JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
New Risk Factors for Adult Onset Incident Asthma: A Nested Case Control Study of Host Antioxidant Defense.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rationale: Host antioxidant defense, consisting of enzymatic antioxidant activity and non-enzymatic antioxidant micronutrients, is implicated in asthma pathogenesis. Studies of antioxidant defense and adult incident asthma have either used measures of antioxidants estimated from questionnaires or not considered enzymatic aspects of host defense. Objective: We conducted the first study designed and powered to investigate the association of antioxidant defenses on adult incident asthma. Methods: In a nested case-control study, we followed Shanghai women (ages 40-70) without prevalent asthma at baseline, over eight years. Incident asthmatics were ascertained prospectively by gold standard testing of symptomatic women and matched to two asymptomatic controls. Measurements: Baseline urinary F2-isoprostanes, plasma concentrations of antioxidant micronutrients (tocopherols, xanthins, carotenes, and lycopene) and antioxidant enzyme activity (platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase [PAF-AH] and superoxide dismutase) were measured from samples collected prior to disease onset. Main Results: Among 65,372 women, 150 (0.24%) developed asthma. F2-isoprostane levels prior to asthma onset were not different between cases and controls. Doubling of ?-tocopherol concentrations and PAF-AH activity was associated with 50% and 37% decreased risk of incident asthma (adjusted OR; 95% confidence interval [OR; 95%CI], ?-tocopherol OR= 0.52; 95%CI: 0.32-0.84; PAF-AH OR=0.63; 95%CI:0.42-0.93). Conclusions: In this prospective study ?-tocopherol, within normal reference ranges, and PAF-AH enzymatic activity, were associated with decreased asthma development. These modifiable risk factors may be an effective strategy to test for primary asthma prevention.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of muscle-invasive bladder cancer in Canada: A survey of genitourinary medical oncologists and urologists.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Uptake of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC) for muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) has been low despite evidence of a survival benefit. The primary aim of this study was to better understand why the rates are low and determine what factors specifically influence the decision to recommend NC for MIBC.
Related JoVE Video
Routine perineal shaving on admission in labour.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pubic or perineal shaving is a procedure performed before birth in order to lessen the risk of infection if there is a spontaneous perineal tear or if an episiotomy is performed.
Related JoVE Video
Interhospital Facility Transfers in the United States: A Nationwide Outcomes Study.
J Patient Saf
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patient transfers between hospitals are becoming more common in the United States. Disease-specific studies have reported varying outcomes associated with transfer status. However, even as national quality improvement efforts and regulations are being actively adopted, forcing hospitals to become financially accountable for the quality of care provided, surprisingly little is known about transfer patients or their outcomes at a population level. This population-wide study provides timely analyses of the characteristics of this particularly vulnerable and sizable inpatient population. We identified and compared characteristics and outcomes of transfer and nontransfer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Riociguat (adempas): a novel agent for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
P T
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Riociguat (Adempas): a novel agent for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.
Related JoVE Video
Presynaptic C-terminal truncated tau is released from cortical synapses in Alzheimer's disease.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The microtubule-associated protein tau has primarily been associated with axonal location and function; however, recent work shows tau release from neurons and suggests an important role for tau in synaptic plasticity. In our study, we measured synaptic levels of total tau using synaptosomes prepared from cryopreserved human postmortem Alzheimer's disease (AD) and control samples. Flow cytometry data show that a majority of synaptic terminals are highly immunolabeled with the total tau antibody (HT7) in both AD and control samples. Immunoblots of synaptosomal fractions reveal increases in a 20 kDa tau fragment and in tau dimers in AD synapses, and terminal-specific antibodies show that in many synaptosome samples tau lacks a C-terminus. Flow cytometry experiments to quantify the extent of C-terminal truncation reveal that only 15-25% of synaptosomes are positive for intact C-terminal tau. Potassium-induced depolarization demonstrates release of tau and tau fragments from presynaptic terminals, with increased release from AD compared to control samples. This study indicates that tau is normally highly localized to synaptic terminals in cortex where it is well-positioned to affect synaptic plasticity. Tau cleavage may facilitate tau aggregation as well as tau secretion and propagation of tau pathology from the presynaptic compartment in AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Related JoVE Video
Prospects for better nutrition in India.
Asia Pac J Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Being home to 31% of the world's children who are stunted and 42% of those who are underweight, and with many children and adults affected by micronutrient deficiencies, India is facing huge challenges in the field of nutrition. Even though the Indian Government is investing vast amounts of money into programs that aim to enhance food security, health and nutrition (the Integrated Child Development Services program alone costs 3 billion USD per year), overall impact has been rather disappointing. However, there are some bright spots on the horizon. The recent District Level Health Surveys (DLHS-4) do show significant progress, ie a reduction in stunting of around 15% over the past 6 years in a few states for which preliminary results are available. The reasons for this reduction are not unambiguous and appear to include state government commitment, focus on the 'window of opportunity', improved status and education of women, a lowered fertility rate, and combinations of nutrition- specific and nutrition-sensitive interventions. Apart from the government many other agencies play a role in driving improvements in nutrition. Since 2006 the Global Alliance for Improved Nutrition (GAIN) has worked with a range of partners to improve access to nutritious foods for large parts of the population, through public and private delivery channels. This supplement presents a selection of these activities, ranging from a capacityassessment of frontline workers in the ICDS system, large scale staple food fortification, salt iodization, fortification of mid-day meals for school children and decentralized complementary food production.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of histological subtype on long-term outcomes of neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although rare, neuroendocrine carcinoma of the breast (NECB) is becoming an increasingly recognized entity. The current literature is limited to case reports and small series and therefore a comprehensive population-based analysis was conducted to investigate the clinicopathologic features and long-term outcomes associated with NECB. We included all patients in the SEER Database from 2003 to 2010 with a diagnosis of NECB. The 2012 WHO classification system was used to categorize patients based on histopathologic diagnosis: well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, small/oat cell or poorly differentiated neuroendocrine tumors, adenocarcinoma with neuroendocrine features (ANF), large cell neuroendocrine and carcinoid tumors. Survival analysis was performed for disease specific (DSS) and overall (OS) survival. Of the 284 cases identified, 52.1 % were classified as well-differentiated, 25.7 % small cell, 14.8 % ANF, 4.9 % large cell, and 2.5 % carcinoid. In general, patients presented with advanced disease: 36.2 % had positive lymph node metastases and 20.4 % presented with systemic metastases. Five-year DSS rates for stage I-IV NECB were 88.1, 67.8, 60.5, and 12.4 %, respectively, while five-year OS rates were 77.9, 57.3, 52.9, and 8.9 %, respectively. DSS and OS were significantly different for well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors and ANFs compared to small cell and carcinoid tumors. On univariate Cox proportional hazards regression, small cell carcinoma was significantly associated with worse DSS (OR 1.97, 95 % CI 1.05-3.67) and OS (OR 2.66, 95 % CI 1.49-4.72) compared to other neuroendocrine tumors. NECB is associated with advanced stage disease at presentation and an unfavorable prognosis for stage II-IV disease and small cell, large cell, and carcinoid histologic subtypes.
Related JoVE Video
Toward Primary Prevention of Asthma: Reviewing the Evidence for Early-Life Respiratory Viral Infections as Modifiable Risk Factors to Prevent Childhood Asthma.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A first step in primary disease prevention is identifying common, modifiable risk factors that contribute to a significant proportion of disease development. Infant respiratory viral infection and childhood asthma are the two most common acute and chronic diseases of childhood, respectively. Common clinical features and links between these diseases have long been recognized, with early life respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and rhinovirus (RV) lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) being strongly associated with increased asthma risk. However, there has long been debate over the role of these respiratory viruses in asthma inception. In this article, we will systematically review the evidence linking early life RSV and RV LRTI with asthma inception and whether they could therefore be targets for primary prevention efforts.
Related JoVE Video
Potential drug-drug interactions in hospitalized patients with chronic heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polypharmacy is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and/or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but little is known about the prevalence and significance of drug-drug interactions (DDIs). This study evaluates DDIs in hospitalized patients.
Related JoVE Video
Nitrous oxide procedural sedation in non-fasting pediatric patients undergoing minor surgery: a 12-year experience with 1,058 patients.
Pediatr. Surg. Int.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nitrous oxide's safety and efficacy for minor procedures is an alternative to general anesthesia, complex sedation protocols, or local anesthetic alone.
Related JoVE Video
The Affordable Care Act reduces emergency department use by young adults: evidence from three States.
Health Aff (Millwood)
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Affordable Care Act (ACA) extended eligibility for health insurance for young adults ages 19-25. This extension may have affected how young adults use emergency department (ED) care and other health services. To test the impact of the ACA on how young adults used ED services, we used 2009-11 state administrative records from California, Florida, and New York to compare changes in ED use in young adults ages 19-25 before and after the ACA provision was implemented with changes in the same period for people ages 26-31 (the control group). Following implementation of the ACA provision, the younger group had a decrease of 2.7 ED visits per 1,000 people compared to the older group--a relative change of -2.1 percent. The largest relative decreases were found in women (-3.0 percent) and blacks (-3.4 percent). This relative decrease in ED use implies a total reduction of more than 60,000 visits from young adults ages 19-25 across the three states in 2011. When we compared the probability of ever using the ED before and after implementation of the ACA provision, we found a minimal decrease (-0.4 percent) among the younger group compared to the older group. This suggests that the change in the number of visits was driven by fewer visits among ED users, not by changes in the number of people who ever visited the ED.
Related JoVE Video
Motor resources in peripersonal space are intrinsic to spatial encoding: Evidence from motor interference.
Acta Psychol (Amst)
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore the role of motor resources in peripersonal space encoding: are they intrinsic to spatial processes or due to action potentiality of objects? To answer this question, we disentangled the effects of motor resources on object manipulability and spatial processing in peripersonal and extrapersonal spaces. Participants had to localize manipulable and non-manipulable 3-D stimuli presented within peripersonal or extrapersonal spaces of an immersive virtual reality scenario. To assess the contribution of motor resources to the spatial task a motor interference paradigm was used. In Experiment 1, localization judgments were provided with the left hand while the right dominant arm could be free or blocked. Results showed that participants were faster and more accurate in localizing both manipulable and non-manipulable stimuli in peripersonal space with their arms free. On the other hand, in extrapersonal space there was no significant effect of motor interference. Experiment 2 replicated these results by using alternatively both hands to give the response and controlling the possible effect of the orientation of object handles. Overall, the pattern of results suggests that the encoding of peripersonal space involves motor processes per se, and not because of the presence of manipulable stimuli. It is argued that this motor grounding reflects the adaptive need of anticipating what may happen near the body and preparing to react in time.
Related JoVE Video
Couples and breast cancer: women's mood and partners' marital satisfaction predicting support perception.
J Fam Psychol
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer can experience an array of psychosocial difficulties; however, social support, particularly from a spouse, has been shown to have a protective function during this time. This study examined the ways in which a woman's daily mood, pain, and fatigue, and her spouse's marital satisfaction predict the woman's report of partner support in the context of breast cancer. Pretest data from a larger intervention study and multilevel modeling were used to examine the effects of women's daily mood, pain, and fatigue and average levels of mood, pain, and fatigue on women's report of social support received from her partner, as well as how the effects of mood interacted with partners' marital satisfaction. Results show that on days in which women reported higher levels of negative or positive mood, as well as on days they reported more pain and fatigue, they reported receiving more support. Women who, on average, reported higher levels of positive mood tended to report receiving more support than those who, on average, reported lower positive mood. However, average levels of negative mood were not associated with support. Higher average levels of fatigue but not pain were associated with higher support. Finally, women whose husbands reported higher levels of marital satisfaction reported receiving more partner support, but husbands' marital satisfaction did not moderate the effect of women's mood on support. Implications of these findings are discussed relative to assisting couples during this difficult time in their lives.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial protein acetylation mediates nutrient sensing of mitochondrial protein synthesis and mitonuclear protein balance.
IUBMB Life
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Changes in nutrient supply require global metabolic reprogramming to optimize the utilization of the nutrients. Mitochondria as a central component of the cellular metabolism play a key role in this adaptive process. Since mitochondria harbor their own genome, which encodes essential enzymes, mitochondrial protein synthesis is a determinant of metabolic adaptation. While regulation of cytoplasmic protein synthesis in response to metabolic challenges has been studied in great detail, mechanisms which adapt mitochondrial translation in response to metabolic challenges remain elusive. Our results suggest that the mitochondrial acetylation status controlled by Sirt3 and its proposed opponent GCN5L1 is an important regulator of the metabolic adaptation of mitochondrial translation. Moreover, both proteins modulate regulators of cytoplasmic protein synthesis as well as the mitonuclear protein balance making Sirt3 and GCN5L1 key players in synchronizing mitochondrial and cytoplasmic translation. Our results thereby highlight regulation of mitochondrial translation as a novel component in the cellular nutrient sensing scheme and identify mitochondrial acetylation as a new regulatory principle for the metabolic competence of mitochondrial protein synthesis. © 2014 IUBMB Life, 2014.
Related JoVE Video
Maternal and perinatal health research priorities beyond 2015: an international survey and prioritization exercise.
Reprod Health
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Maternal mortality has declined by nearly half since 1990, but over a quarter million women still die every year of causes related to pregnancy and childbirth. Maternal-health related targets are falling short of the 2015 Millennium Development Goals and a post-2015 Development Agenda is emerging. In connection with this, setting global research priorities for the next decade is now required.
Related JoVE Video
Glucose substitution prolongs maintenance of energy homeostasis and lifespan of telomere dysfunctional mice.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA damage and telomere dysfunction shorten organismal lifespan. Here we show that oral glucose administration at advanced age increases health and lifespan of telomere dysfunctional mice. The study reveals that energy consumption increases in telomere dysfunctional cells resulting in enhanced glucose metabolism both in glycolysis and in the tricarboxylic acid cycle at organismal level. In ageing telomere dysfunctional mice, normal diet provides insufficient amounts of glucose thus leading to impaired energy homeostasis, catabolism, suppression of IGF-1/mTOR signalling, suppression of mitochondrial biogenesis and tissue atrophy. A glucose-enriched diet reverts these defects by activating glycolysis, mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative glucose metabolism. The beneficial effects of glucose substitution on mitochondrial function and glucose metabolism are blocked by mTOR inhibition but mimicked by IGF-1 application. Together, these results provide the first experimental evidence that telomere dysfunction enhances the requirement of glucose substitution for the maintenance of energy homeostasis and IGF-1/mTOR-dependent mitochondrial biogenesis in ageing tissues.
Related JoVE Video
The TRANSFORM Patient Safety Project: A Microsystem Approach to Improving Outcomes on Inpatient Units.
J Gen Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Improvements in hospital patient safety have been made, but innovative approaches are needed to accelerate progress. Evidence is emerging that microsystem approaches to quality and safety improvement in hospital care are effective.
Related JoVE Video
Asthma: NHLBI Workshop on the Primary Prevention of Chronic Lung Diseases.
Ann Am Thorac Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asthma is a common disease with enormous public health costs, and its primary prevention is an ambitious and important goal. Understanding of how host and environmental factors interact to cause asthma is incomplete, but persistent questions about mechanisms should not stop clinical research efforts aimed at reducing the prevalence of childhood asthma. Achieving the goal of primary prevention of asthma will involve integrated and parallel sets of research activities in which mechanism-oriented studies of asthma inception proceed alongside clinical intervention studies to test biologically plausible prevention ideas. For example, continued research is needed, particularly in young children, to uncover biomarkers that identify asthma risk and provide potential targets of intervention, and to improve understanding of the role of microbial factors in asthma risk and disease initiation. In terms of clinical trials that could be initiated now or in the near future, we recommend three interventions for testing: (1) preventing asthma through prophylaxis against respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus infections of the airway; (2) immune modulation, using prebiotics, probiotics, and bacterial lysates; and (3) prevention of allergen sensitization and allergic inflammation, using anti-IgE. These interventions should be tested while other, more universal prevention measures that may promote lung health are also investigated. These potential universal lung health measures include prevention of preterm delivery; reduced exposure of the fetus and young infant to environmental pollutants, including tobacco smoke; prevention of maternal and child obesity; and management of psychosocial stress.
Related JoVE Video
Association between breast-feeding and severity of acute viral respiratory tract infection.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a cross-sectional analysis of 629 mother-infants dyads, breast-feeding (ever vs. never) was associated with decreased relative odds of a lower versus upper respiratory tract infection (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64; 95% confidence interval: 0.42-0.99). There was not a significant association between breast-feeding and bronchiolitis severity score or length of hospital stay.
Related JoVE Video
Physiological, Perceptual and Psychological Responses of Career versus Volunteer Firefighters to Live-fire Training Drills.
Stress Health
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A primary objective of the present study was to examine the effect of short-term live-fire firefighting activities on key physiological, perceptual and psychological variables and whether occupational status influenced these responses. It was also of interest to examine whether individual difference factors differentiated the occupational status groups and if so, whether such individual difference factors influenced perceptual and psychological responses to firefighting activities. Male firefighters (n?=?52 career, n?=?53 volunteer firefighters) participated in 18?min of simulated firefighting activity in a training structure that contained live fires. Measures of heart rate (HR) and Tcore were obtained before and after firefighting activities along with perceptions of thermal sensations, exertion, respiratory distress and affect. Firefighting activities resulted in significant elevations in HR and Tcore , whereas thermal sensations, respiratory distress, exertion and affect all showed significant and sizable changes reflecting greater distress and dysphoria. Occupational status and individual difference factors accounted for some of this negative change. The findings replicate and extend previous work by demonstrating the influence of occupational status and individual difference factors in the psychological responses to firefighting activity. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Related JoVE Video
The influence of short-term firefighting activity on information processing performance.
Ergonomics
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study examined the following: effects of simulated firefighting (FF) activities under heat stress on sustained attention; whether incident rehabilitation (IR) influences performance; and relationships between performance, affect and personality. Firefighters performed ~18 min of FF. Attention, physiological, perceptual and psychological assessments were made before and after FF, IR and recovery. IR had no effects. Self-rated Energy increased, Tiredness decreased and Anxiety increased immediately post-FF; all returned to baseline 120 min post. The immediate effect of FF was faster reaction time (RT) followed by slowing after recovery. Perceived Energy at baseline was associated (p-values < 0.05) with faster and Tiredness with slower post-FF RTs; Accuracy was unaffected. Conscientiousness was negatively associated with RT before and 120 min following FF. RTs were faster following FF, accuracy was unchanged. Higher baseline Energy/lower Tiredness were associated with faster, less variable RTs at baseline and post-FF. Those with higher Conscientiousness had faster RTs. Research should further investigate higher-level cognitive processing following, or ideally during, FF.
Related JoVE Video
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Increases Infant Acute Respiratory Illness Severity, but not Childhood Asthma.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol Pulmonol
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It is unknown whether gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) during infancy affects infant bronchiolitis severity or childhood asthma inception. Four hundred thirty-two infants presenting with acute respiratory illness due to bronchiolitis or upper respiratory infection were studied. The primary exposure was the parental report of a previous GERD diagnosis. Outcomes included bronchiolitis severity at initial presentation and childhood asthma diagnosis at age 4. Infants with parentally reported GERD had a higher bronchiolitis severity score (range=0-12, clinically significant difference=0.5), indicating more severe disease, than infants without reported GERD (median 5.5 [interquartile range 3.5-9.0] among those with reported GERD versus 4.0 [1.0-7.0] among those without, P=0.005). This association persisted after adjusting for infant age, race, gender, and secondhand smoke exposure by a propensity score (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.14-3.46, P=0.02). The parental report of GERD during infancy was not associated with the parental report of asthma diagnosis at age 4. GERD during infancy may contribute to acute respiratory illness severity, but is not associated with asthma diagnosis at age 4. Future prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of regulatory advisories on maternal antidepressant prescribing, 1995-2007: an interrupted time series study of 228,876 pregnancies.
Arch Womens Ment Health
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to assess whether antidepressant prescribing during pregnancy decreased following release of U.S. and Canadian public health advisory warnings about the risk of perinatal complications with antidepressants. We analyzed data from 228,876 singleton pregnancies among women (aged 15-44 years) continuously enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid with full pharmacy benefits (1995-2007). Antidepressant prescribing was determined through outpatient pharmacy dispensing files. Information on sociodemographic and clinical factors was obtained from enrollment files and linked birth certificates. An interrupted time series design with segmented regression analysis was used to quantify the impact of the advisory warnings (2002-2005). Antidepressant prescribing rates increased steadily from 1995 to 2001, followed by sharper increases from 2002 to late 2004. Overall antidepressant prescribing prevalence was 34.51 prescriptions [95 % confidence interval (CI) 33.37-35.65] per 1,000 women in January 2002, and increased at a rate of 0.46 (95 % CI 0.41-0.52) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month until the end of the pre-warning period (May 2004). During the post-warning period (October 2004-June 2005), antidepressant prescribing decreased by 1.48 (95 % CI 1.62-1.35) prescriptions per 1,000 women per month. These trends were observed for both selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) and non-SSRI antidepressants, although SSRI prescribing decreased at a greater rate. We conclude that antidepressant prescribing to pregnant women in Tennessee Medicaid increased from 1995 to late 2004. U.S. and Canadian public health advisories about antidepressant-associated perinatal complications were associated with steady decreases in antidepressant prescribing from late 2004 until the end of the study period, suggesting that the advisory warnings were impactful on antidepressant prescribing in pregnancy.
Related JoVE Video
Does blindness affect egocentric and allocentric frames of reference in small and large scale spaces?
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is evidence that early deprivation of vision prompts the use of body-based, egocentric spatial representations in congenitally blind individuals, whereas previous visual experience favors the use of object-based, allocentric representations (e.g. Pasqualotto A, Spiller MJ, Jansari AS, Proulx MJ. Visual experience facilitates allocentric spatial representation. Behav Brain Res 2013;236:175-79). Here we investigated whether the influence of the visual status on the capacity to represent egocentric and allocentric spatial relations is mediated by the scale of space explored: large-scale (where a haptic+locomotor exploration is required) and small-scale space (where haptic exploration is needed). Our results showed that congenitally blind people had more difficulty in representing spatial information allocentrically with respect to late blind and sighted individuals, but this difficulty was stronger with large-scale than small-scale space. Instead, egocentric performance was better than the allocentric one for all groups, particularly in the small scale condition. These results suggest that visual experience is necessary to develop accurate allocentric representations especially of large-scale spaces. This is probably due to its capacity to convey a large amount of spatial information simultaneously and to its role on the setting up of multisensory brain areas underlying spatial cognition. In the absence of any kind of visual experience, egocentric spatial representations are favored, especially in small-scale space, when the body offers a stable anchor point.
Related JoVE Video
Readmissions after treatment of distal radius fractures.
J Hand Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the rates and associated diagnoses of readmissions for patients having received an intervention for treatment of distal radius fracture.
Related JoVE Video
Association of folic acid supplementation during pregnancy and infant bronchiolitis.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Viral bronchiolitis affects 20%-30% of infants; because there is no known effective treatment, it is important to identify risk factors that contribute to its pathogenesis. Although adequate folate intake during the periconceptional period prevents neural tube defects, animal data suggest that higher supplementation may be a risk factor for child respiratory diseases. Using a population-based retrospective cohort of 167,333 women and infants, born in 1995-2007 and enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program, we investigated the association between the filling of folic acid-containing prescriptions and infant bronchiolitis. We categorized women into the following 4 groups in relation to the first trimester: "none" (no prescription filled), "first trimester only," "after first trimester," and "both" (prescriptions filled both during and after the first trimester). Overall, 21% of infants had a bronchiolitis diagnosis, and 5% were hospitalized. Most women filled their first prescriptions after the fifth to sixth weeks of pregnancy, and most prescriptions contained 1,000 µg of folic acid. Compared with infants born to women in the "none" group, infants born to women in the "first trimester only" group had higher relative odds of bronchiolitis diagnosis (adjusted odds ratio = 1.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22) and greater severity (adjusted odds ratio = 1.16, 95% confidence interval: 1.11, 1.22). This study's findings contribute to an understanding of the implications of prenatal nutritional supplement recommendations for infant bronchiolitis.
Related JoVE Video
Post-translational modification of mitochondria as a novel mode of regulation.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondria not only form the metabolic hub, but also are crucial players in many cellular pathways, like apoptosis and innate immune response, putting the organelle in a central position in controlling cellular function and fate. As novel and powerful regulators of mitochondrial processes and hence mitochondrial-controlled pathways, post-translational modifications (PTMs) have emerged in the last years. In this review, we will summarize the current state of knowledge on PTMs occurring in mammalian mitochondria with a focus on phosphorylation, acetylation, succinylation and ubiquitination. We will highlight their regulatory role in metabolism, autophagy and apoptosis as well as communicating element to cellular stress response pathways such as the immune response. Finally, we will discuss open questions in this exciting research area and point out how mitochondrial PTMs might impact age-associated pathologies.
Related JoVE Video
Interfacility transfer and mortality for patients with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients receiving interfacility transfer to a higher level of medical care for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs) are an important minority that are not well characterized and are typically omitted from outcomes and quality indicator studies. Our objective was to compare patients transferred for treatment of rAAAs with those treated without transfer, with particular emphasis on mortality and resource utilization.
Related JoVE Video
Factors associated with the disposition of severely injured patients initially seen at non–trauma center emergency departments: disparities by insurance status.
JAMA Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trauma is the leading cause of potential years of life lost before age 65 years in the United States. Timely care in a designated trauma center has been shown to reduce mortality by 25%. However, many severely injured patients are not transferred to trauma centers after initially being seen at non–trauma center emergency departments (EDs).
Related JoVE Video
Restrictive blood transfusion practices are associated with improved patient outcomes.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Blood transfusion has been cited as one of the five most overutilized therapeutic procedures in the United States. We assessed the impact of clinical decision support at computerized physician order entry and education on red blood cell (RBC) transfusions and clinical patient outcomes at our institution.
Related JoVE Video
Factors associated with high burden in caregivers of older adults with cancer.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Older adults with cancer are vulnerable to functional decline, which places greater onus on caregivers. Few studies have prospectively examined burden in caregivers of older cancer patients. The objective of this study was to determine the factors associated with high caregiver burden.
Related JoVE Video
Leptin is involved in age-dependent changes in response to systemic inflammation in the rat.
Brain Behav. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Obesity contributes to a state of subclinical peripheral and central inflammation and is often associated with aging. Here we investigated the source and contribution of adipose tissue derived cytokines and the cytokine-like hormone leptin to age-related changes in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain-controlled sickness-responses. Old (24 months) and young (2 months) rats were challenged with LPS or saline alone or in combination with a neutralizing leptin antiserum (LAS) or control serum. Changes in the sickness-response were monitored by biotelemetry. Additionally, ex vivo fat-explants from young and old rats were stimulated with LPS or saline and culture medium collected and analyzed by cytokine-specific bioassays/ELISAs. We found enhanced duration/degree of the sickness-symptoms, including delayed but prolonged fever in old rats. This response was accompanied by increased plasma-levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1ra and exaggerated expression of inflammatory markers in brain and liver analyzed by RT-PCR including inhibitor ?B?, microsomal prostaglandin synthase and cyclooxygenase 2 (brain). Moreover, for the first time, we were able to show prolonged elevated plasma leptin-levels in LPS-treated old animals. Treatment with LAS in young rats tended to attenuate the early- and in old rats the prolonged febrile response. Fat-explants exhibited unchanged IL-6 but reduced IL-1ra and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? release from adipose tissue of aged compared to young animals. In addition, we found increased expression of the endogenous immune regulator microRNA146a in aged animals suggesting a role for these mediators in counteracting brain inflammation. Overall, our results indicate a role of adipose tissue and leptin in “aging-related-inflammation” and age-dependent modifications of febrile-responses.
Related JoVE Video
Phase I and pharmacokinetic trial of PTC299 in pediatric patients with refractory or recurrent central nervous system tumors: a PBTC study.
J. Neurooncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PTC299 is a novel, orally-bioavailable small molecule that selectively inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor receptor protein synthesis at the post-transcriptional level. Based on promising preclinical results, we conducted a pediatric phase I study to estimate the maximum tolerated dose, describe dose-limiting toxicities (DLT) and characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of PTC299 in children with recurrent CNS tumors. PTC299 was administered orally twice or three times daily, depending on the regimen. Four regimens were evaluated using the rolling 6 design, starting with 1.2 mg/kg/dose twice daily and escalating to 2 mg/kg/dose three times daily. Pharmacokinetic studies were performed during the first two courses. Twenty-seven children (14 male, median age 11.2, range 5.5-21 years) with recurrent brain tumors were treated; 21 were fully evaluable for toxicity assessment. Therapy was well-tolerated, and the only DLT was grade 3 hyponatremia. Grade three and grade four toxicities were uncommon in subsequent cycles. Median AUC0-Tlast values at the 2 mg/kg were similar to those observed in adults. The study was terminated while patients were being treated at the highest planned dose, due to hepatotoxicity encountered in the ongoing adult phase I studies. No complete or partial responses were observed. Two patients with low-grade gliomas were noted to have minor responses, and at the time of the study's closure, 5 children with low-grade gliomas had been on therapy for 8 or more courses (range 8-16). PTC299 was well-tolerated at the highest dose level tested (2 mg/kg/dose TID) in children with recurrent brain tumors and prolonged disease stabilization was seen in children with low-grade gliomas.
Related JoVE Video
Physician identification and patient satisfaction in the emergency department: are they related?
J Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patient satisfaction has become a quality indicator tracked closely by hospitals and emergency departments (EDs). Unfortunately, the primary factors driving patient satisfaction remain poorly studied. It has been suggested that correct physician identification impacts patient satisfaction in hospitalized patients, however, the limited studies that exist have demonstrated mixed results.
Related JoVE Video
Flanker interference effects in a line bisection task.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have shown that flanking distractors influence line bisection. In the present study, we examined if reaching the flanker after bisecting the line resulted in a variation of flanker interference on line bisection. Right- and left-handed participants were asked to bisect a horizontal line flanked by a dot (bisection task, B-task) or to bisect the line and then to reach the dot (bisection plus reaching task, BR-task). The dot was placed laterally to, and above or below, the line edge. The results showed that in both tasks the subjective midpoint was shifted away from the position of the dot. However, this effect was greater in the BR-task than in the B-task. We suggest that the requirement to perform an action to the flanker in the BR-task induced participants to pay more attention to the dot, enhancing its salience and distorting effects on line bisection.
Related JoVE Video
Association of Nurse-to-Patient Ratio with mortality and preventable complications following aortic valve replacement.
J Card Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine hospital resources associated with patient outcomes for aortic valve replacement (AVR), including inpatient adverse events and mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Body Space in Social Interactions: A Comparison of Reaching and Comfort Distance in Immersive Virtual Reality.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Do peripersonal space for acting on objects and interpersonal space for interacting with con-specifics share common mechanisms and reflect the social valence of stimuli? To answer this question, we investigated whether these spaces refer to a similar or different physical distance.
Related JoVE Video
Long-distance retinoid signaling in the zebra finch brain.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA), the main active metabolite of vitamin A, is a powerful signaling molecule that regulates large-scale morphogenetic processes during vertebrate embryonic development, but is also involved post-natally in regulating neural plasticity and cognition. In songbirds, it plays an important role in the maturation of learned song. The distribution of the ATRA-synthesizing enzyme, zRalDH, and of ATRA receptors (RARs) have been described, but information on the distribution of other components of the retinoid signaling pathway is still lacking. To address this gap, we have determined the expression patterns of two obligatory RAR co-receptors, the retinoid X receptors (RXR) ? and ?, and of the three ATRA-degrading cytochromes CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP26C1. We have also studied the distribution of zRalDH protein using immunohistochemistry, and generated a refined map of ATRA localization, using a modified reporter cell assay to examine entire brain sections. Our results show that (1) ATRA is more broadly distributed in the brain than previously predicted by the spatially restricted distribution of zRalDH transcripts. This could be due to long-range transport of zRalDH enzyme between different nuclei of the song system: Experimental lesions of putative zRalDH peptide source regions diminish ATRA-induced transcription in target regions. (2) Four telencephalic song nuclei express different and specific subsets of retinoid-related receptors and could be targets of retinoid regulation; in the case of the lateral magnocellular nucleus of the anterior nidopallium (lMAN), receptor expression is dynamically regulated in a circadian and age-dependent manner. (3) High-order auditory areas exhibit a complex distribution of transcripts representing ATRA synthesizing and degrading enzymes and could also be a target of retinoid signaling. Together, our survey across multiple connected song nuclei and auditory brain regions underscores the prominent role of retinoid signaling in modulating the circuitry that underlies the acquisition and production of learned vocalizations.
Related JoVE Video
Defining the action spectrum of potential PGC-1? activators on a mitochondrial and cellular level in vivo.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous studies have demonstrated a therapeutic benefit of pharmaceutical PGC-1? activation in cellular and murine model of disorders linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. While in some cases, this effect seems to be clearly associated with boosting of mitochondrial function, additional alterations as well as tissue- and cell-type specific effects might play an important role. We initiated a comprehensive analysis of the effects of potential PGC-1?-activating drugs and pharmaceutically targeted the PPAR (bezafibrate, rosiglitazone), AMPK (AICAR, metformin) and Sirt1 (resveratrol) pathways in HeLa cells, neuronal cells and PGC-1?- deficient MEFs to get insight into cell type specificity and PGC-1?-dependence of their working action. We used bezafibrate as a model drug to assess the effect on a tissue-specific level in a murine model. Not all analyzed drugs activate the PGC-pathway or alter mitochondrial protein levels. However, they all affect supramolecular assembly of OXPHOS complexes and OXPHOS protein stability. In addition, a clear drug- and cell-type specific influence on several cellular stress pathways as well as on post-translational modifications could be demonstrated, which might be relevant to fully understand the action of the analyzed drugs in the disease state. Importantly, the effect on the activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and stress response program upon drug treatment is PGC-1?-dependent in MEFs demonstrating not only the pleiotropic effects of this molecule, but points also to the working mechanism of the analyzed drugs. The definition of the action spectrum of the different drugs forms the basis for a defect-specific compensation strategy and a future personalized therapeutic approach.
Related JoVE Video
The lost ability to find the way: Topographical disorientation after a left brain lesion.
Neuropsychology
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective: We report the case of a patient (M.S.) who, after a left brain damage in posteromedial areas, showed a deficit in determining the direction of any destination with respect to his current position or to external frames (heading disorientation). Given that spatial cognition includes a wide range of cooperating abilities, we deemed that M.S.s spatial disorientation could be ascribed to specific alterations within this multicomponent system where landmarks and spatial frames of reference contribute to organize information for different purposes. Method: M.S. and 12 healthy elderly people (NCs) were submitted to an extensive neuropsychological assessment and to 2 ad hoc spatial tasks: (a) Object-Location Memory Task (what, where, and their binding); and (b) spatial memory task combining categorical (nonmetric)/coordinate (metric) relations with egocentric/allocentric frames of reference (in verbal and visuomotor conditions). Results: M.S.s performance was compared with that of NCs by means of a modified t test to small control sample size. M.S. met difficulty in positional processing and binding but not in object recognition. M.S. showed a selective deficit in the coordinate component in verbal (combined with both egocentric and allocentric frames) and visuomotor (only with the egocentric frame) spatial judgment tasks. In contrast, the categorical component looked always preserved in both frames of reference. Conclusions: The left posteromedial brain areas contribute in combining and translating metric relations according to frames of reference and in using these representations to guide actions according to an egocentric perspective. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Related JoVE Video
Partial complex I deficiency due to the CNS conditional ablation of Ndufa5 results in a mild chronic encephalopathy but no increase in oxidative damage.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Deficiencies in the complex I (CI; NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase) of the respiratory chain are frequent causes of mitochondrial diseases and have been associated with other neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinsons disease. The NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase 1 alpha subcomplex subunit 5 (NDUFA5) is a nuclear-encoded structural subunit of CI, located in the peripheral arm. We inactivated Ndufa5 in mice by the gene-trap methodology and found that this protein is required for embryonic survival. Therefore, we have created a conditional Ndufa5 knockout (KO) allele by introducing a rescuing Ndufa5 cDNA transgene flanked by loxP sites, which was selectively ablated in neurons by the CaMKII?-Cre. At the age of 11 months, mice with a central nervous system knockout of Ndufa5 (Ndufa5 CNS-KO) showed lethargy and loss of motor skills. In these mice cortices, the levels of NDUFA5 protein were reduced to 25% of controls. Fully assembled CI levels were also greatly reduced in cortex and CI activity in homogenates was reduced to 60% of controls. Despite the biochemical phenotype, no oxidative damage, neuronal death or gliosis were detected in the Ndufa5 CNS-KO brain at this age. These results showed that a partial defect in CI in neurons can lead to late-onset motor phenotypes without neuronal loss or oxidative damage.
Related JoVE Video
Patient Safety in Plastic Surgery: Identifying Areas for Quality Improvement Efforts.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Improving quality of health care is a global priority. Before quality benchmarks are established, we first must understand rates of adverse events (AEs). This project assessed risk-adjusted rates of inpatient AEs for soft tissue reconstructive procedures.Patients receiving soft tissue reconstructive procedures from 2005 to 2010 were extracted from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. Inpatient AEs were identified using patient safety indicators (PSIs), established measures developed by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.We identified 409,991 patients with soft tissue reconstruction and 16,635 (4.06%) had a PSI during their hospital stay. Patient safety indicators were associated with increased risk-adjusted mortality, longer length of stay, and decreased routine disposition (P < 0.01). Patient characteristics associated with a higher risk-adjusted rate per 1000 patients at risk included older age, men, nonwhite, and public payer (P < 0.05). Overall, plastic surgery patients had significantly lower risk-adjusted rate compared to other surgical inpatients for all events evaluated except for failure to rescue and postoperative hemorrhage or hematoma, which were not statistically different. Risk-adjusted rates of hematoma hemorrhage were significantly higher in patients receiving size-reduction surgery, and these rates were further accentuated when broken down by sex and payer.In general, plastic surgery patients had lower rates of in-hospital AEs than other surgical disciplines, but PSIs were not uncommon. With the establishment of national basal PSI rates in plastic surgery patients, benchmarks can be devised and target areas for quality improvement efforts identified. Further prospective studies should be designed to elucidate the drivers of AEs identified in this population.
Related JoVE Video
Cleft Palate Surgery: An Evaluation of Length of Stay, Complications, and Costs by Hospital Type.
Cleft Palate Craniofac. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objective :? The purpose of this study was to assess length of stay (LOS), complication rates, costs, and charges of cleft palate repair by various hospital types. We hypothesized that pediatric hospitals would have shorter LOS, fewer complications, and lower costs and charges. Methods :? Patients were identified by ICD-9-CM code for cleft palate repair (27.62) using databases from the Agency for Health Research and Quality Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids Inpatient Database from 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006. Patient characteristics (age, race, gender, insurer, comorbidities) and facility resources (hospital beds, cleft palate surgery volume, nurse-to-bed ratio, pediatric intensive care unit [PICU], PICU intensivist, burn unit) were examined. Hospitals types included pediatric hospitals, general hospitals, and nonaccredited childrens hospital. For each hospital type, mean LOS, extended LOS (LOS > 2), and complications were assessed. Results :? A total of 14,153 patients had cleft repair with a mean LOS of 2 days (SD, 0.04), mortality 0.01%, transfusion 0.3%, and complication <3%. Pediatric hospitals had fewer patients with extended hospital stays. Patients with an LOS >2 days were associated with fourfold higher complications. Comorbidities increased the relative rate of LOS >2 days by 90%. Pediatric hospitals had the highest comorbidities, yet 35% decreased the relative rate of LOS >2 days. Median total charges of $10,835 increased to $15,104 with LOS >2 days; median total costs of $4367 increased to $6148 with a LOS >2 days. Conclusion :? Pediatric hospitals had higher comorbidities yet shorter LOS. Pediatric resources significantly decreased the relative rate of LOS >2 days. Median costs and charges increased by 41% with LOS >2 days. Further research is needed to understand additional aspects of pediatric hospitals associated with lower LOS.
Related JoVE Video
Lower Skin Cancer Risk in Women with Higher Body Mass Index: The Womens Health Initiative Observational Study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The unclear relationship of obesity to incident melanoma and nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) risks was evaluated in the large, geographically diverse longitudinal, prospective Womens Health Initiative (WHI) observational study. Risks of melanoma and NMSC in normal weight women were compared with risks in overweight [body mass index (BMI) = 25-29.0 kg/m(2)] and obese (BMI ? 30 kg/m(2)) women, using Cox proportional hazards models for melanoma and logistic regression for NMSC. Over a mean 9.4 years of follow-up, there were 386 melanoma and 9,870 NSMC cases. Risk of melanoma did not differ across weight categories (P = 0.86), whereas in fully adjusted models, NMSC risk was lower in overweight [OR, 0.93; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.89-0.99] and obese (OR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.80-0.91) women (P < 0.001). Excess body weight was not associated with melanoma risk in postmenopausal women but was inversely associated with NMSC risk, possibly due to lower sun exposure in overweight and obese women. This supports previous work demonstrating the relationship between excess body weight and skin cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 22(12); 2412-5. ©2013 AACR.
Related JoVE Video
Quality of life in long-term breast cancer survivors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is considerable interest in the quality of life (QOL) of long-term breast cancer (BC) survivors. We studied changes in QOL from time of BC diagnosis to long-term survivorship and compared QOL in long-term survivors to that of age-matched women with no history of BC.
Related JoVE Video
Spatiotemporal patterns of infant bronchiolitis in a Tennessee Medicaid population.
Spat Spatiotemporal Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of worldwide morbidity and mortality in infants, primarily through the induction of bronchiolitis. RSV epidemics are highly seasonal, occurring in the winter months in the northern hemisphere. Within the United States, RSV epidemic dynamics vary both spatially and temporally. This analysis employs a retrospective space–time scan statistic to locate spatiotemporal clustering of infant bronchiolitis in a very large Tennessee (TN) Medicaid cohort. We studied infants less than 6 months of age (N = 52,468 infants) who had an outpatient visit, emergency department visit, or hospitalization for bronchiolitis between 1995 and 2008. The scan statistic revealed distinctive and consistent patterns of deviation in epidemic timing. Eastern TN (Knoxville area) showed clustering in January and February, and Central TN (Nashville area) in November and December. This is likely due to local variation in geography-associated factors which should be taken into consideration in future modeling of RSV epidemics.
Related JoVE Video
Telephone support for women during pregnancy and the first six weeks postpartum.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Telephone communication is increasingly being accepted as a useful form of support within health care. There is some evidence that telephone support may be of benefit in specific areas of maternity care such as to support breastfeeding and for women at risk of depression. There is a plethora of telephone-based interventions currently being used in maternity care. It is therefore timely to examine which interventions may be of benefit, which are ineffective, and which may be harmful.
Related JoVE Video
Overlapping meta-analyses on the same topic: survey of published studies.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess how common it is to have multiple overlapping meta-analyses of randomized trials published on the same topic.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of partogram use on outcomes for women in spontaneous labour at term.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The partogram (sometimes known as partograph) is usually a pre-printed paper form on which labour observations are recorded. The aim of the partogram is to provide a pictorial overview of labour, to alert midwives and obstetricians to deviations in maternal or fetal wellbeing and labour progress. Charts often contain pre-printed alert and action lines. An alert line represents the slowest 10% of primigravid womens labour progress. An action line is placed a number of hours after the alert line (usually two or four hours) to prompt effective management of slow progress of labour.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of exercise training on fatigue in multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To provide a quantitative synthesis of randomized controlled trials examining the effect of exercise training on symptomatic fatigue in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS).
Related JoVE Video
Breast reconstruction national trends and healthcare implications.
Breast J
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast reconstruction improves quality-of-life of breast cancer patients. Different reconstructive options exist, yet commentary in the plastic surgery literature suggests that financial constraints are limiting access to autologous reconstruction (AR). This study follows national trends in breast reconstruction and identifies factors associated with reconstructive choices. Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 1998 to 2008. Patients were categorized as having either implant or ARs. Bivariate and multivariate regression analysis identified variables associated with receiving implants versus AR. Physician fee schedules were analyzed using national average Medicare physician reimbursement rates. From 1998 to 2008, 324,134 breast reconstructions were performed. Reconstructions increased 4% per year. The proportion of implant reconstructions increased 11% per year, whereasARs decreased 5% per year (p < 0.05). Our model showed that the odds of having implant-based versus AR were significantly associated with age, disease severity, payer type, hospital teaching status, and year of surgery. Year of surgery was the strongest predictor of implant reconstruction; patients receiving breast reconstructive surgery in 2009 were three times more likely to have implant breast reconstructive surgery compared with similar patients in 2002. Medicare reimbursement steadily declined for AR over a similar time frame. From 1998 to 2008, autologous breast reconstruction has significantly declined, parallel to a decrease in physician reimbursement. Our data found no significant change in patient characteristics supporting the lack of choice of AR. Further research is warranted to better understand this shift to implant reconstruction and to ensure future access of these complex reconstructive procedures.
Related JoVE Video
The epidemiology of idiopathic acute pancreatitis, analysis of the nationwide inpatient sample from 1998 to 2007.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The study aimed to better define the epidemiology of idiopathic acute pancreatitis (IAP).
Related JoVE Video
Viral etiologies of infant bronchiolitis, croup and upper respiratory illness during 4 consecutive years.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Prospective data on viral etiology and clinical characteristics of bronchiolitis and upper respiratory illness (URI) in infants are limited.
Related JoVE Video
Reactive versus proactive patterns of inhaled corticosteroid use.
Ann Am Thorac Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
For patients with persistent asthma, inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are a mainstay of controller therapy. These medications are usually prescribed to be taken daily and have been shown to be associated with decreased asthma morbidity. Adherence to daily treatment is very low in many populations in the United States. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the seasonal use of ICS prescription filling as reactive behavior primarily after an asthma exacerbation in a pediatric population. The study population is a subgroup of the Tennessee Asthma and Bronchiolitis Study. The children in this study were enrolled in Tennessee Medicaid (TennCare). The subjects had asthma and were 6 to 9 years of age during the years 2005 to 2010. Prescription filling was determined using claims data, and asthma exacerbations were defined by use of systemic rescue corticosteroids (RCS). In this cohort of 13,114 children with asthma, ICS and RCS filling were highly seasonal and trended with fall and winter peaks in asthma exacerbations. Prescription refilling was very low, with an average of three ICS fills per child who filled at least one during the study period. Among these children, 54.1% (7,096) had an asthma exacerbation during the study period. Among ICS users, 68.5% (3,441/5,020) had a disease exacerbation. ICS filling occurred overwhelmingly on the same day as RCS fills. The seasonal filling patterns of ICS coincide with asthma exacerbations. ICS adherence is low and inconsistent in this population of children with asthma. Increased adherence to ICS, particularly before the seasonal virus epidemics, could greatly reduce asthma morbidity.
Related JoVE Video
Poor compliance with breast cancer treatment guidelines in men undergoing breast-conserving surgery.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lumpectomy is performed in a small but growing proportion of men with breast cancer. It is unknown whether men undergoing breast-conserving surgery (BCS) receive care compliant with breast cancer treatment guidelines. Patients with breast cancer in the surveillance, epidemiology, and end results (SEER) database who underwent lumpectomy between 1983 and 2009 were identified. Gender differences in the receipt of lymph node staging and adjuvant radiation therapy were assessed. Multivariate logistic regression was utilized to evaluate the independent association of gender on these outcomes. The influence of gender on breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) was analyzed. 382,030 of 824,408 (46.3 %) women compared to 712 of 6,039 (11.8 %) men with breast cancer underwent lumpectomy. Men were older, more likely to be black, less likely to have stage I disease and more likely to have stage IV disease. Only 59.2 % of men had lymph nodes sampled at the time of surgery compared to 81.6 % of women (p < 0.0001). In addition, only 35.4 % of men received adjuvant breast radiation therapy compared to 69.8 % of women (p < 0.0001). After controlling for age, race, stage, grade, and year of diagnosis, female gender was significantly associated with receiving adjuvant radiation therapy (OR 2.9, 95 % CI 2.4-3.4) and lymph node staging (OR 1.6, 95 % CI 1.3-1.90). Five- and ten-year BCSS were 88.0 and 83.5 % for men compared to 93.2 and 88.2 % for women (p < 0.001). Men with breast cancer are less likely to receive lymph node staging or adjuvant radiation therapy following BCS compared to women.
Related JoVE Video
Relationship of secondhand smoke and infant lower respiratory tract infection severity by familial atopy status.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Individuals with atopy have more severe complications of infectious diseases. We hypothesized that the importance of secondhand smoke (SHS) on lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) severity would be greater in infants with a familial atopic predisposition.
Related JoVE Video
A pilot quasi-experimental study to determine the feasibility of implementing a partograph e-learning tool for student midwife training in Nairobi.
Midwifery
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
the partograph is a tool used globally to record labour progress. Although it has the potential to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes, some midwives struggle with using it in practice. Training in partograph use is limited, and the theory is often divorced from practice. Innovative ways of improving training are urgently required. We therefore aimed to determine whether the use of an e-learning tool is beneficial for learning partograph skills.
Related JoVE Video
Outcomes of partial mastectomy in male breast cancer patients: analysis of SEER, 1983-2009.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although mastectomy is considered the gold standard for male breast cancer (MBC), the utilization of lumpectomy and its impact on outcomes in MBC patients has not been previously studied.
Related JoVE Video
Health and medication information resources on the world wide web.
J Pharm Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Health care practitioners have increasingly used the Internet to obtain health and medication information. The vast number of Internet Web sites providing such information and concerns with their reliability makes it essential for users to carefully select and evaluate Web sites prior to use. To this end, this article reviews the general principles to consider in this process. Moreover, as cost may limit access to subscription-based health and medication information resources with established reputability, freely accessible online resources that may serve as an invaluable addition to ones reference collection are highlighted. These include government- and organization-sponsored resources (eg, US Food and Drug Administration Web site and the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists Drug Shortage Resource Center Web site, respectively) as well as commercial Web sites (eg, Medscape, Google Scholar). Familiarity with such online resources can assist health care professionals in their ability to efficiently navigate the Web and may potentially expedite the information gathering and decision-making process, thereby improving patient care.
Related JoVE Video
Increased healthcare resource utilization for acute respiratory illness among Latino infants.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine healthcare resource utilization for acute respiratory illness in Latino infants compared with other racial/ethnic groups.
Related JoVE Video
Antenatal interventions for reducing weight in obese women for improving pregnancy outcome.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Being obese and pregnant is associated with substantial risks for the mother and her child. Current weight management guidance for obese pregnant women is limited. The latest recommendations suggest that obese pregnant women should gain between 5.0 and 9.1 kg during the pregnancy period, and weight loss is discouraged. However, observational studies indicate that some obese pregnant women, especially those who are heavier, lose weight during pregnancy. Furthermore, some obese pregnant women may intentionally lose weight. The safety of weight loss when pregnant and obese is not substantiated; some observational studies suggest that risks associated with weight loss such as pre-eclampsia are improved, but others indicate that the incidence of small- for-gestational infants are increased. It is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to reduce weight in obese pregnant women so that the safety of weight loss during this period can be established.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of vision-related aspects on noise perception of wind turbines in quiet areas.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Preserving the soundscape and geographic extension of quiet areas is a great challenge against the wide-spreading of environmental noise. The E.U. Environmental Noise Directive underlines the need to preserve quiet areas as a new aim for the management of noise in European countries. At the same time, due to their low population density, rural areas characterized by suitable wind are considered appropriate locations for installing wind farms. However, despite the fact that wind farms are represented as environmentally friendly projects, these plants are often viewed as visual and audible intruders, that spoil the landscape and generate noise. Even though the correlations are still unclear, it is obvious that visual impacts of wind farms could increase due to their size and coherence with respect to the rural/quiet environment. In this paper, by using the Immersive Virtual Reality technique, some visual and acoustical aspects of the impact of a wind farm on a sample of subjects were assessed and analyzed. The subjects were immersed in a virtual scenario that represented a situation of a typical rural outdoor scenario that they experienced at different distances from the wind turbines. The influence of the number and the colour of wind turbines on global, visual and auditory judgment were investigated. The main results showed that, regarding the number of wind turbines, the visual component has a weak effect on individual reactions, while the colour influences both visual and auditory individual reactions, although in a different way.
Related JoVE Video
National Review of Factors Influencing Disparities and Types of Major Lower Extremity Amputations.
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite advancements in the diagnosis and treatment of peripheral vascular disease, major lower extremity amputations are still performed at high rates with non-negligible economic burdens. Peri-operative morbidity and mortality is greater for patients who receive an above knee amputation (AKA) compared to patients who receive a below knee amputation (BKA). We sought to further evaluate what variables affect whether a patient receives a BKA versus an AKA using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS).
Related JoVE Video
Randomized, controlled trial evaluating a baby wash product on skin barrier function in healthy, term neonates.
J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To examine the hypothesis that the use of a wash product formulated for newborn (<1 month of age) bathing is not inferior (no worse) to bathing with water only.
Related JoVE Video
A randomised controlled trial comparing standard or intensive management of reduced fetal movements after 36 weeks gestation--a feasibility study.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Women presenting with reduced fetal movements (RFM) in the third trimester are at increased risk of stillbirth or fetal growth restriction. These outcomes after RFM are related to smaller fetal size on ultrasound scan, oligohydramnios and lower human placental lactogen (hPL) in maternal serum. We performed this study to address whether a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of the management of RFM was feasible with regard to: i) maternal recruitment and retention ii) patient acceptability, iii) adherence to protocol. Additionally, we aimed to confirm the prevalence of poor perinatal outcomes defined as: stillbirth, birthweight <10th centile, umbilical arterial pH <7.1 or unexpected admission to the neonatal intensive care unit.
Related JoVE Video
Investigation of musicality in birdsong.
Hear. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Songbirds spend much of their time learning, producing, and listening to complex vocal sequences we call songs. Songs are learned via cultural transmission, and singing, usually by males, has a strong impact on the behavioral state of the listeners, often promoting affiliation, pair bonding, or aggression. What is it in the acoustic structure of birdsong that makes it such a potent stimulus? We suggest that birdsong potency might be driven by principles similar to those that make music so effective in inducing emotional responses in humans: a combination of rhythms and pitches-and the transitions between acoustic states-affecting emotions through creating expectations, anticipations, tension, tension release, or surprise. Here we propose a framework for investigating how birdsong, like human music, employs the above "musical" features to affect the emotions of avian listeners. First we analyze songs of thrush nightingales (Luscinia luscinia) by examining their trajectories in terms of transitions in rhythm and pitch. These transitions show gradual escalations and graceful modifications, which are comparable to some aspects of human musicality. We then explore the feasibility of stripping such putative musical features from the songs and testing how this might affect patterns of auditory responses, focusing on fMRI data in songbirds that demonstrate the feasibility of such approaches. Finally, we explore ideas for investigating whether musical features of birdsong activate avian brains and affect avian behavior in manners comparable to musics effects on humans. In conclusion, we suggest that birdsong research would benefit from current advances in music theory by attempting to identify structures that are designed to elicit listeners emotions and then testing for such effects experimentally. Birdsong research that takes into account the striking complexity of song structure in light of its more immediate function - to affect behavioral state in listeners - could provide a useful animal model for studying basic principles of music neuroscience in a system that is very accessible for investigation, and where developmental auditory and social experience can be tightly controlled. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled .
Related JoVE Video
Nonmelanoma skin cancer visits and procedure patterns in a nationally representative sample: national ambulatory medical care survey 1995-2007.
Dermatol Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The rising incidence of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is well documented, but data are limited on the number of visits and treatment patterns of NMSC in the outpatient setting.
Related JoVE Video
Advanced maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcome: evidence from a large contemporary cohort.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent decades have witnessed an increase in mean maternal age at childbirth in most high-resourced countries. Advanced maternal age has been associated with several adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Although there are many studies on this topic, data from large contemporary population-based cohorts that controls for demographic variables known to influence perinatal outcomes is limited.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.