JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Diagnostic and post-treatment CT appearance of biopsy proven mixed cryptococcus and candida cholangitis.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida are common opportunistic pathogens of human. There is very limited literature on Cryptococcus neoformans cholangitis or Candida cholangitis in immunocompetent patient while mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis has not been reported in the literature ever before. We hereby report the imaging findings of a case of mixed Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida cholangitis in an immunocompetent boy. The CT features included nodules in the cystic duct and common bile duct, dilatation of the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts with mural thickening, irregular hypodense mass-like lesion extending along the bile ducts from the liver hilum to the periphery which was confirmed by the presence of enlarged and confluent lymph nodes. CT characteristics can contribute to timely diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
Related JoVE Video
A recessive variant of XRCC4 predisposes to non- BRCA1/2 breast cancer in chinese women and impairs the DNA damage response via dysregulated nuclear localization.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
XRCC4 plays a crucial role in the non-homologous end joining pathway that maintains genome stability. In this two-stage case-control study with 1,764 non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer patients and 1,623 cancer-free controls, we investigated the contribution of genetic variants of XRCC4 to breast cancer susceptibility in Chinese women. We identified a recessive missense variant, rs3734091 (c.739G>T, p.Ala247Ser), of XRCC4 that was significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 3.92, P = 0.007), particularly with the risk of developing triple-negative breast cancer (OR = 18.65, P < 0.0001). This p.Ala247Ser variant disturbed the nuclear localization of XRCC4 in cells homozygous for the rs3734091-T allele but not in heterozygous cells at both the cellular and tissue levels. In heterozygous cells, wild-type XRCC4 facilitated the nuclear localization of the XRCC4A247S mutant, thus compensating for the impaired localization of XRCC4A247S. This provided a biological mechanism by which rs3734091 conferred an increased susceptibility to non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer exclusively under a recessive model. Further functional analyses revealed that p.Ala247Ser impaired the DNA damage repair capacity and ultimately perturbed genomic stability. Taken together, our findings document the role of XRCC4 in non-BRCA1/2 breast cancer predisposition and reveal its underlying biological mechanism of action.
Related JoVE Video
CT evaluation of gastroenteric neuroendocrine tumors: relationship between ct features and the pathologic classification.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of our study was to compare the CT features of gastroenteric neuroendocrine neoplasms (GE-NENs) with the pathologic classification and to analyze the correlation between the CT features and classification of GE-NENs.
Related JoVE Video
Delayed relief of hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression: can it be avoided?
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery has been widely accepted as an effective treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS), delayed relief cases have been frequently reported. Therefore, the value of an immediate redo MVD should be discussed.
Related JoVE Video
On-line SERS Detection of Single Bacterium Using Novel SERS Nanoprobes and A Microfluidic Dielectrophoresis Device.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The integration of novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoprobes and a microfluidic dielectrophoresis (DEP) device is developed for rapid on-line SERS detection of Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis and Neisseria lactamica. The SERS nanoprobes are prepared by immobilization of specific antibody onto the surface of nanoaggregate-embedded beads (NAEBs), which are silica-coated, dye-induced aggregates of a small number of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Each NAEB gives highly enhanced Raman signals owing to the presence of well-defined plasmonic hot spots at junctions between AuNPs. Herein, the on-line SERS detection and accurate identification of suspended bacteria with a detection capability down to a single bacterium has been realized by the NAEB-DEP-Raman spectroscopy biosensing strategy. The practical detection limit with a measurement time of 10 min is estimated to be 70 CFU mL(-1) . In comparison with whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the SERS-nanoprobe-based biosensing method provides advantages of higher sensitivity and requiring lower amount of antibody in the assay (100-fold less). The total assay time including sample pretreatment is less than 2 h. Hence, this sensing strategy is promising for faster and effective on-line multiplex detection of single pathogenic bacterium by using different bioconjugated SERS nanoprobes.
Related JoVE Video
Implantable collamer lens versus iris-fixed phakic intraocular lens implantation to correct myopia: a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study is a meta-analysis comparing the efficacy, predictability, and safety of correcting myopia via implantation of two types of phakic intraocular lens (PIOLs): the implantable collamer lens (ICL) and iris-fixed PIOL. The Cochrane library, Pubmed, and EMBASE were searched. Study selection, data exclusion, and quality assessment were performed by two independent observers. The pooled relative risk (RR), pooled standardized mean difference (SMD), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to compare lenses. Seven studies, involving 511 eyes, were included. The pooled SMD in postoperative uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) comparing ICLs to iris-fixed PIOLs was -0.22 (95% CI, -0.58 to 0.13; P =?.22). The pooled RR values of UDVA of 20/20 or better and of 20/40 or better comparing ICLs to iris-fixed PIOLs were 1.15 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.47; P =?.29) and 1.01 (95% CI, 0.95 to 1.08; P =?.75), respectively. The pooled RR of loss of best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) and gain in BSCVA comparing ICLs to iris-fixed PIOLs were 1.20 (95% CI, 0.24 to 6.00; P =?.82) and 1.14 (95% CI, 0.89 to 1.48; P =?.31), respectively. The pooled RR comparing ICLs to iris-fixed PIOLs was 0.78 (95% CI, 0.29 to 2.12; P =?.63) for all reported complications and 2.80 (95% CI, 1.04 to 7.52; P =?.04) for severe complications. The pooled RR of achieving a result within ± 0.5 D (diopter) of the intended target comparing ICLs to iris-fixed PIOLs was 1.35 (95% CI, 1.04 to 1.77; P =?.03). Overall, there is no significant difference in efficacy between the two types of PIOLs or in safety, except that the ICL is associated with a greater incidence of severe complications, especially anterior subcapsular cataract, primarily in the Version 2 and Version 3 groups. However, ICL has better predictability.
Related JoVE Video
DNA topoisomerase I affects polycomb group protein-mediated epigenetic regulation and plant development by altering nucleosome distribution in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been perplexing that DNA topoisomerases, enzymes that release DNA supercoils, play specific roles in development. In this study, using a floral stem cell model in Arabidopsis thaliana, we uncovered a role for TOPOISOMERASE1? (TOP1?) in Polycomb Group (PcG) protein-mediated histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) at, and transcriptional repression of, the stem cell maintenance gene WUSCHEL (WUS). We demonstrated that H3K27me3 deposition at other PcG targets also requires TOP1?. Intriguingly, the repression of some, as well as the expression of many, PcG target genes requires TOP1?. The mechanism that unifies the opposing effects of TOP1? appears to lie in its role in decreasing nucleosome density, which probably allows the binding of factors that either recruit PcG, as we demonstrated for AGAMOUS at the WUS locus, or counteract PcG-mediated regulation. Although TOP1? reduces nucleosome density at all genes, the lack of a 5' nucleosome-free region is a feature that distinguishes PcG targets from nontargets and may condition the requirement for TOP1? for their expression. This study uncovers a connection between TOP1? and PcG, which explains the specific developmental functions of TOP1?.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variations of the ADIPOQgene and risk of prostate cancer in Chinese Han men.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adiponectin secreted by adipose tissue has been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. Genetic variations in ADIPOQ are thought to influence the activity of adiponectin, thus relating to cancer occurrence. In this hospital-based case-control study of 917 prostate cancer (PCa) cases and 1036 cancer-free controls, we evaluated the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms in ADIPOQ with risk of PCa and adiponectin levels in Chinese Han men. Variants of ADIPOQ were genotyped by Taqman polymerase chain reaction method. The plasma adiponectin concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a subset of cases and controls. We found that the ADIPOQ rs3774262 variant AA genotype was associated with both decreased PCa risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR): 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) =0.48-0.92] and increased plasma adiponectin levels (P = 0.036 and 0.043), with significant difference by tumor grade, clinical stage, and aggressiveness. A significant interaction between ADIPOQ rs3774262 and body mass index was observed in modifying the risk of PCa (P = 6.7 × 10-3 ). ADIPOQ rs266729 and rs182052 were not related to PCa risk or plasma adiponectin levels. Our data support that ADIPOQ rs3774262 may affect PCa risk in combination with plasma adiponectin levels in Chinese Han men. It may contribute to the molecular basis for the association between obesity and PCa.
Related JoVE Video
The mechanism of hemifacial spasm: a new understanding of the offending artery.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although neurovascular confliction was believed to be the cause of hemifacial spasm (HFS), the mechanism of the disorder remains unclear to date. Current theories, merely focusing on the facial nerve, have failed to explain the clinical phenomenon of immediate relief following a successful microvascular decompression surgery (MVD). With the experience of thousands of microvascular decompression surgeries and preliminary investigations, we have learned that the offending artery may play a more important role than the effect of merely mechanical compression in the pathogenesis of the disease. We believe that the attrition of neurovascular interface is the essence of the etiology, and the substance of the disease is emersion of ectopic action potentials from the demyelinated facial nerve fibers, which were triggered by the sympathetic endings from the offending artery wall. In this paper, we put forward evidence to support this hypothesis, both logically and theoretically.
Related JoVE Video
Features of S-nitrosylation based on statistical analysis and molecular dynamics simulation: cysteine acidity, surrounding basicity, steric hindrance and local flexibility.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
S-Nitrosylation is involved in protein functional regulation and cellular signal transduction. Although intensive efforts have been made, the molecular mechanisms of S-nitrosylation have not yet been fully understood. In this work, we carried out a survey on 213 protein structures with S-nitrosylated cysteine sites and molecular dynamic simulations of hemoglobin as a case study. It was observed that the S-nitrosylated cysteines showed a lower pKa, a higher population of basic residues, a lower population of big-volume residues in the neighborhood, and relatively higher flexibility. The case study of hemoglobin showed that, compared to that in the T-state, Cys?93 in the R-state hemoglobin possessed the above structural features, in agreement with the previous report that the R-state was more reactive in S-nitrosylation. Moreover, basic residues moved closer to the Cys?93 in the dep-R-state hemoglobin, while big-volume residues approached the Cys?93 in the dep-T-state. Using the four characteristics, i.e. cysteine acidity, surrounding basicity, steric hindrance, and local flexibility, a 3-dimensional model of S-nitrosylation was constructed to explain 61.9% of the S-nitrosylated and 58.1% of the non-S-nitrosylated cysteines. Our study suggests that cysteine deprotonation is a prerequisite for protein S-nitrosylation, and these characteristics might be useful in identifying specificity of protein S-nitrosylation.
Related JoVE Video
Via-cerebellar-fissures approach for microvascular decompression of trigeminal nerve.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although the infratentorial superior-lateral cerebellar approach has been traditionally chosen for exposure of the V cranial nerve root in the process of microvascular decompression for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, those petrosal veins often block this surgical corridor. To detour these petrosal veins, we require a new approach. We provide a via-cerebellar-fissures approach to expose well the trigeminal nerve. With microscopy, cerebrospinal fluid was drained sufficiently to relax the cerebellum. Caudally to petrosal veins, the dissection was started from the cerebellar fissures. With the arachnoid membranes around the petrosal fissure and superior cerebellopontine fissures being opened thoroughly, the root entry zone of V nerve was visualized directly. This new approach was used in 106 patients. Among them, the block veins were encountered in 17 (16.0%). Among the 17 vein-blocked cases, 1 or 2 branches of the veins were finally cut in 2 (1.9%). The postoperative relief rate was 95.3% without complications. This via-cerebellar-fissures approach may access the root entry zone of the V cranial nerve without killing those petrosal veins, which is worth to be recommended and popularized.
Related JoVE Video
DNA gated photochromism and fluorescent switch in a thiazole orange modified diarylethene.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Thiazole orange-modified diarylethene (1) shows weak fluorescence but no photochromism in aqueous solution. When binding with DNA, the fluorescence of 1 is enhanced drastically and the photochromic reactivity is unlocked. This kind of DNA-responsive photoswitchable system can be used for imaging nucleic acids within cells.
Related JoVE Video
Effectiveness and safety of microvascular decompression surgery for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia: a systematic review.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microvascular decompression has been now accepted worldwide as a reasonable treatment for trigeminal neuralgia, yet, as a functional operation in the cerebellopontine angle, this process may be risky and the postoperative outcomes might not be good enough sometimes. To assess the effectiveness and safety of microvascular decompression for treatment of trigeminal neuralgia, we conducted a systematic review. Using the keywords "trigeminal neuralgia", "microvascular decompression", or "neurovascular conflict", manuscripts published in English-language journals and indexed in PubMed between January 1, 2000 and June 1, 2013 on the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) with microvascular decompression were considered for this study. The success and complications were analyzed. The success in this investigation was defined as complete pain free. Continuous outcomes were summarized using means or medians, and dichotomous outcomes were presented as percentage associated with 95% confidence interval. Twenty-six papers with 6,847 patients were finally enrolled in this review. Among them, the male-to-female ratio was 1:1.4, the left-to-right ratio was 1:1.6, and the pain was located in the innervation of V3 and/or V2 in most of the cases with only 2.3% (0.1-4.7) of V1 exclusively. The average age at surgery was 60.9 years (52.5-64.1) with TN symptoms duration of 24.7 months (6.1-42.1) before microvascular decompression (MVD). Operative findings confirmed the superior cerebellar artery, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery, and multiple vascular contacts (including veins) as the most common sources of nerve compression. The average follow-up duration was 35.8 months (26.2-56.6). The success rate was 83.5% (79.6-89.1). Complications included incisional infection in 1.3% (0.1-2.5), facial palsy 2.9% (0.5-6.2), facial numbness 9.1% (1.3-19.6), cerebrospinal fluid leak 1.6% (0.7-2.5), and hearing deficit 1.9% (0.2-3.9). The postoperative mortality was 0.1% (0.02-0.2). Accordingly, MVD is the most effective treatment for patients with trigeminal neuralgia. An immediate pain free can be achieved by an experienced neurosurgeon with good knowledge of the regional anatomy. To avoid complications, each single step of the process cannot be overemphasized.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of eligibility and utilization of breast conservation treatment in an Asian context.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast conservation treatment (BCT) has long been recognised to provide survival outcomes equivalent to mastectomy for the treatment of breast cancer. However, published reports of BCT rates in Asian communities are lower than those from Western countries. This study sought to investigate the eligibility and utilisation of BCT in a predominantly Asian population.
Related JoVE Video
Diversity and recombination of human parechovirus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Guangzhou, China.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human parechovirus (HPeV), a member of Picornaviridae family, is a widespread pathogen causing a wide spectrum of diseases. Like other picornaviruses, HPeV genome recombination has been detected. A total of 322 fecal samples were collected from children outpatients in Guangzhou, China, including 42 (13.0%, 42/322) HPeV-positive samples detected in most of the infected children less than two years old. Seven HPeV genotypes (HPeV1, HPeV3, HPeV4, HPeV5, HPeV6, HPeV8 and HPeV14) were detected, among which, HPeV14, a rare genotype, was reported for the first time in children with acute gastroenteritis in China. This study revealed recombination events in eight samples. Clinical profiles did not yield statistical significance between children with HPeV infection alone and cases without pathogens detected. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that HPeV circulated in Guangzhou, China is diverse genetically, which provided evidence of recombination in HPeV in China. J. Med. Virol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Glycoborinine induces apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway in HepG2 cells.
J Asian Nat Prod Res
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glycoborinine (GB), a natural carbazole alkaloid isolated from Glycosmis pentaphylla, has been shown to be a potential molecule against cancer cells. In this study, the cell-signaling pathway of its anti-tumor activity was investigated. MTT assay result showed that GB inhibited HepG2 cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and 50% inhibiting concentration (IC50) of GB-induced cell death was 39.7 ?M for a period of 48 h. GB-induced HepG2 apoptosis was confirmed by Hochest 33258 staining and PI staining. The level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured with H2DCF-DA staining and the change of mitochondrial membrane potential (??(m)) was analyzed with tetrechloro-tetraethylbenzimidazolcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) probe. Results showed that GB at 12.5, 25, and 50 ?M promoted ROS production. GB induced HepG2 apoptosis through a mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which was demonstrated by GB-induced increase in the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2, cytochrome C release, the ratio of cleaved caspase-3/procaspase-3, and the ratio of cleaved poly ADP-ribose polymerase (cleaved PARP)/poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP). To summarize, this study demonstrated that GB could induce HepG2 apoptosis through the mitochondrial-dependent pathway, which might provide a promising approach to cure liver cancer with GB.
Related JoVE Video
Cholesteatoma of cerebellopontine angle presented as trigeminal neuralgia.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cholesteatoma in the cerebellopontine angle presented as trigeminal neuralgia are not common. Between 2010 and 2013, 12 such patients were operated on in our department. Those patients included 8 females and 4 males with an average age of 47.8 years. One patient was combined with the ipsilateral hemifacial spasm. Five patients had hypesthesia in the ipsilateral side of the face. During the surgery, a pearly sheen mass with boundary was found in the cerebellopontine angle, and the trigeminal root was buried in the tumor. The tumor was removed totally in all the cases. Afterwards, the trigeminal root was observed distorted in 5 and the offending vessel was finally distinguished in 9. Postoperatively, the symptoms were relieved in all the cases and no recurrence was found up to the 36-month period of follow-up. We believed that the etiology of secondary trigeminal neuralgia caused by cholesteatoma is still the neurovascular confliction; the only difference is that the offending vessel was pushed by the tumor instead of idiopathically. Sometimes, the offending artery may not be found after the tumor resection for it may have been transposed off while the tumor is being removed.
Related JoVE Video
Upregulation of Nav1.8 in demyelinated facial nerves might be relevant to the generation of hemifacial spasm.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our previous studies demonstrated that the abnormal muscle response could vanish when the ipsilateral superior cervical ganglion was removed and reappear when norepinephrine was dripped at the neurovascular conflict site. Evidentially, we believed that the mechanism of hemifacial spasm should involve emersion of ectopical action potential in the compressed facial nerve fibers. As the action potential is ignited by ion channel opening, we focused on Nav1.8 that has been found overexpressed in peripheral nerve while damaged. In this study, Moller model was adopted, 20 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent drip of norepinephrine, and the abnormal muscle response wave was monitored in 14 rats. Antibodies against unique epitopes of the ? subunit of sodium channel isoforms were used to detect the Nav1.8 neuronal isoforms, and the immunohistochemistry showed strong staining in 13 rats, which were all in the abnormal muscle response positive group (P < 0.05). Accordingly, we concluded that the substance of hemifacial spasm is an ectopic action potential that emerged on the damaged facial nerve, which might be coupled by Nav1.8.
Related JoVE Video
Stability of Z2 topological order in the presence of vacancy-induced impurity band.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although topological insulators (TIs) are known to be robust against non-magnetic perturbations and exhibit edge or surface states as their distinct feature, experimentally it is known that vacancies often occur in these materials and impose strong perturbations. Here, we investigate effects of vacancies on the stability of Z2 topological order using the Kane-Mele (KM) model as a prototype of topological insulators. It is shown that even though a vacancy is not classified as a topological defect in the KM model, it generally induces a pair of degenerate mid-gap bound states only in the TI phase. Hence mid-gap bound states due to vacancies arise from the same Z2 classification of topological insulators. Furthermore, we show that in the presence of many vacancies, an impurity band is induced and coexists with edge states until a phase transition occurs when the spectral weights of Dirac cones near Dirac points are depleted. Our analyses indicate that the same scenario holds for point vacancies or lines of vacancies in 3D TIs as well.
Related JoVE Video
Triptolide inhibits TGF-?1 induced proliferation and migration of rat airway smooth muscle cells by suppressing NF-?B but not ERK1/2.
Immunology
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Airway remodeling contributes to increased mortality in asthma. We have reported that triptolide can inhibit airway remodeling in a mouse asthma model. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of triptolide on airway smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) proliferation, migration and the possible mechanism.
Related JoVE Video
[Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers.
Related JoVE Video
Deregulation of purine pathway in Bacillus subtilis and its use in riboflavin biosynthesis.
Microb. Cell Fact.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purine nucleotides are essential metabolites for living organisms because they are involved in many important processes, such as nucleic acid synthesis, energy supply, and biosynthesis of several amino acids and riboflavin. Owing to the pivotal roles of purines in cell physiology, the pool of intracellular purine nucleotides must be maintained under strict control, and hence the de novo purine biosynthetic pathway is tightly regulated by transcription repression and inhibition mechanism. Deregulation of purine pathway is essential for this pathway engineering in Bacillus subtilis.
Related JoVE Video
Size-dependent biological effects on vascular endothelial cells induced by different particulate matters.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The contribution of particles to cardiovascular mortality and morbidity has been enlightened by epidemiologic and experimental studies. However, adverse biological effects of the particles with different sizes on cardiovascular cells have not been well recognized. In this study, sub-cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to increasing concentrations of pure quartz particles (DQ) of three sizes (DQPM1, <1 ?m; DQPM3-5, 3-5 ?m; DQPM5, 5 ?m) and carbon black particles of two sizes (CB0.1, <0.1 ?m; CB1, <1 ?m) for 24 h. Cytotoxicity was estimated by measuring the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cell viability. Nitric oxide (NO) generation and cytokines (TNF-? and IL-1?) releases were analyzed by using NO assay and enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. It was found that both particles induced adverse biological effects on HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. The size of particle directly influenced the biological activity. For quartz, the smaller particles induced stronger cytotoxicity and higher levels of cytokine responses than those particles of big size. For carbon black particles, CB0.1 was more capable of inducing adverse responses on HUVECs than CB1 only at lower particle concentrations, in contrast to those at higher concentrations. Meanwhile, our data also revealed that quartz particles performed stronger cell damage and produced higher levels of TNF-? than carbon black particles, even if particles size was similar. In conclusion, particle size as well as particle composition should be both considered in assessing vascular endothelial cells injury and inflammation responses induced by particles.
Related JoVE Video
A successful treatment of coexistent hemifacial spasm and trigeminal neuralgia caused by a huge cerebral arteriovenous malformation: a case report.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Regardless hemifacial spasm (HFS) or trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is commonly caused by an offending artery, 36 cases caused by an arteriovenous malformation (AVM) have been reported in the literature. However, the concurrent HFS and TN caused by AVM have never been reported so far. We reported a case of coexistent HFS-TN associated with a huge AVM, and the symptoms of both spasm and pain relieved gradually after endovascular embolization of the nidus. The etiology and pathogenesis as well as the treatment of this disorder are discussed and reviewed in the article.
Related JoVE Video
Microvascular decompression of trigeminal nerve root for treatment of a patient with hemimasticatory spasm.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemimasticatory spasm is a rare disease; with little knowledge of the pathogenesis, it has still been intractable today. We presented a 56-year-old woman with involuntary painful spasm in her left masseter muscle for 11 years. The patient was successfully treated with microvascular decompression surgery. An offending superior cerebellar artery was found to contact with the motor branch of the trigeminal nerve root, which was then removed away and pieces of soft wadding were interposed between the nerve and the vessel to assure the separation. Postoperatively, the symptom totally disappeared and no recurrence was observed during the 7 months' follow-up. The treatment as well as the pathogenesis of the disease was reviewed, and we put forward a new hypothesis.
Related JoVE Video
Tumor volumes measured from static and dynamic 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography scan: comparison of different methods using magnetic resonance imaging as the criterion standard.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of calculating the primary tumor volumes using a gradient-based method and fixed threshold methods on the standardized uptake value (SUV) maps and the net influx of FDG (Ki) maps from positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) images.
Related JoVE Video
Clear cell meningioma: clinical features, CT, and MR imaging findings in 23 patients.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Clear cell meningioma (CCM) is a rare meningioma, with radiologic features not well characterized in literature. The purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the clinical features and imaging findings of CCM.
Related JoVE Video
NADH plays the vital role for chiral pure D-(-)-2,3-butanediol production in Bacillus subtilis under limited oxygen conditions.
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Compared with traditional pathogenic producers, Bacillus subtilis as a Class I microorganism offers many advantages for industrial-scale 2,3-butanediol production. Unlike previous reports in which two stereoisomers (with a ratio of 3:2) were produced, we first found that wild type B. subtilis 168 generates only D-(-)-2,3-butanediol (purity >99%) under low oxygen conditions. The total high yield of 2,3-butanediol and acetoin, and acetoin reductase enzyme assay indicate that it is the high level of NADH availability, instead of high acetoin reductase activity, contributes more to 2,3-butanediol production in B. subtilis. The strategy for increasing the pool of NADH availability, the key factor for 2,3-butanediol production, was designed through low dissolved oxygen control, adding reducing substrates and rationally metabolic engineering. A transhydrogenase encoded by udhA was introduced to provide more NADH from NADPH and allowed enhanced 2,3-butanediol production. Finally, BSF20 produced 49.29?g/L D(-)-2,3-butanediol. These results demonstrated that B. subtilis is a competitive producer for chiral 2,3-butanediol production.
Related JoVE Video
Microvascular decompression surgery: surgical principles and technical nuances based on 4000 cases.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As an etiological treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) and hemifacial spasm (HFS), microvascular decompression (MVD) has been popularized around the world. However, as a functional operation in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), this process can be risky and the postoperative outcomes might not be good enough sometimes.
Related JoVE Video
The strategy of microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm: how to decide the endpoint of an MVD surgery.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microvascular decompression (MVD) has become the standard treatment for hemifacial spasm. As not all patients get complete relief, this strategy is still controversial. The study aimed to figure out how to tell the proper endpoint to the surgery.
Related JoVE Video
Two novel PRKCI polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk in an Eastern Chinese Han population.
Mol. Carcinog.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The atypical protein kinase C (aPKC?), encoded by the PRKCI gene, has been recently found to be a unique human oncoprotein, compared with some other diverse PKC isozymes. Genetic variations in PRKCI have also been reported to be associated with prostate cancer (PCa) risk in Caucasian populations, but no similar studies have been reported for Chinese populations. We genotyped two well-described PRKCI single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs546950 and rs4955720 in 1015 PCa patients and 1044 cancer-free controls of Eastern Chinese men. SNPs in the vicinity of those two variants of PRKCI were evaluated using the in silico analysis. Logistic regression was then used to estimate their associations with and interactions in PCa risk. Although no significant main effects were found for the two tested SNPs in the single locus analysis, individuals carrying homozygote wide-type form of these two SNPs had slightly reduced PCa risk (adjusted OR?=?0.63, 95% CI?=?0.40-0.99, P?=?0.045), compared with those carrying any of heterozygous or homozygous variant genotypes. Our results indicated that the two PRKCI SNPs were jointly associated with PCa risk in an Eastern Chinese population. Larger studies with multiethnic groups are warranted to confirm these findings and to explore the role of PRKCI SNPs in the etiology of PCa. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Related JoVE Video
Microvascular decompression in patients with coexistent trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and glossopharyngeal neuralgia.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trigeminal neuralgia(TN), hemifacial spasm (HFS) and glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) were referred to hyperactive dysfunction syndromes (HDSs) of the cranial nerves. These symptoms may occur synchronously or metachronously, but the combination of three diseases is extremely rare.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanistic insights into polycycle formation by reductive cyclization in ikarugamycin biosynthesis.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ikarugamycin is a member of the polycyclic tetramate macrolactams (PTMs) family of natural products with diverse biological activities. The biochemical mechanisms for the formation of polycyclic ring systems in PTMs remain elusive. The enzymatic mechanism of constructing an inner five-membered ring in ikarugamycin is reported. A three-gene-cassette ikaABC from the marine-derived Streptomyces sp. ZJ306 is sufficient for conferring ikarugamycin production in a heterologous host. IkaC catalyzes a reductive cyclization reaction to form the inner five-membered ring by a Michael addition-like reaction. This study provides the first biochemical evidence for polycycle formation in PTMs and suggests a reductive cyclization strategy which may be potentially applicable in general to the corresponding ring formation in other PTMs.
Related JoVE Video
Potent anti-angiogenic activity of B19--a mono-carbonyl analogue of curcumin.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The compound B19 (C21H22O5) is a newly synthesized, mono-carbonyl analog of curcumin that has exhibited potential antitumor effects. This present study was performed to identify the anti-angiogenic activity of this compound.
Related JoVE Video
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: correlation between MSCT features and pathological classification.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to evaluate the multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) features of pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (P-NENs) and analyse the correlation between the MSCT features and pathological classification of P-NENs.
Related JoVE Video
Enhancement of riboflavin production by deregulating gluconeogenesis in Bacillus subtilis.
World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The regulation of metabolic flux through glycolytic versus the gluconeogenic pathway plays an important role in central carbon metabolism. In this study, we made an attempt to enhance riboflavin production by deregulating gluconeogenesis in Bacillus subtilis. To this end, gapB (code for NADPH-dependent glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), fbp (code for fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase) and pckA (code for phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) were overexpressed in parental strain B. subtilis RH33. Compared with RH33, overexpression of fbp and gapB resulted in approximately 18.0 and 14.2 % increased riboflavin production, respectively, while overexpression of pckA obtained the opposite result. Significant enhancement of riboflavin titers up to 4.89 g/l was obtained in shake flask cultures when gapB and fbp were co-overexpressed, nevertheless the specific growth rate decreased slightly and the specific glucose uptake rate remained almost unchanged. An improvement by 21.9 and 27.8 % of the riboflavin production was achieved by co-overexpression of gapB and fbp in shake flask and fed-batch fermentation, respectively. These results imply that deregulation of gluconeogenesis is an effective strategy for production of metabolites directly stemming from the pentose phosphate pathway as well as other NADPH-demanding compounds with glucose as carbon source in B. subtilis.
Related JoVE Video
Endothelial nitric oxide synthase protects neurons against ischemic injury through regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several lines of evidence demonstrated that endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) confers protective effects during cerebral ischemia. In this study, we explored the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection by eNOS.
Related JoVE Video
Microstructural brain abnormalities of children of idiopathic generalized epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizure: A voxel-based diffusional kurtosis imaging study.
J Magn Reson Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the diffusion abnormalities in the brain of children with idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE) with generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS) by using diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI).
Related JoVE Video
Stable cerasomes for simultaneous drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnetic liposomes have been frequently used as nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging in recent years. Despite great potentials, their morphological/structural instability in the physiological environment still remains an intractable challenge for clinical applications. In this study, stable hybrid liposomal cerasomes (ie, liposomes partially coated with silica) which can co-encapsulate Fe3O4 nanoparticles and the anticancer drug paclitaxel were developed using thin film hydration method. Compared with the drug loaded liposomes, the paclitaxel-loaded magnetic cerasomes (PLMCs) exhibited much higher storage stability and better sustained release behavior. Cellular uptake study showed that the utilization of an external magnetic field significantly facilitated the internalization of PLMCs into cancer cells, resulting in potentiated drug efficacy of killing tumor cells. The T 2 relaxivity (r 2) of our PLMCs was much higher than that of free Fe3O4 nanoparticles, suggesting increased sensitivity in T 2-weighted imaging. Given its excellent biocompatibility also shown in the study, such dual functional PLMC is potentially a promising nanosystem for effective cancer diagnosis and therapy.
Related JoVE Video
MR Quantification of Total Liver Fat in Patients with Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Healthy Subjects.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the correlations between liver fat content and clinical index in patients with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and healthy subjects.
Related JoVE Video
Transient acid treatment cannot induce neonatal somatic cells to become pluripotent stem cells.
F1000Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Currently, there are genetic- and chemical-based methods for producing pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells, but all of them are extremely inefficient.  However, a simple and efficient technique has recently been reported by Obokata et al (2014a, b) that creates pluripotent stem cells through acid-based treatment of somatic cells.  These cells were named stimulus-triggered acquisition of pluripotency (STAP) stem cells. This would be a major game changer in regenerative medicine if the results could be independently replicated. Hence, we isolated CD45 (+) splenocytes from five-day-old Oct4-GFP mice and treated the cells with acidified (pH 5.7) Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) for 25 min, using the methods described by Obokata et al 2014c. However, we found that this method did not induce the splenocytes to express the stem cell marker Oct4-GFP when observed under a confocal microscope three to six days after acid treatment. qPCR analysis also confirmed that acid treatment did not induce the splenocytes to express the stemness markers Oct4, Sox2 and Nanog.  In addition, we obtained similar results from acid-treated Oct4-GFP lung fibroblasts. In summary, we have not been able to produce STAP stem cells from neonatal splenocytes or lung fibroblasts using the acid-based treatment reported by Obokata et al (2014a, b, c).
Related JoVE Video
pH-sensitive nanomicelles for controlled and efficient drug delivery to human colorectal carcinoma LoVo cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The triblock copolymers PEG-P(Asp-DIP)-P(Lys-Ca) (PEALCa) of polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly(N-(N',N'-diisopropylaminoethyl) aspartamide) (P(Asp-DIP)), and poly (lysine-cholic acid) (P(Lys-Ca)) were synthesized as a pH-sensitive drug delivery system. In neutral aqueous environment such as physiological environment, PEALCa can self-assemble into stable vesicles with a size around 50-60 nm, avoid uptake by the reticuloendothelial system (RES), and encase the drug in the core. However, the PEALCa micelles disassemble and release drug rapidly in acidic environment that resembles lysosomal compartments.
Related JoVE Video
[Protective effect of curcumin against A?25-35-induced neurotoxicity in differentiated PC12 cells].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the effects of curcumin on the expression of high mobility group box1 (HMGB1) , cell viability and morphology in a cellular model of Alzheimers disease (AD).
Related JoVE Video
Solution of the Dirac Coulomb equation for helium-like ions in the Poet-Temkin model.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Dirac-Coulomb equation for the helium atom is studied under the restrictions of the Poet-Temkin model which replaces the 1/r12 interaction by the simplified 1/r> form. The effective reduction in the dimensionality made it possible to obtain binding energies for the singlet and triplet states in this model problem with a relative precision from 10(-8) to 10(-10). The energies for the singlet state were consistent with a previous configuration interaction calculation [H. Tatewaki and Y. Watanabe, Chem. Phys. 389, 58 (2011)]. Manifestations of Brown-Ravenhall disease were noted at higher values of nuclear charge and ultimately limited the accuracy of the Poet-Temkin model energy. The energies from a no-pair configuration interaction (CI) calculation (the negative-energy states for the appropriate hydrogen-like ion were excluded from the CI expansion) were found to be different from the unrestricted B-spline calculation.
Related JoVE Video
Solitary fibrous tumors of the central nervous system: clinical features and imaging findings in 22 patients.
J Comput Assist Tomogr
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm originating in the central nervous system (CNS), with imaging features currently not well known. The purposes were to describe and characterize clinical features and imaging findings of CNS SFT.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of hemimasticatory spasm with microvascular decompression.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hemimasticatory spasm is a rare disorder characterized by paroxysmal involuntary contraction of the jaw-closing muscles. As the ideology and pathogenesis of the disease are still unclear, there has been no treatment that could give rise to a good outcome so far. Herein, we tried to use surgical management to cure the disease. Six patients with the disease were included in this study. These patients underwent microvascular decompression of the motor fibers of the trigeminal root. After the operation, all faces of the patients felt relaxed at varied degrees, except for 1 patient. Our study showed that microvascular decompression of the trigeminal nerve could lead to a better outcome. However, a control study with a large sample is needed before this technique is widely used.
Related JoVE Video
Site selectivity for protein tyrosine nitration: insights from features of structure and topological network.
Mol Biosyst
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tyrosine nitration is a covalent post-translational modification, which regulates protein functions such as hindering tyrosine phosphorylation and affecting essential signal transductions in cells. Based on up-to-date proteomics data, tyrosine nitration appears to be a highly selective process since not all tyrosine residues in proteins or all proteins are nitrated in vivo. Quite a few investigations included the protein structural information from the RCSB PDB database, where near 100,000 high-quality three-dimensional structures are available. In this work, we analyzed the local protein structures and amino acid topological networks of the nitrated and non-nitrated tyrosine sites in nitrated proteins, including neighboring atomic distribution, amino acid pair (AAP) and amino acid triangle (AAT). It has been found that aromatic and aliphatic residues, particularly with large volume, aromatic, aliphatic, or acidic side chains, are disfavored for the nitration. After integrating these structural features and topological network features with traditional sequence features, the predictive model achieves a sensitivity of 63.30% and a specificity of 92.24%, resulting in a much better accuracy compared to the previous models with only protein sequence information. Our investigation implies that the site selectivity may stem from a more open, hydrophilic and high-pH chemical environment around the tyrosine residue.
Related JoVE Video
Exploring the desumoylation process of SENP1: a study combined MD simulations with QM/MM calculations on SENP1-SUMO1-RanGAP1.
J Chem Inf Model
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO)-specific protease (SENP) processes SUMOs to mature forms and deconjugates them from various modified substrates. Loss of the equilibrium from desumoylation catalyzed by abnormal SENP1 is associated with cancers and transcription factor activity. In spite of the significant role of SENP1, the molecular basis of its desumoylation remains unclear. Here, MD simulations and QM/MM methods are combined to investigate the catalytic mechanism of desumoylation. The results showed that substrate SUMO1-RanGAP1 fitted into the catalytic pocket of SENP1 by the break of internal hydrophobic interactions and the isomerization of isopeptide from trans to cis. After that, the nucleophilic sulfur anion of Cys603 in SENP1 attacked the carbonyl carbon of Gly97 of SUMO1 to trigger the reaction, and then a tetrahedral intermediate and an acyl-enzyme intermediate were generated in turn, leading to the final release of enzyme SENP1 and two products, free SUMO1 and RanGAP1. In the process, nucleophilic attack was identified as the rate-determining step with a potential energy barrier of 20.2 kcal/mol. These results are in agreement with experimental data from mutagenesis and other experiments. Our findings elucidate the catalytic mechanism of SENP1 with its substrate and may provide a better understanding of SENP desumoylation. In particular, we have identified key residues in SENP1 needed for desumoylation that might be beneficial for the design of novel inhibitors of SENP1-related diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Intracranial papillary meningioma: a clinicopathologic study of 30 cases at a single institution.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Papillary meningioma (PM) is an uncommon meningioma subtype, and the clinical characteristics remain unclear.
Related JoVE Video
XRCC1 polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
X-ray repair cross complementing 1 (XRCC1) plays a key role in DNA repair, genetic instability and tumorigenesis. A series of epidemiological studies have examined associations between XRCC1 polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk, but the findings remain inconclusive. We searched three electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and CNKI) for studies on the association between XRCC1 polymorphisms and cervical cancer risk published before June 2013. Pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated to estimate risk associations. A total of 28 case-control studies from 15 publications with 5,890 cervical cancer cases and 7,626 controls were identified. There was a significant association between rs25487 and cervical cancer risk in Asian populations (Dominant model: OR?=?1.25, 95 % CI =1.04-1.50, P?=?0.051 for heterogeneity test). After excluding three studies deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, we observed a significant association of rs1799782 with cervical cancer risk in all populations and in Asian populations (Recessive model: OR?=?1.62 and 1.72, 95 % CI?=?1.22-2.14 and 1.29-2.30, P?=?0.090 and 0.266 for heterogeneity test, respectively). However, there was no significant association between rs25489 and cervical cancer risk. These findings were further confirmed by false-positive report probability analysis. No publication bias was found by using the funnel plot and Eggers test. This meta-analysis provides strongly statistical evidence for the association between rs1799782 and cervical cancer risk, as well as its association with rs25487 only in Asian populations. However, single large, well-designed prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Related JoVE Video
[The prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension in Xianghe county of Hebei province].
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the prevalence, awareness, control status and associated risk factors of hypertension in a rural population in Xianghe county in North China.
Related JoVE Video
[Risk factors and prevalence of cardiovascular disease of rural residents in Xianghe of Hebei province].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe the risk factors and prevalence of cardiovascular disease, and predict the 10-year risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease (ICVD) of a rural residents in Xianghe of Hebei province.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamic changes and associated factors of clopidogrel resistance in patients after cerebral infarction.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Stroke victims often exhibit clopidogrel resistance (CR). This prospective study was undertaken to observe changes that influence CR in the secondary prevention of cerebral infarction (CI). The study included 56 cases at high risk of stroke (HRS), 147 cases of CI and 68 control subjects. The CI and HRS groups were divided into CR and NCR (none clopidogrel resistance) subgroups using standard criteria. The NCR group was subdivided into DCR (dynamic CR) and CNCR (continuous NCR) groups. Platelet aggregation rate (PAR) was assessed at baseline and after 2 weeks treatment with clopidogrel 75 mg/day in the CI and HRS groups. In the NCR group, PAR was evaluated after 3 and 6 months of clopidogrel (75 mg/day) treatment. Baseline PAR was higher in the CI group than in the HRS or control groups (P < 0.01). The incidence of CR was 28.6 % in the CI and 13.6 % in the HRS group (P = 0.018). Diabetes mellitus, (OR 16.627; 95 % CI 4.691-58.934) and history of TIA (OR 13.711; 95 % CI 1.667-112.784) (both P < 0.05) were both associated with CR. Other independent risk factors included high total cholesterol, calcium antagonist or ACEI/ARB use. A total of 36 CR and 85 NCR cases completed 6 months follow-up. High total cholesterol was an independent risk factor for DCR (OR 0.415; 95 % CI 0.213-0.808; P = 0.01) which developed in 15 subjects at 6 months. PAR decreased by >10 % after 2 weeks in 71.4 % of patients with CR who subsequently changed drugs or received combination therapy. Dynamic CR may occur after CI. Many factors including DMTIAHCTP2Y12 ?C coexistence CYP2Y19 ?Acombination drug, associate CR or DCR. Our results highlight the need for PAR monitoring.
Related JoVE Video
Epidermal growth factor (EGF)-induced corneal epithelial wound healing through nuclear factor ?B subtype-regulated CCCTC binding factor (CTCF) activation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in corneal epithelial migration and proliferation to improve the wound healing process. This study aimed to understand the role of NF?B in EGF-induced corneal epithelial wound healing through regulation of CTCF activity, which plays important roles in cell motility and migration to promote wound healing. The effect of NF?B p50 on corneal epithelial wound healing was investigated by comparing the eyes of wild-type and p50 knockout mice. We found that there was a significant retardation in corneal epithelial wound healing in the corneas of p50 knockout mice. Wound closure rates were measured in human corneal epithelial cells transfected with an NF?B activation-sensitive CTCF expression construct to demonstrate the effect of human CTCF expression under the control of EGF-induced NF?B activation on wound healing. EGF stimulation activated NF?B, which directly triggered the expression of the exogenous human CTCF in transfected cells and, subsequently, promoted human corneal epithelial cell motility, migration, and wound healing. Overexpression of CTCF in corneal epithelial cells and mouse corneas significantly enhanced the wound healing process. Furthermore, the effect of overexpressing NF?B p50 in corneal epithelial cells on the promotion of wound healing was abolished by knockdown of CTCF with CTCF-specific shRNA. Thus, a direct regulatory relationship between EGF-induced NF?B p50 and CTCF activation affecting corneal epithelial wound healing has been established, indicating that CTCF is, indeed, a NF?B p50-targeted and effective gene product in the core transcriptional network downstream from the growth factor-induced NF?B signaling pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Environmental risk assessment on capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biodegradation experiments were carried out with capsaicin to evaluate its degradability. The results show that capsaicin was readily biodegradable under aerobic conditions. The values of Kow and the calculated bioconcentration factor indicate that capsaicin have a low potential for bioconcentration. The fish acute toxicity tests conducted with Brachydanio rerio show LC50 for capsaicin was 5.98mgL(-1). The tests of alga growth inhibition conducted with Selenastrum capricornutum suggest EC50 for capsaicin was 114mgL(-1). The calculated PNEC (Predicted No Effect Concentration) was 4.9×10(-4) mgL(-1). The average PEC (Predicted Environmental Concentration) for OECD-EU commercial harbor and marina were 3.99×10(-6) and 2.49×10(-5)mgL(-1), respectively. These indicate that the PEC was much less than the PNEC for capsaicin. The low Kp value of capsaicin suggests the data about the risk of capsaicin to sediment organisms can be waived. According to the results from the analysis of the degradation, bioaccumulation, toxicity and accumulation in sediment, it can be concluded that capsaicin used as active substance for antifouling system on ships poses relatively low risk to marine environment.
Related JoVE Video
Mutation analysis of PRRT2 in two Chinese BFIS families and nomenclature of PRRT2 related paroxysmal diseases.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Benign familial infantile seizure (BFIS) and paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia (PKD) are autosomal-dominant inherited self-limited neurological disorders. BFIS is characterized by clusters of epileptic seizures in infancy while, in some cases, infantile seizures and adolescent-onset paroxysmal kinesigenic choreoathetosis co-occurred, which is called infantile convulsions and choreoathetosis (ICCA) syndrome. We and other researchers have reported the proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) as the causative gene of PKD. We and our collaborators also identified PRRT2 mutations in ICCA and other phenotypes. Here we collected two BFIS families of Chinese Han origin. The linkage analysis has mapped the BFIS-causing locus to 16p12.1-q12.2, where PRRT2 is located. We then performed mutation analysis of PRRT2 by direct sequencing and identified c.649-650insC mutation in all BFIS patients. We also noticed that paroxysmal diseases (such as BFIS, PKD and ICCA) with PRRT2 mutations, instead of other forms, share some characteristics like being responded well to anti-epiletic treatment, we thus suggest to name them as PRRT2-related paroxysmal diseases (PRPDs) in order to assist clinical diagnosis and treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Disruption of the blood-brain barrier after generalized tonic-clonic seizures correlates with cerebrospinal fluid MMP-9 levels.
J Neuroinflammation
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increasing evidence suggests seizures cause blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction including decreased seizure threshold and higher onset potential of future seizures. However, the mechanisms underlying BBB damage in seizures remains poorly understood. Evidence in human and animal models shows BBB disruption is associated with activation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) after cerebral ischemia and inflammation. The objective of this study was to determine whether MMP-9 concentrations in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) are associated with BBB disruption in patients after epileptic seizures.
Related JoVE Video
Transglutaminase 6 interacts with polyQ proteins and promotes the formation of polyQ aggregates.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A common feature of polyglutamine (polyQ) diseases is the presence of aggregates in neuronal cells caused by expanded polyglutamine tracts. PolyQ proteins are the substrates of transglutaminase 2, and the increased activity of transglutaminase in polyQ diseases suggests that transglutaminase may be directly involved in the formation of the aggregates. We previously identified the transglutaminase 6 gene to be causative of spinocerebellar ataxia type 35 (SCA35), and we found that SCA35-associated mutants exhibited reduced transglutaminase activity. Here we report that transglutaminase 6 interacts and co-localizes with both normal and expanded polyQ proteins in HEK293 cells. Moreover, the overexpression of transglutaminase 6 promotes the formation of polyQ aggregates and the conversion of soluble polyQ into insoluble polyQ aggregates. However, SCA35-associated mutants do not affect their interactions with polyQ proteins. These data suggest that transglutaminase 6 could be involved in polyQ diseases and there may exist a common pathological link between polyQ associated SCA and SCA35.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide expression profiles of seasonal bud dormancy at four critical stages in Japanese apricot.
Plant Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dormancy is one of the most important adaptive mechanisms developed by perennial plants. To reveal the comprehensive mechanism of seasonal bud dormancy at four critical stages in Japanese apricot (Prunus persica), we applied Illumina sequencing to study differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at the transcriptional level. As a result, 19,759, 16,375, 19,749 and 20,800 tag-mapped genes were sequenced from libraries of paradormancy (R1), endodormancy (R2), ecodormancy (R3) and dormancy release (R4) stages based on the P. persica genome. Moreover, 6,199, 5,539, and 5,317 genes were differentially expressed in R1 versus R2, R2 versus R3, and R3 versus R4, respectively. Gene Ontology analysis of dormancy-related genes showed that these were mainly related to the cytoplasm, cytoplasmic part metabolism, intracellular metabolism and membrane-bound organelle metabolism. Pathway-enrichment annotation revealed that highly ranked genes were involved in ribosome pathways and protein processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. The results demonstrated that hormone response genes such as auxin, abscisic acid, ethylene and jasmonic acid, as well as zinc finger family protein genes are possibly involved in seasonal bud dormancy in Japanese apricot. The expression patterns of DEGs were verified using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. These results contribute to further understanding of the mechanism of bud dormancy in Japanese apricot.
Related JoVE Video
Microvascular decompression for the patient with painful tic convulsif after bell palsy.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Painful tic convulsif is referred to as the concurrent trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm. However, painful tic convulsif after ipsilateral Bell palsy has never been reported before. We report a case of a 77-year-old woman with coexistent trigeminal neuralgia and hemifacial spasm who had experienced Bell palsy half a year ago. The patient underwent microvascular decompression. Intraoperatively, the vertebrobasilar artery was found to deviate to the symptomatic side and a severe adhesion was observed in the cerebellopontine angle. Meanwhile, an ectatic anterior inferior cerebellar artery and 2 branches of the superior cerebellar artery were identified to compress the caudal root entry zone (REZ) of the VII nerve and the rostroventral cisternal portion of the V nerve, respectively. Postoperatively, the symptoms of spasm ceased immediately and the pain disappeared within 3 months. In this article, the pathogenesis of the patients illness was discussed and it was assumed that the adhesions developed from inflammatory reactions after Bell palsy and the anatomic features of the patient were the factors that generated the disorder. Microvascular decompression surgery is the suggested treatment of the disease, and the dissection should be started from the caudal cranial nerves while performing the operation.
Related JoVE Video
Distribution of transglutaminase 6 in the central nervous system of adult mice.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our previous study identified a new form of spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA), in which mutations in the gene coding for transglutaminase 6 (TG6) were suggested to be causative. However, the data concerning cellular distribution of TG6 in the brain is still fragmentary. Therefore, we now report a comprehensive immunohistochemical examination of the expression profile of TG6 in adult mouse brain. TG6 was abundantly expressed in the septal region, basal ganglia, hypothalamus and brainstem. Notably, numerous TG6-positive neurons were found in the key brain regions involved in regulating locomotion activity, including the globus pallidus, subthalamic nucleus, substantia nigra, cerebellum, some precerebellar nuclei, and spinal motor neurons. Double immunostaining showed that the vast majority of TG6-positive neurons in the reticular nigra were GABAergic and those in the compact nigra were not dopaminergic. In addition, double staining for TG6 with either anti-NeuN or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibodies demonstrated exclusive NeuN-TG6 co-localization. This study presents a comprehensive overview of TG6 expression in the mouse brain, and provides insight for investigating the role of TG6 in the development of SCA.
Related JoVE Video
Kleine-Levin syndrome with brain atrophy.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kleine-Levin syndrome (KLS) is commonly described as a self-limiting disorder exhibiting episodes of hypersomnia and psychiatric symptoms, but without any enduring disabilities. Recently, reports have shown that persistent or even progressive memory deficits can also be associated with the disorder. Nevertheless, little has been reported about cognitive disturbances in KLS. Our report describes a rare patient with KLS and prominent brain atrophy. A 24-year-old woman developed severe neurological and psychiatric features 12 years previously, 2 weeks after she was hit in the head. Although she has had no recurrence of the primary KLS symptoms, she continues to have a cognitive disorder, verbal disability, and whole brain atrophy.
Related JoVE Video
[Analysis of X-rays of cervical imbalances syndrome before and after the treatment of osteopathy and traction intervention in 187 youth cases].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To observe X-ray features of before and after treatment of cervical imbalance syndrome with osteopathy and traction intervention in youth patients, then to investigate the clinical effect of the treatment of the cervical imbalances syndrome in youth by osteopathy.
Related JoVE Video
Using next-generation sequencing as a genetic diagnostic tool in rare autosomal recessive neurologic Mendelian disorders.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Next-generation sequencing was used to investigate 9 rare Chinese pedigrees with rare autosomal recessive neurologic Mendelian disorders. Five probands with ataxia-telangectasia and 1 proband with chorea-acanthocytosis were analyzed by targeted gene sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing was used to investigate 3 affected individuals with Joubert syndrome, nemaline myopathy, or spastic ataxia Charlevoix-Saguenay type. A list of known and novel candidate variants was identified for each causative gene. All variants were genetically verified by Sanger sequencing or quantitative polymerase chain reaction with the strategy of disease segregation in related pedigrees and healthy controls. The advantages of using next-generation sequencing to diagnose rare autosomal recessive neurologic Mendelian disorders characterized by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity are demonstrated. A genetic diagnostic strategy combining the use of targeted gene sequencing and whole-exome sequencing with the aid of next-generation sequencing platforms has shown great promise for improving the diagnosis of neurologic Mendelian disorders.
Related JoVE Video
[Value of computed tomography features for prognosis evaluation of gastrointestinal stromal tumor].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the association between CT features and survival rate of GIST, and to elucidate the significance of CT features for prognosis.
Related JoVE Video
Polymorphisms in mTORC1 genes modulate risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in eastern Chinese populations.
J Thorac Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is an evolutionary conserved multiprotein complex that functions as a key regulator of gene transcription, protein translation, and autophagy. No studies have assessed associations between functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in mTORC1 genes and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC).
Related JoVE Video
CT enterography in evaluating postoperative recurrence of Crohns disease after ileocolic resection: complementary role to endoscopy.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ileocolonoscopy is the gold standard to assess postoperative recurrence (POR) in patients with Crohns disease (CD) who have undergone ileocolic resection. Although computed tomographic enterography (CTE) yields striking findings in the small bowel of CD, its role in POR is undefined. The aim of this study was to compare ileocolonoscopy and CTE for evaluating POR in CD.
Related JoVE Video
Role of MRI in assessment of ejaculatory duct obstruction.
J Xray Sci Technol
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aims to analyze magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features of ejaculatory duct obstruction, and to provide an accurate diagnostic imaging approach for surgical planning of minimally invasive procedures treating ejaculatory duct obstruction. A total of 18 men with ejaculatory duct obstruction were enrolled in the study. The patients were admitted to our hospital and had undergone MRI examination and surgical treatment from January 2003 to February 2011. The data was collected by searching keywords (ejaculatory duct obstruction) from our PACS. Patients suspected having ejaculatory duct obstruction according to the manifestations through MRI examinations and further being confirmed by surgery were included. The MRI features of ejaculatory duct obstruction in these patients were summarized. Five cases with ejaculatory duct cysts were detected by MRI, ranging in size from 4 mm × 4 mm × 7 mm to 4 mm × 4 mm × 9 mm and located in the paramedian line; ejaculatory duct dilation near the median line, with the internal diameter ranging from 5 mm to 30 mm was detected in nine cases; and among thirteen cases who underwent both non-contrast enhanced and contrast enhanced MRI scanning, significant enhancement of the wall of the ejaculatory duct on enhanced scanning was observed in three cases. Mullerian duct cysts complicated with dilation of the ejaculatory duct and seminal vesicles were detected in four cases; in these cases, the cysts were located in the median line, ranging in size from 4 mm × 5 mm × 6 mm to 34 mm × 35 mm × 44 mm, tear-drop appearance, with the tip pointing toward the area of the seminal colliculus. Findings of MRI were confirmed by the observations during the surgery. MRI is more accurate at displaying the ejaculatory duct. We recommend that ejaculatory duct diameter of > 2 mm can be used as a diagnostic criterion with MRI image analyses for ejaculatory duct dilation.
Related JoVE Video
Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 regulates the mechanism of irradiation-induced CNE-2 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell autophagy and inhibition of autophagy contributes to the radiation sensitization of CNE-2 cells.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of autophagy in response to ionizing radiation (IR) in CNE-2 human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells and to demonstrate the function of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) in the regulation of IR-induced autophagy. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) were assessed using western blotting. Ultrastructural analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The percentage of apoptotic cells was assessed by flow cytometry. The MTT method was used to detect cell viability of CNE-2 cells at different time points after IR. Clonogenic survival assays were used to evaluate the radiosensitivity of nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells treated with IR and IR combined with autophagy inhibitor (chloroquine phosphate), with autophagy inducer (rapamycin) or with PARP-1 inhibitor 3-amino benzamide (3AB). IR induced a massive accumulation of autophagosomes detected by TEM and intensified the conversion of cytosolic LC3-I to LC3-II. PARP-1 activation was accompanied by strong upregulation of PAR and LC3-II expression in CNE-2 cells. Compared with radiation alone, chloroquine phosphate (CDP) or 3AB combined with IR significantly decreased cell viability, as well as the autophagic ratio and LC3-II protein levels. Inhibition of autophagy increased radiation-induced apoptosis; rapamycin (RAPA) significantly decreased cell viability as well, but RAPA increased the autophagic ratio and LC3-II protein levels; induction of autophagy increased radiation-induced apoptosis. To conclude, PARP-1 regulates IR-induced autophagy, and PARP-1 inhibitor contributes to the radiation sensitization of CNE-2 cells. Blockade of autophagy with CDP enhanced the cytotoxicity of radiotherapy in CNE-2 cells. This suggests that inhibition of autophagy or PARP-1 may be used as an adjuvant therapy to treat nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.