Wearable acceleration sensors are increasingly used for the assessment of free-living physical activity. Acceleration sensor calibration is a potential source of error. This study aims to describe and evaluate an autocalibration method to minimize calibration error using segments within the free-living records (no extra experiments needed). The autocalibration method entailed the extraction of nonmovement periods in the data, for which the measured vector magnitude should ideally be the gravitational acceleration (1 g); this property was used to derive calibration correction factors using an iterative closest-point fitting process. The reduction in calibration error was evaluated in data from four cohorts: UK (n = 921), Kuwait (n = 120), Cameroon (n = 311), and Brazil (n = 200). Our method significantly reduced calibration error in all cohorts (P < 0.01), ranging from 16.6 to 3.0 mg in the Kuwaiti cohort to 76.7 to 8.0 mg error in the Brazil cohort. Utilizing temperature sensor data resulted in a small nonsignificant additional improvement (P > 0.05). Temperature correction coefficients were highest for the z-axis, e.g., 19.6-mg offset per 5°C. Further, application of the autocalibration method had a significant impact on typical metrics used for describing human physical activity, e.g., in Brazil average wrist acceleration was 0.2 to 51% lower than uncalibrated values depending on metric selection (P < 0.01). The autocalibration method as presented helps reduce the calibration error in wearable acceleration sensor data and improves comparability of physical activity measures across study locations. Temperature ultization seems essential when temperature deviates substantially from the average temperature in the record but not for multiday summary measures.
Aminostratigraphies of Quaternary non-marine deposits in Europe have been previously based on the racemization of a single amino acid in aragonitic shells from land and freshwater molluscs. The value of analysing multiple amino acids from the opercula of the freshwater gastropod Bithynia, which are composed of calcite, has been demonstrated. The protocol used for the isolation of intra-crystalline proteins from shells has been applied to these calcitic opercula, which have been shown to more closely approximate a closed system for indigenous protein residues. Original amino acids are even preserved in bithyniid opercula from the Eocene, showing persistence of indigenous organics for over 30 million years. Geochronological data from opercula are superior to those from shells in two respects: first, in showing less natural variability, and second, in the far better preservation of the intra-crystalline proteins, possibly resulting from the greater stability of calcite. These features allow greater temporal resolution and an extension of the dating range beyond the early Middle Pleistocene. Here we provide full details of the analyses for 480 samples from 100 horizons (75 sites), ranging from Late Pliocene to modern. These show that the dating technique is applicable to the entire Quaternary. Data are provided from all the stratotypes from British stages to have yielded opercula, which are shown to be clearly separable using this revised method. Further checks on the data are provided by reference to other type-sites for different stages (including some not formally defined). Additional tests are provided by sites with independent geochronology, or which can be associated with a terrace stratigraphy or biostratigraphy. This new aminostratigraphy for the non-marine Quaternary deposits of southern Britain provides a framework for understanding the regional geological and archaeological record. Comparison with reference to sites yielding independent geochronology, in combination with other lines of evidence, allows tentative correlation with the marine oxygen isotope record.
Marine and ice-core records show that the Earth has experienced a succession of glacials and interglacials during the Quaternary (last ?2.6 million years), although it is often difficult to correlate fragmentary terrestrial records with specific cycles. Aminostratigraphy is a method potentially able to link terrestrial sequences to the marine isotope stages (MIS) of the deep-sea record. We have used new methods of extraction and analysis of amino acids, preserved within the calcitic opercula of the freshwater gastropod Bithynia, to provide the most comprehensive data set for the British Pleistocene based on a single dating technique. A total of 470 opercula from 74 sites spanning the entire Quaternary are ranked in order of relative age based on the extent of protein degradation, using aspartic acid/asparagine (Asx), glutamic acid/glutamine (Glx), serine (Ser), alanine (Ala) and valine (Val). This new aminostratigraphy is consistent with the stratigraphical relationships of stratotypes, sites with independent geochronology, biostratigraphy and terrace stratigraphy. The method corroborates the existence of four interglacial stages between the Anglian (MIS 12) and the Holocene in the terrestrial succession. It establishes human occupation of Britain in most interglacial stages after MIS 15, but supports the notion of human absence during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5e). Suspicions that the treeless optimum of the Upton Warren interstadial at Isleworth pre-dates MIS 3 are confirmed. This new aminostratigraphy provides a robust framework against which climatic, biostratigraphical and archaeological models can be tested.
Currently, there is widespread interest in exploiting "omics" approaches to screen the toxicity of chemicals, potentially enabling their rapid categorization into classes of defined mode of action (MOA). Direct infusion Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) metabolomics provides a sensitive and nontargeted analysis of potentially a thousand endogenous metabolites. Our previous work has shown that mass spectra can be recorded from whole-organism homogenate or hemolymph of single adult Daphnia magna. Here we develop multivariate models and discover perturbations to specific metabolic pathways that can discriminate between the acute toxicities of four chemicals to D. magna using FT-ICR MS metabolomics. We focus on model toxicants (cadmium, fenvalerate, dinitrophenol, and propranolol) with different MOAs. First, we confirmed that a toxicant-induced metabolic effect could be determined for each chemical in both the hemolymph and the whole-organism metabolome, with between 9 and 660 mass spectral peaks changing intensities significantly, dependent upon toxicant and sample type. Subsequently, supervised multivariate models were built that discriminated significantly all four acute metabolic toxicities, yielding mean classification error rates (across all classes) of 3.9 and 6.9% for whole-organism homogenates and hemolymph, respectively. Following extensive peak annotation, we discovered toxicant-specific perturbations to putatively identified metabolic pathways, including propranolol-induced disruption of fatty acid metabolism and eicosanoid biosynthesis and fenvalerate-induced disruption of amino sugar metabolism. We conclude that the metabolic profiles of whole-daphnid homogenates are more discriminatory for toxicant action than hemolymph. Furthermore, our findings highlight the capability of metabolomics to discover early-event metabolic responses that can discriminate between the acute toxicities of chemicals.
This retrospective case-note study describes the demographic details, offences and diagnostic characteristics of 283 patients admitted to Zomba Mental Hospital, Malawi, after early diversion from the Criminal Justice System between May 1997 and February 2007. Given the historical links between Malawi and Scotland and the ongoing involvement of Scottish psychiatrists in the development of psychiatry in Malawi, a comparison is drawn between the provision of secure psychiatric treatment in these low- and high-income countries. Consistent with Scottish prison mental health team referrals and Scottish high secure psychiatric patients, the Malawian patients were predominantly men, poorly educated and drug misusing, but alcohol was less often a problem. Affective disorders were rarely diagnosed, as is also the case in the equivalent Scottish populations. In Malawi, there appears to be a problem with aftercare because many of the patients had been detained before. The length of detention was very short, other than an exceptional finding for substance misuse--a mental disorder with no Mental Health Act equivalence in the UK. Absconding was the commonest outcome. Malawian patients diverted from the Criminal Justice System are treated on general adult psychiatry wards where few secure measures can be offered. Further, there is little capacity for follow-up, no community compulsion legislation exists and psychiatric expertise is limited to a few disparate sites. However, the service is developing and the data in this study represent a small part of that ongoing programme.
There are fundamental clinical implications around assessment and evaluation of pain as well as management strategies for pain that have the potential of impacting and improving client outcomes. It is these principles that have been used to develop a training module on pain and dementia with widespread application to a range of settings. This study serves to provide an overview of this process as it translates evidence of pain in people living with dementia to practice for clinicians working in the field.
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