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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A short-range ordered-disordered transition of a NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 pair induces switchable wettability.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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By virtue of its amorphous structure with a short-range order feature, the inorganic nanoporous nickel oxyhydroxide (NiOOH) can reversibly and rapidly switch wettability by alternate treatments of environmental chamber (superhydrophobic) and UV/ozone (superhydrophilic). The switchable mechanism of the NiOOH/Ni(OH)2 pair arising from its exceptional intrinsic short-range order-disorder transition together with chemical composition change is highlighted for the first time, which significantly differs from the current stimuli-responsive materials. This distinct multifunctional thin film not only possesses reversible wettability but also is optically patternable/repairable and electrically conductive, which could be applicable in the manufacturing of various micro- and nanostructures. We demonstrate this potential in the rewritable two-dimensional (2D) microfluidic channels and wetting-contrast enhanced selective electroplating.
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Delayed Administration of Alpha-Difluoromethylornithine Prevents Hippocampus-Dependent Cognitive Impairment After Single and Combined Injury in Mice.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Radiation exposure due to radiological terrorism and military circumstances are a continuing threat for the civilian population. In an uncontrolled radiation event, it is likely that there will be other types of injury involved, including trauma. While radiation combined injury is recognized as an area of great significance, overall there is a paucity of information regarding the mechanisms underlying the interactions between irradiation and other forms of injury, or what countermeasures might be effective in ameliorating such changes. The objective of this study was to determine if difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) could reduce the adverse effects of single or combined injury if administered beginning 24 h after exposure. Eight-week-old C57BL/J6 young-adult male mice received whole-body cesium-137 ((137)Cs) irradiation with 4 Gy. Immediately after irradiation, unilateral traumatic brain injury was induced using a controlled cortical impact system. Forty-four days postirradiation, animals were tested for hippocampus-dependent cognitive performance in the Morris water maze. After cognitive testing, animals were euthanized and their brains snap frozen for immunohistochemical assessment of neuroinflammation (activated microglia) and neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. Our data show that single and combined injuries induced variable degrees of hippocampus-dependent cognitive dysfunction, and when given 24 h post trauma, DFMO treatment ameliorated those effects. Cellular changes including neurogenesis and numbers of activated microglia were generally not associated with the cognitive changes. Further analyses also revealed that DFMO increased hippocampal protein levels of the antioxidants thioredoxin 1 and peroxiredoxin 3 compared to vehicle treated animals. While the mechanisms responsible for the improvement in cognition after DFMO treatment are not yet clear, these results constitute a basis for further development of DFMO as a countermeasure for ameliorating the of risks for cognitive dysfunction in individuals subjected to trauma and radiation combined injury.
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Observation of vortex domain structures in multiferroic hexagonal manganites RMnO3 by transmission electron microscopy.
Microscopy (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Multiferroic hexagonal manganite RMnO3 (R = rare-earth elements) shows improper ferroelectricity accompanied by tilting of MnO5 hexahedra as the primary order parameter. The ferroelectricity is originated from displacements of rare-earth ions along c-axis triggered by the MnO5 hexahedra tilting. Although coupling between ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic domains below the magnetic transition temperature of ?90 K has been reported from previous work[1], the relationship between the ferroelectric domains and structural domains due to the MnO5 hexahedra tilting has not been well-studied. In this talk, we will report our studies on unique patterns of ferroelectric antiphase domains with a vorticity in hexagonal RMnO3, obtained from the results of transmission electron microscopy [2].The electron diffraction patterns obtained at room temperature exhibit superlattice reflection spots due to the MnO5 hexahedra tilting and displacements of rare-earth ions along c-axis, in addition to the fundamental reflections associated with the high symmetry structure with the space group of P63/mmc. Unique antiphase/ferroelectric "cloverleaf-like" domain patterns are clearly observed in dark-field images taken using superlattice spots. The fundamental and superlattice dark-field imaging combined with high-resolution imaging clearly demonstrates that in the cloverleaf-like domain patterns the antiphase and ferroelectric domains arrange periodically with certain rotation direction. In addition, there exist two types of cloverleaf-like domain patterns with the opposite rotations next to each other in the superlattice dark-field images. These results indicate that the cloverleaf-like domain patterns can be considered as the aggregation of vortices and antivortices consisting of ferroelectric and antiphase domains.
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18F-FDG PET/CT as a semiquantitative imaging marker in HPV-p16-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers.
Nucl Med Commun
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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There is evidence that the status of human papilloma virus subtype 16 (HPV-p16) alters the prognosis of patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell cancer (OSCC). We sought to establish whether there is a relationship between HPV-p16 status and F-FDG uptake in the prognosis of OSCC.
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[Isokinetic muscle test of normal people's knees in different postures].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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To study the influence of different positions in the isokinetic muscle test of knees by CON-TREX Biomechanical Test and Training System, so as to select the suitable conditions for forensic identification of muscle strength test.
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Regulation profile of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) components towards UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) isoforms.
Xenobiotica
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
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Abstract 1.? Endogenous compounds have been reported to be the regulators of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs) isoforms. This study aims to investigate the regulatory effects of the activity of UGT isoforms by two important lipid components phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC) using in vitro incubation system. 2.? UGTs supersomes-catalyzed 4-methylumbelliferone (4-MU) glucuronidation was used as the probe reaction to evaluate the inhibition of compounds towards UGT isoforms except UGT1A4, and UGT1A4-catalyzed trifluoperazine (TFP) glucuronidation reaction was utilized to phenotype the activity of UGT1A4. 3.? About 50??M of LPC15:0, LPC16:0, LPC17:0, LPC18:0, LPC18:1 and PC16:0, 2:0 exhibited inhibition towards more than 90% activity of UGT isoforms, and other LPC and PC components showed negligible inhibitory potential towards all the UGT isoforms. UGT1A6 and UGT1A8 were identified to be the most sensitive UGT isoforms susceptible for the inhibition by LPC15:0, LPC16:0, LPC17:0, LPC18:0, LPC18:1 and PC16:0, 2:0, indicating the strong influence of these LPC and PC components towards UGT1A6 and UGT1A8-catalyzed metabolic reaction when the concentrations of these components increased.
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Proteomic Analysis in Serum of Rat Hind-limb Allograft Tolerance Induced by Immunosuppressive Therapy with Adipose-derived Stem Cells.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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Multi-rounds of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in combination with transient immunosuppression demonstrated prolongation of vascularized composite tissue allotransplant (VCA) survival and induced immune tolerance in a rodent hind-limb model. In this study, the serum proteins were investigated between the ASC-tolerance group and control group using proteomic study.
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Phylogenomics and evolutionary dynamics of the family actinomycetaceae.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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The family Actinomycetaceae comprises several important pathogens that impose serious threat to human health and cause substantial infections of economically important animals. However, the phylogeny and evolutionary dynamic of this family are poorly characterized. Here, we provide detailed description of the genome characteristics of Trueperella pyogenes, a prevalent opportunistic bacterium that belongs to the family Actinomycetaceae, and the results of comparative genomics analyses suggested that T. pyogenes was a more versatile pathogen than Arcanobacterium haemolyticum in adapting various environments. We then performed phylogenetic analyses at the genomic level and showed that, on the whole, the established members of the family Actinomycetaceae were clearly separated with high bootstrap values but confused with the dominant genus Actinomyces, because the species of genus Actinomyces were divided into three main groups with different G+C content. Although T. pyogenes and A. haemolyticum were found to share the same branch as previously determined, our results of single nucleotide polymorphism tree and genome clustering as well as predicted intercellular metabolic analyses provide evidence that they are phylogenetic neighbors. Finally, we found that the gene gain/loss events occurring in each species may play an important role during the evolution of Actinomycetaceae from free-living to a specific lifestyle.
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Dynamic observation of phase transformation behaviors in indium(III) selenide nanowire based phase change memory.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Phase change random access memory (PCRAM) has been extensively investigated for its potential applications in next-generation nonvolatile memory. In this study, indium(III) selenide (In2Se3) was selected due to its high resistivity ratio and lower programming current. Au/In2Se3-nanowire/Au phase change memory devices were fabricated and measured systematically in an in situ transmission electron microscope to perform a RESET/SET process under pulsed and dc voltage swept mode, respectively. During the switching, we observed the dynamic evolution of the phase transformation process. The switching behavior resulted from crystalline/amorphous change and revealed that a long pulse width would induce the amorphous or polycrystalline state by different pulse amplitudes, supporting the improvement of the writing speed, retention, and endurance of PCRAM.
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Synthesis, Biological Evaluation, and Molecular Docking Studies of Xanthone Sulfonamides as ACAT Inhibitors.
Chem Biol Drug Des
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Three series of xanthone sulfonamides were synthesized, and their inhibitory activities against acyl-CoA: cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) were evaluated. Results showed that most of the title compounds exhibited strong inhibitory activity against ACAT, of which compounds 1c, 1e, 1f, 2d, 2e, and 3d were proved to be more active than the positive control Sandoz 58-035. Computational docking experiments indicated that the interaction between inhibitors and ACAT contained the H-bond interaction, the hydrophobic interaction, and the narrow hydrophobic cleft.
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Understanding and tuning electronic structure in modified ceria nanocrystals by defect engineering.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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This study investigates the effect of Fe(3+) on the electronic structure of nanocrystalline ceria. Systematic synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy coupled with scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy was utilized. The oxygen vacancies can be engineered and their number varied with the degree of iron doping. Comparing the local electronic structure around Ce sites with that around Fe sites reveals two stages of defect engineering. The concentration of Ce(3+) and the distribution of defects differ between lower and higher degrees of doping. Charge is transferred between Ce and Fe when the doping level is less than 5%, but this effect is not significant at a doping level of over 5%. This transfer of charge is verified by energy loss spectroscopy. These Fe-modified ceria nanoparticles exhibit core-shell-like structures at low doping levels and this finding is consistent with the results of scanning transmission electron microscopy/electron energy loss spectroscopy. More Fe is distributed at the surface for doping levels less than 5%, whereas the homogeneity of Fe in the system increases for doping levels higher than 5%. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that Ce, rather than Fe, is responsible for the ferromagnetism. Interestingly, Ce(3+) is not essential for producing the ferromagnetism. The oxygen vacancies and the defect structure are suggested to be the main causes of the ferromagnetism. The charge transfer and defect structure Fe(3+)-Vo-Ce(3+) and Fe(3+)-Vo-Fe(3+) are critical for the magnetism, and the change in saturated magnetization can be understood as being caused by the competition between interactions that originate from magnetic polarons and from paired ions.
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PRISE2: software for designing sequence-selective PCR primers and probes.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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PRISE2 is a new software tool for designing sequence-selective PCR primers and probes. To achieve high level of selectivity, PRISE2 allows the user to specify a collection of target sequences that the primers are supposed to amplify, as well as non-target sequences that should not be amplified. The program emphasizes primer selectivity on the 3' end, which is crucial for selective amplification of conserved sequences such as rRNA genes. In PRISE2, users can specify desired properties of primers, including length, GC content, and others. They can interactively manipulate the list of candidate primers, to choose primer pairs that are best suited for their needs. A similar process is used to add probes to selected primer pairs. More advanced features include, for example, the capability to define a custom mismatch penalty function. PRISE2 is equipped with a graphical, user-friendly interface, and it runs on Windows, Macintosh or Linux machines.
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Berberine induces hERG channel deficiency through trafficking inhibition.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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The human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) encodes the ? subunit of the IKr, which plays an essential role in repolarization of action potentials. hERG channels are targeted by various pro-arrhythmic drugs. Berberine (BBR) was previously found to acutely inhibit hERG currents and prolong action potential duration. The present study aimed to determine long-term effects of BBR on the expression of 135kDa/155kDa hERG and the mechanism.
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The rescuable function and mechanism of resveratrol on As2O 3-induced hERG K (+) channel deficiency.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2014
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Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) is used to treat acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, the cardiotoxicity of long QT syndrome restricts its clinical application. Previous studies showed that As2O3 can damage the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) current via disturbing its trafficking to cellular membrane. This study aimed to investigate whether the As2O3-insulted hERG channel can be rescued by resveratrol, a recognized cardioprotective agent. The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record the hERG current and action potential duration. Co-immunoprecipitation and Western blot assay were applied to determine the function of hERG-Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone complexes and the expression alteration of protein-folding-related proteins, respectively. Compared with treatment of As2O3 alone, co-treatment with resveratrol successfully restored the current and surface expression of hERG and obviously shortened action potential duration in guinea pig ventricular myocytes. Further experiments demonstrate that resveratrol relieved As2O3-caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by restoring the function of hERG-Hsp70/Hsp90 chaperone complexes and downregulating the protein expression of ER chaperone proteins (calnexin and calreticulin) and activating transcription factor 6. In conclusion, resveratrol was able to rescue the trafficking deficiency and relieve the ER stress (ERS). Our findings suggest that resveratrol has a potential effect to alleviate the adverse effect of As2O3 on cardiotoxicity.
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Safety of inactivated monovalent pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccination during pregnancy: A population-based study in Taiwan.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Pregnant women were prioritized for H1N1 vaccination during the 2009-2010 pandemic. Safety concerns exist with vaccinating pregnant women, particularly in their first trimesters.
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Prolonging life in chick forebrain-neuron culture and acquiring spontaneous spiking activity on a microelectrode array.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Various types of animal neurons were cultured on a microelectrode array (MEA) platform to form biosensors to detect potential environmental neurotoxins. For a large-scale screening tool, rodent MEA-based cortical-neuron biosensors would be very costly but chick forebrain neurons (FBNs) are abundant, cost-effective, and easy to dissect. However, chick FBNs have a lifespan of ~14 days in vitro and their spontaneous spike activity (SSA) has been difficult to develop and detect. We used a high-density neuron-glia co-culture on an MEA to prolong chick FBN lifetime to 3 months with lifetime-long SSA. A remarkable embryonic age-dependency in the culture's morphology, lifespan, and most features of SSA signal was discovered. Our results show the feasibility of developing a chick FBN-MEA biosensor and also establish a new electrophysiological platform for functional study of an in vitro neuronal network.
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GC-MS based metabolomics identification of possible novel biomarkers for schizophrenia in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Schizophrenia is a debilitating mental disorder. Currently, the lack of disease biomarkers to support objective laboratory tests constitutes a bottleneck in the clinical diagnosis of schizophrenia. Here, a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based metabolomic approach was applied to characterize the metabolic profile of schizophrenia subjects (n = 69) and healthy controls (n = 85) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to identify and validate biomarkers for schizophrenia. Multivariate statistical analysis was used to visualize group discrimination and to identify differentially expressed metabolites in schizophrenia subjects relative to healthy controls. The multivariate statistical analysis demonstrated that the schizophrenia group was significantly distinguishable from the control group. In total, 18 metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups were identified. These differential metabolites were mainly involved in energy metabolism, oxidative stress and neurotransmitter metabolism. A simplified panel of PBMC metabolites consisting of pyroglutamic acid, sorbitol and tocopherol-? was identified as an effective diagnostic tool, yielding an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.82 in the training samples (45 schizophrenia subjects and 50 healthy controls) and 0.71 in the test samples (24 schizophrenic patients and 35 healthy controls). Taken together, these findings help to develop diagnostic tools for schizophrenia.
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Co-spread of oqxAB and blaCTX-M-9G in non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolates mediated by ST2-IncHI2 plasmids.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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In this study, 130 non-Typhi Salmonella enterica isolates from chickens were analysed for the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants as well as the co-existence of oqxAB and extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL) genes. The genes oqxAB, aac(6')-Ib-cr, blaCTX-M-9G and blaTEM were present alone or in combination in 40 (30.8%), 40 (30.8%), 55 (42.3%) and 2 (1.5%) isolates, respectively. Most of the oqxAB-blaCTX-M-9G-positive isolates (17/28) carried transferable ST2-IncHI2 plasmids containing an oqxAB cassette and blaCTX-M-14 flanked by insertion sequences IS10 or ISEcp1 upstream and IS903 downstream. The oqxAB-blaCTX-M-9G-positive isolates from a local area showed similar pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns, whilst the isolates from different areas were genetically divergent, suggesting that both clonal expansion in local areas and horizontal transmission contributed to the spread of ST2-IncHI2 plasmids containing oqxAB and blaCTX-M-14. This is the first report on the prevalence of ST2-IncHI2 plasmids concomitantly carrying oqxAB and blaCTX-M-14 in Salmonella and also the first description of the genetic environment of oqxAB-blaCTX-M. The genetic linkage of oqxAB-blaCTX-M-9G in non-Typhi Salmonella likely facilitates the spread of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella and poses a threat for clinical treatment of salmonellosis.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Cricetulus kamensis (Rodentia: Cricetidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Abstract The Cricetulus kamensis is endemic to China and is popular as pet. In the present study, the complete mitogenome of C. kamensis was first determined. It was 16,270?bp in length and the composition and arrangement of its genes are analogous to most other mammals. The overall base composition of heavy strand is 33.2% A, 26.8% T, 27.2% C and 12.7% G. The sequence is highly G-C poor (?40%) and A is the most numerous nucleotide followed by T?>C?>G, which is similar to other mammalian mitochondrial genomes. It is notable that three extra bases "CAT" were inserted in cytb at the 3' end position and no stop codon was found for this coding region. The mitogenome sequence of C. kamensis could contribute to a better solution of its phylogenetic position and phylogenetic relationship within Cricetinae in the future.
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Prognostic impact of renin-angiotensin system blockade in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the administration of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors, angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), is associated with treatment outcome in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
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Characterization of Plasmids Carrying oqxAB in blaCTX-M-Negative Escherichia coli Isolates from Food-Producing Animals.
Microb. Drug Resist.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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To study the characteristics of plasmids harboring oqxAB among blaCTX-M-negative Escherichia coli isolates and search for oqxAB-harboring plasmids similar to plasmids carrying oqxAB-blaCTX-M reported previously, conjugation experiment was performed for 115 randomly selected oqxAB-positive but blaCTX-M-negative E. coli isolates from diseased animals in Guangdong, China. S1 nuclease pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and southern blotting experiments were performed to investigate the location of oqxAB and other resistance genes. The EcoRI digestion profiles of the plasmids with oqxAB were also analyzed. The clonal relatedness of donor isolates was investigated by PFGE. In this study, 32 oqxAB transconjugants were successfully obtained and most transconjugants showed multidrug resistances. Eleven replicon combination types were found in these transconjugants. floR and oqxAB were found on the same plasmids in all nine transconjugants resistant to florfenicol. The sequences between floR and oqxAB were identical in most transconjugants and the two genes were both linked with tnp in insertion sequences. Nine F18:A-:B1 plasmids with only oqxAB shared identical EcoRI digestion profiles and the profiles were also identical with that of a plasmid carrying oqxAB-blaCTX-M found previously. Co-transfer of plasmids carrying oqxAB and fosA3, respectively, was also observed in one isolate. This study demonstrates the dissemination of oqxAB among blaCTX-M-negative E. coli isolates was mainly mediated by identical F18:A-:B1 plasmids. A novel arrangement of regions between floR and oqxAB might play an important role in the dissemination of floR-oqxAB. This is the first description of the genetic environment of the relationship between oqxAB and floR in E. coli.
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Color theorems, chiral domain topology, and magnetic properties of Fe(x)TaS2.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Common mathematical theories can have profound applications in understanding real materials. The intrinsic connection between aperiodic orders observed in the Fibonacci sequence, Penrose tiling, and quasicrystals is a well-known example. Another example is the self-similarity in fractals and dendrites. From transmission electron microscopy experiments, we found that FexTaS2 crystals with x = 1/4 and 1/3 exhibit complicated antiphase and chiral domain structures related to ordering of intercalated Fe ions with 2a × 2a and ?3a × ?3a superstructures, respectively. These complex domain patterns are found to be deeply related with the four color theorem, stating that four colors are sufficient to identify the countries on a planar map with proper coloring and its variations for two-step proper coloring. Furthermore, the domain topology is closely relevant to their magnetic properties. Our discovery unveils the importance of understanding the global topology of domain configurations in functional materials.
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Iron-catalyzed synthesis of thioesters from thiols and aldehydes in water.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The preparation of thioesters through the iron-catalyzed coupling reaction of thiols with aldehydes is described. The reactions were carried out by using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) as an oxidant and water as a solvent in most cases. This system is compatible with a variety of functional groups.
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Association of miRNA-related Genetic Polymorphisms and Prognosis in Patients with Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is a deadly disease with a poor prognosis. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in microRNA (miRNA) functions are potential biomarkers for prognosis of various human cancers. We investigated the association of the miRNA-related SNPs with the prognosis of ESCC.
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Dual channel sensitive detection of hsa-miR-21 based on rolling circle amplification and quantum dots tagging.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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An isothermal, highly sensitive and specific assay for the detection of hsa-miR-21 with the integration of QDs tagging and rolling circle amplification was offered. In addition, a dual channel strategy for miRNA detection was proposed: anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) and fluorescent method were both performed for the final Cd2+ signal readout. The designed strategy exhibited good specificity to hsa-miR-21 and presented comparable detection results by detection methods.
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Enhanced accuracy of optical platelet counts in microcytic anemia.
Lab Med
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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To determine whether microcytic erythrocytes influence the accuracy of automated platelet (PLT) counting.
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Real time observation of the formation of hollow nanostructures through solid state reactions.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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We demonstrate the formation of hollow nickel germanide nanostructures of Ni-Ge core-shell nanoparticles by solid state reactions. The structural evolutions of nickel germanide hollow nanostructures have been investigated in real-time ultrahigh vacuum transmission electron microscopy (UHV-TEM). Annealed above 450 °C, the nonequilibrium interdiffusion of core and shell species occurred at the interface; thus, Ni germanide hollow nanostructures were formed by solid state reactions involving the Kirkendall effect. In addition, the different hollow nanostructures formed from different core diameters of Ni-Ge core-shell nanoparticles have been studied. Also, we propose the mechanism with effects of the size and annealing duration on the solid state reactions based on the Kirkendall effect.
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An investigation of indomethacin-nicotinamide cocrystal formation induced by thermal stress in the solid or liquid state.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The impact of thermal stress on indomethacin (IMC)-nicotinamide (NIC) cocrystal formation with or without neat cogrinding was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy, and simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy in the solid or liquid state. Different evaporation methods for preparing IMC-NIC cocrystals were also compared. The results indicated that even after cogrinding for 40 min, the FTIR spectra for all IMC-NIC ground mixtures were superimposable on the FTIR spectra of IMC and NIC components, suggesting there was no cocrystal formation between IMC and NIC after cogrinding. However, these IMC-NIC ground mixtures appear to easily undergo cocrystal formation after the application of DSC determination. Under thermal stress induced by DSC, the amount of cocrystal formation increased with increasing cogrinding time. Moreover, simultaneous DSC-FTIR microspectroscopy was a useful one-step technique to induce and clarify the thermal-induced stepwise mechanism of IMC-NIC cocrystal formation from the ground mixture in real time. Different solvent evaporation rates induced by thermal stress significantly influenced IMC-NIC cocrystal formation in the liquid state. In particular, microwave heating may promote IMC-NIC cocrystal formation in a short time.
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Highly conductive and low cost Ni-PET flexible substrate for efficient dye-sensitized solar cells.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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The highly conductive and flexible nickel-polyethylene terephthalate (Ni-PET) substrate was prepared by a facile way including electrodeposition and hot-press transferring. The effectiveness was demonstrated in the counter electrode of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The Ni film electrodeposition mechanism, microstructure, and DSSC performance for the Ni-PET flexible substrate were investigated. The uniform and continuous Ni film was first fabricated by electroplating metallic Ni on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) and then intactly transferred onto PET via hot-pressing using Surlyn as the joint adhesive. The obtained flexible Ni-PET substrate shows low sheet resistance of 0.18?/? and good chemical stability for the I(-)/I(3-) electrolyte. A high light-to-electric energy conversion efficiency of 7.89% was demonstrated in DSSCs system based on this flexible electrode substrate due to its high conductivity, which presents an improvement of 10.4% as compared with the general ITO-PEN flexible substrate. This method paves a facile and cost-effective way to manufacture various metals on a plastic nonconducive substrate beneficial for the devices toward flexible and rollable.
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Biosorption of strontium from simulated nuclear wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus under culture conditions: adsorption and bioaccumulation processes and models.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Algae biosorption is an ideal wastewater treatment method when coupled with algae growth and biosorption. The adsorption and bioaccumulation of strontium from simulated nuclear wastewater by Scenedesmus spinosus were investigated in this research. One hundred mL of cultured S. spinosus cells with a dry weight of 1.0 mg in simulated nuclear wastewater were used to analyze the effects on S. spinosus cell growth as well as the adsorption and bioaccumulation characters under conditions of 25 ± 1 °C with approximately 3,000 lux illumination. The results showed that S. spinosus had a highly selective biosorption capacity for strontium, with a maximum bioremoval ratio of 76%. The adsorbed strontium ion on cell walls was approximately 90% of the total adsorbed amount; the bioaccumulation in the cytoplasm varied by approximately 10%. The adsorption quantity could be described with an equilibrium isotherm. The pseudo-second-order kinetic model suggested that adsorption was the rate-limiting step of the biosorption process. A new bioaccumulation model with three parameters was proposed and could give a good fit with the experiment data. The results suggested that S. spinosus may be a potential biosorbent for the treatment of nuclear wastewater in culture conditions.
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Seasonal synchrony in incidences of common infectious diagnoses in early childhood among neighbouring regions.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Information on seasonal synchrony of influenza activity between neighbouring regions has been found useful for planning infection control measures. Seasonal synchrony of other infectious diseases is less known. We describe the seasonality and seasonal synchrony of three common childhood infectious diagnoses among three regions in Taiwan.
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Behaviors of Biomass and Kinetic Parameter for Nitrifying Species in A(2)O Process at Different Sludge Retention Time.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The effect of sludge retention time (SRT) on biomass, kinetic parameters, and stoichiometric parameters of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)O) process were explored in this study. The results showed that the growth rate constants were 1.52, 1.22, and 0.85 day(-1), respectively, for AOB, those were 1.59, 1.19, and 0.87 day(-1), respectively, for NOB when SRT was 20, 10, and 5 days. The lysis rate constants of AOB and NOB were 0.14 and 0.09 day(-1), respectively. The yield coefficients were 0.23 and 0.22, respectively, for AOB and NOB. They did not change with SRT obviously. The biomass of AOB was 50.94, 26.35, and 14.68 mg L(-1), respectively, and the biomass of NOB was 116.77, 60.00, and 44.25 mg L(-1), respectively, at SRT of 20, 10, and 5 days. When SRT diminished from 20 to 5 days, the biomass of AOB and NOB diminished by 36.26 and 75.52 mg L(-1), respectively. The removal efficiency of NH4 (+)-N diminished by 68.9 %. The removal efficiency of total nitrogen diminished by 42.9 %.
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High electrocatalytic and wettable nitrogen-doped microwave-exfoliated graphene nanosheets as counter electrode for dye-sensitized solar cells.
Small
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2014
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In this paper, high electrocatalytic and wettable nitrogen-doped microwave-exfoliated graphene (N-MEG) nanosheets are used as Pt-free counter electrode (CE) for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). A low cost solution-based process is developed by using cyanamide (NH2 CN) at room temperature and normal pressure. The pyrrolic and pyridinic N atoms are doped into the carbon conjugated lattice to enhance electrocatalytic activity. N-MEG film having N-doping active sites and large porosity provides a wettable surface to facilitate electrolyte diffusion so that improves fill factor. Moreover, the control of the air exposure time after completing N-MEG film is found to be crucial to obtain a reliable N-MEG CE. A high DSSC efficiency up to 7.18% can be achieved based on N-MEG CE, which is nearly comparable to conventional Pt CE.
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Serum proteomic analysis of extracorporeal shock wave therapy-enhanced diabetic wound healing in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes model.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Previous studies have demonstrated that extracorporeal shock wave therapy has a significant positive effect on accelerating diabetic wound healing. However, the systemic effect after therapy is still unclear.
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Fertility-preserving treatment in young women with endometrial adenocarcinoma: a long-term cohort study.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Growing evidence suggests that fertility-preserving treatment is feasible for young women with early-stage, low-grade endometrial carcinoma. However, published data on their long-term outcomes and prognostic factors remain scanty. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of young women receiving fertility-preserving treatment.
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MicroRNA-29a promotion of nephrin acetylation ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced podocyte dysfunction.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Podocyte dysfunction is a detrimental feature in diabetic nephropathy, with loss of nephrin integrity contributing to diabetic podocytopathy. MicroRNAs (miRs) reportedly modulate the hyperglycemia-induced perturbation of renal tissue homeostasis. This study investigated whether regulation of histone deacetylase (HDAC) actions and nephrin acetylation by miR-29 contributes to podocyte homeostasis and renal function in diabetic kidneys. Hyperglycemia accelerated podocyte injury and reduced nephrin, acetylated nephrin, and miR-29a levels in primary renal glomeruli from streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. Diabetic miR-29a transgenic mice had better nephrin levels, podocyte viability, and renal function and less glomerular fibrosis and inflammation reaction compared with diabetic wild-type mice. Overexpression of miR-29a attenuated the promotion of HDAC4 signaling, nephrin ubiquitination, and urinary nephrin excretion associated with diabetes and restored nephrin acetylation. Knockdown of miR-29a by antisense oligonucleotides promoted HDAC4 action, nephrin loss, podocyte apoptosis, and proteinuria in nondiabetic mice. In vitro, interruption of HDAC4 signaling alleviated the high glucose-induced apoptosis and inhibition of nephrin acetylation in podocyte cultures. Furthermore, HDAC4 interference increased the acetylation status of histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3K9Ac), the enrichment of H3K9Ac in miR-29a proximal promoter, and miR-29a transcription in high glucose-stressed podocytes. In conclusion, hyperglycemia impairs miR-29a signaling to intensify HDAC4 actions that contribute to podocyte protein deacetylation and degradation as well as renal dysfunction. HDAC4, via epigenetic H3K9 hypoacetylation, reduces miR-29a transcription. The renoprotective effects of miR-29a in diabetes-induced loss of podocyte integrity and renal homeostasis highlights the importance of post-translational acetylation reactions in podocyte microenvironments. Increasing miR-29a action may protect against diabetic podocytopathy.
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Endometrial cysts within the liver: a rare entity and its differential diagnosis with mucinous cystic neoplasms of the liver.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Endometrial cysts within the liver are rare but can present as diagnostic challenges on small biopsies or frozen sections and may mimic mucinous cystic neoplasms (MCN) of the liver. Five cases of endometrial cysts and 6 cases of MCNs within the liver were collected. The clinicopathological, imaging, and immunohistochemical features were systematically reviewed and compared. The average size of the endometrial cysts was 8.3 cm. Four patients had a prior pelvic operation and coexisting endometriosis at other sites. All 5 cases of endometrial cysts had positive ER staining within both the epithelium and the stroma. PR was also positive in both epithelial and stromal cells in 4 cases. Four cases had additional immunostains performed, which all showed cytokeratin 19 and cytokeratin 7 positivity (only in epithelium) and CD10 positivity (only in stroma). ?-Inhibin and calretinin were negative for both the epithelium and the stroma in all 4 cases. All 6 MCN cases (mean size, 11.1 cm) had positive ER, PR, and ?-inhibin staining only in the stroma. ER and PR were positive in both the epithelium and stromal cells in endometrial cysts, whereas they were positive only in the stromal cells of MCNs. The stromal cells were CD10 positive and ?-inhibin negative in endometrial cysts as opposed to the opposite staining pattern in MCNs. Awareness of this distinct staining pattern and the possibility of endometrial cysts in the liver can lead to accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatment modalities.
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Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech.
Front Psychol
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.
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Cannabinoid receptor 1 disturbance of PPAR?2 augments hyperglycemia induction of mesangial inflammation and fibrosis in renal glomeruli.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Intensive fibrosis in the glomerular microenvironment is a prominent feature of diabetic nephropathy. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) reportedly mediates diabetes-induced renal injury. However, studies on the molecular events underlying CB1R promotion of renal dysfunction are limited. This study is undertaken to investigate whether CB1R signaling via Ras or PPAR? pathway regulates mesangial fibrosis in diabetic kidneys. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, hyperglycemia induced glomerular hypertrophy and fibrosis in association with increased IL-1?, fibronectin, and CB1R expressions and reduced PPAR?2 signaling. CB1R transgenic mice gained kidney weight, and renal glomeruli strongly displayed IL-1? and fibrotic matrices. Disruption of CB1R by antisense oligonucleotides or inverse agonist AM251 restored PPAR?2 signaling and reduced the promotional effects of hyperglycemia on the expression of fibrogenic transcription factor c-Jun, inflammation regulator SOCS3, proinflammatory cytokines, and accumulation of fibrotic matrix. PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone reduced the hyperglycemia-mediated enhancement of CB1R signaling, inflammation, and glomerular fibrosis in diabetic animals. In vitro, CB1R antagonism restored PPAR?2 action and reduced the promotional effects of high glucose on Ras, ERK, c-Jun, SOCS3 signaling, IL-1?, and fibronectin expression in renal mesangial cells. Activation of PPAR?2 reduced the high glucose-induced CB1R expression in mesangial cells. Taken together, CB1R signaling contributes to the hyperglycemia disturbance of PPAR?2 signaling and increases inflammatory cytokine secretion and fibrotic matrix deposition in renal glomeruli. CB1R mediates the hyperglycemia-induced inflammation and fibrosis in mesangial cells by regulating Ras, ERK, and PPAR?2 signaling. CB1R blockade has a therapeutic potential to reduce the deleterious actions of hyperglycemia on renal glomerular integrity.
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Direct electroplated metallization on indium tin oxide plastic substrate.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Looking foward to the future where the device becomes flexible and rollable, indium tin oxide (ITO) fabricated on the plastic substrate becomes indispensable. Metallization on the ITO plastic substrate is an essential and required process. Electroplating is a cost-effective and high-throughput metallization process; however, the poor surface coverage and interfacial adhesion between electroplated metal and ITO plastic substrate limits its applications. This paper develops a new method to directly electroplate metals having strong adhesion and uniform deposition on an ITO plastic substrate by using a combination of 3-mercaptopropyl-trimethoxysilane (MPS) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) and a sweeping potential technique. An impedance capacitive analysis supports the proposed bridging link model for MPS SAMs at the interface between the ITO and the electrolyte.
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Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis reveals recurrent genomic alterations associated with histopathologic features in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies indicate that genomic alterations (GAs) are associated with many human malignancies. Genome-wide analysis of GAs involved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and association with histopathologic features are limited. To help characterize this relatively rare neoplasm, we collected 32 frozen tissue samples of ICC to study GAs and molecular karyotypes by using single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Recurrent GAs occurring in at least 40% of the patients were further correlated with histopathologic features. Gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p13 were significantly associated with larger tumor size more than 5 cm in diameter; and loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 with tumor multiplicity. Moreover, losses of 1p36.32-p35.3, 3p26.3-p22.2, 4q13.1-q21.23, 4q31.3-q34.3 and 4q34.3-35.2 were inclined to be associated with high histological grade. As to tumor vascular invasion, gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 3p22.1-p12.3 and 4q13.2-q35.2 were significantly associated with tumor vascular invasion. Some regions were concurrently associated with multiple histopathologic characteristics, including loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 associated with larger tumor size, high histological grade and vascular invasion; losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p22.2 with larger tumor size and high histological grade; and gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 with larger tumor size and vascular invasion. Our study indicates that complex chromosomal instability is characteristic of ICC. Detecting crucial GAs will enable risk stratification and development of personalized therapies.
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Carbon monoxide induces heme oxygenase-1 to modulate STAT3 activation in endothelial cells via S-glutathionylation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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IL-6/STAT3 pathway is involved in a variety of biological responses, including cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. In our present study, we found that CO releasing molecules (CORMs) suppress IL-6-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation and transactivity in endothelial cells (ECs). CO is a byproduct of heme degradation mediated by heme oxygenase (HO-1). However, CORMs can induce HO-1 expression and then inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation. CO has been found to increase a low level ROS and which may induce protein glutathionylation. We hypothesized that CORMs increases protein glutathionylation and inhibits STAT3 activation. We found that CORMs increase the intracellular GSSG level and induce the glutathionylation of multiple proteins including STAT3. GSSG can inhibit STAT3 phosphorylation and increase STAT3 glutathionylation whereas the antioxidant enzyme catalase can suppress the glutathionylation. Furthermore, catalase blocks the inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation by CORMs treatment. The inhibition of glutathione synthesis by BSO was also found to attenuate STAT3 glutathionylation and its inhibition of STAT3 phosphorylation. We further found that HO-1 increases STAT3 glutathionylation and that HO-1 siRNA attenuates CORM-induced STAT3 glutathionylation. Hence, the inhibition of STAT3 activation is likely to occur via a CO-mediated increase in the GSSG level, which augments protein glutathionylation, and CO-induced HO-1 expression, which may enhance and maintain its effects in IL-6-treated ECs.
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Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent decade from Taiwan, adds to the understanding of these rare diseases with variable clinical and histopathological presentations.
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One-Pot Synthesis of Regular Rhombic Titanium Dioxide Supracolloidal Submicrometer Sheet via Sol-Gel Method.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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A sol-gel method was developed to prepare amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO2) submicrometer sheets (a-SMSs) with regular rhombic morphology without templates. These a-SMSs comprised of primary nanoparticles, which were organized in a close packing mode in a plane. Two-dimensional (2-D) directional self-assembly of primary nanoparticles was proposed as the mechanism of forming such regular a-SMSs. It was the first time to observe such regular SMSs in amorphous TiO2, which may lead to a new scenario for colloidal particle self-assembly. After calcination at 500 °C, the regular shape of a-SMSs was still maintained, while the a-SMSs turned into anatase submicrometer sheets (c-SMSs), which exhibited higher activity than commercial P25 in photodegradation of rhodamine B. Furthermore, due to their larger sizes, nearly 90% of c-SMSs were readily recovered after use by centrifugation at 2000 rpm, while hardly any P25 was recovered under a similar condition.
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[Effect of jianpi liqi recipe on mRNA expressions of TP, DPD, and CYP3A4 in mice with human gastric cancer transplanted tumor].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To study the effect of Jianpi Liqi Recipe (JLR) on 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) relevant metabolic enzymes and CYP3A4 (the same enzyme of many chemotherapeutics) of mice with human gastric cancer transplanted tumor.
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A novel urinary metabolite signature for diagnosing major depressive disorder.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and debilitating mental disorder. Yet, there are no objective biomarkers available to support diagnostic laboratory testing for this disease. Here, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to urine metabolic profiling of 126 MDD and 134 control subjects. Orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) was used to identify the differential metabolites in MDD subjects relative to healthy controls. The OPLS-DA analysis of data from training samples (82 first-episode, drug-na??ve MDD subjects and 82 well-matched healthy controls) showed that the depressed group was significantly distinguishable from the control group. Totally, 23 differential urinary metabolites responsible for the discrimination between the two groups were identified. Postanalysis, 6 of the 23 metabolites (sorbitol, uric acid, azelaic acid, quinolinic acid, hippuric acid, and tyrosine) were defined as candidate diagnostic biomarkers for MDD. Receiver operating characteristic analysis of combined levels of these six biomarkers yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.905 in distinguishing training samples; this simplified metabolite signature classified blinded test samples (44 MDD subjects and 52 healthy controls) with an AUC of 0.837. Furthermore, a composite panel by the addition of previously identified urine biomarker (N-methylnicotinamide) to this biomarker panel achieved a more satisfactory accuracy, yielding an AUC of 0.909 in the training samples and 0.917 in the test samples. Taken together, these results suggest this composite urinary metabolite signature should facilitate development of a urine-based diagnostic test for MDD.
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Interplay between microRNAs and the STAT3 signaling pathway in human cancers.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs, also miR) are a class of noncoding endogenous RNAs that regulate gene expression through binding to protein-coding messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, predominantly within the 3-untranslated region (3-UTR). Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that regulates a battery of genes involved in regulating a variety of biological processes. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating that miRNAs are closely associated with the STAT3 signaling pathway. In this review, we focus on interactions between miRNAs and the STAT3 signaling pathway, focusing on their reciprocal regulation and roles in cancer. For instance, several papers independently support the existence of regulatory feedback loops between miRNAs and the STAT3 pathway in different cancer contexts including IL-6-STAT3-miR-24/miR-629-HNF4?-miR-124 and IL-6R-STAT3-NF-?B-Lin-28-let-7a. Furthermore, several miRNA components are reported to be involved in STAT3-mediated tumorigenesis, for example miR-21, miR-155, and miR-181b. Through binding to STAT3-binding sites within the promoters of these oncomiRs, STAT3 activates their transcription and mediates tumorigenesis. Some miRNAs directly modulate STAT3 activity through targeting the STAT3 3-UTR; other miRNAs target SOCS, PIAS3, and EGFR genes, which encode proteins that regulate the STAT3 signaling pathway. Given that miRNAs represent a newly discovered class of regulatory molecules, investigating their biological functions and contribution to pathologies caused by STAT3 dysregulation is essential to improve our understanding of tumorigenesis and to develop novel anticancer therapeutics. The more we can learn about miRNAs-STAT3 interactions, the better able we will be to manipulate them for developing cancer therapeutics.
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Interactions affecting the mechanical properties of macromolecular microsphere composite hydrogels.
J Phys Chem B
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Macromolecular microsphere composite (MMC) hydrogel is a kind of tough hydrogel fabricated by using peroxidized macromolecular microspheres as polyfunctional initiating and cross-linking centers (PFICC). The contribution of chemical cross-linking (covalent bonding) and physical cross-linking (chain entanglement and hydrogen bonding) to the mechanical properties are understood by testing the hydrogels, which were swollen in water or aqueous urea solutions to different water contents. The as-prepared MMC gels exhibited moderate moduli (60-270 kPa), high fracture tensile stresses (up to 0.54 MPa), high extensibilities (up to 2500%), and high fracture energies (270-770 J m(-2)). The moduli of the swollen gels decrease dramatically, but there are no significant changes in fracture tensile strength and fracture strain, even slight increases. More interestingly, the swollen gels show much-enhanced fracture energies, higher than 2000 J m(-2). A gradual decrease in the hysteresis ratio and residual strain is also found in the cyclic tensile testing of the hydrogels that were swollen to different water contents. The covalent bonding determines the tensile strength and fracture energy of the MMC gels, whereas the physical entanglement and hydrogen bonding among the polymer chains contributes mainly to the modulus of the MMC gels, and they are also the main reason for the presence of hysteresis in the loading-unloading cycles.
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The advantage of circulating tumor cells over serum carcinoembryonic antigen for predicting treatment responses in rectal cancer.
Future Oncol
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) on the evaluation and prediction of treatment responses in rectal cancer patients compared with serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).
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Telephone monitoring of adverse events during an MF59(®)-adjuvanted H5N1 influenza vaccination campaign in Taiwan.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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This study was conducted to explore a telephone-based approach for identifying and quantifying the occurrence of adverse events following immunization (AEFIs) during an MF59(®)-adjuvanted H5N1 vaccination program in Taiwan. From March to August 2011, each H5N1 vaccine recipient who voluntarily registered as participants within 72 h of vaccination was phone interviewed at postvaccination 7-10 and 21-24 d. Among the 292 participants, 270 and 263 interviews were completed at 7-10 and 21-24 d. Overall, 127 (48%) respondents reported local and 86 (33%) reported systemic reactions. Females (odds ratio [OR] 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-3.63), nonelderly adults aged 18-59 y (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.11-9.45), and first-dose recipients (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.22-3.86) were independently associated with having an AEFI within the first 7-10 d. None of the AEFIs reported were serious adverse events. In conclusion, most AEFIs to H5N1 vaccine were anticipated but varied with sex, age, and vaccine dose number. The use of modern information technologies will be a scalable alternative to efficiently enroll and monitor recipients with possible AEFIs in large campaigns involving influenza or other emerging vaccines. Further studies should compare the detection of AEFIs using telephone monitoring and standard pharmacovigilance reporting.
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Levels of inflammatory cytokines in type 2 diabetes patients with different urinary albumin excretion rates and their correlation with clinical variables.
J Diabetes Res
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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Although the pathogenetic mechanism of DN has not been elucidated, an inflammatory mechanism has been suggested as a potential contributor. This study was designed to explore the relationship between low-grade inflammation and renal microangiopathy in T2DM. A total of 261 diabetic subjects were divided into three groups according to UAE: a normal albuminuria group, a microalbuminuria group, and a macroalbuminuria group. A control group was also chosen. Levels of hs-CRP, TNF-?, uMCP-1, SAA, SCr, BUN, serum lipid, blood pressure, and HbA1c were measured in all subjects. Compared with the normal controls, levels of hs-CRP, TNF-?, uMCP-1, and SAA in T2DM patients were significantly higher. They were also elevated in the normal albuminuria group, P < 0.05. Compared with the normal albuminuria group, levels of these inflammatory cytokines were significantly higher in the microalbuminuria and macroalbuminuria group, P < 0.01. The macroalbuminuria group also showed higher levels than the microalbuminuria group, P < 0.01. Also they were positively correlated with UAE, SBP, DBP, LDL-C, and TC. We noted no significance correlated with course, TG, or HDL-C. Only TNF-?; was positively correlated with HbA1c. This study revealed the importance of these inflammatory cytokines in DN pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to fully establish the potential of these cytokines as additional biomarkers for the development of DN.
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[Identification of origins of marker chromosomes using fluorescence in situ hybridization].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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To assess the value of fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and bacterial artificial chromosome FISH (BAC-FISH) for the diagnosis for patients with marker chromosomes.
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Dynamic evolution of conducting nanofilament in resistive switching memories.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Resistive random access memory (ReRAM) has been considered the most promising next-generation nonvolatile memory. In recent years, the switching behavior has been widely reported, and understanding the switching mechanism can improve the stability and scalability of devices. We designed an innovative sample structure for in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe the formation of conductive filaments in the Pt/ZnO/Pt structure in real time. The corresponding current-voltage measurements help us to understand the switching mechanism of ZnO film. In addition, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) have been used to identify the atomic structure and components of the filament/disrupted region, determining that the conducting paths are caused by the conglomeration of zinc atoms. The behavior of resistive switching is due to the migration of oxygen ions, leading to transformation between Zn-dominated ZnO(1-x) and ZnO.
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Monoclonality and cytogenetic abnormalities in hyaline vascular Castleman disease.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Hyaline vascular Castleman disease is traditionally regarded as a reactive hyperplastic process. Occasional cases, however, have been reported with cytogenetic anomalies bringing this concept into question. In this study, we used conventional and methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction methods to assess the human androgen receptor ? (HUMARA) gene in 29 female patients with hyaline vascular Castleman disease and compared the results with three cases of plasma cell Castleman disease and 20 cases of age-matched lymphoid hyperplasia. We also assessed for immunoglobulin gene and T-cell receptor gene rearrangements, and conventional cytogenetic analysis was performed in three cases of hyaline vascular Castleman disease. In cases with informative results, conventional and methylation-specific human androgen receptor ? gene analyses yielded a monoclonal pattern in 10 of 19 (53%) and 17 of 23 (74%) cases of hyaline vascular Castleman disease, respectively. A monoclonal pattern was also detected in three cases of plasma cell Castleman disease but not in cases of lymphoid hyperplasia. The frequency of monoclonality was higher for lesions >5?cm in size (100%) and for the stromal-rich variant (91%). Cytogenetic abnormalities in stromal cells were revealed in two cases of hyaline vascular Castleman disease and no cases showed monoclonal immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor gene rearrangements. Follow-up data showed persistent disease in 4 of 23 (17%) patients. We conclude that hyaline vascular Castleman disease is often a monoclonal proliferation, most likely of lymph node stromal cells.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 8 November 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.202.
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Rare serotype occurrence and PFGE genotypic diversity of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from tilapia in China.
Vet. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Previously, we reported 10 PEGE types of 85 tilapia Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS), which shifted from Streptococcus iniae in China, by using PEGE method. Presently, larger and more representative tilapia GBS were isolated, for the first time in China, to characterize their serotypes and genetic diversities more precisely than had done before. 168 GBS strains were distributed in five provinces of China, in which Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan were the major ones, holding 36.9% (62/168), 37.5% (63/168) and 19.6% (33/168), respectively. Serotypes, Ia, Ib and III, were observed in these strains and the most predominant one was Ia (95.2%), which mainly distributed in Guangdong, Guangxi and Hainan. Ia initially occurred in 2009, it shoot up to 32.1% in 2010, but decreased to 16.1% in 2011 before went up to 45.2% in 2012. Ib sporadically occurred during 2007-2011, III only occurred in 2012. 14 different PFGE types, including 4 new types (N, O, P and Q), were observed, in which B, D, F and G were the predominant types, holding 83.9% (141/168) of the total GBS strains. Ia corresponded to 11 PFGE types (A-H, N-P), in which type D predominated (51%). Ib represented 3 genotypes (I, J and Q) and III harbored only 2 genotypes (N and F). Type N and F synchronously presented in Ia and III. In summary, the genetic diversity of tilapia GBS varied by serotypes and changed with geographical locations and years. Although Ia still predominated, new rare serotype III already occurred in China.
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Pulsed ultrasound promotes melanoblast migration through upregulation of macrophage colony-stimulating factor/focal adhesion kinase autocrine signaling and paracrine mechanisms.
Pigment Cell Melanoma Res
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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Repigmentation of vitiliginous lesions relies on the proliferation and migration of melanoblasts from hair follicles to the epidermis. Pulsed ultrasound has been demonstrated to have stimulatory effects on cell proliferation and migration and has been applied clinically to enhance tissue repair. To clarify the biologic effects and signaling mechanisms of pulsed ultrasound on melanoblast proliferation and migration, two melanoblast cell lines, the undifferentiated NCCmelb4 cells and the differentiated NCCmelan5 cells, were examined. We demonstrated that pulsed ultrasound increased cell migration in a dose-dependent manner without altering cell proliferation. Pulsed ultrasound enhanced autocrine secretion of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF), which subsequently activated the focal adhesion kinase (FAK) pathway to promote melanoblast migration. Furthermore, conditioned medium from mouse embryonic fibroblasts NIH 3T3 and primary human keratinocytes treated with pulsed ultrasound could stimulate melanoblast migration through a paracrine effect. Our results provide a novel mechanism to promote migration of melanoblasts by pulsed ultrasound stimulation.
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Single-crystalline ?-Ni2Si nanowires with excellent physical properties.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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In this article, we report the synthesis of single-crystalline nickel silicide nanowires (NWs) via chemical vapor deposition method using NiCl2·6H2O as a single-source precursor. Various morphologies of ?-Ni2Si NWs were successfully acquired by controlling the growth conditions. The growth mechanism of the ?-Ni2Si NWs was thoroughly discussed and identified with microscopy studies. Field emission measurements show a low turn-on field (4.12 V/?m), and magnetic property measurements show a classic ferromagnetic characteristic, which demonstrates promising potential applications for field emitters, magnetic storage, and biological cell separation.
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[Progress in isokinetic technology in testing and training for assessment of muscle function].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Isokinetic technology in testing and training is the most advanced practical technique in the evaluation of muscle function. This method is a continuous dynamic test in the full range of the joint motion which has strong pertinence at the aspect of assessing muscle strength, and is an objective and quantitative method for reflecting each points muscle strength in the range of the joint motion. This article reviews the key concepts, brief history of development and influencing factors of isokinetic technology in testing and training, introduces the progress in the field of rehabilitation medicine and sport science, etc., and discusses the future exploration in forensic science.
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Copper silicide/silicon nanowire heterostructures: in situ TEM observation of growth behaviors and electron transport properties.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Copper silicide has been studied in the applications of electronic devices and catalysts. In this study, Cu3Si/Si nanowire heterostructures were fabricated through solid state reaction in an in situ transmission electron microscope (TEM). The dynamic diffusion of the copper atoms in the growth process and the formation mechanism are characterized. We found that two dimensional stacking faults (SF) may retard the growth of Cu3Si. Due to the evidence of the block of edge-nucleation (heterogeneous) by the surface oxide, center-nucleation (homogeneous) is suggested to dominate the silicidation. Furthermore, the electrical transport properties of various silicon channel length with Cu3Si/Si heterostructure interfaces and metallic Cu3Si NWs have been investigated. The observations not only provided an alternative pathway to explore the formation mechanisms and interface properties of Cu3Si/Si, but also suggested the potential application of Cu3Si at nanoscale for future processing in nanotechnology.
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Tumor necrosis factor- ? and interleukin-6: potential interorgan inflammatory mediators contributing to destructive periodontal disease in obesity or metabolic syndrome.
Mediators Inflamm.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Obesity has become a worldwide health burden in the last two decades. Obesity has been associated with increased comorbidities, such as coronary artery disease, diabetes, and destructive periodontal disease. Obesity is also part of a group of risk factors occurring together in an individual, which is referred to as metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown higher risk for destructive periodontal disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the role of obesity and metabolic syndrome in the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease has not yet been fully understood. In this review, we discuss a working model, which focuses on interorgan inflammation as a common etiological factor for destructive periodontal disease associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Specifically, we suggest that elevated levels of tumor necrosis factor- ? (TNF- ? ) or interleukin 6 (IL-6)--both adipokines and known risk factors for destructive periodontal disease--in obesity and metabolic syndrome contribute to the onset and development of destructive periodontal disease. The connections between destructive periodontal disease and systemic conditions, such as obesity or metabolic syndrome, are complex and potentially multidirectional. This review largely focuses on TNF- ? and IL-6, inflammatory mediators, as potential common risk factors and does not exclude other biological mechanisms.
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Listening to classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect after stroke.
Am J Occup Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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OBJECTIVE. We determined whether listening to excerpts of classical music ameliorates unilateral neglect (UN) in stroke patients. METHOD. In this within-subject study, we recruited and separately tested 16 UN patients with a right-hemisphere stroke under three conditions within 1 wk. In each condition, participants were asked to complete three subtests of the Behavioral Inattention Test while listening to classical music, white noise, or nothing. All conditions and the presentation of the tests were counterbalanced across participants. Visual analog scales were used to provide self-reported ratings of arousal and mood. RESULTS. Participants generally had the highest scores under the classical music condition and the lowest scores under the silence condition. In addition, most participants rated their arousal as highest after listening to classical music. CONCLUSION. Listening to classical music may improve visual attention in stroke patients with UN. Future research with larger study populations is necessary to validate these findings.
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Pleasant music improves visual attention in patients with unilateral neglect after stroke.
Brain Inj
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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To investigate whether listening to pleasant music improves visual attention to and awareness of contralesional stimuli in patients with unilateral neglect after stroke.
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Classical skeletal injuries shown on 18F-FDG PET/CT following successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Rib and sternal fractures are relatively common following conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). This case demonstrates the 18F-FDG PET/CT appearances of typical CPR-related multiple rib and sternal fractures in a 55-year-old man with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis. The PET/CT scan was performed to assess disease activity of cardiac sarcoidosis, and no active cardiac inflammation was detected. The patient initially presented with an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and successfully received bystander CPR.
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Effects of altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase and irradiation on hippocampal neurogenesis in female mice.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Altered levels of extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) and cranial irradiation have been shown to affect hippocampal neurogenesis. However, previous studies were only conducted in male mice, and it was not clear if there was a difference between males and females. Therefore, female mice were studied and the results compared with those generated in male mice from an earlier study.
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In situ TEM and energy dispersion spectrometer analysis of chemical composition change in ZnO nanowire resistive memories.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Resistive random-access memory (ReRAM) has been of wide interest for its potential to replace flash memory in the next-generation nonvolatile memory roadmap. In this study, we have fabricated the Au/ZnO-nanowire/Au nanomemory device by electron beam lithography and, subsequently, utilized in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to observe the atomic structure evolution from the initial state to the low-resistance state (LRS) in the ZnO nanowire. The element mapping of LRS showing that the nanowire was zinc dominant indicating that the oxygen vacancies were introduced after resistance switching. The results provided direct evidence, suggesting that the resistance change resulted from oxygen migration.
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Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2I is not rare in Taiwan.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2013
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Alpha-dystroglycanopathy is caused by the glycosylation defects of ?-dystroglycan (?-DG). The clinical spectrum ranges from severe congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD) to later-onset limb girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD). Among all ?-dystroglycanopathies, LGMD type 2I caused by FKRP mutations is most commonly seen in Europe but appears to be rare in Asia. We screened uncategorized 40 LGMD and 10 CMD patients by immunohistochemistry for ?-DG and found 7 with reduced ?-DG immunostaining. Immunoblotting with laminin overlay assay confirmed the impaired glycosylation of ?-DG. Among them, five LGMD patients harbored FKRP mutations leading to the diagnosis of LGMD2I. One common mutation, c.948delC, was identified and cardiomyopathy was found to be very common in our cohort. Muscle images showed severe involvement of gluteal muscles and posterior compartment at both thigh and calf levels, which is helpful for the differential diagnosis. Due to the higher frequency of LGMD2I with cardiomyopathy in our series, the early introduction of mutation analysis of FKRP in undiagnosed Taiwanese LGMD patients is highly recommended.
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A comparative study of isolated and metachronous oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma with antecedent upper aerodigestive tract cancer.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Metachronous oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been increasing in long-term survivors of upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancers in recent years, but the treatment of such cases is not well established. The aim of this study was to compare the prognosis between patients with metachronous OSCC who had antecedent UADT cancers and patients with isolated OSCC.
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CT-guided core needle biopsy of deep suprahyoid head and neck lesions.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy of computer tomography (CT)-guided core needle biopsy (CNB) in the diagnosis of deep suprahyoid lesions in patients with treated head and neck cancers.
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Effects of listening to pleasant music on chronic unilateral neglect: a single-subject study.
NeuroRehabilitation
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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Recent studies suggest that the positive emotion induced by pleasant music may improve cognitive functions. We used the single-subject design to study whether listening to preferred music may reduce unilateral neglect in two participants with post-stroke neglect. These participants were instructed to listen to their preferred music every day for 5 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of follow-up assessment. Outcome measures involved the Star Cancellation Test, the Line Bisection Test, and the visual exploration task. A combination of visual analysis and the two-standard-deviation band method was used for data analysis. Both participants showed significant intervention-related improvements on all outcome measures except the Line Bisection Test, on which one participant showed no improvement. The therapeutic effects were maintained during the follow-up phase. The findings suggest that positive emotion, evoked by preferred music, may be used to ameliorate unilateral neglect. Further research using controlled trials is warranted to validate the findings.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.