted transmission prophylaxis to prevent vertical HIV-1 transmission: effectiveness and safety of an abbreviated regimen of postnatal oral zidovudine.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Antiretroviral drugs including zidovudine (ZDV) are effective in reducing HIV mother to child transmission (MTCT), however safety concern remains. The optimal duration of postnatal ZDV has not been established in clinical studies and there is a lack of consensus regarding optimal management. The objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and safety of a risk adapted two week course of oral postnatal ZDV as part of a combined intervention to reduce MTCT.
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Translational research network and patient registry for auto-inflammatory diseases.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Auto-inflammatory diseases (AIDs) are characterized by recurrent self-limiting systemic inflammation. In a multicentre effort, we set out to register genetic, epidemiological and clinical features as well as prognostic factors of these diseases by prospective longitudinal and long-term documentation, in order to define novel AIDs and to better understand treatment responses and outcome.
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Evidence and consensus based GKJR guidelines for the treatment of juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in children and adolescents. Immunomodulatory drugs are used frequently in its treatment. Using the nominal group technique (NGT) and Delphi method, we created a multidisciplinary, evidence- and consensus-based treatment guideline for JIA based on a systematic literature analysis and three consensus conferences. Conferences were headed by a professional moderator and were attended by representatives who had been nominated by their scientific societies or organizations. 15 statements regarding drug therapy, symptomatic and surgical management were generated. It is recommended that initially JIA is treated with NSAID followed by local glucocorticoids and/or methotrexate if unresponsive. Complementing literature evidence with long-standing experience of caregivers allows creating guidelines that may potentially improve the quality of care for children and adolescents with JIA.
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Association of nephrotic syndrome with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.
Pediatr. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Up to 50% of patients with severe immune deficiency experience an excessive inflammatory response called immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). IRIS has been observed after various opportunistic infections with pathogens such as mycobacteria, including Bacille Calmette-Guérin, cryptococci, human herpesvirus-8, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. Non-acquired immune deficiency-defining illnesses can also deteriorate after commencement of ART. Renal IRIS has been reported in a few patients with mycobacterial infections, but to the best of our knowledge no cases of nephrotic syndrome and IRIS have been described.
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NEMO is a key component of NF-?B- and IRF-3-dependent TLR3-mediated immunity to herpes simplex virus.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2011
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Children with germline mutations in Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3), UNC93B1, TNF receptor-associated factor 3, and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 are prone to herpes simplex virus-1 encephalitis, owing to impaired TLR3-triggered, UNC-93B-dependent, IFN-?/?, and/or IFN-?-mediated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1-dependent immunity.
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Clinical and immunological manifestations of patients with atypical severe combined immunodeficiency.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2011
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Hypomorphic mutations in genes associated with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) or Omenn syndrome can also cause milder immunodeficiencies. We report 10 new patients with such "atypical" SCID and summarize 63 patients from the literature. The patient groups with T(low)B(low) (n=28), T(low)B(+) (n=16) and ADA (n=29) SCID variants had similar infection profiles but differed in the frequency of immune dysregulation, which was observed predominantly in patients with recombination defects. Most immunological parameters were remarkably similar in the three groups. Of note, 19/68 patients with "atypical" SCID had normal T cell counts, 48/68 had normal IgG and 23/46 had at least one normal specific antibody titer. Elevated IgE was a characteristic feature of ADA deficiency. This overview characterizes "atypical" SCID as a distinct disease with immune dysregulation in addition to infection susceptibility. Lymphopenia, reduced naïve T cells and elevated IgE are suggestive, but not consistent features of the disease.
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Post-pandemic seroprevalence of pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection (swine flu) among children <18 years in Germany.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2011
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We determined antibodies to the pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus in children to assess: the incidence of (H1N1) 2009 infections in the 2009/2010 season in Germany, the proportion of subclinical infections and to compare titers in vaccinated and infected children.
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A phase I trial to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of low-dose methotrexate as an anti-malarial drug in Kenyan adult healthy volunteers.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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Previous investigations indicate that methotrexate, an old anticancer drug, could be used at low doses to treat malaria. A phase I evaluation was conducted to assess the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of this drug in healthy adult male Kenyan volunteers.
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Effect of age on homeostasis of lymphocytes in an interleukin-7-deficient mouse model.
Eur. Cytokine Netw.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Interleukin (IL)-7 is thought to be a non-redundant cytokine for lymphopoiesis as there is a reduction of T and B cells in peripheral blood (PB) and a loss of TCR??+ cells in PB and bone marrow (BM) in IL-7?/? mice. To investigate whether the absence of IL-7 influences the organ-dependent distribution of the lymphocytes, we analyzed single cell suspensions of several organs (BM, lung, liver, small intestine, and spleen) at different ages (three and 12 months) of IL-7+/+ and IL-7?/? mice using flow cytometry; immunohistochemical staining was performed on frozen sections of various organs. We observed lymphocytopenia in almost all organs of IL-7?/? mice, but normal counts in the liver and the lung of three-month-old IL-7?/? mice. CD4+ and CD8+ cell numbers were decreased in the spleen and the BM. With aging, we found a greater increase in CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the BM of IL-7?/? than in IL-7+/+ mice, particularly of memory cells. The spleen of IL-7?/? mice was characterized by lymphocytopenia. We challenge the view that IL-7 is a non-redundant cytokine for lymphocyte development. Some of the changes observed, e.g. partial absence of TCR??+ T cells in the PB, BM and small intestine and complete loss in liver, lung and spleen, may be due to the altered organ distribution instead of a defect in ??+ T cell lymphopoiesis. In this model, aging leads to a significantly altered composition of lymphocyte subsets, and the lack of IL-7 seems to accelerate this process.
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Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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The contribution of B cells to the pathology of Omenn syndrome and leaky severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) has not been previously investigated. We have studied a mut/mut mouse model of leaky SCID with a homozygous Rag1 S723C mutation that impairs, but does not abrogate, V(D)J recombination activity. In spite of a severe block at the pro-B cell stage and profound B cell lymphopenia, significant serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig) G, IgM, IgA, and IgE and a high proportion of Ig-secreting cells were detected in mut/mut mice. Antibody responses to trinitrophenyl (TNP)-Ficoll and production of high-affinity antibodies to TNP-keyhole limpet hemocyanin were severely impaired, even after adoptive transfer of wild-type CD4(+) T cells. Mut/mut mice produced high amounts of low-affinity self-reactive antibodies and showed significant lymphocytic infiltrates in peripheral tissues. Autoantibody production was associated with impaired receptor editing and increased serum B cell-activating factor (BAFF) concentrations. Autoantibodies and elevated BAFF levels were also identified in patients with Omenn syndrome and leaky SCID as a result of hypomorphic RAG mutations. These data indicate that the stochastic generation of an autoreactive B cell repertoire, which is associated with defects in central and peripheral checkpoints of B cell tolerance, is an important, previously unrecognized, aspect of immunodeficiencies associated with hypomorphic RAG mutations.
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An aggressive systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma clonally related to a preceding T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is a disorder of disputed origin thought to be related to the dermal/interstitial macrophage. A 5-year-old female presented with an aggressive systemic JXG that developed 5 months after the diagnosis of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Examination of the T-cell receptor gamma (TCR-?) rearrangement in T-ALL blasts, JXG infiltrated lymph node biopsies and micro-dissected JXG histiocytes revealed an identical bi-allelic TCR-? rearrangement in all samples, thus providing evidence for a clonal relationship between T-ALL and JXG in this case.
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Mutations in STAT3 and diagnostic guidelines for hyper-IgE syndrome.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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The hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by infections of the lung and skin, elevated serum IgE, and involvement of the soft and bony tissues. Recently, HIES has been associated with heterozygous dominant-negative mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and severe reductions of T(H)17 cells.
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Autoimmunity, autoinflammation and lymphoma in combined immunodeficiency (CID).
Autoimmun Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2010
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A number of primary immunodeficiencies are associated with autoimmune phenomena, e.g. Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome, Common Variable Immunodeficiency and Hyper-IgM Syndrome. The common denominator is a dysregulation of immune responses affecting T and B cells with central and/or peripheral tolerance mechanisms being disturbed. Autoimmunity and autoinflammation may also occur in atypical phenotypes of combined immunodeficiencies (CID) usually associated with severe infectious complications. These unexpected presentations of classical CID are very instructive in how low numbers of T and B cells go hand in hand with skewing of lymphoid repertoires and function. The resulting immune dysregulation may lead to self-reactivity with organ damage and malignancy.
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More than just SCID--the phenotypic range of combined immunodeficiencies associated with mutations in the recombinase activating genes (RAG) 1 and 2.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2010
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Combined immunodeficiencies with impaired numbers and function of T- and B-cells can be attributed to defects in the recombinase activating genes (RAG). The products of these genes, the RAG1 and 2 proteins, are key players in the V(D)J recombination process leading to the assembly of antigen receptor genes. Complete RAG deficiency (RAGD) with no V(D)J (<1% recombination activity of wild type) is associated with classical SCID and absence of T- and B-cells. In RAGD with residual V(D)J activity (>1% recombination activity of wild type), several clinical and immunological subtypes have been described: RAGD with skin inflammation and alphabeta T-cell expansion (classical Omenn syndrome), RAGD with skin inflammation and without T-cell expansion (incomplete Omenn syndrome), RAGD with gammadelta T-cell expansion and RAGD with granulomas. Engraftment of maternal T-cells can add to variation in phenotype. The potential role of epigenetic factors that influence the emergence of these phenotypes is discussed. Thorough assessment and interpretation of clinical and immunological findings will guide treatment modalities as intense as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
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Anticancer agents against malaria: time to revisit?
Trends Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
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The emergence of artemisinin resistance could adversely impact the current strategy for malaria treatment; thus, new drugs are urgently needed. A possible approach to developing new antimalarials is to find new uses for old drugs. Some anticancer agents such as methotrexate and trimetrexate are active against malaria. However, they are commonly perceived to be toxic and thus not suitable for malaria treatment. In this opinion article, we examine how the toxicity of anticancer agents is just a matter of dose or only dose makes the poison, as coined in Paracelsus law. Thus, the opportunity exists to discover new antimalarials using the anticancer pharmacopoeia.
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PENTA 2009 guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in paediatric HIV-1 infection.
HIV Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2009
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PENTA Guidelines aim to provide practical recommendations for treating children with HIV infection in Europe. Changes to guidance since 2004 have been informed by new evidence and by expectations of better outcomes following the ongoing success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participation in PENTA trials of simplifying treatment is encouraged. The main changes are in the following sections: When to start ART: Treatment is recommended for all infants, and at higher CD4 cell counts and percentages in older children, in line with changes to adult guidelines. The number of age bands has been reduced to simplify and harmonize with other paediatric guidelines. Greater emphasis is placed on CD4 cell count in children over 5 years, and guidance is provided where CD4% and CD4 criteria differ. What to start with: A three-drug regimen of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with either a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a boosted protease inhibitor (PI) remains the first choice combination. Lamivudine and abacavir are the NRTI backbone of choice for most children, based on long-term follow-up in the PENTA 5 trial. Stavudine is no longer recommended. Whether to start with an NNRTI or PI remains unclear, but PENPACT 1 trial results in 2009 may help to inform this. All PIs should be ritonavir boosted. Recommendations on use of resistance testing, therapeutic drug monitoring and HLA testing draw from data in adults and from European paediatric cohort studies. Recently updated US and WHO paediatric guidelines provide more detailed review of the evidence base. Differences between guidelines are highlighted and explained.
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Large deletions and point mutations involving the dedicator of cytokinesis 8 (DOCK8) in the autosomal-recessive form of hyper-IgE syndrome.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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The genetic etiologies of the hyper-IgE syndromes are diverse. Approximately 60% to 70% of patients with hyper-IgE syndrome have dominant mutations in STAT3, and a single patient was reported to have a homozygous TYK2 mutation. In the remaining patients with hyper-IgE syndrome, the genetic etiology has not yet been identified.
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Incidence of TNFRSF1A mutations in German children: epidemiological, clinical and genetic characteristics.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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TNF receptor 1-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS) is a rare disease belonging to the heterogeneous group of hereditary periodic fever (HPF) syndromes. By their monogenic origins, the HPF syndromes are clearly differentiated from other periodic inflammatory episodes occurring in autoimmune, neoplastic and infectious diseases. We aim to determine the incidence of TRAPS and the spectrum of mutations in the TNFRSF1A gene, and to give a brief survey of clinical signs.
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Girls homozygous for an IL-2-inducible T cell kinase mutation that leads to protein deficiency develop fatal EBV-associated lymphoproliferation.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2009
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The fatal immune dysregulation that sometimes follows EBV infection in boys has been linked to mutations in two X chromosome-encoded genes, SLAM-associated protein (SAP) and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP). In this study we describe 2 girls from a consanguineous Turkish family who died after developing severe immune dysregulation and therapy-resistant EBV-positive B cell proliferation following EBV infection. SNP array-based genome-wide linkage analysis revealed IL-2-inducible T cell kinase (ITK) as a candidate gene for this immunodeficiency syndrome. Both girls harbored a homozygous missense mutation that led to substitution of a highly conserved residue (R335W) in the SH2 domain of ITK. Characteristics of ITK deficiency in mouse models, such as absence of NKT cells and high levels of eomesodermin in CD8+ cells, were seen in either one or both of the girls. Two lines of evidence suggested that R335W caused instability of the ITK protein. First, in silico modeling of the mutant protein predicted destabilization of the SH2 domain. Additionally, Western blot analysis revealed that, unlike wild-type ITK, the R335W mutant was nearly undetectable when expressed in 293 T cells. Our results suggest that ITK deficiency causes what we believe to be a novel immunodeficiency syndrome that leads to a fatal inadequate immune response to EBV. Because ITK deficiency resembles EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorders in boys, we suggest that this molecular cause should be considered during diagnosis and treatment.
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Memory B cell function in HIV-infected children-decreased memory B cells despite ART.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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B cell dysfunction is a well-studied complication of HIV infection in adults. Data on B cell differentiation in normal and HIV-infected children are lacking. We show the distribution of B cell subsets and immunoglobulin levels in HIV-infected children compared with controls. Furthermore, we observe the long-term B cell reconstitution of vaccine-specific immunity after antiretroviral therapy (ART). Phenotype of B cells (naive, non-switched memory, switched memory) was analyzed in 48 infected children and 62 controls. In nine HIV-infected children, functional reconstitution was quantified by tetanus-specific antibodies and by performing a lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) in a longitudinal approach. Switched memory B cells are significantly reduced in HIV-infected children. Vaccine-specific antibodies and response to LTT increase after initiation of ART. Our data indicate a significant dysfunction in the B cell system, despite effective ART. Partial reconstitution of humoral immunity may have therapeutic implications in a subset of HIV-infected children.
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Saving the red baby: successful allogeneic cord blood transplantation in Omenn syndrome.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the treatment of choice for severe primary immunodeficiencies, but only has moderate prognosis in Omenn syndrome as it is complicated by highly activated Omenn T-cells resulting in delayed T-cell engraftment and a high rate of graft failure. A 6 1/2 months old patient with a previously unknown compound heterozygous defect within the RAG1 gene (R474C; R975W) underwent 8/10 HLA-matched cord blood transplantation after myeloablative conditioning. Immune reconstitution was impressive with T-, B- and NK-cells reaching the median of age-dependent reference values within twelve, four and two months respectively. With a continuous decrease of activated Omenn T-cells there was a steady increase of naive, probably thymus-derived T-cells. Polyclonal B-cell activation and hypergammaglobulinaemia disappeared with B-cell engraftment. This case emphasizes that, despite their naive status and HLA-barriers, cord blood T-cells were apparently able to achieve T-effector function resulting in the elimination of all activated Omenn T-cells.
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Memory B-cells in healthy and antibody-deficient children.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2009
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Recently it has become clear that a reduction of IgD-CD27+ memory B-cells in adult CVID patients correlates with clinical aspects of the disease. However, little is known about B-cell dysregulation in pediatric antibody deficiency. Reference values are essential for the interpretation of B-cell subpopulations in children. We present the clinical and immunophenotypical characterization of 16 children and adolescents with CVID and hypogammaglobulinemia. Reference values for IgD+CD27-, IgD+CD27+ and IgD-CD27+ B-cells in healthy children were established for five age groups. In healthy controls we found a continuous increase in IgD-CD27+ B-cell percentage with age from 1.35-5% of B-cells in the second year of life to 4.1-18.7% in adolescents. Interestingly, in 12/14 antibody-deficient patients memory B-cells are significantly below the age-related 10th percentile. We conclude that the reduction of memory B-cells is a useful additional marker for the detection of children with CVID hypogammaglobulinemia and may contribute to the early presentation.
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Hotspot mutations in H3F3A and IDH1 define distinct epigenetic and biological subgroups of glioblastoma.
Cancer Cell
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Glioblastoma (GBM) is a brain tumor that carries a dismal prognosis and displays considerable heterogeneity. We have recently identified recurrent H3F3A mutations affecting two critical amino acids (K27 and G34) of histone H3.3 in one-third of pediatric GBM. Here, we show that each H3F3A mutation defines an epigenetic subgroup of GBM with a distinct global methylation pattern, and that they are mutually exclusive with IDH1 mutations, which characterize a third mutation-defined subgroup. Three further epigenetic subgroups were enriched for hallmark genetic events of adult GBM and/or established transcriptomic signatures. We also demonstrate that the two H3F3A mutations give rise to GBMs in separate anatomic compartments, with differential regulation of transcription factors OLIG1, OLIG2, and FOXG1, possibly reflecting different cellular origins.
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Diastolic heart murmur, nocturnal back pain, and lumbar rigidity in a 7-year girl: an unusual manifestation of lyme disease in childhood.
Case Rep Pediatr
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A 7-year-old girl presented with nocturnal pain in her back and legs. The physical examination revealed a loud opening sound of the mitral valve and lumbar rigidity. With the exception of significantly increased anti-nuclear antibody (ANA) levels, the immunological findings did not show any other abnormal parameters, also spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasound examination of the abdomen and pelvis yield no pathological findings. The lumbar puncture showed a lymphocytic pleocytosis as well as an intrathecal synthesis of Borrelia-specific antibodies. Echocardiography showed a thickened mitral valve with mild regurgitation. No other signs of florid endocarditis or myocarditis could be detected. Due to these findings, the diagnosis Lyme neuroborreliosis was made and an intravenous antibiotic therapy was given. The clinical symptoms subsided. Six months later, she had an almost normal mitral valve with only trivial mitral insufficiency. The association between the lumbar rigidity and the thickened mitral valve remains unclear. The case of our patient with nocturnal back and leg pain may be considered a rare case of Lyme neuroborreliosis with meningoradiculitis in children, and to our knowledge these symptoms together with cardiac involvement, such as a significantly thickened mitral valve, have not yet been described in the literature.
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Fatal outcome despite full lympho-hematopoietic reconstitution after allogeneic stem cell transplantation in atypical ataxia telangiectasia.
J. Clin. Immunol.
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Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) has not been a therapeutic option in ataxia telangiectasia (AT) due to overwhelming toxicity of conditioning in the context of the global DNA repair deficiency. Furthermore HSCT is unable to cure neurological involvement of AT. We report on a Turkish child with a Hyper IgM phenotype disorder, in which clinical aspects of AT were absent and thus, AT not diagnosed. He was transplanted with a reduced toxicity, but full intensity conditioning regimen comprising treosulfan, fludarabine and ATG. The peritransplant period was uneventful and the patient was discharged at day +57. 8 months after HSCT, the patient developed hepatopathy with monoclonal gammopathy of unclear significance and died due to hepatic failure and encephalopathy at the age of 32 months. Post mortem high throughput sequencing revealed a mutation in the ATM gene.
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Prevalence of Hepatitis E Virus Antibodies in Children in Germany.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
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Since asymptomatic hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections particularly affect children, there is a need for studies to determine the HEV seroprevalence among infants, children and adolescents.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.