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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A Physical Activity Intervention to Treat the Frailty Syndrome in Older Persons-Results From the LIFE-P Study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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The frailty syndrome is as a well-established condition of risk for disability. Aim of the study is to explore whether a physical activity (PA) intervention can reduce prevalence and severity of frailty in a community-dwelling elders at risk of disability.
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Physical Activity Behavior, Barriers to Activity, and Opinions About a Smartphone-Based Physical Activity Intervention Among Rural Residents.
Telemed J E Health
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Abstract Background: Rural Americans engage in less physical activity (PA) and experience higher rates of consequent health problems (i.e., obesity, cardiovascular disease) than urban Americans. Although geographic barriers have historically made this population hard to reach, rural individuals are increasingly gaining access to smartphones. Thus, the purpose of this study was to evaluate PA behavior and barriers to PA among rural residents and to gauge their receptiveness to a smartphone-based PA intervention that is currently in the development stage. Materials and Methods: Rural Floridian adults (n=113), 18 years of age and older, completed surveys to assess PA behavior, PA barriers, and opinions about an intervention to increase PA. Specifically, they were asked to imagine a program that would require them to do PA with their mobile phones and whether they viewed intended aspects of the program as helpful. The present work is therefore formative research that sought to determine the feasibility and acceptability of a smartphone-based intervention among rural residents. Results of the survey will inform the development of a tailored, smartphone-based PA intervention. Results: The 37.2% of participants with low PA levels (<600 metabolic equivalent [MET]-min per week) were more likely to report personal and environmental barriers to PA than the 47.8% of participants with moderate PA levels (?600 MET-min per week). More barriers were reported among participants who self-reported as white and among participants of older age, lower education level, and lower socioeconomic status. Additionally, 75.9% of participants reported features of the intervention as at least somewhat helpful. Conclusions: The growing ubiquity of smartphones among rural residents, combined with participants' positive response to the program description, supports the acceptability of a smartphone-based PA intervention for rural communities. Given the participants' receptiveness, future research should evaluate the efficacy of smartphone-delivered health behavior interventions among this population.
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Interventions to Reduce Sedentary Behavior.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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This paper reports on presentations and discussion from the working group on "Influences on Sedentary Behavior & Interventions" as part of the Sedentary Behavior: Identifying Research Priorities Workshop.
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Change in physical activity after a diabetes diagnosis: opportunity for intervention.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Moderate-intensity physical activity is recommended for individuals with diabetes to control glucose and prevent diabetes-related complications. The extent to which a diabetes diagnosis motivates patients to increase physical activity is unclear. This study used data from the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (baseline data collected from 1993 to 1998) to examine change in physical activity and sedentary behavior in women who reported a diabetes diagnosis compared with women who did not report diabetes during 7 yr of follow-up (up to 2005).
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Simultaneous association of total energy consumption and activity-related energy expenditure with risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes among postmenopausal women.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Total energy consumption and activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) estimates that have been calibrated using biomarkers to correct for measurement error were simultaneously associated with the risks of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and diabetes among postmenopausal women who were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative at 40 US clinical centers and followed from 1994 to the present. Calibrated energy consumption was found to be positively related, and AREE inversely related, to the risks of various cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and diabetes. These associations were not evident in most corresponding analyses that did not correct for measurement error. However, an important analytical caveat relates to the role of body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)/height (m)(2)). In the calibrated variable analyses, BMI was regarded, along with self-reported data, as a source of information on energy consumption and physical activity, and BMI was otherwise excluded from the disease risk models. This approach cannot be fully justified with available data, and the analyses herein imply a need for improved dietary and physical activity assessment methods and for longitudinal self-reported and biomarker data to test and relax modeling assumptions. Estimated hazard ratios for 20% increases in total energy consumption and AREE, respectively, were as follows: 1.49 (95% confidence interval: 1.18, 1.88) and 0.80 (95% confidence interval: 0.69, 0.92) for total cardiovascular disease; 1.43 (95% confidence interval: 1.17, 1.73) and 0.84 (95% confidence interval: 0.73, 0.96) for total invasive cancer; and 4.17 (95% confidence interval: 2.68, 6.49) and 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.44, 0.83) for diabetes.
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Effect of structured physical activity on prevention of major mobility disability in older adults: the LIFE study randomized clinical trial.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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In older adults reduced mobility is common and is an independent risk factor for morbidity, hospitalization, disability, and mortality. Limited evidence suggests that physical activity may help prevent mobility disability; however, there are no definitive clinical trials examining whether physical activity prevents or delays mobility disability.
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Safety and metabolic outcomes of resveratrol supplementation in older adults: results of a twelve-week, placebo-controlled pilot study.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Resveratrol has been found to have potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticarcinogenic effects. The safety and efficacy of resveratrol supplementation in older adults are currently unknown. We conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to examine the safety and metabolic outcomes in 32 overweight, older adults (mean age, 73±7years). Participants were randomized into one of three treatment groups: (1) placebo, (2) moderate dose resveratrol (300mg/day), and (3) high dose resveratrol (1000mg/day). Both resveratrol and placebo were orally ingested in capsule form twice daily for 90days. Blood chemistry values remained within the normal range, and there were no significant differences in the number of participants reporting adverse events across conditions. Compared to placebo, glucose levels were significantly lower at post-treatment among participants randomized to both resveratrol conditions, with and without adjustment for the corresponding baseline values (ps<0.05). Glucose values of participants in the treatment groups, however, were not significantly different from baseline levels. These findings suggest that short-term resveratrol supplementation at doses of 300mg/day and 1000mg/day does not adversely affect blood chemistries and is well tolerated in overweight, older individuals. These findings support the study of resveratrol for improving cardio-metabolic health in older adults in larger clinical trials.
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Respiratory impairment and dyspnea and their associations with physical inactivity and mobility in sedentary community-dwelling older persons.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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To evaluate the prevalence of respiratory impairment and dyspnea and their associations with objectively measured physical inactivity and performance-based mobility in sedentary older persons.
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Sedentary behavior and mortality in older women: the Women's Health Initiative.
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Although epidemiologic studies have shown associations between sedentary behavior and mortality, few have focused on older women with adequate minority representation and few have controlled for both physical activity and functional status.
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Combined reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peripheral artery disease in sedentary elders with functional limitations.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Because they are potentially modifiable and may coexist, we evaluated the combined occurrence of a reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and peripheral artery disease (PAD), including its association with exertional symptoms, physical inactivity, and impaired mobility, in sedentary elders with functional limitations.
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U.S. population estimates and correlates of sexual abuse of community-dwelling older adults.
J Elder Abuse Negl
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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We describe the annual prevalence of sexual abuse among community-dwelling older adults in the United States. We also describe factors associated with experiencing sexual abuse. We used data from 24,343 older adults from the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System pooled across 18 states. We estimated prevalence of sexual abuse, bivariate distributions, and odds ratio associations across demographic, health, and contextual factors. Our results show that 0.9% of older adults reported experiencing sexual abuse in the previous year. This represents approximately 90,289 community-dwelling older adults. We also report on factors associated with experiencing recent sexual abuse. There was a significant gender by binge drinking interaction, with a stronger association among women. There is a need for health promotion efforts targeted specifically toward older adults, encouraging them to seek services, if possible, after exposure to sexual abuse.
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The LIFE Cognition Study: design and baseline characteristics.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Observational studies have shown beneficial relationships between exercise and cognitive function. Some clinical trials have also demonstrated improvements in cognitive function in response to moderate-high intensity aerobic exercise; however, these have been limited by relatively small sample sizes and short durations. The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is the largest and longest randomized controlled clinical trial of physical activity with cognitive outcomes, in older sedentary adults at increased risk for incident mobility disability. One LIFE Study objective is to evaluate the effects of a structured physical activity program on changes in cognitive function and incident all-cause mild cognitive impairment or dementia. Here, we present the design and baseline cognitive data. At baseline, participants completed the modified Mini Mental Status Examination, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test, Digit Symbol Coding, Modified Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure, and a computerized battery, selected to be sensitive to changes in speed of processing and executive functioning. During follow up, participants completed the same battery, along with the Category Fluency for Animals, Boston Naming, and Trail Making tests. The description of the mild cognitive impairment/dementia adjudication process is presented here. Participants with worse baseline Short Physical Performance Battery scores (prespecified at ? 7) had significantly lower median cognitive test scores compared with those having scores of 8 or 9 with modified Mini Mental Status Examination score of 91 versus (vs) 93, Hopkins Verbal Learning Test delayed recall score of 7.4 vs 7.9, and Digit Symbol Coding score of 45 vs 48, respectively (all P<0.001). The LIFE Study will contribute important information on the effects of a structured physical activity program on cognitive outcomes in sedentary older adults at particular risk for mobility impairment. In addition to its importance in the area of prevention of cognitive decline, the LIFE Study will also likely serve as a model for exercise and other behavioral intervention trials in older adults.
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Diving Below the Surface of Progressive Disability: Considering Compensatory Strategies as Evidence of Sub-Clinical Disability.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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Objectives.To provide a comprehensive review regarding the role of activity and participation compensations within the disablement process, identify directions for future research, and discuss the implications of compensation pertaining to public health initiatives aimed at preventing and reversing disability.Method.This article evaluated how using compensatory strategies to cope with functional deficits reveals important transitions within the disablement process and signifies a unique opportunity to identify early declines in function.
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Prestroke factors associated with poststroke mortality and recovery in older women in the Womens Health Initiative.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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To examine prestroke lifestyle factors associated with poststroke mortality and recovery in older women.
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Modifying effect of obesity on the association between sitting and incident diabetes in post-menopausal women.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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To evaluate the association between self-reported daily sitting time and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a cohort of postmenopausal women.
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Effect of dietary restriction and exercise on lower extremity tissue compartments in obese, older women: a pilot study.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Accumulating evidence suggests that both dietary restriction and exercise (DR + E) should be incorporated in weight loss interventions to treat obese, older adults. However, more information is needed on the effects to lower extremity tissue composition-an important consideration for preserving mobility in older adults.
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Aging and muscle: a neurons perspective.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Age-related muscle weakness causes a staggering economic, public, and personal burden. Most research has focused on internal muscular mechanisms as the root cause to strength loss. Here, we briefly discuss age-related impairments in the brain and peripheral nerve structures that may theoretically lead to muscle weakness in old age.
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Active muscle regeneration following eccentric contraction-induced injury is similar between healthy young and older adults.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Repair of skeletal muscle after injury is a key aspect of maintaining proper musculoskeletal function. Studies have suggested that regenerative processes- including myogenesis and angiogenesis- are impaired during advanced age, but evidence from humans is limited. This study aimed to compare active muscle regeneration between healthy young and older adults. We evaluated changes in clinical, biochemical, and immunohistochemical indices of muscle regeneration at precisely two (T2) and seven (T3) days following acute muscle injury. Men and women aged 18-30 and ? 70 years, matched for gender and body mass index, performed 150 unilateral, eccentric contractions of the plantar flexors at 110% of 1RM. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance adjusted for gender, habitual physical activity, and baseline level of the outcome. A total of 30 young (n=15, 22.5 ± 3.7 yr) and older (n=15, 75.8 ± 5.0 yr) adults completed the study. Following muscle injury, force production declined 16% and 14% in young and older adults, respectively, by T2 and in each group returned to 93% of baseline strength by T3. Despite modest differences in the pattern of response, post-injury changes in intramuscular concentrations of myogenic growth factors and number of myonuclear (DAPI+, Pax7+) cells were largely similar between groups. Likewise, post-injury changes in serum and intramuscular indices of inflammation (e.g. TNF?, MCP1) and angiogenesis (e.g. VEGF, KDR) did not significantly differ between groups. These findings suggest that declines in physical activity and increased co-morbidity may contribute to age-related impairments in active muscle regeneration rather than aging per se.
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Functional language networks in sedentary and physically active older adults.
J Int Neuropsychol Soc
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified consistent age-related changes during various cognitive tasks, such that older individuals display more positive and less negative task-related activity than young adults. Recently, evidence shows that chronic physical exercise may alter aging-related changes in brain activity; however, the effect of exercise has not been studied for the neural substrates of language function. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which aging alters neural recruitment remain understudied. To address these points, the present study enrolled elderly adults who were either sedentary or physically active to characterize the neural correlates of language function during semantic fluency between these groups in comparison to a young adult sample. Participants underwent fMRI during semantic fluency and transcranial magnetic stimulation to collect the ipsilateral silent period, a measure of interhemispheric inhibition. Results indicated that sedentary older adults displayed reductions in negative task-related activity compared to the active old group in areas of the attention network. Longer interhemispheric inhibition was associated with more negative task-related activity in the right and left posterior perisylvian cortex, suggesting that sedentary aging may result in losses in task facilitatory cortical inhibition. However, these losses may be mitigated by regular engagement in physical exercise.
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Mitochondrial DNA sequence associations with dementia and amyloid-? in elderly African Americans.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs early in the course of several neurodegenerative diseases, and is potentially related to increased oxidative damage and amyloid-? (A?) formation in Alzheimers disease. The goals of this study were to assess mtDNA sequence associations with dementia risk, 10-year cognitive change, and markers of oxidative stress and A? among 1089 African-Americans in the population-based Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. Participants were free of dementia at baseline, and incidence was determined in 187 (18%) cases over 10 to 12 follow-up years. Haplogroup L1 participants were at increased risk for developing dementia (odds ratio = 1.88, 95% confidence interval = 1.23-2.88, p = 0.004), lower plasma A?42 levels (p = 0.03), and greater 10-year decline on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (p = 0.04) when compared with common haplogroup L3. The p.V193I, ND2 substitution was associated with significantly higher A?42 levels (p = 0.0012), and this association was present in haplogroup L3 (p = 0.018) but not L1 (p = 0.90) participants. All associations were independent of potential confounders, including APOE?4 status and nuclear genetic ancestry. Identification of mtDNA sequence variation associated with dementia risk and cognitive decline may contribute to the development of new treatment targets and diagnostic tests that identify responders to interventions targeting mitochondria.
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Longitudinal change in energy expenditure and effects on energy requirements of the elderly.
Nutr J
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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BACKGROUND: Very little is known about the longitudinal changes in energy requirements in late life. The purposes of this study were to: (1) determine the energy requirements in late life and how they changed during a 7 year time-span, (2) determine whether changes in fat free mass (FFM) were related to changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR), and (3) determine the accuracy of predicted total energy expenditure (TEE) to measured TEE. METHODS: TEE was assessed via doubly labeled water (DLW) technique in older adults in both 1999 (n = 302; age: 74 +/- 2.9 yrs) and again in 2006 (n = 87 age: 82 +/- 3.1 yrs). RMR was measured with indirect calorimetry, and body composition was assessed with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: The energy requirements in the 9th decade of life were 2208 +/- 376 kcal/d for men and 1814 +/- 337 kcal/d for women. This was a significant decrease from the energy requirements in the 8th decade of life in men (2482 +/- 476 kcal/d vs. 2208 +/- 376 kcal/d) but not in women (1892 +/- 271 kcal/d vs. 1814 +/- 337 kcal/d). In addition to TEE, RMR, and activity EE (AEE) also decreased in men, but not women, while FFM decreased in both men and women. The changes in FFM were correlated with changes in RMR for men (r = 0.49, p < 0.05) but not for women (r = -0.08, ns). Measured TEE was similar to Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) predicted TEE for men (2208 +/- 56 vs. 2305 +/- 35 kcal/d) and women (1814 +/- 42 vs. 1781 +/- 20 kcal/d). However, measured TEE was different than the World Health Organization (WHO) predicted TEE in men (2208 +/- 56 vs. 2915 +/- 31 kcal/d (p < 0.05)) and women (1814 +/- 42 vs. 2315 +/- 21 kcal/d (p < 0.05)). CONCLUSIONS: TEE, RMR and AEE decreased in men, but not women, from the 8th to 9th decade of life. The DRI equation to predict TEE was comparable to measured TEE, while the WHO equation over-predicted TEE in our elderly population.
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Neuromuscular determinants of maximum walking speed in well-functioning older adults.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Maximum walking speed may offer an advantage over usual walking speed for clinical assessment of age-related declines in mobility function that are due to neuromuscular impairment. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which maximum walking speed is affected by neuromuscular function of the lower extremities in older adults. We recruited two groups of healthy, well functioning older adults who differed primarily on maximum walking speed. We hypothesized that individuals with slower maximum walking speed would exhibit reduced lower extremity muscle size and impaired plantarflexion force production and neuromuscular activation during a rapid contraction of the triceps surae muscle group (soleus (SO) and gastrocnemius (MG)). All participants were required to have usual 10-meter walking speed of >1.0m/s. If the difference between usual and maximum 10m walking speed was <0.6m/s, the individual was assigned to the "Slower" group (n=8). If the difference between usual and maximum 10-meter walking speed was >0.6m/s, the individual was assigned to the "Faster" group (n=12). Peak rate of force development (RFD) and rate of neuromuscular activation (rate of EMG rise) of the triceps surae muscle group were assessed during a rapid plantarflexion movement. Muscle cross sectional area of the right triceps surae, quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups was determined by magnetic resonance imaging. Across participants, the difference between usual and maximal walking speed was predominantly dictated by maximum walking speed (r=.85). We therefore report maximum walking speed (1.76 and 2.17m/s in Slower and Faster, p<.001) rather than the difference between usual and maximal. Plantarflexion RFD was 38% lower (p=.002) in Slower compared to Faster. MG rate of EMG rise was 34% lower (p=.01) in Slower than Faster, but SO rate of EMG rise did not differ between groups (p=.73). Contrary to our hypothesis, muscle CSA was not lower in Slower than Faster for the muscle groups tested, which included triceps surae (p=.44), quadriceps (p=.76) and hamstrings (p=.98). MG rate of EMG rise was positively associated with RFD and maximum 10m walking speed, but not the usual 10m walking speed. These findings support the conclusion that maximum walking speed is limited by impaired neuromuscular force and activation of the triceps surae muscle group. Future research should further evaluate the utility of maximum walking speed for use in clinical assessment to detect and monitor age-related functional decline.
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Effects of aerobic fitness on aging-related changes of interhemispheric inhibition and motor performance.
Front Aging Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Physical fitness has been long associated with maintenance and improvement of motor performance as we age. In particular, measures of psychomotor speed and motor dexterity tend to be higher in physically fit aging adults as compared to their sedentary counterparts. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we explored the patterns of neural activity that may, in part, account for differences between individuals of varying physical fitness levels. In this study, we enrolled both sedentary and physically fit middle age (40-60) and younger (18-30) adults and measured upper extremity motor performance during behavioral testing. In a follow-up session, we employed TMS and fMRI to assess levels of interhemispheric communication during unimanual tasks. Results show that increased physical fitness is associated with better upper extremity motor performance on distal dexterity assessments and increased levels of interhemispheric inhibition in middle age adults. Further, the functional correlates of changes of ipsilateral activity appears to be restricted to the aging process as younger adults of varying fitness levels do not differ in hemispheric patterns of activity or motor performance. We conclude that sedentary aging confers a loss of interhemispheric inhibition that is deleterious to some aspects of motor function, as early as midlife, but these changes can be mediated by chronic engagement in aerobic exercise.
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Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70-89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity - 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women - was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes "moderate" exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription.
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Metabolic cost of daily activities and effect of mobility impairment in older adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2011
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To compare metabolic equivalent (MET) values of common daily tasks in men and women aged 70 and older with normative criteria and to determine the effect of having mobility impairments.
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Obesity and use of compensatory strategies to perform common daily activities in pre-clinically disabled older adults.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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To examine the association between the use of compensatory strategies to successfully complete common daily activities-an indicator of pre-clinical disability-and body mass in pre-clinically disabled older adults.
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Activity energy expenditure and incident cognitive impairment in older adults.
Arch. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2011
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Studies suggest that physically active people have reduced risk of incident cognitive impairment in late life. However, these studies are limited by reliance on self-reports of physical activity, which only moderately correlate with objective measures and often exclude activity not readily quantifiable by frequency and duration. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between activity energy expenditure (AEE), an objective measure of total activity, and incidence of cognitive impairment.
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Validation of an armband to measure daily energy expenditure in older adults.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Objective methods to measure daily energy expenditure in studies of aging are needed. We sought to determine the accuracy of total energy expenditure (TEE) and activity energy expenditure (AEE) estimates from the SenseWear Pro armband (SWA) using software versions 6.1 (SWA 6.1) and 5.1 (SWA 5.1) relative to criterion methods in free-living older adults.
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Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
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Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women.
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Usefulness of preclinical models for assessing the efficacy of late-life interventions for sarcopenia.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Caloric restriction and physical exercise have proven beneficial against age-associated changes in body composition and declining physical performance; however, little is known regarding what benefit these interventions might have when initiated late in life. The study of mimetics of diet and exercise and the combination thereof may provide additional treatments for a vulnerable elderly population; however, how and when to initiate such interventions requires consideration in developing the most safe and efficacious treatment strategies. In this review, we focus on preclinical late-life intervention studies, which assess the relationship between physical function, sarcopenia, and body composition. We provide a conceptual framework for the ever-changing definition of sarcopenia and a rationale for the use of an appropriate rodent model of this condition. We finish by providing our perspective regarding the implications of this body of work and future areas of research that may also contribute to the ultimate goal of extending healthspan.
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An exploratory analysis of the effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on cellular quality control mechanisms in older overweight women.
Rejuvenation Res
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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Obese older adults are particularly susceptible to sarcopenia and have a higher prevalence of disability than their peers of normal weight. Interventions to improve body composition in late life are crucial to maintaining independence. The main mechanisms underlying sarcopenia have not been determined conclusively, but chronic inflammation, apoptosis, and impaired mitochondrial function are believed to play important roles. It has yet to be determined whether impaired cellular quality control mechanisms contribute to this process. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of a 6-month weight loss program combined with moderate-intensity exercise on the cellular quality control mechanisms autophagy and ubiquitin-proteasome, as well as on inflammation, apoptosis, and mitochondrial function, in the skeletal muscle of older obese women. The intervention resulted in significant weight loss (8.0?±?3.9 % vs. 0.4?±?3.1% of baseline weight, p?=?0.002) and improvements in walking speed (reduced time to walk 400 meters,?-?20.4?±?16% vs.?-?2.5?±?12%, p?=?0.03). In the intervention group, we observed a three-fold increase in messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of the autophagy regulators LC3B, Atg7, and lysosome-associated membrane protein-2 (LAMP-2) compared to controls. Changes in mRNA levels of FoxO3A and its targets MuRF1, MAFBx, and BNIP3 were on average seven-fold higher in the intervention group compared to controls, but these differences were not statistically significant. Tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA levels were elevated after the intervention, but we did not detect significant changes in the downstream apoptosis markers caspase 8 and 3. Mitochondrial biogenesis markers (PGC1? and TFAm) were increased by the intervention, but this was not accompanied by significant changes in mitochondrial complex content and activity. In conclusion, although exploratory in nature, this study is among the first to report the stimulation of cellular quality control mechanisms elicited by a weight loss and exercise program in older obese women.
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Development of physical disability in older adults.
Curr Aging Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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Demographers expect the number of older persons to double to 86.7 million - or to 20.6% of the US population - by the year 2050. As has occurred over the past decade, the health care costs associated with older age are expected to steadily increase approximately 2% per year causing both a public health and personal burden. A key component to reducing health care costs and maintaining well-being in older persons is preserving physical function throughout the lifespan. The challenge to this objective is to combat the origin of the loss of physical function through treatment of chronic disease conditions. Another approach is to enhance physical function despite the occurrence of comorbid conditions through enhancement of the neuromuscular system. The neuromuscular system provides the necessary components for all locomotion, and is thus a logical choice for preventative therapies to target. This article will give a general overview of the models and risk factors that explain the development of physical disability.
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Age-related differences in lower extremity tissue compartments and associations with physical function in older adults.
Exp. Gerontol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2011
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The lower extremities are important to performing physical activities of daily life. This study investigated lower extremity tissue composition, i.e. muscle and fat volumes, in young and older adults and the relative importance of individual tissue compartments to the physical function of older adults. A total of 43 older (age 78.3±5.6 years) and 20 younger (age 23.8±3.9 years) healthy men and women participated in the study. Older participants were further classified as either high- (HF) or low-functioning (LF) according to the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Magnetic resonance images were used to determine the volumes of skeletal muscle, subcutaneous fat (SAT), and intermuscular fat (IMAT) in the thigh (femoral) and calf (tibiofibular) regions. After adjusting for the sex of participants, younger participants had more femoral muscle mass than older adults (p<0.001 for between group differences) as well as less femoral IMAT (p=0.008) and tibiofibular IMAT (p<0.001). Femoral muscle was the only tissue compartment demonstrating a significant difference between the two older groups, with HF participants having 31% more femoral muscle mass than LF participants (mean difference=103.0±34.0 cm(3); p=0.011). In subsequent multiple regression models including tissue compartments and demographic confounders, femoral muscle was the primary compartment associated with both SPPB score (r(2)=0.264, p=0.001) and 4-meter gait speed (r(2)=0.187, p=0.007). These data suggest that aging affects all lower extremity compartments, but femoral muscle mass is the major compartment associated with physical function in older adults.
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The impact of behavioral intervention on obesity mediated declines in mobility function: implications for longevity.
J Aging Res
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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A primary focus of longevity research is to identify prognostic risk factors that can be mediated by early treatment efforts. To date, much of this work has focused on understanding the biological processes that may contribute to aging process and age-related disease conditions. Although such processes are undoubtedly important, no current biological intervention aimed at increasing health and lifespan exists. Interestingly, a close relationship between mobility performance and the aging process has been documented in older adults. For example, recent studies have identified functional status, as assessed by walking speed, as a strong predictor of major health outcomes, including mortality, in older adults. This paper aims to describe the relationship between the comorbidities related to decreased health and lifespan and mobility function in obese, older adults. Concurrently, lifestyle interventions, including diet and exercise, are described as a means to improve mobility function and thereby limit the functional limitations associated with increased mortality.
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Dynapenia and aging: an update.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
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In 2008, we published an article arguing that the age-related loss of muscle strength is only partially explained by the reduction in muscle mass and that other physiologic factors explain muscle weakness in older adults (Clark BC, Manini TM. Sarcopenia =/= dynapenia. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2008;63:829-834). Accordingly, we proposed that these events (strength and mass loss) be defined independently, leaving the term "sarcopenia" to be used in its original context to describe the age-related loss of muscle mass. We subsequently coined the term "dynapenia" to describe the age-related loss of muscle strength and power. This article will give an update on both the biological and clinical literature on dynapenia-serving to best synthesize this translational topic. Additionally, we propose a working decision algorithm for defining dynapenia. This algorithm is specific to screening for and defining dynapenia using age, presence or absence of risk factors, a grip strength screening, and if warranted a test for knee extension strength. A definition for a single risk factor such as dynapenia will provide information in building a risk profile for the complex etiology of physical disability. As such, this approach mimics the development of risk profiles for cardiovascular disease that include such factors as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, etc. Because of a lack of data, the working decision algorithm remains to be fully developed and evaluated. However, these efforts are expected to provide a specific understanding of the role that dynapenia plays in the loss of physical function and increased risk for disability among older adults.
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Mitochondrial DNA variation in human metabolic rate and energy expenditure.
Mitochondrion
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
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The role of climate in driving selection of mtDNA as Homo sapiens migrated out of Africa into Eurasia remains controversial. We evaluated the role of mtDNA variation in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and total energy expenditure (TEE) among 294 older, community-dwelling African and European American adults from the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Common African haplogroups L0, L2 and L3 had significantly lower RMRs than European haplogroups H, JT and UK with haplogroup L1 RMR being intermediate to these groups. This study links mitochondrial haplogroups with ancestry-associated differences in metabolic rate and energy expenditure.
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Physical activity and neural correlates of aging: a combined TMS/fMRI study.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Aerobic exercise has been suggested to ameliorate aging-related decline in humans. Recently, evidence has indicated chronological aging is associated with decreases in measures of interhemispheric inhibition during unimanual movements, but that such decreases may be mitigated by long-term physical fitness. The present study investigated measures of ipsilateral (right) primary motor cortex activity during right-hand movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Healthy, right-handed participant groups were comprised of 12 sedentary older adults, 12 physically active older adults, and 12 young adults. Active older adults and younger adults evidenced longer ipsilateral silent periods (iSP) and less positive BOLD of ipsilateral motor cortex (iM1) as compared to sedentary older adults. Across groups, duration of iSP from TMS was inversely correlated with BOLD activity in iM1 during unimanual movement. These findings suggest that increased physical activity may have a role in decreasing aging-related losses of interhemispheric inhibition.
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The effect of functional circuit training on physical frailty in frail older adults: a randomized controlled trial.
J Aging Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2010
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a 12-wk functional circuit-training program (FCT) could alter markers of physical frailty in a group of frail community-dwelling adults. Fifty-one individuals (31 women, 20 men), mean age (± SD) 84 (± 2.9) yr, met frailty criteria and were randomly assigned into groups (FCT = 26, control group [CG] = 25). FCT underwent a 12-wk exercise program. CG met once a week for health education meetings. Measures of physical frailty, function, strength, balance, and gait speed were assessed at Weeks 0, 12, and 36. Physical-frailty measures in FCT showed significant (p < .05) improvements relative to those in CG (Barthel Index at Weeks 0 and 36: 73.41 (± 2.35) and 77.0 (± 2.38) for the FCT and 70.79 (± 2.53) and 66.73 (± 2.73) for the CG. These data indicate that an FCT program is effective in improving measures of function and reducing physical frailty among frail older adults.
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Relationship between physical functioning and physical activity in the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
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To determine whether participation in usual moderate-intensity or more-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is associated with physical function performance and to identify sociodemographic, psychosocial, and disease-related covariates that may also compromise physical function performance.
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Models of accelerated sarcopenia: critical pieces for solving the puzzle of age-related muscle atrophy.
Ageing Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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Sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass, is a significant public health concern that continues to grow in relevance as the population ages. Certain conditions have the strong potential to coincide with sarcopenia to accelerate the progression of muscle atrophy in older adults. Among these conditions are co-morbid diseases common to older individuals such as cancer, kidney disease, diabetes, and peripheral artery disease. Furthermore, behaviors such as poor nutrition and physical inactivity are well-known to contribute to sarcopenia development. However, we argue that these behaviors are not inherent to the development of sarcopenia but rather accelerate its progression. In the present review, we discuss how these factors affect systemic and cellular mechanisms that contribute to skeletal muscle atrophy. In addition, we describe gaps in the literature concerning the role of these factors in accelerating sarcopenia progression. Elucidating biochemical pathways related to accelerated muscle atrophy may allow for improved discovery of therapeutic treatments related to sarcopenia.
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Functional consequences of sarcopenia and dynapenia in the elderly.
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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The economic burden due to the sequela of sarcopenia (muscle wasting in the elderly) are staggering and rank similarly to the costs associated with osteoporotic fractures. In this article, we discuss the societal burden and determinants of the loss of physical function with advancing age, the physiologic mechanisms underlying dynapenia (muscle weakness in the elderly), and provide perspectives on related critical issues to be addressed.
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Effects of age and sedentary lifestyle on skeletal muscle NF-kappaB signaling in men.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2010
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Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) is a critical signaling molecule of disuse-induced skeletal muscle atrophy. However, few studies have carefully investigated whether similar pathways are modulated with physical activity and age.
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Longitudinal study of muscle strength, quality, and adipose tissue infiltration.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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Sarcopenia is thought to be accompanied by increased muscle fat infiltration. However, no longitudinal studies have examined concomitant changes in muscle mass, strength, or fat infiltration in older adults.
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Effects of exercise on mobility in obese and nonobese older adults.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
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Coupled with an aging society, the rising obesity prevalence is likely to increase the future burden of physical disability. We set out to determine whether obesity modified the effects of a physical activity (PA) intervention designed to prevent mobility disability in older adults. Older adults at risk for disability (N = 424, age range: 70-88 years) were randomized to a 12 month PA intervention involving moderate intensity aerobic, strength, balance, and flexibility exercise (150 min per week) or a successful aging (SA) intervention involving weekly educational workshops. Individuals were stratified by obesity using a BMI >or=30 (n = 179). Mobility function was assessed as usual walking speed over 400 m and scores on a short physical performance battery (SPPB), which includes short distance walking, balance tests, and chair rises. Over 12 months of supervised training, the attendance and total amount of walking time was similar between obese and nonobese subjects and no weight change was observed. Nonobese participants in the PA group had significant increases in 400-m walking speed (+1.5%), whereas their counterparts in the SA group declined (-4.3%). In contrast, obese individuals declined regardless of their assigned intervention group (PA: -3.1%; SA: -4.9%). SPPB scores, however, increased following PA in both obese (PA: +13.5%; SA: +2.5%) and nonobese older adults (PA: +18.6%; SA: +6.1%). A moderate intensity PA intervention improves physical function in older adults, but the positive benefits are attenuated with obesity.
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Activity energy expenditure and change in body composition in late life.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2009
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Change in body composition, specifically loss of fat-free mass and gain in fat mass, in older adults is a major pathway leading to the onset of functional decline and physical disability.
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Delayed-onset muscle soreness induced by low-load blood flow-restricted exercise.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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We performed two experiments to describe the magnitude of delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) associated with blood flow restriction (BFR) exercise and to determine the contribution of the concentric (CON) versus eccentric (ECC) actions of BFR exercise on DOMS. In experiment 1, nine subjects performed three sets of unilateral knee extension BFR exercise at 35% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) to failure with a thigh cuff inflated 30% above brachial systolic pressure. Subjects repeated the protocol with the contralateral limb without flow restriction. Resting soreness (0-10 scale) and algometry (pain-pressure threshold; PPT) were assessed before and 24, 48 and 96 h post-exercise. Additionally, MVC and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (CSA) were measured as indices of exercise-induced muscle damage. At 24-h post-exercise, BFR exercise resulted in more soreness than exercise without BFR (2.8 +/- 0.3 vs 1.7 +/- 0.5) and greater reductions in PPT (15.2 +/- 1.7 vs. 20 +/- 2.3 N) and MVC (14.1 +/- 2.5% decrease vs. 1.5 +/- 4.5% decrease) (p
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Energy expenditure and aging.
Ageing Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2009
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The study of energy expenditure (EE) has deep roots in understanding aging and lifespan in all species. In humans, total EE decreases substantially in advanced age resulting from parallel changes in resting metabolic rate (RMR) and activity EE. For RMR, this reduction appears to be due to a reduction in organ mass and specific metabolic rates of individual tissues. However, these anatomical changes explain very little regarding the decline in activity EE, which is governed by both genetic and environmental sources. The biological control centers for activity EE are closely coupled with body mass fluctuations and seem to originate in the brain. Several candidate neuromodulators may be involved in the age-related reduction of activity EE that include: orexin, agouti-related proteins and dopaminergic pathways. Unfortunately, the existing body of research has primarily focused on how neuromodulators influence weight gain and only a few studies have been performed in aging models. Recent evidence suggests that activity EE has an important role in dictating lifespan and thus places emphasis on future research to uncover the underlying biological mechanisms. The study of EE continues to unlock clues to aging.
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Measuring balance, lower extremity strength and gait in the elderly: construct validation of an instrument.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2009
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The purpose of the study was to determine the degree to which scores of a modified version of the Timed Get Up and Go test (TGUG) were associated with other measures of functional performance. Thirty-seven community-dwelling older women (72.3+/-5.5 years) volunteered to participate. Subjects were assessed when performing the modified TGUG test. Correlations between the performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA), single-leg balance, five chair rises, fast and normal gait speed, knee extension and flexion strength, and the modified TGUG were conducted. Total time to perform the modified TGUG test was significantly correlated with normal and fast gait speed (p<0.05). The Pearson correlation coefficients were -0.841 and -0.748, respectively. The time needed to perform several tasks of the modified TGUG test significantly correlated with five chair rises, and with right knee extensor strength (p<0.05). Points obtained in the assessment questionnaire correlated significantly to points obtained in the POMA scale (p<0.05). The Pearson correlation coefficient was 0.795. Based on the strength of the correlations obtained between components of the modified TGUG and the comparison tests, concurrent, criterion validity of the modified TGUG has been established.
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Activity energy expenditure and mobility limitation in older adults: differential associations by sex.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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In this study, the authors aimed to determine whether higher activity energy expenditure, assessed by using doubly labeled water, was associated with a reduced decline in mobility limitation among 248 older community-dwelling US adults aged 70-82 years enrolled in 1998-1999. Activity energy expenditure was calculated as total energy expenditure (assessed over 2 weeks by using doubly labeled water) minus resting metabolic rate (measured with indirect calorimetry), with adjustment for the thermic effect of food. Across sex-specific tertiles of activity energy expenditure, men in the lowest activity group experienced twice the rate of mobility limitation as men in the highest activity group (41% (n = 18) vs. 18% (n = 8)). Conversely, women in the lowest and highest activity groups exhibited similarly high rates of mobility limitation (40% (n = 16) vs. 38% (n = 15)). After adjustment for potential confounders, men with higher activity energy expenditure levels continued to show reduced risk of mobility limitation (per standard deviation (284 kcal/day): hazard ratio = 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.41, 0.92). Women showed no association (per standard deviation (226 kcal/day): hazard ratio = 1.34, 95% confidence interval: 0.98, 1.85). Greater energy expenditure from any and all physical activity was significantly associated with reduced risk of developing mobility limitation among men, but not among women.
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Blood flow restricted exercise and skeletal muscle health.
Exerc Sport Sci Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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For nearly half a century, high mechanical loading and mechanotransduction pathways have guided exercise recommendations for inducing muscle hypertrophy. However, emerging research on low-intensity exercise with blood flow restriction challenges this paradigm. This article will describe the BFR exercise model and discuss its efficacy, potential mechanisms, and clinical viability.
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Restoration of voluntary muscle strength after 3 weeks of cast immobilization is suppressed in women compared with men.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2009
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To investigate sex-related differences in the loss and recovery of voluntary muscle strength after immobilization.
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Relation of pulse pressure to long-distance gait speed in community-dwelling older adults: findings from the LIFE-P study.
PLoS ONE
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Reduced gait speed is associated with falls, late-life disability, hospitalization/institutionalization and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Aging is also accompanied by a widening of pulse pressure (PP) that contributes to ventricular-vascular uncoupling. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that PP is associated with long-distance gait speed in community-dwelling older adults in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P) study.
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Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetics are associated with maximal aerobic capacity and walking speed in older adults.
J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci.
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Lower ambulatory performance with aging may be related to a reduced oxidative capacity within skeletal muscle. This study examined the associations between skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity and efficiency with walking performance in a group of older adults.
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Lumbar muscle activity during common lifts: a preliminary study using magnetic resonance imaging.
J Appl Biomech
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The purpose of this preliminary study was to assess lumbar multifidus, erector spinae, and quadratus lumborum muscle activity during lifts as measured by changes in transverse relaxation time (T2) from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen healthy adults performed dynamic squat, stoop, and asymmetric stoop lifts at a standard load, with each lift followed by MRI. Increase in T2 for the multifidus and erector spinae was greater for the stoop than squat. No difference in T2 increase was noted between the multifidus and erector spinae for the squat or stoop. Increase in T2 for the contralateral multifidus was less for the asymmetric stoop than stoop. Future research using MRI and other biomechanical techniques is needed to fully characterize lumbar muscle activity during lifts for various populations, settings, postures, and loads.
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Role of self-efficacy (SE) and anxiety among pre-clinically disabled older adults when using compensatory strategies to complete daily tasks.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
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Classic developmental theory suggests that aging is associated with using compensatory strategies to prolong independence. While compensatory strategies are typically considered positive adaptations, they also signify an early phase in the disablement process - commonly known as pre-clinical disability. To build a better understanding of psychological constructs related to these early signs of disability, we examined the contribution of SE and state anxiety on using compensatory strategies among pre-clinically disabled older adults. Compensatory strategies were observed during performance of daily activities in 257 pre-clinically disabled older adults (67.6 ± 7.04), and SE and state anxiety were evaluated prior to performing each task. In univariate models, lower SE and higher anxiety were associated with more compensation (Spearman correlations: 0.15-0.48, p<0.05). Multivariate logistic regression indicated that low SE [Odds Ratio (OR): 1.70; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.40-2.08) and high anxiety (OR: 1.34; 95% CI: 1.10-1.63) were positively associated with using ?6 compensatory strategies - a level signifying substantial compensation. When considered jointly with SE, the association with anxiety was reversed - higher anxiety demonstrated a lower likelihood of using compensation (OR: 0.70-0.73; 95% CI: 0.50-0.99). The addition of SE might remove the self-defeating cognitions characterizing anxiety allowing the remaining arousal component to appear beneficial. In conclusion, lower SE and higher anxiety are associated with using compensation to complete daily tasks among pre-clinically disabled older adults. Such psychological constructs may contribute to the use of compensatory strategies and represent future intervention targets to help reduce early signs of disability.
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Growth hormone responses to acute resistance exercise with vascular restriction in young and old men.
Growth Horm. IGF Res.
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Resistance exercise (RE) stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in a load-dependent manner, with heavier loads producing larger GH responses. However, new research demonstrates that low-load RE performed with blood flow restriction (BFR) produces potent GH responses that are similar to or exceed those produced following high-load RE. We hypothesized that low-load RE with vascular restriction would attenuate the known age-related reduction in GH response to RE.
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Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor use by older adults is associated with greater functional responses to exercise.
J Am Geriatr Soc
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To assess the association between angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEis) and improvements in the physical function of older adults in response to chronic exercise training.
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The impact of aging on mitochondrial function and biogenesis pathways in skeletal muscle of sedentary high- and low-functioning elderly individuals.
Aging Cell
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Age-related loss of muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) leads to a decline in physical function and frailty in the elderly. Among the many proposed underlying causes of sarcopenia, mitochondrial dysfunction is inherent in a variety of aged tissues. The intent of this study was to examine the effect of aging on key groups of regulatory proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and how this relates to physical performance in two groups of sedentary elderly participants, classified as high- and low-functioning based on the Short Physical Performance Battery test. Muscle mass was decreased by 38% and 30% in low-functioning elderly (LFE) participants when compared to young and high-functioning elderly participants, respectively, and positively correlated to physical performance. Mitochondrial respiration in permeabilized muscle fibers was reduced (41%) in the LFE group when compared to the young, and this was associated with a 30% decline in cytochrome c oxidase activity. Levels of key metabolic regulators, SIRT3 and PGC-1?, were significantly reduced (50%) in both groups of elderly participants when compared to young. Similarly, the fusion protein OPA1 was lower in muscle from elderly subjects; however, no changes were detected in Mfn2, Drp1 or Fis1 among the groups. In contrast, protein import machinery components Tom22 and cHsp70 were increased in the LFE group when compared to the young. This study suggests that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired mitochondrial function and altered biogenesis pathways and that this may contribute to muscle atrophy and the decline in muscle performance observed in the elderly population.
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Blood flow restriction enhances post-resistance exercise angiogenic gene expression.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
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The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscle oxygenation during low-intensity resistance exercise as well as postexercise expression of molecules related to physiological angiogenesis.
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Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation is associated with free-living activity energy expenditure in the elderly.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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The decline in activity energy expenditure underlies a range of age-associated pathological conditions, neuromuscular and neurological impairments, disability, and mortality. The majority (90%) of the energy needs of the human body are met by mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). OXPHOS is dependent on the coordinated expression and interaction of genes encoded in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes. We examined the role of mitochondrial genomic variation in free-living activity energy expenditure (AEE) and physical activity levels (PAL) by sequencing the entire (~16.5 kilobases) mtDNA from 138 Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study participants. Among the common mtDNA variants, the hypervariable region 2 m.185G>A variant was significantly associated with AEE (p=0.001) and PAL (p=0.0005) after adjustment for multiple comparisons. Several unique nonsynonymous variants were identified in the extremes of AEE with some occurring at highly conserved sites predicted to affect protein structure and function. Of interest is the p.T194M, CytB substitution in the lower extreme of AEE occurring at a residue in the Qi site of complex III. Among participants with low activity levels, the burden of singleton variants was 30% higher across the entire mtDNA and OXPHOS complex I when compared to those having moderate to high activity levels. A significant pooled variant association across the hypervariable 2 region was observed for AEE and PAL. These results suggest that mtDNA variation is associated with free-living AEE in older persons and may generate new hypotheses by which specific mtDNA complexes, genes, and variants may contribute to the maintenance of activity levels in late life.
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What is dynapenia?
Nutrition
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Dynapenia (pronounced dahy-nuh-p?-n?-a, Greek translation for poverty of strength, power, or force) is the age-associated loss of muscle strength that is not caused by neurologic or muscular diseases. Dynapenia predisposes older adults to an increased risk for functional limitations and mortality. For the past several decades, the literature has largely focused on muscle size as the primary cause of dynapenia; however, recent findings have clearly demonstrated that muscle size plays a relatively minor role. Conversely, subclinical deficits in the structure and function of the nervous system and/or impairments in the intrinsic force-generating properties of skeletal muscle are potential antecedents to dynapenia. This review highlights in the contributors to dynapenia and the etiology and risk factors that predispose individuals to dynapenia. In addition, we address the role of nutrition in the muscular and neurologic systems for the preservation of muscle strength throughout the life span.
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Pain-related fear and catastrophizing predict pain intensity and disability independently using an induced muscle injury model.
J Pain
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Timing of assessment of psychological construct is controversial and results differ based on the model of pain induction. Previous studies have not used an exercise-induced injury model to investigate timing of psychological assessment. Exercise-induced injury models may be appropriate for these investigations because they approximate clinical pain conditions better than other experimental stimuli. In this study we examined the changes of psychological constructs over time and determined whether timing of assessment affected the constructs association with reports of pain intensity and disability. One-hundred twenty-six healthy volunteers completed the Fear of Pain Questionnaire (FPQ-III), Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), and Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia (TSK) prior to inducing muscle injury to the shoulder. The PCS and TSK were measured again 48 and 96 hours postinjury induction. Pain intensity and disability were collected at 48 and 96 hours and served as dependent variables in separate regression models. Results indicated that the FPQ-III had the strongest prediction of pain intensity from baseline to 96 hours. After baseline the PCS and TSK were stronger predictors of pain intensity and disability, respectively. These data provide support for the use of psychological constructs in predicting outcomes from shoulder pain. However, they deviate from the current theoretical model indicating that fear of pain is a consequence of injury and instead suggests that fear of pain before injury may influence reports of pain intensity.
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Skeletal muscle apoptotic signaling predicts thigh muscle volume and gait speed in community-dwelling older persons: an exploratory study.
PLoS ONE
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Preclinical studies strongly suggest that accelerated apoptosis in skeletal myocytes may be involved in the pathogenesis of sarcopenia. However, evidence in humans is sparse. In the present study, we investigated whether apoptotic signaling in the skeletal muscle was associated with indices of muscle mass and function in older persons.
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Obesity and Late-Age Survival Without Major Disease or Disability in Older Women.
JAMA Intern Med
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IMPORTANCE The effect of obesity on late-age survival in women without disease or disability is unknown. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether higher baseline body mass index and waist circumference affect womens survival to 85 years of age without major chronic disease (coronary disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes mellitus, or hip fracture) and mobility disability. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Examination of 36?611 women from the Womens Health Initiative observational study and clinical trial programs who could have reached 85 years or older if they survived to the last outcomes evaluation on September 17, 2012. Recruitment was from 40 US clinical centers from October 1993 through December 1998. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and 95% CIs for the association of baseline body mass index and waist circumference with the outcomes, adjusting for demographic, behavioral, and health characteristics. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Mutually exclusive classifications: (1) survived without major chronic disease and without mobility disability (healthy); (2) survived with 1 or more major chronic disease at baseline but without new disease or disability (prevalent diseased); (3) survived and developed 1 or more major chronic disease but not disability during study follow-up (incident diseased); (4) survived and developed mobility disability with or without disease (disabled); and (5) did not survive (died). RESULTS Mean (SD) baseline age was 72.4 (3.0) years (range, 66-81 years). The distribution of women classified as healthy, prevalent diseased, incident diseased, disabled, and died was 19.0%, 14.7%, 23.2%, 18.3%, and 24.8%, respectively. Compared with healthy-weight women, underweight and obese women were more likely to die before 85 years of age. Overweight and obese women had higher risks of incident disease and mobility disability. Disability risks were striking. Relative to healthy-weight women, adjusted odds ratios (95% CIs) of mobility disability were 1.6 (1.5-1.8) for overweight women and 3.2 (2.9-3.6), 6.6 (5.4-8.1), and 6.7 (4.8-9.2) for class I, II, and III obesity, respectively. Waist circumference greater than 88 cm was also associated with higher risk of earlier death, incident disease, and mobility disability. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Overall and abdominal obesity were important and potentially modifiable factors associated with dying or developing mobility disability and major chronic disease before 85 years of age in older women.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.