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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Mutations in Twinkle primase-helicase cause Perrault syndrome with neurologic features.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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To identify the genetic cause in 2 families of progressive ataxia, axonal neuropathy, hyporeflexia, and abnormal eye movements, accompanied by progressive hearing loss and ovarian dysgenesis, with a clinical diagnosis of Perrault syndrome.
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Genomic analysis of bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes reveals phenotypic and diagnostic complexity.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Accurate and timely diagnosis of inherited bone marrow failure and inherited myelodysplastic syndromes is essential to guide clinical management. Distinguishing inherited from acquired bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome poses a significant clinical challenge. At present, diagnostic genetic testing for inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome is performed gene-by-gene, guided by clinical and laboratory evaluation. We hypothesized that standard clinically-directed genetic testing misses patients with cryptic or atypical presentations of inherited bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome. In order to screen simultaneously for mutations of all classes in bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome genes, we developed and validated a panel of 85 genes for targeted capture and multiplexed massively-parallel sequencing. In patients with clinical diagnoses of Fanconi anemia, genomic analysis resolved subtype assignment, including those of patients with inconclusive complementation test results. Eight out of 71 patients with idiopathic bone marrow failure or myelodysplastic syndrome were found to harbor damaging germline mutations in GATA2, RUNX1, DKC1, or LIG4. All eight of these patients lacked classical clinical stigmata or laboratory findings of these syndromes and only four had a family history suggestive of inherited disease. These results reflect the extensive genetic heterogeneity and phenotypic complexity of bone marrow failure/myelodysplastic syndrome phenotypes. This study supports the integration of broad unbiased genetic screening into the diagnostic workup of children and young adults with bone marrow failure and myelodysplastic syndromes.
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A girl with West syndrome and autistic features harboring a de novo TBL1XR1 mutation.
J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Recently, de novo mutations in TBL1XR1 were found in two patients with autism spectrum disorders. Here, we report on a Japanese girl presenting with West syndrome, Rett syndrome-like and autistic features. Her initial development was normal until she developed a series of spasms at 5 months of age. Electroencephalogram at 7 months showed a pattern of hypsarrhythmia, which led to a diagnosis of West syndrome. Stereotypic hand movements appeared at 8 months of age, and autistic features such as deficits in communication, hyperactivity and excitability were observed later, at 4 years and 9 months. Whole exome sequencing of the patient and her parents revealed a de novo TBL1XR1 mutation [c.209 G>A (p.Gly70Asp)] occurring at an evolutionarily conserved amino acid in an F-box-like domain. Our report expands the clinical spectrum of TBL1XR1 mutations to West syndrome with Rett-like features, together with autistic features.
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Complex MSH2 and MSH6 mutations in hypermutated microsatellite unstable advanced prostate cancer.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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A hypermutated subtype of advanced prostate cancer was recently described, but prevalence and mechanisms have not been well-characterized. Here we find that 12% (7 of 60) of advanced prostate cancers are hypermutated, and that all hypermutated cancers have mismatch repair gene mutations and microsatellite instability (MSI). Mutations are frequently complex MSH2 or MSH6 structural rearrangements rather than MLH1 epigenetic silencing. Our findings identify parallels and differences in the mechanisms of hypermutation in prostate cancer compared with other MSI-associated cancers.
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Orthopaedic triaging by podiatrists: a prospective study of patient satisfaction and service efficiency.
Aust Health Rev
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Background The Southern Adelaide Local Health Network is serviced by one orthopaedic surgeon specialising in foot and ankle surgery. In 2011, the waiting list to see the surgeon was expanding and the need for assistance was growing. The Department of Podiatry agreed to provide a podiatrist to assist in the management of the outpatient waiting list. Although patient outcome is an important outcome measure, we were interested in evaluating the service with respect to how satisfied patients were with seeing a podiatrist. Therefore, the primary aim of the study was to evaluate patient satisfaction with podiatry-led clinics for the orthopaedic outpatient waiting list. Secondary outcomes included discharge rate and efficiency of care. Methods We prospectively recruited a consecutive sample discharged from the Department of Podiatry between 1 May and 1 November 2013 to complete the Client Satisfaction Survey (CSQ-8). This survey was used to evaluate the satisfaction of patients following discharge from the Department of Podiatry. Results There were 49 patients (16 men, 33 women) enrolled in the survey during the 6-month period. Of the 49 patients discharged, 21 (43%) were discharged from the outpatient waiting list. Twenty-eight patients (57%) were referred on to the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery for opinion and management. The mean (± s.d.) number of appointments for each patient was 1.3±0.6. Overall, patients were very satisfied with the assessment and/or treatment they received. Conclusion A podiatrist, working at an extended scope of practice and in collaboration with an orthopaedic surgeon, can successfully and efficiently assess and treat patients on an orthopaedic outpatient waiting list. Patients generally reported a high level of satisfaction with the process and would return to the clinic again if necessary. Hospital networks wanting to efficiently reduce waiting lists may endorse task substitution for appropriately skilled podiatrists. What is known about the topic? Allied health professionals have acted in extended scope of practice roles across several professions. These roles are often implemented in response to long waiting lists to see medical specialists. The acceptance of these practitioners by patients and the efficiency of these clinics are yet to be formally evaluated. What does the paper add? This paper should provide confidence in implementing orthopaedic triaging roles for podiatrists. High satisfaction rates were noted, along with an efficient service, both of which may be attractive for hospital networks. What are the implications for practitioners? Extended scope of practice podiatry roles may be implemented to assist in managing orthopaedic outpatient waiting lists.
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Deep sequencing with intronic capture enables identification of an APC exon 10 inversion in a patient with polyposis.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Single-exon inversions have rarely been described in clinical syndromes and are challenging to detect using Sanger sequencing. We report the case of a 40-year-old woman with adenomatous colon polyps too numerous to count and who had a complex inversion spanning the entire exon 10 in APC (the gene encoding for adenomatous polyposis coli), causing exon skipping and resulting in a frameshift and premature protein truncation.
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Mutant adenosine deaminase 2 in a polyarteritis nodosa vasculopathy.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Polyarteritis nodosa is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis with a pathogenesis that is poorly understood. We identified six families with multiple cases of systemic and cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa, consistent with autosomal recessive inheritance. In most cases, onset of the disease occurred during childhood.
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Reducing length of stay for acute diabetic foot episodes: employing an extended scope of practice podiatric high-risk foot coordinator in an acute foundation trust hospital.
J Foot Ankle Res
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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To enhance the acute management of people with diabetic foot disease requiring admission, an extended scope of practice, podiatric high-risk foot coordinator position, was established at the Great Western Hospital, Swindon in 2010. The focus of this new role was to facilitate more efficient and timely management of people with complex diabetic foot disease. The aim of this project was to investigate the impact of the podiatric high-risk foot coordinator role on length of stay, rate of re-admission and bed cost.
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Germline and Somatic Mutations in Homologous Recombination Genes Predict Platinum Response and Survival in Ovarian, Fallopian Tube, and Peritoneal Carcinomas.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Hallmarks of germline BRCA1/2-associated ovarian carcinomas include chemosensitivity and improved survival. The therapeutic impact of somatic BRCA1/2 mutations and mutations in other homologous recombination (HR) DNA repair genes is uncertain.
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Actionable, pathogenic incidental findings in 1,000 participants exomes.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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The incorporation of genomics into medicine is stimulating interest on the return of incidental findings (IFs) from exome and genome sequencing. However, no large-scale study has yet estimated the number of expected actionable findings per individual; therefore, we classified actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in 500 European- and 500 African-descent participants randomly selected from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project. The 1,000 individuals were screened for variants in 114 genes selected by an expert panel for their association with medically actionable genetic conditions possibly undiagnosed in adults. Among the 1,000 participants, 585 instances of 239 unique variants were identified as disease causing in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The primary literature supporting the variants pathogenicity was reviewed. Of the identified IFs, only 16 unique autosomal-dominant variants in 17 individuals were assessed to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and one participant had two pathogenic variants for an autosomal-recessive disease. Furthermore, one pathogenic and four likely pathogenic variants not listed as disease causing in HGMD were identified. These data can provide an estimate of the frequency (?3.4% for European descent and ?1.2% for African descent) of the high-penetrance actionable pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in adults. The 23 participants with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were disproportionately of European (17) versus African (6) descent. The process of classifying these variants underscores the need for a more comprehensive and diverse centralized resource to provide curated information on pathogenicity for clinical use to minimize health disparities in genomic medicine.
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Calcanectomy: Avoiding major amputation in the presence of calcaneal osteomyelitis-A case series.
Foot (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Calcaneal osteomyelitis is a surgical diagnosis that may be treated by local, resection or major amputation.
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Formation of chimeric genes by copy-number variation as a mutational mechanism in schizophrenia.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2013
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Chimeric genes can be caused by structural genomic rearrangements that fuse together portions of two different genes to create a novel gene. We hypothesize that brain-expressed chimeras may contribute to schizophrenia. Individuals with schizophrenia and control individuals were screened genome wide for copy-number variants (CNVs) that disrupted two genes on the same DNA strand. Candidate events were filtered for predicted brain expression and for frequency < 0.001 in an independent series of 20,000 controls. Four of 124 affected individuals and zero of 290 control individuals harbored such events (p = 0.002); a 47 kb duplication disrupted MATK and ZFR2, a 58 kb duplication disrupted PLEKHD1 and SLC39A9, a 121 kb duplication disrupted DNAJA2 and NETO2, and a 150 kb deletion disrupted MAP3K3 and DDX42. Each fusion produced a stable protein when exogenously expressed in cultured cells. We examined whether these chimeras differed from their parent genes in localization, regulation, or function. Subcellular localizations of DNAJA2-NETO2 and MAP3K3-DDX42 differed from their parent genes. On the basis of the expression profile of the MATK promoter, MATK-ZFR2 is likely to be far more highly expressed in the brain during development than the ZFR2 parent gene. MATK-ZFR2 includes a ZFR2-derived isoform that we demonstrate localizes preferentially to neuronal dendritic branch sites. These results suggest that the formation of chimeric genes is a mechanism by which CNVs contribute to schizophrenia and that, by interfering with parent gene function, chimeras may disrupt critical brain processes, including neurogenesis, neuronal differentiation, and dendritic arborization.
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Spatial and temporal mapping of de novo mutations in schizophrenia to a fetal prefrontal cortical network.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Genes disrupted in schizophrenia may be revealed by de novo mutations in affected persons from otherwise healthy families. Furthermore, during normal brain development, genes are expressed in patterns specific to developmental stage and neuroanatomical structure. We identified de novo mutations in persons with schizophrenia and then mapped the responsible genes onto transcriptome profiles of normal human brain tissues from age 13 weeks gestation to adulthood. In the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during fetal development, genes harboring damaging de novo mutations in schizophrenia formed a network significantly enriched for transcriptional coexpression and protein interaction. The 50 genes in the network function in neuronal migration, synaptic transmission, signaling, transcriptional regulation, and transport. These results suggest that disruptions of fetal prefrontal cortical neurogenesis are critical to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. These results also support the feasibility of integrating genomic and transcriptome analyses to map critical neurodevelopmental processes in time and space in the brain.
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Validation and implementation of targeted capture and sequencing for the detection of actionable mutation, copy number variation, and gene rearrangement in clinical cancer specimens.
J Mol Diagn
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Recent years have seen development and implementation of anticancer therapies targeted to particular gene mutations, but methods to assay clinical cancer specimens in a comprehensive way for the critical mutations remain underdeveloped. We have developed UW-OncoPlex, a clinical molecular diagnostic assay to provide simultaneous deep-sequencing information, based on >500× average coverage, for all classes of mutations in 194 clinically relevant genes. To validate UW-OncoPlex, we tested 98 previously characterized clinical tumor specimens from 10 different cancer types, including 41 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Mixing studies indicated reliable mutation detection in samples with ?10% tumor cells. In clinical samples with ?10% tumor cells, UW-OncoPlex correctly identified 129 of 130 known mutations [sensitivity 99.2%, (95% CI, 95.8%-99.9%)], including single nucleotide variants, small insertions and deletions, internal tandem duplications, gene copy number gains and amplifications, gene copy losses, chromosomal gains and losses, and actionable genomic rearrangements, including ALK-EML4, ROS1, PML-RARA, and BCR-ABL. In the same samples, the assay also identified actionable point mutations in genes not previously analyzed and novel gene rearrangements of MLL and GRIK4 in melanoma, and of ASXL1, PIK3R1, and SGCZ in acute myeloid leukemia. To best guide existing and emerging treatment regimens and facilitate integration of genomic testing with patient care, we developed a framework for data analysis, decision support, and reporting clinically actionable results.
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A recurrent germline PAX5 mutation confers susceptibility to pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Somatic alterations of the lymphoid transcription factor gene PAX5 (also known as BSAP) are a hallmark of B cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), but inherited mutations of PAX5 have not previously been described. Here we report a new heterozygous germline variant, c.547G>A (p.Gly183Ser), affecting the octapeptide domain of PAX5 that was found to segregate with disease in two unrelated kindreds with autosomal dominant B-ALL. Leukemic cells from all affected individuals in both families exhibited 9p deletion, with loss of heterozygosity and retention of the mutant PAX5 allele at 9p13. Two additional sporadic ALL cases with 9p loss harbored somatic PAX5 substitutions affecting Gly183. Functional and gene expression analysis of the PAX5 mutation demonstrated that it had significantly reduced transcriptional activity. These data extend the role of PAX5 alterations in the pathogenesis of pre-B cell ALL and implicate PAX5 in a new syndrome of susceptibility to pre-B cell neoplasia.
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Targeted capture and sequencing for detection of mutations causing early onset epileptic encephalopathy.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Early onset epileptic encephalopathies (EOEEs) are heterogeneous epileptic disorders caused by various abnormalities in causative genes including point mutations and copy number variations (CNVs). In this study, we performed targeted capture and sequencing of a subset of genes to detect point mutations and CNVs simultaneously.
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Mutations in LARS2, encoding mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase, lead to premature ovarian failure and hearing loss in Perrault syndrome.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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The genetic causes of premature ovarian failure (POF) are highly heterogeneous, and causative mutations have been identified in more than ten genes so far. In two families affected by POF accompanied by hearing loss (together, these symptoms compose Perrault syndrome), exome sequencing revealed mutations in LARS2, encoding mitochondrial leucyl-tRNA synthetase: homozygous c.1565C>A (p.Thr522Asn) in a consanguineous Palestinian family and compound heterozygous c.1077delT and c.1886C>T (p.Thr629Met) in a nonconsanguineous Slovenian family. LARS2 c.1077delT leads to a frameshift at codon 360 of the 901 residue protein. LARS2 p.Thr522Asn occurs in the LARS2 catalytic domain at a site conserved from bacteria through mammals. LARS2 p.Thr629Met occurs in the LARS2 leucine-specific domain, which is adjacent to a catalytic loop critical in all species but for which primary sequence is not well conserved. A recently developed method of detecting remote homologies revealed threonine at this site in consensus sequences derived from multiple-species alignments seeded by human and E. coli residues at this region. Yeast complementation indicated that LARS2 c.1077delT is nonfunctional and that LARS2 p.Thr522Asn is partially functional. LARS2 p.Thr629Met was functional in this assay but might be insufficient as a heterozygote with the fully nonfunctional LARS2 c.1077delT allele. A known C. elegans strain with the protein-truncating alteration LARS-2 p.Trp247Ter was confirmed to be sterile. After HARS2, LARS2 is the second gene encoding mitochondrial tRNA synthetase to be found to harbor mutations leading to Perrault syndrome, further supporting a critical role for mitochondria in the maintenance of ovarian function and hearing.
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A mosaic PTEN mutation causing Cowden syndrome identified by deep sequencing.
Genet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Purpose:Mosaic PTEN mutations are not well described in Cowden syndrome. We report a 40-year-old woman with a clinical diagnosis of Cowden syndrome including Lhermitte-Duclos disease, who had a mosaic PTEN mutation detected by next-generation deep sequencing.Methods:Complete PTEN gene sequencing by the Sanger method and deletion/duplication analysis performed on DNA extracted from blood leukocytes at a commercial clinical laboratory did not identify a mutation. Because of high suspicion of a PTEN mutation, we repeated testing by next-generation sequencing using the ColoSeq assay, which sequences the entire PTEN locus at >320-fold average coverage.Results:ColoSeq identified a frameshift PTEN mutation (c.767_768delAG) in 1.7% of sequencing reads from peripheral blood leukocytes (21/1,184 reads), which is below the limit of detection of most Sanger sequencing methods. The mutation was detected at full heterozygous levels in skin fibroblasts and a cerebellar tumor, and at approximately the 25% level in colonic and endocervical mucosa, confirming somatic mosaicism.Conclusion:Our report highlights the power of deep next-generation sequencing to identify mosaic mutations that can be missed by traditional less sensitive approaches. We speculate that mosaic PTEN mutations are more common in Cowden syndrome than previously described.Genet Med 15 12, 1004-1007.Genetics in Medicine (2013); 15 12, 1004-1007. doi:10.1038/gim.2013.51.
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Perrault syndrome is caused by recessive mutations in CLPP, encoding a mitochondrial ATP-dependent chambered protease.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Perrault syndrome is a genetically and clinically heterogeneous autosomal-recessive condition characterized by sensorineural hearing loss and ovarian failure. By a combination of linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, and exome sequencing in three families, we identified mutations in CLPP as the likely cause of this phenotype. In each family, affected individuals were homozygous for a different pathogenic CLPP allele: c.433A>C (p.Thr145Pro), c.440G>C (p.Cys147Ser), or an experimentally demonstrated splice-donor-site mutation, c.270+4A>G. CLPP, a component of a mitochondrial ATP-dependent proteolytic complex, is a highly conserved endopeptidase encoded by CLPP and forms an element of the evolutionarily ancient mitochondrial unfolded-protein response (UPR(mt)) stress signaling pathway. Crystal-structure modeling suggests that both substitutions would alter the structure of the CLPP barrel chamber that captures unfolded proteins and exposes them to proteolysis. Together with the previous identification of mutations in HARS2, encoding mitochondrial histidyl-tRNA synthetase, mutations in CLPP expose dysfunction of mitochondrial protein homeostasis as a cause of Perrault syndrome.
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Mutation of the ATP-gated P2X(2) receptor leads to progressive hearing loss and increased susceptibility to noise.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Age-related hearing loss and noise-induced hearing loss are major causes of human morbidity. Here we used genetics and functional studies to show that a shared cause of these disorders may be loss of function of the ATP-gated P2X(2) receptor (ligand-gated ion channel, purinergic receptor 2) that is expressed in sensory and supporting cells of the cochlea. Genomic analysis of dominantly inherited, progressive sensorineural hearing loss DFNA41 in a six-generation kindred revealed a rare heterozygous allele, P2RX2 c.178G > T (p.V60L), at chr12:133,196,029, which cosegregated with fully penetrant hearing loss in the index family, and also appeared in a second family with the same phenotype. The mutation was absent from more than 7,000 controls. P2RX2 p.V60L abolishes two hallmark features of P2X(2) receptors: ATP-evoked inward current response and ATP-stimulated macropore permeability, measured as loss of ATP-activated FM1-43 fluorescence labeling. Coexpression of mutant and WT P2X(2) receptor subunits significantly reduced ATP-activated membrane permeability. P2RX2-null mice developed severe progressive hearing loss, and their early exposure to continuous moderate noise led to high-frequency hearing loss as young adults. Similarly, among family members heterozygous for P2RX2 p.V60L, noise exposure exacerbated high-frequency hearing loss in young adulthood. Our results suggest that P2X(2) function is required for life-long normal hearing and for protection from exposure to noise.
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Loss-of-function germline GATA2 mutations in patients with MDS/AML or MonoMAC syndrome and primary lymphedema reveal a key role for GATA2 in the lymphatic vasculature.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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Recent work has established that heterozygous germline GATA2 mutations predispose carriers to familial myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)/acute myeloid leukemia (AML), "MonoMAC" syndrome, and DCML deficiency. Here, we describe a previously unreported MDS family carrying a missense GATA2 mutation (p.Thr354Met), one patient with MDS/AML carrying a frameshift GATA2 mutation (p.Leu332Thrfs*53), another with MDS harboring a GATA2 splice site mutation, and 3 patients exhibiting MDS or MDS/AML who have large deletions encompassing the GATA2 locus. Intriguingly, 2 MDS/AML or "MonoMAC" syndrome patients with GATA2 deletions and one with a frameshift mutation also have primary lymphedema. Primary lymphedema occurs as a result of aberrations in the development and/or function of lymphatic vessels, spurring us to investigate whether GATA2 plays a role in the lymphatic vasculature. We demonstrate here that GATA2 protein is present at high levels in lymphatic vessel valves and that GATA2 controls the expression of genes important for programming lymphatic valve development. Our data expand the phenotypes associated with germline GATA2 mutations to include predisposition to primary lymphedema and suggest that complete haploinsufficiency or loss of function of GATA2, rather than missense mutations, is the key predisposing factor for lymphedema onset. Moreover, we reveal a crucial role for GATA2 in lymphatic vascular development.
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Mutations in 12 genes for inherited ovarian, fallopian tube, and peritoneal carcinoma identified by massively parallel sequencing.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2011
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Inherited loss-of-function mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and other tumor suppressor genes predispose to ovarian carcinomas, but the overall burden of disease due to inherited mutations is not known. Using targeted capture and massively parallel genomic sequencing, we screened for germ-line mutations in 21 tumor suppressor genes in genomic DNA from women with primary ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma. Subjects were consecutively enrolled at diagnosis and not selected for age or family history. All classes of mutations, including point mutations and large genomic deletions and insertions, were detected. Of 360 subjects, 24% carried germ-line loss-of-function mutations: 18% in BRCA1 or BRCA2 and 6% in BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, MRE11A, MSH6, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, RAD51C, or TP53. Six of these genes were not previously implicated in inherited ovarian carcinoma. Primary carcinomas were generally characterized by genomic loss of normal alleles of the mutant genes. Of women with inherited mutations, >30% had no family history of breast or ovarian carcinoma, and >35% were 60 y or older at diagnosis. More patients with ovarian carcinoma carry cancer-predisposing mutations and in more genes than previously appreciated. Comprehensive genetic testing for inherited carcinoma is warranted for all women with ovarian, peritoneal, or fallopian tube carcinoma, regardless of age or family history. Clinical genetic testing is currently done gene by gene, with each test costing thousands of dollars. In contrast, massively parallel sequencing allows such testing for many genes simultaneously at low cost.
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Expansion of genes encoding piRNA-associated argonaute proteins in the pea aphid: diversification of expression profiles in different plastic morphs.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
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Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are known to regulate transposon activity in germ cells of several animal models that propagate sexually. However, the role of piRNAs during asexual reproduction remains almost unknown. Aphids that can alternate sexual and asexual reproduction cycles in response to seasonal changes of photoperiod provide a unique opportunity to study piRNAs and the piRNA pathway in both reproductive modes. Taking advantage of the recently sequenced genome of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, we found an unusually large lineage-specific expansion of genes encoding the Piwi sub-clade of Argonaute proteins. In situ hybridisation showed differential expressions between the duplicated piwi copies: while Api-piwi2 and Api-piwi6 are "specialised" in germ cells their most closely related copy, respectively Api-piwi5 and Api-piwi3, are expressed in the somatic cells. The differential expression was also identified in duplicated ago3: Api-ago3a in germ cells and Api-ago3b in somatic cells. Moreover, analyses of expression profiles of the expanded piwi and ago3 genes by semi-quantitative RT-PCR showed that expressions varied according to the reproductive types. These specific expression patterns suggest that expanded aphid piwi and ago3 genes have distinct roles in asexual and sexual reproduction.
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Targeted genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing to identify genes for hereditary hearing loss in Middle Eastern families.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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Identification of genes responsible for medically important traits is a major challenge in human genetics. Due to the genetic heterogeneity of hearing loss, targeted DNA capture and massively parallel sequencing are ideal tools to address this challenge. Our subjects for genome analysis are Israeli Jewish and Palestinian Arab families with hearing loss that varies in mode of inheritance and severity.
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Inherited mutation of the luteinizing hormone/choriogonadotropin receptor (LHCGR) in empty follicle syndrome.
Fertil. Steril.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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To test by genomic analysis whether empty follicle syndrome (EFS) in a family with two affected sisters has a genetic basis.
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Accurate and exact CNV identification from targeted high-throughput sequence data.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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Massively parallel sequencing of barcoded DNA samples significantly increases screening efficiency for clinically important genes. Short read aligners are well suited to single nucleotide and indel detection. However, methods for CNV detection from targeted enrichment are lacking. We present a method combining coverage with map information for the identification of deletions and duplications in targeted sequence data.
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Mutations in mitochondrial histidyl tRNA synthetase HARS2 cause ovarian dysgenesis and sensorineural hearing loss of Perrault syndrome.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Perrault syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis and sensorineural hearing loss. In a nonconsanguineous family with five affected siblings, linkage analysis and genomic sequencing revealed the genetic basis of Perrault syndrome to be compound heterozygosity for mutations in the mitochondrial histidyl tRNA synthetase HARS2 at two highly conserved amino acids, L200V and V368L. The nucleotide substitution creating HARS2 p.L200V also created an alternate splice leading to deletion of 12 codons from the HARS2 message. Affected family members thus carried three mutant HARS2 transcripts. Aminoacylation activity of HARS2 p.V368L and HARS2 p.L200V was reduced and the deletion mutant was not stably expressed in mammalian mitochondria. In yeast, lethality of deletion of the single essential histydyl tRNA synthetase HTS1 was fully rescued by wild-type HTS1 and by HTS1 p.L198V (orthologous to HARS2 p.L200V), partially rescued by HTS1 p.V381L (orthologous to HARS2 p.V368L), and not rescued by the deletion mutant. In Caenorhabditis elegans, reduced expression by RNAi of the single essential histydyl tRNA synthetase hars-1 severely compromised fertility. Together, these data suggest that Perrault syndrome in this family was caused by reduction of HARS2 activity. These results implicate aberrations of mitochondrial translation in mammalian gonadal dysgenesis. More generally, the relationship between HARS2 and Perrault syndrome illustrates how causality may be demonstrated for extremely rare inherited mutations in essential, highly conserved genes.
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Reduced transcript expression of genes affected by inherited and de novo CNVs in autism.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Individuals with autism are more likely to carry rare inherited and de novo copy number variants (CNVs). However, further research is needed to establish which CNVs are causal and the mechanisms by which these CNVs influence autism. We examined genomic DNA of children with autism (N = 41) and healthy controls (N = 367) for rare CNVs using a high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization platform. We show that individuals with autism are more likely to harbor rare CNVs as small as ? 10 kb, a threshold not previously detectable, and that CNVs in cases disproportionately affect genes involved in transcription, nervous system development, and receptor activity. We also show that a subset of genes that have known or suspected allele-specific or imprinting effects and are within rare-case CNVs may undergo loss of transcript expression. In particular, expression of CNTNAP2 and ZNF214 are decreased in probands compared with their unaffected transmitting parents. Furthermore, expression of PRODH and ARID1B, two genes affected by de novo CNVs, are decreased in probands compared with controls. These results suggest that for some genes affected by CNVs in autism, reduced transcript expression may be a mechanism of pathogenesis during neurodevelopment.
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Contribution of inherited mutations in the BRCA2-interacting protein PALB2 to familial breast cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Inherited mutations in the BRCA2-interacting protein PALB2 are known to be associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer. To evaluate the contribution of PALB2 to familial breast cancer in the United States, we sequenced the coding sequences and flanking regulatory regions of the gene from constitutional genomic DNA of 1,144 familial breast cancer patients with wild-type sequences at BRCA1 and BRCA2. Overall, 3.4% (33/972) of patients not selected by ancestry and 0% (0/172) of patients specifically of Ashkenazi Jewish ancestry were heterozygous for a nonsense, frameshift, or frameshift-associated splice mutation in PALB2. Mutations were detected in both male and female breast cancer patients. All mutations were individually rare: the 33 heterozygotes harbored 13 different mutations, 5 previously reported and 8 novel mutations. PALB2 heterozygotes were 4-fold more likely to have a male relative with breast cancer (P = 0.0003), 6-fold more likely to have a relative with pancreatic cancer (P = 0.002), and 1.3-fold more likely to have a relative with ovarian cancer (P = 0.18). Compared with their female relatives without mutations, increased risk of developing breast cancer for female PALB2 heterozygotes was 2.3-fold (95% CI: 1.5-4.2) by age 55 and 3.4-fold (95% CI: 2.4-5.9) by age 85. Loss of the wild-type PALB2 allele was observed in laser-dissected tumor specimens from heterozygous patients. Given this mutation prevalence and risk, consideration might be given to clinical testing of PALB2 by complete genomic sequencing for familial breast cancer patients with wild-type sequences at BRCA1 and BRCA2.
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Osteogenesis imperfecta presenting as aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in a 53-year-old man.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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The authors describe a case of aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage in a 53-year-old man with background of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). CT brain revealed diffuse subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and cerebral angiogram subsequently confirmed vertebral artery aneurysm rupture leading to SAH. To the authors knowledge this is the first case of vertebral artery aneurysmal SAH described in OI. A previously undiagnosed OI was confirmed by genetic analysis (COL1A1 gene mutation). This aneurysm was successfully treated by endovascular route. Post interventional treatment patient developed stroke secondary to vasospasm. Communicating hydrocephalus, which developed in the process of management, was successfully treated with ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. The aetio-pathogenesis and management of this condition is described. The authors have reviewed the literature and genetic basis of this disease.
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MASP1 mutations in patients with facial, umbilical, coccygeal, and auditory findings of Carnevale, Malpuech, OSA, and Michels syndromes.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2010
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Distinctive facial features consisting of hypertelorism, telecanthus, blepharophimosis, blepharoptosis, epicanthus inversus, periumbilical defects, and skeletal anomalies are seen in autosomal-recessive Carnevale, Malpuech, Michels, and oculo-skeletal-abdominal (OSA) syndromes. The gene or genes responsible for these syndromes were heretofore unknown. We report on three individuals from two consanguineous Turkish families with findings characteristic of these syndromes, including facial dysmorphism, periumbilical depression, mixed hearing loss, radioulnar synostosis, and coccygeal appendage. Homozygosity mapping yielded an autozygous region on chromosome 3q27 in both families. In one family, whole exome sequencing revealed a missense mutation, MASP1 c.2059G>A (p.G687R), that cosegregated with the phenotype. In the second family, Sanger sequencing of MASP1 revealed a nonsense mutation, MASP1 c.870G>A (p.W290X), that also cosegregated with the phenotype. Neither mutation was found in 192 Turkish controls or 1200 controls of various other ancestries. MASP1 encodes mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1. The two mutations occur in a MASP1 isoform that has been reported to process IGFBP-5, thereby playing a critical role in insulin growth factor availability during craniofacial and muscle development. These results implicate mutations of MASP1 as the cause of a human malformation syndrome and demonstrate the involvement of MASP1 in facial, umbilical, and ear development during the embryonic period.
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A mouse model for human hearing loss DFNB30 due to loss of function of myosin IIIA.
Mamm. Genome
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2010
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The motor protein myosin IIIA is critical for maintenance of normal hearing. Homozygosity and compound heterozygosity for loss-of-function mutations in MYO3A, which encodes myosin IIIA, are responsible for inherited human progressive hearing loss DFNB30. To further evaluate this hearing loss, we constructed a mouse model, Myo3a(KI/KI), that harbors the mutation equivalent to the nonsense allele responsible for the most severe human phenotype. Myo3a(KI/KI) mice were compared to their wild-type littermates. Myosin IIIA, with a unique N-terminal kinase domain and a C-terminal actin-binding domain, localizes to the tips of stereocilia in wild-type mice but is absent in the mutant. The phenotype of the Myo3a(KI/KI) mouse parallels the phenotype of human DFNB30. Hearing loss, as measured by auditory brainstem response, is reduced and progresses significantly with age. Vestibular function is normal. Outer hair cells of Myo3a(KI/KI) mice degenerate with age in a pattern consistent with their progressive hearing loss.
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Quality of life after total laparoscopic hysterectomy versus total abdominal hysterectomy for stage I endometrial cancer (LACE): a randomised trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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This two-stage randomised controlled trial, comparing total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH) with total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) for stage I endometrial cancer (LACE), began in 2005. The primary objective of stage 1 was to assess whether TLH results in equivalent or improved quality of life (QoL) up to 6 months after surgery compared with TAH. The primary objective of stage 2 was to test the hypothesis that disease-free survival at 4.5 years is equivalent for TLH and TAH. Here, we present the results of stage 1.
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Detection of inherited mutations for breast and ovarian cancer using genomic capture and massively parallel sequencing.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Inherited loss-of-function mutations in the tumor suppressor genes BRCA1, BRCA2, and multiple other genes predispose to high risks of breast and/or ovarian cancer. Cancer-associated inherited mutations in these genes are collectively quite common, but individually rare or even private. Genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations has become an integral part of clinical practice, but testing is generally limited to these two genes and to women with severe family histories of breast or ovarian cancer. To determine whether massively parallel, "next-generation" sequencing would enable accurate, thorough, and cost-effective identification of inherited mutations for breast and ovarian cancer, we developed a genomic assay to capture, sequence, and detect all mutations in 21 genes, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, with inherited mutations that predispose to breast or ovarian cancer. Constitutional genomic DNA from subjects with known inherited mutations, ranging in size from 1 to >100,000 bp, was hybridized to custom oligonucleotides and then sequenced using a genome analyzer. Analysis was carried out blind to the mutation in each sample. Average coverage was >1200 reads per base pair. After filtering sequences for quality and number of reads, all single-nucleotide substitutions, small insertion and deletion mutations, and large genomic duplications and deletions were detected. There were zero false-positive calls of nonsense mutations, frameshift mutations, or genomic rearrangements for any gene in any of the test samples. This approach enables widespread genetic testing and personalized risk assessment for breast and ovarian cancer.
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Mutations in the DBP-deficiency protein HSD17B4 cause ovarian dysgenesis, hearing loss, and ataxia of Perrault Syndrome.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Perrault syndrome is a recessive disorder characterized by ovarian dysgenesis in females, sensorineural deafness in both males and females, and in some patients, neurological manifestations. No genes for Perrault syndrome have heretofore been identified. A small family of mixed European ancestry includes two sisters with well-characterized Perrault syndrome. Whole-exome sequencing of genomic DNA from one of these sisters revealed exactly one gene with two rare functional variants: HSD17B4, which encodes 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 4 (HSD17B4), also known as D-bifunctional protein (DBP). HSD17B4/DBP is a multifunctional peroxisomal enzyme involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation and steroid metabolism. Both sisters are compound heterozygotes for HSD17B4 c.650A>G (p.Y217C) (maternal allele) and HSB17B4 c.1704T>A (p.Y568X) (paternal allele). The missense mutation is predicted by structural analysis to destabilize the HSD17B4 dehydrogenase domain. The nonsense mutation leads to very low levels of HSD17B4 transcript. Expression of mutant HSD17B4 protein in a compound heterozygote was severely reduced. Mutations in HSD17B4 are known to cause DBP deficiency, an autosomal-recessive disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation that is generally fatal within the first two years of life. No females with DBP deficiency surviving past puberty have been reported, and ovarian dysgenesis has not previously been associated with this illness. Six other families with Perrault syndrome have wild-type sequences of HSD17B4. These results indicate that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically; that Perrault syndrome is genetically heterogeneous; that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed; and that whole-exome sequencing can reveal critical genes in small, nonconsanguineous families.
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Nonsense mutation of the stereociliar membrane protein gene PTPRQ in human hearing loss DFNB84.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2010
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Moderate to severe prelingual hearing impairment (DFNB84) was observed in an extended consanguineous Palestinian kindred. All affected relatives shared a 12.5 MB homozygous haplotype on chromosome 12q21 with lod score 4.30. This homozygous region harbours the protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor Q gene PTPRQ, which is known to be essential to hearing in mouse.
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Whole exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping identify mutation in the cell polarity protein GPSM2 as the cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNB82.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2010
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Massively parallel sequencing of targeted regions, exomes, and complete genomes has begun to dramatically increase the pace of discovery of genes responsible for human disorders. Here we describe how exome sequencing in conjunction with homozygosity mapping led to rapid identification of the causative allele for nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNB82 in a consanguineous Palestinian family. After filtering out worldwide and population-specific polymorphisms from the whole exome sequence, only a single deleterious mutation remained in the homozygous region linked to DFNB82. The nonsense mutation leads to an early truncation of the G protein signaling modulator GPSM2, a protein that is essential for maintenance of cell polarity and spindle orientation. In the mouse inner ear, GPSM2 is localized to apical surfaces of hair cells and supporting cells and is most highly expressed during embryonic development. Identification of GPSM2 as essential to the development of normal hearing suggests dysregulation of cell polarity as a mechanism underlying hearing loss.
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Genomic duplication and overexpression of TJP2/ZO-2 leads to altered expression of apoptosis genes in progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNA51.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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Age-related hearing loss is due to death over time, primarily by apoptosis, of hair cells in the inner ear. Studies of mutant genes responsible for inherited progressive hearing loss have suggested possible mechanisms for hair cell death, but critical connections between these mutations and the causes of progressive hearing loss have been elusive. In an Israeli kindred, dominant, adult-onset, progressive nonsyndromic hearing loss DFNA51 is due to a tandem inverted genomic duplication of 270 kb that includes the entire wild-type gene encoding the tight junction protein TJP2 (ZO-2). In the mammalian inner ear, TJP2 is expressed mainly in tight junctions, and also in the cytoplasm and nuclei. TJP2 expression normally decreases with age from embryonic development to adulthood. In cells of affected family members, TJP2 transcript and protein are overexpressed, leading to decreased phosphorylation of GSK-3beta and to altered expression of genes that regulate apoptosis. These results suggest that TJP2- and GSK-3beta-mediated increased susceptibility to apoptosis of cells of the inner ear is the mechanism for adult-onset hearing loss in this kindred and may serve as one model for age-related hearing loss in the general population.
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A recurrent 16p12.1 microdeletion supports a two-hit model for severe developmental delay.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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We report the identification of a recurrent, 520-kb 16p12.1 microdeletion associated with childhood developmental delay. The microdeletion was detected in 20 of 11,873 cases compared with 2 of 8,540 controls (P = 0.0009, OR = 7.2) and replicated in a second series of 22 of 9,254 cases compared with 6 of 6,299 controls (P = 0.028, OR = 2.5). Most deletions were inherited, with carrier parents likely to manifest neuropsychiatric phenotypes compared to non-carrier parents (P = 0.037, OR = 6). Probands were more likely to carry an additional large copy-number variant when compared to matched controls (10 of 42 cases, P = 5.7 x 10(-5), OR = 6.6). The clinical features of individuals with two mutations were distinct from and/or more severe than those of individuals carrying only the co-occurring mutation. Our data support a two-hit model in which the 16p12.1 microdeletion both predisposes to neuropsychiatric phenotypes as a single event and exacerbates neurodevelopmental phenotypes in association with other large deletions or duplications. Analysis of other microdeletions with variable expressivity indicates that this two-hit model might be more generally applicable to neuropsychiatric disease.
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Five novel loci for inherited hearing loss mapped by SNP-based homozygosity profiles in Palestinian families.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2009
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In communities with high rates of consanguinity and consequently high prevalence of recessive phenotypes, homozygosity mapping with SNP arrays is an effective approach for gene discovery. In 20 Palestinian kindreds with prelingual nonsyndromic hearing loss, we generated homozygosity profiles reflecting linkage to the phenotype. Family sizes ranged from small nuclear families with two affected children, one unaffected sibling, and parents to multigenerational kindreds with 12 affected relatives. By including unaffected parents and siblings and screening 250 K SNP arrays, even small nuclear families yielded informative profiles. In 14 families, we identified the allele responsible for hearing loss by screening a single candidate gene in the longest homozygous region. Novel alleles included missense, nonsense, and splice site mutations of CDH23, MYO7A, MYO15A, OTOF, PJVK, Pendrin/SLC26A4, TECTA, TMHS, and TMPRSS3, and a large genomic deletion of Otoancorin (OTOA). All point mutations were rare in the Palestinian population (zero carriers in 288 unrelated controls); the carrier frequency of the OTOA genomic deletion was 1%. In six families, we identified five genomic regions likely to harbor novel genes for human hearing loss on chromosomes 1p13.3 (DFNB82), 9p23-p21.2/p13.3-q21.13 (DFNB83), 12q14.3-q21.2 (DFNB84; two families), 14q23.1-q31.1, and 17p12-q11.2 (DFNB85).
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Profound, prelingual nonsyndromic deafness maps to chromosome 10q21 and is caused by a novel missense mutation in the Usher syndrome type IF gene PCDH15.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2009
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We studied a consanguineous family (Family A) from the island of Newfoundland with an autosomal recessive form of prelingual, profound, nonsyndromic sensorineural hearing loss. A genome-wide scan mapped the deafness trait to 10q21-22 (max LOD score of 4.0; D10S196) and fine mapping revealed a 16 Mb ancestral haplotype in deaf relatives. The PCDH15 gene was mapped within the critical region and was an interesting candidate because truncating mutations cause Usher syndrome type IF (USH1F) and two missense mutations have been previously associated with isolated deafness (DFNB23). Sequencing of the PCDH15 gene revealed 33 sequencing variants. Three of these variants were homozygous exclusively in deaf siblings but only one of them was not seen in ethnically matched controls. This novel c.1583 T>A transversion predicts an amino-acid substitution of a valine with an aspartic acid at codon 528 (V528D). Like the two DFNB23 mutations, the V528D mutation in Family A occurs in a highly conserved extracellular cadherin (EC) domain of PCDH15 and is predicted to be more deleterious than the previously identified DFNB23 missense mutations (R134G and G262D). Physical assessment, vestibular and visual function testing in deaf adults ruled out syndromic deafness because of Usher syndrome. This study validates the DFNB23 designation and supports the hypothesis that missense mutations in conserved motifs of PCDH15 cause nonsyndromic hearing loss. This emerging genotype-phenotype correlation in USH1F is similar to that in several other USH1 genes and cautions against a prognosis of a dual sensory loss in deaf children found to be homozygous for hypomorphic mutations at the USH1F locus.
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Methylation and protein expression of DNA repair genes: association with chemotherapy exposure and survival in sporadic ovarian and peritoneal carcinomas.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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DNA repair genes critically regulate the cellular response to chemotherapy and epigenetic regulation of these genes may be influenced by chemotherapy exposure. Restoration of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mediates resistance to platinum chemotherapy in recurrent BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutated hereditary ovarian carcinomas. We evaluated BRCA1, BRCA2, and MLH1 protein expression in 115 sporadic primary ovarian carcinomas, of which 31 had paired recurrent neoplasms collected after chemotherapy. Additionally, we assessed whether promoter methylation of BRCA1, MLH1 or FANCF influenced response to chemotherapy or explained alterations in protein expression after chemotherapy exposure.
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Microduplications of 16p11.2 are associated with schizophrenia.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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Recurrent microdeletions and microduplications of a 600-kb genomic region of chromosome 16p11.2 have been implicated in childhood-onset developmental disorders. We report the association of 16p11.2 microduplications with schizophrenia in two large cohorts. The microduplication was detected in 12/1,906 (0.63%) cases and 1/3,971 (0.03%) controls (P = 1.2 x 10(-5), OR = 25.8) from the initial cohort, and in 9/2,645 (0.34%) cases and 1/2,420 (0.04%) controls (P = 0.022, OR = 8.3) of the replication cohort. The 16p11.2 microduplication was associated with a 14.5-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (95% CI (3.3, 62)) in the combined sample. A meta-analysis of datasets for multiple psychiatric disorders showed a significant association of the microduplication with schizophrenia (P = 4.8 x 10(-7)), bipolar disorder (P = 0.017) and autism (P = 1.9 x 10(-7)). In contrast, the reciprocal microdeletion was associated only with autism and developmental disorders (P = 2.3 x 10(-13)). Head circumference was larger in patients with the microdeletion than in patients with the microduplication (P = 0.0007).
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Characteristics of women with ovarian carcinoma who have BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations not identified by clinical testing.
Gynecol. Oncol.
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Few studies have comprehensively tested all ovarian cancer patients for BRCA1 and BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutations. We sought to determine if clinically identified mutation carriers differed in clinical characteristics and outcomes from mutation carriers not identified during routine clinical care.
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Loss of function germline mutations in RAD51D in women with ovarian carcinoma.
Gynecol. Oncol.
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RAD51D, a gene in the Fanconi Anemia-BRCA homologous recombination pathway, has recently been shown to harbor germline mutations responsible for ovarian carcinoma in multiply affected families. We aimed to extend these results to ovarian carcinoma in the general population.
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BRCA1, TP53, and CHEK2 germline mutations in uterine serous carcinoma.
Cancer
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Uterine serous carcinoma (USC) is not recognized as part of any defined hereditary cancer syndrome, and its association with hereditary breast and ovarian carcinoma and Lynch syndrome are uncertain.
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Replicating PEPFARs success: how interventions shown to be effective abroad can be applied to the AIDS epidemic in the US.
Health Aff (Millwood)
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The Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR), which began in 2003, initially responded to the global AIDS epidemic by applying lessons learned in treating the disease in the United States to addressing the emergency abroad. As the program expanded, it evolved to support interventions increasingly tailored to local needs in countries receiving PEPFAR assistance. This global experience has created a knowledge base of how to provide HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment services in low-resource settings. It underscored the importance of treatment adherence, family-centered care, and integration of HIV into broader health care delivery systems. Applying these lessons can help US policy makers address existing gaps in HIV care in the United States, where the availability of HIV treatment has at times masked the continued need for testing, early diagnosis, targeted prevention for key populations, and a solid array of social services for people living with HIV/AIDS and their families. This article identifies PEPFAR practices that merit further exploration for adoption in the United States, including strategies to increase adherence to drug treatment regimens and to ensure that HIV services are broadly integrated with other aspects of health care.
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ColoSeq provides comprehensive lynch and polyposis syndrome mutational analysis using massively parallel sequencing.
J Mol Diagn
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Lynch syndrome (hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer) and adenomatous polyposis syndromes frequently have overlapping clinical features. Current approaches for molecular genetic testing are often stepwise, taking a best-candidate gene approach with testing of additional genes if initial results are negative. We report a comprehensive assay called ColoSeq that detects all classes of mutations in Lynch and polyposis syndrome genes using targeted capture and massively parallel next-generation sequencing on the Illumina HiSeq2000 instrument. In blinded specimens and colon cancer cell lines with defined mutations, ColoSeq correctly identified 28/28 (100%) pathogenic mutations in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM, APC, and MUTYH, including single nucleotide variants (SNVs), small insertions and deletions, and large copy number variants. There was 100% reproducibility of detection mutation between independent runs. The assay correctly identified 222 of 224 heterozygous SNVs (99.4%) in HapMap samples, demonstrating high sensitivity of calling all variants across each captured gene. Average coverage was greater than 320 reads per base pair when the maximum of 96 index samples with barcodes were pooled. In a specificity study of 19 control patients without cancer from different ethnic backgrounds, we did not find any pathogenic mutations but detected two variants of uncertain significance. ColoSeq offers a powerful, cost-effective means of genetic testing for Lynch and polyposis syndromes that eliminates the need for stepwise testing and multiple follow-up clinical visits.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.