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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Coupled States in Dinitrofluorene: Relationships between Ground State and Excited State Mixed Valence.
J Phys Chem A
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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The electronic absorption spectrum of 9,9-dimethyl-2,7-dinitrofluorene radical anion in HMPA displays both a NIR intervalence charge transfer and a visible excited state mixed valence transition. These transitions contain a similar vibronic progression resulting from molecular orbitals that are common to both transitions. Vibrational frequency and intensity data are acquired from the resonance Raman spectrum and used to calculate a best-fit for the absorption spectrum. The normal coordinate distortions are analyzed in terms of the electronic changes for both transitions to explain their similarity. The Raman scattering intensity decreases at lower excitation wavelength as a result of Raman deenhancement caused by interference between neighboring excited states.
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Novel integration technique for silicon/III-V hybrid laser.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Integrated semiconductor lasers on silicon are one of the most crucial devices to enable low-cost silicon photonic integrated circuits for high-bandwidth optic communications and interconnects. While optical amplifiers and lasers are typically realized in III-V waveguide structures, it is beneficial to have an integration approach which allows flexible and efficient coupling of light between III-V gain media and silicon waveguides. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a novel fabrication technique and associated transition structure to realize integrated lasers without the constraints of other critical processing parameters such as the starting silicon layer thicknesses. This technique employs epitaxial growth of silicon in a pre-defined trench with taper structures. We fabricate and demonstrate a long-cavity hybrid laser with a narrow linewidth of 130 kHz and an output power of 1.5 mW using the proposed technique.
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CMPD: cancer mutant proteome database.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Whole-exome sequencing, which centres on the protein coding regions of disease/cancer associated genes, represents the most cost-effective method to-date for deciphering the association between genetic alterations and diseases. Large-scale whole exome/genome sequencing projects have been launched by various institutions, such as NCI, Broad Institute and TCGA, to provide a comprehensive catalogue of coding variants in diverse tissue samples and cell lines. Further functional and clinical interrogation of these sequence variations must rely on extensive cross-platforms integration of sequencing information and a proteome database that explicitly and comprehensively archives the corresponding mutated peptide sequences. While such data resource is a critical for the mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of exomic variants, no database is currently available for the collection of mutant protein sequences that correspond to recent large-scale genomic data. To address this issue and serve as bridge to integrate genomic and proteomics datasets, CMPD (http://cgbc.cgu.edu.tw/cmpd) collected over 2 millions genetic alterations, which not only facilitates the confirmation and examination of potential cancer biomarkers but also provides an invaluable resource for translational medicine research and opportunities to identify mutated proteins encoded by mutated genes.
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Trends in bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy among Taiwanese women undergoing benign hysterectomy: a population-based, pooled, cross-sectional study.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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This study aims to examine recent trends in the performance of elective bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at benign hysterectomy and to identify associated patient and provider-related characteristics from 2000 to 2010.
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Sitagliptin attenuates sympathetic innervation via modulating reactive oxygen species and interstitial adenosine in infarcted rat hearts.
J. Cell. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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We investigated whether sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, attenuates arrhythmias through inhibiting nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in post-infarcted normoglycemic rats, focusing on adenosine and reactive oxygen species production. DPP-4 bound adenosine deaminase has been shown to catalyse extracellular adenosine to inosine. DPP-4 inhibitors increased adenosine levels by inhibiting the complex formation. Normoglycemic male Wistar rats were subjected to coronary ligation and then randomized to either saline or sitagliptin in in vivo and ex vivo studies. Post-infarction was associated with increased oxidative stress, as measured by myocardial superoxide, nitrotyrosine and dihydroethidium fluorescent staining. Measurement of myocardial norepinephrine levels revealed a significant elevation in vehicle-treated infarcted rats compared with sham. Compared with vehicle, infarcted rats treated with sitagliptin significantly increased interstitial adenosine levels and attenuated oxidative stress. Sympathetic hyperinnervation was blunted after administering sitagliptin, as assessed by immunofluorescent analysis and western blotting and real-time quantitative RT-PCR of NGF. Arrhythmic scores in the sitagliptin-treated infarcted rats were significantly lower than those in vehicle. Ex vivo studies showed a similar effect of erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl) adenine (an adenosine deaminase inhibitor) to sitagliptin on attenuated levels of superoxide and NGF. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of sitagliptin on superoxide anion production and NGF levels can be reversed by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropulxanthine (adenosine A1 receptor antagonist) and exogenous hypoxanthine. Sitagliptin protects ventricular arrhythmias by attenuating sympathetic innervation via adenosine A1 receptor and xanthine oxidase-dependent pathways, which converge through the attenuated formation of superoxide in the non-diabetic infarcted rats.
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17-Dimethylaminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin Attenuates Inflammatory Responses in Experimental Stroke.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) is a ubiquitous molecular chaperone involved in the proper conformation of many proteins. HSP90 inhibitors (17-dimethyl aminoethylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin hydrochloride [17-DMAG]) bind to and inactivate HSP90, suppressing some key signaling pathways involved in the inflammatory process. Since considerable evidence suggests that inflammation accounts for the progression of cerebral ischemic injury, we investigated whether 17-DMAG can modulate inflammatory responses in middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) mice. Male C57/BL6 mice were pretreated with 17-DMAG or vehicle for 7?d before being subjected to transient occlusion of middle cerebral artery and reperfusion. Mice were evaluated at 24?h after MCAO for neurological deficit scoring. Moreover, the mechanism of the anti-inflammatory effect of 17-DMAG was investigated with a focus on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) pathway. 17-DMAG significantly reduced cerebral infarction and improved neurological outcome. 17-DMAG suppressed activation of microglia and decreased phosphorylation of inhibitory (I)?B and subsequent nuclear translocation of p65, which eventually downregulated expression of NF-?B-regulated genes. These results suggest that 17-DMAG has a promising therapeutic effect in ischemic stroke treatment through an anti-inflammatory mechanism.
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Adjuvant therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma after curative treatment.
Dig Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common malignancy in the world. Although resection and various locoregional therapies can achieve eradication or complete ablation of small HCC, HCC recurrence after these therapies is still common. Although candidates for medical ablation usually exhibit compensated hepatic functional status, the frequent recurrence of HCC after successful ablation contributes to short survival. Therefore, attempts to prevent HCC recurrence are essential to prolong survival. Efforts in preventing HCC recurrence after curative therapies include prevention of early recurrence by improving liver immunity and eliminating microscopic tumor foci or micrometastases, and prevention of late recurrence by reducing the hepatitis activity and using antiviral therapies based on viral suppression/eradication. In HCC with vascular invasion, adjuvant transcatheter arterial chemoembolization should be considered to provide better control. Whether the adjuvant use of sorafenib may suppress microscopic tumor foci or micrometastases may be unveiled in the near future. This review article will update the algorithms, novel medication or study drugs in the prevention of HCC after curative therapies. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Synthesis and molecular properties of tricyclic biselenophene-based derivatives with nitrogen, silicon, germanium, vinylidene, and ethylene bridges.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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A new class of biselenophene-based materials including an sp(3)-silicon-bridged diselenosilole (DSS), an sp(3)-germanium-bridged diselenogermole (DSG), and an sp(3)-nitrogen-bridged diselenopyrrole (DSP) as well as an sp(2)-vinylidene-bridged dicyanodiselenofulvene (CDSF), a diacetylenediselenofulvene (ADSF), and a dioctylethylene-bridged benzodiselenophene (BDS) have been successfully synthesized and characterized. The bridging moieties play an important role in determining the optical and electrochemical properties. The six brominated derivatives are ready to construct various biselenophene-based conjugated materials with tunable properties for organic photovoltaics and field effect transistors.
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SFTS virus infection in non-human primates.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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SFTS virus (SFTSV) is a highly pathogenic bunyavirus that causes severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), an emerging infectious disease in China. Laboratory mice have been reported to be susceptible to SFTSV infection, but the infection of SFTSV in non-human primates (NHPs) has not been investigated. This study is the first to report that SFTSV does not cause severe symptoms or death in rhesus macaques, but causes fever, thrombocytopenia, leukocytopenia, as well as raised levels of transaminases and myocardial enzymes in blood. Viremia, virus specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and neutralizing antibodies were identified in all infected macaques. The cytokines interferon-?, eotaxin, TNF-?, and MIP-1? were significantly elevated in the blood. Minor pathological lesions were observed in the liver and kidney in late stages of infection. Overall, SFTSV infection in rhesus macaques resembled a mild SFTS disease in humans.
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Study of multiwavelength DFB semiconductor laser array with asymmetric structures based on sampling technique.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Multiwavelength distributed feedback (DFB) semiconductor laser arrays (MLA) with asymmetric structures are studied in this paper. Thanks to the sampling technique, the asymmetric structures, including asymmetric phase shift and asymmetric coupling coefficient, can be achieved by common holographic exposure. Therefore, the cost of fabrication is remarkably reduced. In addition, due to the large scale of the sampling pattern, the wavelength precision of these kinds of MLA can be simultaneously improved. As an example, we designed and fabricated an asymmetrically phase-shifted MLA with 10 wavelengths for the first time. Compared with the common phase-shifted DFB laser, slope efficiency is significantly improved and single longitudinal mode is still guaranteed. Besides, relatively high wavelength precision is also obtained. The proposed MLA configurations may significantly benefit multiwavelength emitters for future photonic integration.
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Compact Bis-Adduct Fullerenes and Additive-Assisted Morphological Optimization for Efficient Organic Photovoltaics.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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Bis-adduct fullerenes surrounded by two insulating addends sterically attenuate intermolecular interaction and cause inferior electron transportation. In this research, we have designed and synthesized a new class of bis-adduct fullerene materials, methylphenylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MPC60BA), methylthienylmethano-C60 bis-adduct (MTC60BA), methylphenylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MPC70BA), and methylthienylmethano-C70 bis-adduct (MTC70BA), functionalized with two compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends via cyclopropyl linkages. These materials with much higher-lying lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) energy levels successfully enhanced the Voc values of the P3HT-based solar cell devices. The compact phenylmethylmethano and thienylmethylmethano addends to promote fullerene intermolecular interactions result in aggregation-induced phase separation as observed by the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of the poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT)/bis-adduct fullerene thin films. The device based on the P3HT/MTC60BA blend yielded a Voc of 0.72 V, a Jsc of 5.87 mA/cm(2), and a fill factor (FF) of 65.3%, resulting in a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 2.76%. The unfavorable morphologies can be optimized by introducing a solvent additive to fine-tune the intermolecular interactions. 1-Chloronaphthalene (CN) having better ability to dissolve the bis-adduct fullerenes can homogeneously disperse the fullerene materials into the P3HT matrix. Consequently, the aggregated fullerene domains can be alleviated to reach a favorable morphology. With the assistance of CN additive, the P3HT/MTC60BA-based device exhibited enhanced characteristics (a Voc of 0.78 V, a Jsc of 9.04 mA/cm(2), and an FF of 69.8%), yielding a much higher PCE of 4.92%. More importantly, the additive-assisted morphological optimization is consistently effective to all four compact bis-adduct fullerenes regardless of the methylphenylmethano or methylthienylmethano scaffolds as well as C60 or C70 core structures. Through the extrinsic additive treatment, these bis-adduct fullerene materials with compact architectures show promise for high-performance polymer solar cells.
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Transmission of H7N9 influenza virus in mice by different infective routes.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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On 19 February 2013, the first patient infected with a novel influenza A H7N9 virus from an avian source showed symptoms of sickness. More than 349 laboratory-confirmed cases and 109 deaths have been reported in mainland China since then. Laboratory-confirmed, human-to-human H7N9 virus transmission has not been documented between individuals having close contact; however, this transmission route could not be excluded for three families. To control the spread of the avian influenza H7N9 virus, we must better understand its pathogenesis, transmissibility, and transmission routes in mammals. Studies have shown that this particular virus is transmitted by aerosols among ferrets.
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G206D Mutation of Presenilin-1 Reduces Pen2 Interaction, Increases A?42/A?40 Ratio and Elevates ER Ca(2+) Accumulation.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) is most commonly associated with the mutations in presenilin-1 (PS1). PS1 is the catalytic component of the ?-secretase complex, which cleaves amyloid precursor protein to produce amyloid-? (A?), the major cause of AD. Presenilin enhancer 2 (Pen2) is critical for activating ?-secretase and exporting PS1 from endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Among all the familial AD-linked PS1 mutations, mutations at the G206 amino acid are the most adjacent position to the Pen2 binding site. Here, we characterized the effect of a familial AD-linked PS1 G206D mutation on the PS1-Pen2 interaction and the accompanied alteration in ?-secretase-dependent and -independent functions. We found that the G206D mutation reduced PS1-Pen2 interaction, but did not abolish ?-secretase formation and PS1 endoproteolysis. For ?-secretase-dependent function, the G206D mutation increased A?42 production but not Notch cleavage. For ?-secretase-independent function, this mutation disrupted the ER calcium homeostasis but not lysosomal calcium homeostasis and autophagosome maturation. Impaired ER calcium homeostasis may due to the reduced mutant PS1 level in the ER. Although this mutation did not alter the cell survival under stress, both increased A?42 ratio and disturbed ER calcium regulation could be the mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of the familial AD-linked PS1 G206D mutation.
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Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.
Medicine (Baltimore)
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients.
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The first characterization of gene structure and biological function for echinoderm translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP).
Fish Shellfish Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a multifunctional protein that existed ubiquitously in different eukaryote species and distributed widely in various tissues and cell types. In this study, the gene structure and biological function of TCTP were first characterized in echinoderm. An echinoderm TCTP named StmTCTP was identified from sea cucumber (Stichopus monotuberculatus) by expression sequence tag (EST) analysis and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) approach. The StmTCTP cDNA is 1219 bp in length, containing a 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of 77 bp, a 3'-UTR of 623 bp and an open reading frame (ORF) of 519 bp that encoding a protein of 172 amino acids with a deduced molecular weight of 19.80 kDa and a predicted isolectric point of 4.66. Two deduced signal signatures termed TCTP1 and TCTP2, a microtubule binding domain, a Ca(2+) binding domain and the conserved residues forming Rab GTPase binding surface were found in the StmTCTP amino acid sequence. For the gene structure, StmTCTP contains four exons separated by three introns. The anti-oxidation and heat shock protein activities of recombinant TCTP protein were also demonstrated in this study. In addition, the expression of StmTCTP was found to be significantly upregulated by polyriboinosinic polyribocytidylic acid [poly (I:C)], lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or inactivated bacteria challenge in in vitro primary culture experiments of coelomocytes, suggested that the sea cucumber TCTP might play critical roles not only in the defense against oxidative and thermal stresses, but also in the innate immune defense against bacterial and viral infections.
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Revalidation of CoaguChek XS Plus System for INR Monitoring in Taiwanese Patients: Effects of Clinical and Genetic Factors.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Background:In this study, we evaluated the performance of a point-of-care device, the CoaguChek XS Plus system, in the determination of prothrombin time and international normalized ratio (INR) based on ISO17593: 2007 criteria in Taiwanese patients. The underlying clinical and genetic factors were also investigated. Methods: Fifty patients receiving warfarin therapy were enrolled in this study. The accuracy of the CoaguChek XS Plus system was evaluated with linear regression analysis and bias plot by comparing with the data measured using Sysmex CA-1500. The clinical and genetic factors that may have caused a bias of ? 0.5 INR were evaluated with Fisher's exact test. Results: From the 50 patients, 93 INR values were collected by each method. Linear regression analysis indicated a high correlation with r = 0.96, a slope of 1.05, and an intercept of - 0.14. Eight patients showed an INR bias ?0.5 between the two methods. Only aspartate aminotransferase (AST) >34 U/L (3/8, 37.5% vs. 3/42, 7.1%; p = 0.044) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) >36 U/L (3/8, 37.5% vs. 3/42, 7.1%; p = 0.044) were significantly different from each other. No differences were observed for hypoalbuminemia, elevated creatinine, anemia, and the polymorphisms of VKORC1 and CYP2C9. Conclusions: The CoaguChek XS Plus system presented results that were comparable with those obtained using laboratory CA-1500 method. Both methods fell within INR in the range of 2-4.5 defined by ISO17593:2007 and the clinically recognized therapeutic INR range of 2-3.5. Elevated AST and ALT levels might have interfered with the INR results.
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Effects of Platelet-rich Plasma and Cell Coculture on Angiogenesis in Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells.
J Endod
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has been described as platelet concentrate. Growth factors released by activated platelets can improve wound vasculogenesis and enhance wound healing. In this study, we used PRP instead of serum to culture human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and investigated revascularization ability. The effect of hDPSC and EPC coculture on vasculogenesis was also studied.
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Meshless deformable models for 3D cardiac motion and strain analysis from tagged MRI.
Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Tagged magnetic resonance imaging (TMRI) provides a direct and noninvasive way to visualize the in-wall deformation of the myocardium. Due to the through-plane motion, the tracking of 3D trajectories of the material points and the computation of 3D strain field call for the necessity of building 3D cardiac deformable models. The intersections of three stacks of orthogonal tagging planes are material points in the myocardium. With these intersections as control points, 3D motion can be reconstructed with a novel meshless deformable model (MDM). Volumetric MDMs describe an object as point cloud inside the object boundary and the coordinate of each point can be written in parametric functions. A generic heart mesh is registered on the TMRI with polar decomposition. A 3D MDM is generated and deformed with MR image tagging lines. Volumetric MDMs are deformed by calculating the dynamics function and minimizing the local Laplacian coordinates. The similarity transformation of each point is computed by assuming its neighboring points are making the same transformation. The deformation is computed iteratively until the control points match the target positions in the consecutive image frame. The 3D strain field is computed from the 3D displacement field with moving least squares. We demonstrate that MDMs outperformed the finite element method and the spline method with a numerical phantom. Meshless deformable models can track the trajectory of any material point in the myocardium and compute the 3D strain field of any particular area. The experimental results on in vivo healthy and patient heart MRI show that the MDM can fully recover the myocardium motion in three dimensions.
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Risk factors of depression after prolonged low-dose rate environmental radiation exposure.
Int. J. Radiat. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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More than 10,000 Taiwanese people were exposed to excessive protracted low-dose rate radiation from contaminated reinforcement bars, which were installed in buildings before 1992. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of depression amongst the exposed and identify related determinants now that more than two decades have passed since this population was informed of their exposure to radiation.
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Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Chronic Kidney Disease: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Sleep apnea (SA) is characterized by apnea during sleep and is associated with cardiovascular diseases and an increase in all-cause mortality. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health problem that has placed a substantial burden on healthcare resources. However, the relationship between SA and the incidence of CKD is not clear. This study aimed to determine whether SA is an independent risk factor for the development of CKD.
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Emerging role of microRNAs in modulating endothelin-1 expression in gastric cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a small 21-amino acid peptide that is known to exert diverse biological effects on a wide variety of tissues and cell types through its own receptors. The ET-1-ETRA axis is frequently dysfunctional in numerous types of carcinomas, and contributes to the promotion of cell growth and migration. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that play a critical role in carcinogenesis through mRNA degradation or the translational inhibition of cancer-associated protein-coding genes. However, the role of ET-1 and the relationship between ET-1 and miRNAs in gastric cancer remain unknown. Results of the analysis of the database of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) revealed that ET-1 is significantly overexpressed in gastric cancer cells when compared with its expression in adjacent normal cells. Exogenous ET-1 significantly enhanced gastric cancer cell proliferation, implying that ET-1 plays an oncogenic role in gastric cancer carcinogenesis. Using a luciferase reporter assay we showed that 18 miRNA candidates had a significant silencing effect on ET-1 expression by up to 20% in HEK293T cells. Among them, 5 miRNAs (miR-1, miR-101, miR-125A, miR-144 and let-7c) were shown to be involved in ET-1 silencing through post-transcriptional modulation in gastric cancer. Our data also revealed that DNA hypermethylation contributes to the silenced miR-1 expression in gastric cancer cells. The ectopic expression of miR-1 significantly inhibited AGS cell proliferation by suppressing ET-1 expression. Overall, our study revealed that ET-1 overexpression may be due to DNA hypermethylation resulting in the silencing of miR-1 expression in gastric cancer cells. In addition, we identified several miRNAs as potential modulators for ET-1 in gastric cancer, which may be used as targets for gastric cancer therapy.
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From cartoon to real time MRI: in vivo monitoring of phagocyte migration in mouse brain.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Recent studies have demonstrated that immune cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of many neurological conditions. Immune cells constantly survey the brain microvasculature for irregularities in levels of factors that signal homeostasis. Immune responses are initiated when necessary, resulting in mobilisation of the microglial cells resident in the central nervous system (CNS) and/or of infiltrating peripheral cells. However, little is known about the kinetics of immune cells in healthy and diseased CNS, because it is difficult to perform long-term visualisation of cell motility in live tissue with minimal invasion. Here, we describe highly sensitive in vivo MRI techniques for sequential monitoring of cell migration in the CNS at the single-cell level. We show that MRI combined with intravenous administration of super-paramagnetic particles of iron oxide (SPIO) can be used to monitor the transmigration of peripheral phagocytes into healthy or LPS-treated mouse brains. We also demonstrate dynamic cell migration in live animal brains with time-lapse MRI videos. Time-lapse MRI was used to visualise and track cells with low motility in a control mouse brain. High-sensitivity MRI cell tracking using SPIO offers new insights into immune cell kinetics in the brain and the mechanisms of CNS homeostasis.
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Frequency filtering based analysis on the cardiac induced lung tumor motion and its impact on the radiotherapy management.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Lung tumor motion may be impacted by heartbeat in addition to respiration. This study seeks to quantitatively analyze heart-motion-induced tumor motion and to evaluate its impact on lung cancer radiotherapy.
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Increased regulatory T cells in patients with liver cirrhosis correlated with hyperbilirubinemia and predict bacterial complications.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) were regarded as immunocompromised status with high incidence of bacterial infection. Regulatory T cell (Treg cell) is known as an immune suppressor and also plays an important role in patients with sepsis.
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Bilayer Molecular Assembly at a Solid/Liquid Interface as Triggered by a Mild Electric Field.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The construction of a spatially defined assembly of molecular building blocks, especially in the vertical direction, presents a great challenge for surface molecular engineering. Herein, we demonstrate that an electric field applied between an STM tip and a substrate triggered the formation of a bilayer structure at the solid-liquid interface. In contrast to the typical high electric-field strength (10(9) V?m(-1) ) used to induce structural transitions in supramolecular assemblies, a mild electric field (10(5) V?m(-1) ) triggered the formation of a bilayer structure of a polar molecule on top of a nanoporous network of trimesic acid on graphite. The bilayer structure was transformed into a monolayer kagome structure by changing the polarity of the electric field. This tailored formation and large-scale phase transformation of a molecular assembly in the perpendicular dimension by a mild electric field opens perspectives for the manipulation of surface molecular nanoarchitectures.
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Utilization of environmentally benign dicyandiamide as a precursor for the synthesis of ordered mesoporous carbon nitride and its application in base-catalyzed reactions.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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Assisted by a new dissolution procedure, dicyandiamide (DCDA), an environmentally benign and cheap precursor, has been employed for the synthesis of mesoporous carbon nitride (CN) materials through a nanocasting approach. The synthesized mesoporous materials possessed high specific surface areas (269-715?m(2) ?g(-1) ) with narrow pore-size distributions (about 5?nm) and faithfully replicated the mesostructures of the SBA-15 and FDU-12 templates. Several characterization techniques, including XRD, SAXS, TEM, Raman and FTIR spectroscopy, XPS, and CO2 -TPD, were used to analyze the physicochemical properties of these materials and the results showed that the mesoporous CND materials had graphitic-like structures and consisted of CN heterocycles, as well as amino groups. In a series of Knoevenagel condensation reactions, as exemplified by the reaction of various aldehydes and nitriles, these mesoporous CND materials demonstrated high and stable catalytic activities, owing to an abundance of basic sites.
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Vanno: A Visualization-aided Variant Annotation Tool.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Next-generation sequencing technologies (NGS) have revolutionized the field of genetics and are trending toward clinical diagnostics. Exome and targeted sequencing in a disease context represent a major NGS clinical application, considering its utility and cost-effectiveness. With the ongoing discovery of disease-associated genes, various gene panels have been launched for both basic research and diagnostic tests. However, the fundamental inconsistencies among the diverse annotation sources, software packages, and data formats have complicated the subsequent analysis. To manage disease-associated NGS data, we developed Vanno, a web-based application for in-depth analysis and rapid evaluation of disease causative genome sequence alterations. Vanno integrates information from biomedical databases, functional predictions from available evaluation models, and mutation landscapes from TCGA cancer types. A highly integrated framework that incorporates filtering, sorting, clustering and visual analytic modules is provided to facilitate exploration of oncogenomics datasets at different levels, such as gene, variant, protein domain or 3D structure. Such design is crucial for the extraction of knowledge from sequence alterations and translating biological insights into clinical applications. Taken together, Vanno supports almost all disease-associated gene tests and exome sequencing panels designed for NGS, providing a complete solution for targeted and exome sequencing analysis. Vanno is freely available at http://cgts.cgu.edu.tw/vanno. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Development of a universal metabolome-standard method for long-term LC-MS metabolome profiling and its application for bladder cancer urine-metabolite-biomarker discovery.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Large-scale metabolomics study requires a quantitative method to generate metabolome data over an extended period with high technical reproducibility. We report a universal metabolome-standard (UMS) method, in conjunction with chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), to provide long-term analytical reproducibility and facilitate metabolome comparison among different data sets. In this method, UMS of a specific type of sample labeled by an isotope reagent is prepared a priori. The UMS is spiked into any individual samples labeled by another form of the isotope reagent in a metabolomics study. The resultant mixture is analyzed by LC-MS to provide relative quantification of the individual sample metabolome to UMS. UMS is independent of a study undertaking as well as the time of analysis and useful for profiling the same type of samples in multiple studies. In this work, the UMS method was developed and applied for a urine metabolomics study of bladder cancer. UMS of human urine was prepared by (13)C2-dansyl labeling of a pooled sample from 20 healthy individuals. This method was first used to profile the discovery samples to generate a list of putative biomarkers potentially useful for bladder cancer detection and then used to analyze the verification samples about one year later. Within the discovery sample set, three-month technical reproducibility was examined using a quality control sample and found a mean CV of 13.9% and median CV of 9.4% for all the quantified metabolites. Statistical analysis of the urine metabolome data showed a clear separation between the bladder cancer group and the control group from the discovery samples, which was confirmed by the verification samples. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) test showed that the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.956 in the discovery data set and 0.935 in the verification data set. These results demonstrated the utility of the UMS method for long-term metabolomics and discovering potential metabolite biomarkers for diagnosis of bladder cancer.
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Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Materials Towards the Breakthrough of Organoelectronics.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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The design and characterization of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials for optoelectronic applications represents an active area of recent research in organoelectronics. Noble metal-free TADF molecules offer unique optical and electronic properties arising from the efficient transition and interconversion between the lowest singlet (S1 ) and triplet (T1 ) excited states. Their ability to harvest triplet excitons for fluorescence through facilitated reverse intersystem crossing (T1 ?S1 ) could directly impact their properties and performances, which is attractive for a wide variety of low-cost optoelectronic devices. TADF-based organic light-emitting diodes, oxygen, and temperature sensors show significantly upgraded device performances that are comparable to the ones of traditional rare-metal complexes. Here we present an overview of the quick development in TADF mechanisms, materials, and applications. Fundamental principles on design strategies of TADF materials and the common relationship between the molecular structures and optoelectronic properties for diverse research topics and a survey of recent progress in the development of TADF materials, with a particular emphasis on their different types of metal-organic complexes, D-A molecules, and fullerenes, are highlighted. The success in the breakthrough of the theoretical and technical challenges that arise in developing high-performance TADF materials may pave the way to shape the future of organoelectronics.
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Lineage Tracing Reveals Distinctive Fates for Mesothelial Cells and Submesothelial Fibroblasts during Peritoneal Injury.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Fibrosis of the peritoneal cavity remains a serious, life-threatening problem in the treatment of kidney failure with peritoneal dialysis. The mechanism of fibrosis remains unclear partly because the fibrogenic cells have not been identified with certainty. Recent studies have proposed mesothelial cells to be an important source of myofibroblasts through the epithelial-mesenchymal transition; however, confirmatory studies in vivo are lacking. Here, we show by inducible genetic fate mapping that type I collagen-producing submesothelial fibroblasts are specific progenitors of ?-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblasts that accumulate progressively in models of peritoneal fibrosis induced by sodium hypochlorite, hyperglycemic dialysis solutions, or TGF-?1. Similar genetic mapping of Wilms' tumor-1-positive mesothelial cells indicated that peritoneal membrane disruption is repaired and replaced by surviving mesothelial cells in peritoneal injury, and not by submesothelial fibroblasts. Although primary cultures of mesothelial cells or submesothelial fibroblasts each expressed ?-smooth muscle actin under the influence of TGF-?1, only submesothelial fibroblasts expressed ?-smooth muscle actin after induction of peritoneal fibrosis in mice. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of the PDGF receptor, which is expressed by submesothelial fibroblasts but not mesothelial cells, attenuated the peritoneal fibrosis but not the remesothelialization induced by hypochlorite. Thus, our data identify distinctive fates for injured mesothelial cells and submesothelial fibroblasts during peritoneal injury and fibrosis.
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Altered activation of the antagonist muscle during practice compromises motor learning in older adults.
J. Neurophysiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Aging impairs the activation of muscle; however, it remains unclear whether it contributes to deficits in motor learning in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine whether altered activation of antagonistic muscles in older adults during practice inhibits their ability to transfer a motor task ipsilaterally. Twenty young (25.1 ± 3.9 yr; 10 men, 10 women) and twenty older adults (71.5 ± 4.8 yr; 10 men, 10 women) participated. Half of the subjects practiced 100 trials of a rapid goal-directed task with ankle dorsiflexion and were tested 1 day later with elbow flexion (transfer). The rest did not perform any ankle practice and only performed the task with elbow flexion. The goal-directed task consisted of rapid movement (180 ms) to match a spatiotemporal target. For each limb, we recorded the EMG burst activity of the primary agonist and antagonist muscles. The rate of improvement during task acquisition (practice) was similar for young and older adults (P > 0.3). In contrast, only young adults were able to transfer the task to the upper limb. Specifically, young adults who practiced ankle dorsiflexion exhibited ?30% (P < 0.05) lower movement error and ?60% (P < 0.05) lower antagonist EMG burst activity compared with older adults who received equal practice and young adults who did not receive any ankle dorsiflexion practice. These results provide novel evidence that the deficient motor learning in older adults may be related to a differential activation of the antagonist muscle, which compromises their ability to acquire the task during practice.
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Neuromuscular control of goal-directed ankle movements differs for healthy children and adults.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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The purpose was to compare neuromuscular control of rapid ankle goal-directed movements in healthy preadolescent children and young adults.
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Targeted proteomics pipeline reveals potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of metastatic lung cancer in pleural effusion.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The ability to discriminate lung cancer malignant pleural effusion (LC-MPE) from benign pleural effusion has profound implications for the therapy and prognosis of lung cancer. Here, we established a pipeline to verify potential biomarkers for this purpose. In the discovery phase, label-free quantification was performed for the proteome profiling of exudative pleural effusion in order to select 34 candidate biomarkers with significantly elevated levels in LC-MPE. In the verification phase, signature peptides for 34 candidates were first confirmed by accurate inclusion mass screening (AIMS). To quantify the candidates in PEs, multiple reaction monitoring mass spectrometry (MRM-MS) with stable isotope-labeled standards (SIS) peptides was performed for the 34 candidate biomarkers using the QconCAT approach for the generation of the SIS peptides. The results of the MRM assay were used to prioritize candidates based on their discriminatory power in 82 exudative PE samples. The five potential biomarkers (ALCAM, CDH1, MUC1, SPINT1, and THBS4; AUC > 0.7) and one three-marker panel (SPINT1/SVEP1/THBS4; AUC = 0.95) were able to effectively differentiate LC-MPE from benign PE. Collectively, these results demonstrate that our pipeline is a feasible platform for verifying potential biomarkers for human diseases.
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Antagonizing STAT3 dimerization with a rhodium(III) complex.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Kinetically inert metal complexes have arisen as promising alternatives to existing platinum and ruthenium chemotherapeutics. Reported herein, to our knowledge, is the first example of a substitutionally inert, Group?9 organometallic compound as a direct inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription?3 (STAT3) dimerization. From a series of cyclometalated rhodium(III) and iridium(III) complexes, a rhodium(III) complex emerged as a potent inhibitor of STAT3 that targeted the SH2 domain and inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and dimerization. Significantly, the complex exhibited potent anti-tumor activities in an in?vivo mouse xenograft model of melanoma. This study demonstrates that rhodium complexes may be developed as effective STAT3 inhibitors with potent anti-tumor activity.
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Phylogenetic Position of the Genus Cyrtostrombidium, with a Description of Cyrtostrombidium paralongisomum nov. spec. and a Redescription of Cyrtostrombidium longisomum Lynn & Gilron, 1993 (Protozoa, Ciliophora) Based on Live Observation, Protargol Impregnation, and 18S
J. Eukaryot. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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We redescribe Cyrtostrombidium longisomum Lynn & Gilron, 1993, the type species of the genus Cyrtostrombidium, and describe the new species Cyrtostrombidium paralongisomum n. sp. using live observation, protargol staining and molecular data. The morphological characters of these two species are clearly distinct, i.e., dikinetid numbers in the girdle and ventral kineties; however, it is difficult to separate them by 18S rDNA sequences because they differ by only 8 bp, indicating that 18S rDNA sequences are insufficient for separating different species in the genus Cyrtostrombidium. We not only observed the position of the oral primordium in the genus Cyrtostrombidium but also observed a possibly homoplasious trait, a dorsal split in the girdle kinety, in (1) Apostrombidium, (2) Varistrombidium, and (3) Cyrtostrombidium/Williophrya. This partially supports the hypothesis of somatic ciliary pattern evolution recently put forth by Agatha and Strüder-Kypke.
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Objective Palliative Prognostic Score Among Patients With Advanced Cancer.
J Pain Symptom Manage
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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The accurate prediction of survival is one of the key factors in the decision-making process for patients with advanced illnesses.
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Cystatin C as a Predictor for Outcomes in Patients with Negligible Renal Function.
Blood Purif.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Background: High serum cystatin C (CysC) has been associated with clinical risks independently of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). This study aims to investigate the predictive power of CysC in patients with a negligible GFR. Methods: Patients on chronic hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis were enrolled for measurement of CysC levels and were followed up for one year. A daily urine amount <100 ml was considered negligible residual renal function (RRF). Results: CysC results were available in 183 dialysis patients. Of these, 131 patients had a negligible RRF. The multivariate Cox proportional hazards model showed that CysC was an independent predictor of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular and infection events in all dialysis patients and in dialysis patients with a negligible RRF. Conclusion: CysC maintained its predictive power for adverse outcomes in patients with no meaningful GFR, indicating that the prognostic value of CysC is independent of the GFR. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Monoamine oxidase A mediates prostate tumorigenesis and cancer metastasis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Tumors from patients with high-grade aggressive prostate cancer (PCa) exhibit increased expression of monoamine oxidase A (MAOA), a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamine neurotransmitters and dietary amines. Despite the association between MAOA and aggressive PCa, it is unclear how MAOA promotes PCa progression. Here, we found that MAOA functions to induce epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stabilize the transcription factor HIF1?, which mediates hypoxia through an elevation of ROS, thus enhancing growth, invasiveness, and metastasis of PCa cells. Knockdown and overexpression of MAOA in human PCa cell lines indicated that MAOA induces EMT through activation of VEGF and its coreceptor neuropilin-1. MAOA-dependent activation of neuropilin-1 promoted AKT/FOXO1/TWIST1 signaling, allowing FOXO1 binding at the TWIST1 promoter. Importantly, the MAOA-dependent HIF1?/VEGF-A/FOXO1/TWIST1 pathway was activated in high-grade PCa specimens, and knockdown of MAOA reduced or even eliminated prostate tumor growth and metastasis in PCa xenograft mouse models. Pharmacological inhibition of MAOA activity also reduced PCa xenograft growth in mice. Moreover, high MAOA expression in PCa tissues correlated with worse clinical outcomes in PCa patients. These findings collectively characterize the contribution of MAOA in PCa pathogenesis and suggest that MAOA has potential as a therapeutic target in PCa.
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Apolipoprotein C-III is an amyloid-?-binding protein and an early marker for Alzheimer's disease.
J. Alzheimers Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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It has been demonstrated that peripheral injection of anti-amyloid-? (A?) antibodies to patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and AD transgenic mice facilitate A? clearance. We hypothesized that peripheral circulating A?-binding proteins also possess the ability to enhance A? clearance and the levels of circulating A?-binding proteins could serve as early AD biomarkers. Circulating A?-binding proteins were isolated from plasma and identified by LC-MS/MS. Their levels were compared among non-demented individuals without AD family history (ND), with AD family history (ND-FH), and patients with mild AD. The results showed that most of the identified A?-binding proteins were apolipoproteins, i.e., apoA-I, apoB-100, apoC-III, and apoE. A? bound preferentially to apoA-I-enriched HDL, followed by apoC-III- and apoE-enriched VLDL, and bound less favorably to apoB-100-enriched LDL. Levels of apoA-I were reduced in AD patients and could be used to discriminate AD from ND groups (AUC: 0.93); whereas levels of apoC-III were reduced in both ND-FH and AD groups and could be used to differentiate ND-FH from ND individuals (AUC: 0.81). Both the levels of apoA-1 and apoC-III positively correlated with CASI and MMSE scores. In conclusion, these results suggest that plasma apoA-I could be a sensitive AD biomarker and individuals with low plasma levels of apoC-III are at risk for AD.
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Polygonum cuspidatum extracts as bioactive antioxidaion, anti-tyrosinase, immune stimulation and anticancer agents.
J. Biosci. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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In our study, it was applied for the technology of supercritical fluid carbon dioxide extraction to achieve biological constitutes from a Taiwan native plant, Polygonum cuspidatum. We developed bioactive effects of P. cuspidatum extracts via multiple examinations that established bio-purposes at a range of dosage ranges. The research of P. cuspidatum extracts indicated that they possessed anti-oxidative properties on radical-scavenging abilities, reducing activities and metal chelating powers in dose-dependant manners. The extracts also had minor in vitro mushroom tyrosinase suppression and decreased cellular tyrosinase activities and melanin production in B16-F10 cells. Immunologically, P. cuspidatum extracts enhanced the release of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) induced by THP-1 macrophage cell line. In addition, the cell proliferation showed anti-proliferation in dose-dependent manner on human skin melanoma cells, A375 and A375.S2, of the extracts suggesting biological constitutes employed the anti-cancer possessions. This is the first statement presenting bioactivities on P. cuspidatum extracts including anti-oxidation, immune stimulation, anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanoma as far as we know.
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ChIPseek, a web-based analysis tool for ChIP data.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Chromatin is a dynamic but highly regulated structure. DNA-binding proteins such as transcription factors, epigenetic and chromatin modifiers are responsible for regulating specific gene expression pattern and may result in different phenotypes. To reveal the identity of the proteins associated with the specific region on DNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is the most widely used technique. ChIP assay followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) or microarray (ChIP-chip) is often used to study patterns of protein-binding profiles in different cell types and in cancer samples on a genome-wide scale. However, only a limited number of bioinformatics tools are available for ChIP datasets analysis.
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Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of cancer mediated by tumor hypoxia and HIF1?/OATPs signaling axis.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging agents are promising tools for noninvasive cancer imaging. Here, we explored the mechanistic properties of a specific group of NIR heptamethine carbocyanines including MHI-148 dye we identified and synthesized, and demonstrated these dyes to achieve cancer-specific imaging and targeting via a hypoxia-mediated mechanism. We found that cancer cells and tumor xenografts exhibited hypoxia-dependent MHI-148 dye uptake in vitro and in vivo, which was directly mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?). Microarray analysis and dye uptake assay further revealed a group of hypoxia-inducible organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) responsible for dye uptake, and the correlation between OATPs and HIF1? was manifested in progressive clinical cancer specimens. Finally, we demonstrated increased uptake of MHI-148 dye in situ in perfused clinical tumor samples with activated HIF1?/OATPs signaling. Our results establish these NIRF dyes as potential tumor hypoxia-dependent cancer-targeting agents and provide a mechanistic rationale for continued development of NIRF imaging agents for improved cancer detection, prognosis and therapy.
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Right and left amygdalae activation in patients with major depression receiving antidepressant treatment, as revealed by fMRI.
Behav Brain Funct
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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A differential contribution of the right and left amygdalae to affective information processing has been proposed. However, the direction of this lateralization has not been confirmed. In this study, we used a pre- and post-treatment (escitalopram) design to analyze the relative differences between neural activity in the right and left amygdalae during exposure to emotional stimuli in currently depressed patients. To the best of our knowledge, this study is to compare neural activity between the left and right amygdalae in people with depression. Our findings could lead to the development of parameters or biomarkers for depressive symptoms and treatment response.
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SC-2001 overcomes STAT3-mediated sorafenib resistance through RFX-1/SHP-1 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide. Sorafenib, a small multikinase inhibitor, is the only approved therapy for advanced HCC. The clinical benefit of sorafenib is offset by the acquisition of sorafenib resistance. Understanding of the molecular mechanism of STAT3 overexpression in sorafenib resistance is critical if the clinical benefits of this drug are to be improved. In this study, we explored our hypothesis that loss of RFX-1/SHP-1 and further increase of p-STAT3 as a result of sorafenib treatment induces sorafenib resistance as a cytoprotective response effect, thereby, limiting sorafenib sensitivity and efficiency. We found that knockdown of RFX-1 protected HCC cells against sorafenib-induced cell apoptosis and SHP-1 activity was required for the process. SC-2001, a molecule with similar structure to obatoclax, synergistically suppressed tumor growth when used in combination with sorafenib in vitro and overcame sorafenib resistance through up-regulating RFX-1 and SHP-1 resulting in tumor suppression and mediation of dephosphorylation of STAT3. In addition, sustained sorafenib treatment in HCC led to increased p-STAT3 which was a key mediator of sorafenib sensitivity. The combination of SC-2001 and sorafenib strongly inhibited tumor growth in both wild-type and sorafenib-resistant HCC cell bearing xenograft models. These results demonstrate that inactivation of RFX/SHP-1 induced by sustained sorafenib treatment confers sorafenib resistance to HCC through p-STAT3 up-regulation. These effects can be overcome by SC-2001 through RFX-1/SHP-1 dependent p-STAT3 suppression. In conclusion, the use of SC-2001 in combination with sorafenib may constitute a new strategy for HCC therapy.
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A functional promoter polymorphism of SLC2A4 is associated with aerobic endurance in a Chinese population.
Eur J Sport Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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The G/A mutation in SLC2A4 promoter, rs5418, was investigated to assess the relationship between the SLC2A4 gene and aerobic endurance in the muscle uptake of glucose. Genotypic/allelic frequencies of rs5418 in SLC2A4 in 102 top-level long-distance runners (53 men and 49 women) were compared with those of 206 healthy controls (118 men and 88 women) from the same ethnic background (Han Chinese). The functional significance of rs5418 was analysed using the dual-luciferase reporter assay system. The A allele of SLC2A4 rs5418 was overrepresented in athletes (61.8%) compared with that in the controls (45.6%; P<0.05, power = 0.989), and the AA genotype in athletes (74.5%) was higher than that in the controls (66.0%; P<0.05, power = 0.999). The luciferase reporter vector containing the SLC2A4 promoter with rs5418-A alleles produced significantly greater relative luciferase activity (19.49 ± 4.41) than that with rs5418-G alleles (13.04 ± 4.45; P<0.05, power = 0.867). Our findings suggest that the AA genotype and A allele of SLC2A4 rs5418 were associated with top-level endurance performance in the northern Han Chinese population. The molecular mechanism was based on the functional mutation that changed the activity of the promoter, thereby affecting gene expression.
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Shorter daily dwelling time in peritoneal dialysis attenuates the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of mesothelial cells.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy is known to induce morphological and functional changes in the peritoneal membrane. Long-term exposure to conventional bio-incompatible dialysate and peritonitis is the main etiology of inflammation. Consequently, the peritoneal membrane undergoes structural changes, including angiogenesis, fibrosis, and hyalinizing vasculopathy, which ultimately results in technique failure. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of mesothelial cells (MCs) plays an important role during the above process; however, the clinical parameters associated with the EMT process of MCs remain to be explored.
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Angiopoietin-2-induced arterial stiffness in CKD.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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The mechanism of vascular calcification in CKD is not understood fully, but may involve collagen deposition in the arterial wall upon osteo/chondrocytic transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Increased levels of circulating angiopoietin-2 correlate with markers of CKD progression and angiopoietin-2 regulate inflammatory responses, including intercellular and vascular adhesion and recruitment of VSMCs. Here, we investigate the potential role of angiopoietin-2 in the pathogenesis of arterial stiffness associated with CKD. In a cohort of 416 patients with CKD, the plasma level of angiopoietin-2 correlated independently with the severity of arterial stiffness assessed by pulse wave velocity. In mice subjected to 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy or unilateral ureteral obstruction, plasma levels of angiopoietin-2 also increased. Angiopoietin-2 expression markedly increased in tubular epithelial cells of fibrotic kidneys but decreased in other tissues, including aorta and lung, after 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy. Expression of collagen and profibrotic genes in aortic VSMCs increased in mice after 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy and in mice producing human angiopoietin-2. Angiopoietin-2 stimulated endothelial expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules for monocytes, increased Ly6C(low) macrophages in aorta, and increased the expression of the profibrotic cytokine TGF-?1 in aortic endothelial cells and Ly6C(low) macrophages. Angiopoietin-2 blockade attenuated expression of monocyte chemokines, profibrotic cytokines, and collagen in aorta of mice after 5/6 subtotal nephrectomy. This study identifies angiopoietin-2 as a link between kidney fibrosis and arterial stiffness. Targeting angiopoietin-2 to attenuate inflammation and collagen expression may provide a novel therapy for cardiovascular disease in CKD.
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Risk factors of sensitization to human leukocyte antigen in end-stage renal disease patients.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Pre-sensitization to human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is closely related to the prognosis of renal transplantation. Concerning the risk factors for HLA sensitization, most studies focused only on selected transplant candidates.
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Fatostatin displays high antitumor activity in prostate cancer by blocking SREBP-regulated metabolic pathways and androgen receptor signaling.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Current research links aberrant lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis with prostate cancer development and progression. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBP; SREBP-1 and SREBP-2) are key transcription factors controlling lipogenesis and cholesterogenesis via the regulation of genes related to fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. Overexpression of SREBPs has been reported to be significantly associated with aggressive pathologic features in human prostate cancer. Our previous results showed that SREBP-1 promoted prostate cancer growth and castration resistance through induction of lipogenesis and androgen receptor (AR) activity. In the present study, we evaluated the anti-prostate tumor activity of a novel SREBP inhibitor, fatostatin. We found that fatostatin suppressed cell proliferation and anchorage-independent colony formation in both androgen-responsive LNCaP and androgen-insensitive C4-2B prostate cancer cells. Fatostatin also reduced in vitro invasion and migration in both the cell lines. Further, fatostatin caused G2-M cell-cycle arrest and induced apoptosis by increasing caspase-3/7 activity and the cleavages of caspase-3 and PARP. The in vivo animal results demonstrated that fatostatin significantly inhibited subcutaneous C4-2B tumor growth and markedly decreased serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level compared with the control group. The in vitro and in vivo effects of fatostatin treatment were due to blockade of SREBP-regulated metabolic pathways and the AR signaling network. Our findings identify SREBP inhibition as a potential new therapeutic approach for the treatment of prostate cancer.
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Aging and limb alter the neuromuscular control of goal-directed movements.
Exp Brain Res
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether the neuromuscular control of goal-directed movements is different for young and older adults with the upper and lower limbs. Twenty young (25.1 ± 3.9 years) and twenty older adults (71.5 ± 4.8 years) attempted to accurately match the displacement of their limb to a spatiotemporal target during ankle dorsiflexion or elbow flexion movements. We quantified neuromuscular control by examining the movement endpoint accuracy and variability, and the antagonistic muscle activity using surface electromyography (EMG). Our results indicate that older adults exhibit impaired endpoint accuracy with both limbs due to greater time variability. In addition, older adults exhibit greater EMG burst and lower EMG burst variability as well as lower coactivation of the antagonistic muscles. The impaired accuracy of older adults during upper limb movements was related to lower coactivation of the antagonistic muscles, whereas their impaired accuracy during lower limb movements was related to the amplified EMG bursts. The upper limb exhibited greater movement control than the lower limb, and different neuromuscular parameters were related to the accuracy and consistency for each limb. Greater endpoint error during upper limb movements was related to lower coactivation of the antagonistic muscles, whereas greater endpoint error during lower limb movements was related to the amplified EMG bursts. These findings indicate that the age-associated impairments in movement control are associated with altered activation of the involved antagonistic muscles. In addition, independent of age, the neuromuscular control of goal-directed movements is different for the upper and lower limbs.
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Comprehensive microRNA profiling of prostate cancer cells after ionizing radiation treatment.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression and have emerged as potential biomarkers in radiation response to human cancer. Only a few miRNAs have been identified in radiation response to prostate cancer and the involvement of the radiation-associated miRNA machinery in the response of prostate cancer cells to radiation is not thoroughly understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to comprehensively investigate the expression levels, arm selection preference and isomiRs of radiation-response miRNAs in radiation-treated PC3 cells using a next-generation sequencing (NGS) approach. Our data revealed that the arm selection preference and 3' modification of miRNAs may be altered in prostate cancer after radiation exposure. In addition, the proportion of AA dinucleotide modifications at the end of the read gradually increased in a time-dependent manner after PC3 radiation treatment. We also identified 6 miRNAs whose expression increased and 16 miRNAs whose expression decreased after exposure to 10 Gy of radiation. A pathway enrichment analysis revealed that the target genes of these radiation-induced miRNAs significantly co-modulated the radiation response pathway, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Wnt, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) and ErbB signaling pathways. Furthermore, analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database revealed that the expression of these radiation-induced miRNAs was frequently dysregulated in prostate cancer. Our study identified radiation-induced miRNA candidates which may contribute to radiosensitivity and can be used as biomarkers for radiotherapy.
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Sleep duration in Chinese adolescents: biological, environmental, and behavioral predictors.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To examine sleep duration-related risk factors from multidimensional domains among Chinese adolescents.
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Combining radiofrequency ablation and ethanol injection may achieve comparable long-term outcomes in larger hepatocellular carcinoma (3.1-4 cm) and in high-risk locations.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is more effective for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) < 3 cm. Combining percutaneous ethanol injection and RFA for HCC can increase ablation; however, the long-term outcome remains unknown. The aim of this study was to compare long-term outcomes between patients with HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations after combination therapy. The primary endpoint was overall survival and the secondary endpoint was local tumor progression (LTP). Fifty-four consecutive patients with 72 tumors were enrolled. Twenty-two (30.6%) tumors and 60 (83.3%) tumors were of 3.1-4 cm and in high-risk locations, respectively. Primary technique effectiveness was comparable between HCC of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4 cm (98% vs. 95.5%, p = 0.521), and HCC in non-high risk and high-risk locations (100% vs. 96.7%, p = 1.000). The cumulative survival rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 90.3%, 78.9%, and 60.3%, respectively, in patients with HCC of 2-3 cm; 95.0%, 84.4%, and 69.3% in HCC of 3.1-4.0 cm (p = 0.397); 90.0%, 71.1%, and 71.1% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 92.7%, 81.6%, and 65.4% in high-risk locations (p = 0.979). The cumulative LTP rates at 1 year, 3 years, and 5 years were 10.2%, 32.6%, and 32.6%, respectively, in all HCCs; 12.6%, 33.9%, and 33.9% in HCC of 2-3 cm; 4.8%, 29.5%, and 29.5% in HCC of 3.1-4 cm (p = 0.616); 16.7%, 50.0%, and 50.0% in patients with HCC in non-high-risk locations; and 8.8%, 29.9%, and 29.9% in patients with HCC in high-risk locations (p = 0.283). The cumulative survival and LTP rates were not significantly different among the various subgroups. Combining RFA and percutaneous ethanol injection achieved comparable long-term outcomes in HCCs of 2-3 cm versus 3.1-4.0 cm and in high-risk versus non-high-risk locations. A randomized controlled or cohort studies with larger sample size are warranted.
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Layer-by-layer thin film of reduced graphene oxide and gold nanoparticles as an effective sample plate in laser-induced desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This work demonstrated a simple platform for rapid and effective surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SALDI-TOF MS) measurements based on the layer structure of reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and gold nanoparticles. A multi-layer thin film was fabricated by alternate layer-by-layer depositions of rGO and gold nanoparticles (LBL rGO/AuNP). The flat and clean two-dimensional film was served as the sample plate and also functioned as the matrix in SALDI-TOF MS. By simply one-step deposition of analytes onto the LBL rGO/AuNP sample plate, the MS measurements of various homogeneous samples were ready to execute. The optimization of MS signal was reached by the variation of the layer numbers of rGO and gold nanoparticles. Also, the small molecules including amino acids, carbohydrates and peptides were successfully analyzed in SALDI-TOF MS using the LBL rGO/AuNP sample plate. The results showed that the signal intensity, S N(-1) ratio and reproducibility of SALDI-TOF spectra have been significantly improved in comparison to the uses of gold nanoparticles or ?-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHCA) as the assisted matrixes. Taking the advantages of the unique properties of rGO and gold nanoparticles, the ready-to-use MS sample plate, which could absorb and dissipate laser energy to analytes quite efficiently and homogeneously, has shown great commercial potentials for MS applications.
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Deep neck abscess as the predominant initial presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary: A case report.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Malignancies, which present as deep neck abscesses are uncommon and may result in a delayed diagnosis or potentially a misdiagnosis. The present study describes a patient who exhibited a deep neck abscess as the initial manifestation of carcinoma of unknown primary (CUP). The aim of the present study was to raise awareness of this unusual presentation of CUP and emphasize the importance of repeating targeted fine-needle aspiration cytology or biopsies in patients presenting with a deep neck abscess suspicious for malignancy.
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MicroRNA expression profiles in human breast cancer cells after multifraction and single-dose radiation treatment.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that contribute to modulating signaling pathways after radiation exposure and have emerged as a potential therapeutic target or biomarker in the radiation response of cancer. Exposing breast cancer cells to single-dose (SD) or multifractionated (MF) radiation may affect the cells differently. However, the roles of miRNAs in breast cancer cells after the response to SD or MF is not thoroughly understood. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to comprehensively investigate the response of miRNAs in MDA-MB-361 by using various radiation exposing protocols. Our results revealed that only a small fraction of miRNAs exhibiting differential expressions (>1.5?fold) was identified after MDA-MB-361 cells were exposed to SD (10 Gy) or MF radiation (2 Gy x 5 MF). In addition, we observed that several miRNAs in the MDA-MB-361 cells frequently exhibited differential responses to various types of radiation treatment. Among these miRNAs, the expression levels of an oncogenic miR-17-92 cluster increased following SD radiation treatment. Conversely, miR-19a-3p, miR-20a-5p, and miR-19b-3p expressions were inhibited by >1.5-fold in the following MF treatment. Further analysis of the miR-17-92 cluster expression levels revealed that miR-17, miR-18a, miR-19a/b and miR-20a were significantly overexpressed and miR-92a was downregulated in breast cancer. Functional annotation demonstrated that target genes of the miR-17-92 cluster were predominantly involved in the regulation of radiation-associated signal pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ErbB, p53, Wnt, transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), mTOR signaling pathways and cell cycles with an FDR <0.05. Overall, the results of the present study revealed distinct differences in the response of miRNAs to SD and MF radiation exposure, and these radiation-associated miRNAs may contribute to radiosensitivity and can be used as biomarkers for radiotherapy.
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Haemolytic uremic syndrome following fire ant bites.
BMC Nephrol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a severe, life-threatening disease with symptoms such as haemolytic anaemia, renal failure, and a low platelet count. Possible aetiology includes bacterial infections, medication, post-hematopoietic cell transplantation, pregnancy, autoimmune disease, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.
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An in situ study on the coalescence of monolayer-protected Au-Ag nanoparticle deposits upon heating.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The structural evolution of thiolate-protected nanoparticles of gold, silver, and their alloys with various Au/Ag ratios (3:1, 1:1, and 1:3) upon heating was investigated by means of in situ synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction. The relationships between the coalescence and composition of nanoparticles, as well as the surfactant reactions, were clarified. Experimental results show that there existed a critical temperature ranging from 120°C to 164°C, above which the tiny broad X-ray diffraction peaks became sharp and strong due to particle coalescence. The coalescence temperatures for alloy nanoparticle deposits were clearly lower than those for pure metals, which can be ascribed to the rivalry between the thermodynamic effect due to alloying and the interactions between surface-assembled layers and the surface atoms of the nanoparticles. The strong affinity of thiolates to Ag and thus complex interactions give rise to a greater energy barrier for the coalescence of nanoparticles into the bulk and subsequent high coalescence temperature. The influences of particle coalescence on the optical and electrical properties of the nanoparticle deposits were also explored.
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Glycemic control and radiographic manifestations of tuberculosis in diabetic patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Radiographic manifestations of pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have previously been reported, with inconsistent results. We conducted a study to investigate whether glycemic control has an impact on radiographic manifestations of pulmonary TB.
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Reducing Regioisomers of Fullerene-Bisadducts by Tether-Directed Remote Functionalization: Investigation of Electronically and Sterically Isomeric Effects on Bulk-Heterojunction Solar Cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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C60 bis-adduct containing a mixture of regio-isomers with different LUMO energy levels and steric geometries could greatly affect the morphological and bulk properties. To investigate the regio-isomer effect on solar cell performance, we have successfully designed and synthesized a regio-selective 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct (S-APM-CBA) by "tether-directed remote functionalization" strategy and a random 4-acetatephenyl-4-methylphenylmethano C60 bis-adduct denoted as R-APM-CBA by traditional cyclopropanation. The dramatic reduction in the number of regio-isomers in S-APM-CBA is confirmed by the (1)H NMR and HPLC measurements and theoretical calculation. Compared to the R-APM-CBA-based device with a Jsc of 6.63 mA/cm(2), an FF of 44.3% and a PCE of 2.46%, the device using S-APM-CBA yielded a much lower Jsc of 1.48 mA/cm(2), an FF of 32.2%, and a PCE of 0.38%. Consistently, the electron-only device using S-AMP-CBA exhibited lower electron mobility than the R-AMP-CBA-based device. These results imply that the electronic shallow-trap effect ascribed to the LUMO energy variations turned out to be insignificant in the AMP-CBA system. The lower efficiency and mobility of S-AMP-CBA might due to the assumption that the most probable trans-4-III isomer in S-AMP-CBA prevents the intermolecular facial contact of fullerenes, thereby hindering the electron transporting. Furthermore, the nanomorphology of S-AMP-CBA and R-AMP-CBA active layers could be different because of their different three-dimensional structures. This research demonstrated that steric effect of regio-isomers in a given C60 bis-adduct is more crucial than electronic shallow-trap effect.
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Changes of Tocopherols, Tocotrienols, ?-Oryzanol, and ?-Aminobutyric Acid Levels in the Germinated Brown Rice of Pigmented and Nonpigmented Cultivars.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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This study examined the changes of tocopherols (Toc), tocotrienols (T3), ?-oryzanol (GO), and ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) contents in germinated brown rice (GBR) of pigmented and nonpigmented cultivars under different germination conditions. Results showed that the Toc and T3 contents in GBR were significantly different between treatments in both rice cultivars. The pigmented GBR possessed higher total vitamin E, total Toc, total T3, and GO contents than the nonpigmented GBR; however, its level of GABA was lower. The order of the three highest vitamin E homologues in pigmented and nonpigmented GBR was ?-T3 > ?-Toc > ?-Toc and ?-Toc > ?-T3 > ?-T3, respectively; ?-Toc, ?-T3, ?-Toc, and ?-T3 were present in only small amounts (?1.0 mg/kg) in GBR of both cultivars. Although both cultivars showed an increase in GABA contents with increasing germination time, the GABA content in nonpigmented GBR was higher.
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OMICS in Ecology: Systems Level Analyses of Halobacterium salinarum Reveal Large-scale Temperature-Mediated Changes and a Requirement of CctA for Thermotolerance.
OMICS
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Abstract Halobacterium salinarum is an extremely halophilic archaeon that inhabits high-salinity aqueous environments in which the temperature can range widely, both daily and seasonally. An OMICS analysis of the 37°C and 49°C proteomes and transcriptomes for revealing the biomodules affected by temperature is reported here. Analysis of those genes/proteins displaying dramatic changes provided a clue to the coordinated changes in the expression of genes within five arCOG biological clusters. When proteins that exhibited minor changes in their spectral counts and insignificant p values were also examined, the apparent influence of the elevated temperatures on conserved chaperones, metabolism, translation, and other biomodules became more obvious. For instance, increases in all eight conserved chaperones and three arginine deiminase pathway enzymes and reductions in most tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes and ribosomal proteins suggest that complex system responses occurred as the temperature changed. When the requirement for the four proteins that showed the greatest induction at 49°C was analyzed, only CctA (chaperonin subunit ?), but not Hsp5, DpsA, or VNG1187G, was essential for thermotolerance. Environmental stimuli and other perturbations may induce many minor gene expression changes. Simultaneous analysis of the genes exhibited dramatic or minor changes in expression may facilitate the detection of systems level responses.
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The prognostic values of EGFR expression and KRAS mutation in patients with synchronous or metachronous metastatic colorectal cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2013
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The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/RAS/RAF/MEK/MAPK pathway is an important pathway in the carcinogenesis, invasion and metastasis of colorectal cancers (CRCs). We conducted a retrospective study to determine the prognostic values of EGFR expression and KRAS mutation in patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) based on synchronous or metachronous status.
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Effects of Areca Nut Extract on Lipopolysaccharides-Enhanced Adhesion and Migration of Human Mononuclear Leukocytes.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Background: Areca chewers have a higher prevalence of periodontitis than non-chewers. Cell adhesion and movement (migration) are important for the leukocyte recruitment to the inflammation sites. This study investigated the effects of areca nut extract (ANE) on the adhesion and migration abilities of human immune cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The combined effects of nicotine and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were also analyzed. Methods: Purified PBMC obtained from healthy adults were treated with ANE, nicotine and/or LPS. Cell adhesion ability was examined using fibronectin-coated microslides, Lius stain and light microscopy. Cell migration ability was evaluated using the transwell system followed by staining and fluorescence microscopy. Statistical difference was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. Results: When compared to the media-treated control samples, PBMC treated with ANE for 4 hours showed a significant reduction of the adherent cells on the microslides. Interestingly, LPS treatment increased cell adhesion which could be reduced by simultaneous ANE plus nicotine treatment. The chemotactic migration of PBMC was reduced by ANE treatment for 1, 4 or 24 hours in a dose-dependent manner. LPS treatment increased PBMC migration which could be reduced by simultaneous treatment with ANE or with ANE plus nicotine. Conclusions: ANE reduced the adhesion and migration abilities of PBMC. ANE, with or without nicotine, also attenuated the migration of LPS-stimulated PBMC. The results implicated that the immune cell functions were impaired in areca chewers which might increase the host susceptibility to oral and periodontal infection.
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Plasmonic phase transition and phase retardation: essential optical characteristics of localized surface plasmon resonance.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Phase transition that occurs around the spectral position of localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) has various applications for light manipulation and refractive index sensing. Previous studies focused on phase responses of specific plasmonic structures, whereas the general theoretical analysis remains inadequate. In this study, we analytically modeled the phase spectra and the intensity spectra of silver nanodots with temporal coupled-mode theory. The phase transition occurs at the transmission dip, whereas the phase of reflection varies much more gradually. We further derived the equation for the slope of the phase at the transmission dip, which is a function of the rates of Ohmic dissipation and emission. The theoretical analysis is also applicable for wide varieties of LSPR systems and provides an intuitive physical mechanism for phase properties. Then, based on the fundamental discussion, we further investigated plasmonic phase retardation in anisotropic nanodots for the application of boosting the figure of merit (FOM) of refractive index sensing. The anisotropic nanodots induce plasmonic phase transitions, which spectrally split, for transmission waves polarized along the symmetric axes. Thus, anisotropy induces relative phase retardation in the narrow spectral region between the wavelengths of the LSPRs. We numerically manipulated the full width at half maximum of the ellipsometric spectra by adjusting the aspect ratio of the nanodots and observed an FOM of 24.3. In addition, experiments were performed to demonstrate the feasibility of this arrangement.
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Neighboring-cation substitution tuning of photoluminescence by remote-controlled activator in phosphor lattice.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Highly efficient red phosphors with superior intrinsic properties that are excited by ultraviolet or blue light-emitting diodes are important white light sources for our daily life. Nitride-based phosphors, such as Sr2Si5N8:Eu(2+) and CaAlSiN3:Eu(2+), are commonly more red-shifted in photoluminescence and have better thermal/chemical stability than oxides. Cation substitutions are usually performed to optimize photoluminescence and thermal quenching behavior. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear in most cases. Here we show that neighboring-cation substitution systematically controls temperature-dependent photoluminescence behavior in CaAlSiN3:Eu(2+) lattice. Trivalent cation substitution at the Ca(2+) site degrades the photoluminescence in high-temperature environments but achieves better thermal stability when the substituted cation turns monovalent. The neighboring-cation control of lifetime decay is also observed. A remote control effect that guides Eu(2+) activators in selective Ca(2+) sites is proposed for neighboring-cation substitution while the compositional Si(4+)/Al(3+) ratio adjusts to the valence of M(n+) (n = 1-3) cation. In the remote control effect, the Eu(2+) activators are surrounded with nitride anions which neighbor with M(3+)-dominant and Si(4+)/Al(3+)-equivalent coordination when M is trivalent, but shift to the site where surrounded nitride anions neighbor with M(+)-dominant and Si-rich coordination when M is monovalent. This mechanism can efficiently tune optical properties, especially thermal stability, and could be general to luminescent materials, which are sensitive to valence variation in local environments.
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A self-assembled microbonded germanium/silicon heterojunction photodiode for 25?Gb/s high-speed optical interconnects.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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A novel technique using surface tension to locally bond germanium (Ge) on silicon (Si) is presented for fabricating high performance Ge/Si photodiodes. Surface tension is a cohesive force among liquid molecules that tends to bring contiguous objects in contact to maintain a minimum surface energy. We take advantage of this phenomenon to fabricate a heterojunction optoelectronic device where the lattice constants of joined semiconductors are different. A high-speed Ge/Si heterojunction waveguide photodiode is presented by microbonding a beam-shaped Ge, first grown by rapid-melt-growth (RMG) method, on top of a Si waveguide via surface tension. Excellent device performances such as an operating bandwidth of 17?GHz and a responsivity of 0.66 and 0.70?A/W at the reverse bias of -4 and -6?V, respectively, are demonstrated. This technique can be simply implemented via modern complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication technologies for integrating Ge on Si devices.
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Pituitary apoplexy induced by Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists for treating prostate cancer-report of first Asian case.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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We present the first Asian case of a 77-year-old man who developed pituitary apoplexy (PA) soon after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) (leuprorelin) injection to treat prostate cancer. Headache, ophthalmoplegia, visual field deficit, nausea, and vomiting are the typical characteristics of pituitary apoplexy. Though the occurrence rate is rare, the consequence of this condition can vary from mild symptoms such as headache to life-threatening scenarios like conscious change. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best imaging modality to detect PA and sublabial trans-sphenoid pituitary tumor removal can resolve most of PA symptoms and is so far the best solution in consensus. We also review 11 previous reported cases receiving GnRHa for androgen deprivation therapy of prostate cancer, and hope to alert clinicians to use GnRHa with caution.
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Various predictors of sustained virologic response in different age groups of patients with genotype-1 chronic hepatitis C.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Age is one of the sustained virologic response (SVR) predictors for genotype-1 chronic hepatitis C patients treated with pegylated interferon-?/ribavirin. However, variation of SVR predictors in different age groups was not explored before. We therefore conducted this study for investigating this issue.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.