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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Secretion of inflammatory factors from chondrocytes by layilin signaling.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Layilin (LAYN) is thought to be involved in reorganization of cytoskeleton structures, interacting with merlin, radixin, and talin. Also, LAYN is known to be one of the receptors for hyaluronic acid (HA). In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) have been known to play pathological roles. HA with low molecular weight is speculated to exacerbate inflammation in RA. In this context, differences of quantity and functions of HA receptors would affect the severity of inflammation in RA. Chondrocytes, which play critical roles in maintaining articular cartilage and are affected in RA, express at least kinds of HA receptors like CD44 and LAYN. However, roles and regulation of LAYN in articular chondrocytes have been poorly understood. To clarify regulation of LAYN in chondrocytes, we here investigated whether TNF-? affected expression levels of LAYN in human articular chondrocytes. Next, to clarify LAYN-specific roles in chondrocytes, we investigated whether binding of antibodies to the extracellular domain of LAYN affected secretion of inflammatory cytokines using a chondrosarcoma cell line. As a result, we found that TNF-? up-regulated expression levels of LAYN in the chondrocytes. Further, the LAYN signaling was found to enhance secretion of inflammatory factors, IL-8 and complement5 (C5)/C5a, from the cells. Our results indicate that LAYN would be involved in the enhancement of inflammation and degradation of cartilage in joint diseases such as RA and OA.
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Correlation Between Subchondral Bone Plate Thickness and Cartilage Degeneration in Osteoarthritis of the Ankle.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is characterized not only by cartilage degeneration, but also subchondral bone changes. The subchondral bone plate (SBP) plays an important role in cartilage metabolism, and elucidation of the relationship between the SBP and cartilage degeneration would be helpful to determine the most appropriate treatment strategy for ankle OA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the SBP and to compare it with cartilage degeneration with arthroscopic findings.
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Prostaglandin E-major urinary metabolite as a reliable surrogate marker for mucosal inflammation in ulcerative colitis.
Inflamm. Bowel Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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C-reactive protein (CRP) is used as a biomarker of ulcerative colitis (UC) activity, but CRP levels are sometimes insufficient to reflect UC activity. Therefore, a simple noninvasive biomarker assay with sufficient sensitivity and specificity to accurately reflect UC activity is desired. Since prostaglandin E2 production and colonic inflammation are associated, we evaluated whether prostaglandin E-major urinary metabolite (PGE-MUM) can be used as such a biomarker.
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Appearance of Subchondral Bone in Computed Tomography Is Related to Cartilage Damage in Osteochondral Lesions of the Talar Dome.
Foot Ankle Int
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Osteochondral lesions of the talar dome (OLT) involve the articular cartilage and/or subchondral bone. The subchondral bone plate plays an important role in cartilage metabolism. We hypothesized that the findings of subchondral bone on CT image would be related to the cartilage damage of OLT. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between the arthroscopic and CT findings focused on subchondral bone.
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Exosomes from IL-1? stimulated synovial fibroblasts induce osteoarthritic changes in articular chondrocytes.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Osteoarthritis (OA) is a whole joint disease, and characterized by progressive degradation of articular cartilage, synovial hyperplasia, bone remodeling and angiogenesis in various joint tissues. Exosomes are a type of microvesicles (MVs) that may play a role in tissue-tissue and cell-cell communication in homeostasis and diseases. We hypothesized that exosomes function in a novel regulatory network that contributes to OA pathogenesis and examined the function of exosomes in communication among joint tissue cells.
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Usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography using Sonazoid for the assessment of therapeutic response to percutaneous radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Accurate assessment of the coagulated area is imperative to achieve an excellent outcome from percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (PRFA) for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We evaluated the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) with the contrast-enhancing agent Sonazoid for precisely assessing the therapeutic effect of PRFA for HCC.
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Proteomic analysis of whole glomeruli in patients with IgA nephropathy using microsieving.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To promote understanding of immunoglobulin A nephropathy (IgAN) pathophysiology, we tried to elucidate glomerular protein profiles in IgAN, using microsieving that we established recently to isolate glomeruli from renal biopsy samples and proteomic approaches.
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Evaluation of the effectiveness of color intensity analysis using a second-generation autofluorescence imaging system for diminutive colorectal polyp differentiation.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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We previously reported the effectiveness of color tone intensity analysis using autofluorescence imaging (AFI) for distinguishing between colorectal neoplastic and non-neoplastic lesions. Moreover, a second-generation AFI system has become commercially available in Japan. In the present study, we assessed the effectiveness of color tone intensity analysis using a second-generation AFI system for evaluating diminutive colorectal lesions.
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Peroxiredoxin 2 expression is increased in neutrophils of patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous clonal disorders characterized by cytopenias that arise due to ineffective haematopoiesis and morphological dysplasia and carry an increased risk of incident acute myeloid leukaemia. The pathogenesis of marrow dysfunction in MDS is multifactorial and consistent with a multistep model and may lead to heterogeneity of MDS. We investigated the proteome profile of circulating neutrophils purified from patients with refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia (RCMD) to identify proteins that have a role in the pathogenesis. Using 2-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis and protein identification by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, we found that peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2), a member of the peroxiredoxin family that regulates reactive oxygen species, was markedly upregulated in neutrophils of RCMD patients compared to healthy donors. Increased PRDX2 expression in the neutrophils of RCMD patients was confirmed using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, immunoblotting and immunocytochemical analysis. In addition, white blood cell and neutrophil counts in RCMD patients correlated inversely with the PRDX2 expression of. Oxidative stress is a known factor involved in the pathogenesis of MDS, and PRDX2 is associated with tumourigenesis of several solid tumours. Accordingly, our results suggest that PRDX2 may perform an important function in the pathogeneis of RCMD.
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Endoscopic diagnosis of early Barrett's neoplasia: perspectives for advanced endoscopic technology.
Dig Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic condition that occurs secondary to gastroesophageal reflux disease. BE is also a precursor to esophageal adenocarcinoma, which, although still rare in Japan, is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in Western countries. However, the prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease has increased significantly over the past few decades in Japan, possibly leading to an incremental rise in BE and the associated inherent risk of adenocarcinoma. Given the poor prognosis of advanced-stage Barrett's adenocarcinoma, endoscopic surveillance is recommended for subjects with BE to detect early neoplasias including dysplasia. However, endoscopic identification of dysplastic lesions is still not sufficiently reliable or subjective, making targeted therapy extremely difficult. Over the past few years, improvements in image resolution, image processing software, and optical filter technology have enabled identification of dysplasia and early cancer in BE patients. We retrieved as many studies on advanced endoscopic technologies in BE as possible from MEDLINE and PubMed. The present review focuses on the emergent clinically available technologies to provide an overview of the technologies, their practical applicability, current status, and future challenges.
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Effects of sulfasalazine and tofacitinib on the protein profile of articular chondrocytes.
Mod Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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Objective. Sulfasalazine (SSZ) and tofacitinib are effective for treating rheumatoid arthritis, however, their effects on chondrocytes have not been fully understood. We here tried to elucidate their effects on chondrocyte proteins. Methods. We treated chondrocytes from five osteoarthritis patients with IL-1?, IL-1?+ SSZ, IL-1?+ tofacitinib, SSZ alone, and tofacitinib alone. Then, we compared protein profiles of the chondrocytes using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis. Further, we identified altered proteins by mass spectrometry. Results. Out of 892 detected protein spots, the IL-1? stimulation changed intensity of 43 spots more than 1.3-fold or less than 1/1.3-fold significantly. SSZ suppressed the IL-1?-induced intensity alteration in 16 (37%) out of the 43 protein spots. Tofacitinib suppressed the IL-1?-induced alteration in 4 (9.3%) out of the 43 spots. The production of AMP deaminase 2 and procollagen-lysine, 2-oxoglutarate 5-dioxygenase 2 were increased by IL-1? and the increase was suppressed by SSZ and by tofacitinib. SSZ alone altered intensity of 273 (31%) out of the 852 spots significantly, whereas tofacitinib alone altered intensity of only 24 (2.7%) out of them. Conclusion. SSZ and, to lesser extent, tofacitinib suppress the effects of IL-1? on the protein profiles of chondrocytes. Our data would promote understanding of effects of the drugs on chondrocytes.
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Photodynamic Diagnosis of Colitis-associated Dysplasia in a Mouse Model After Oral Administration of 5-Aminolevulinic Acid.
In Vivo
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Detection of dysplastic lesions in mouse colonic tissue was investigated by accumulation of photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) induced by oral administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA), a precursor of PplX.
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Efficacy of zinc-carnosine chelate compound, Polaprezinc, enemas in patients with ulcerative colitis.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Abstract Objectives. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, relapsing and remitting intestinal inflammatory disorder. Zinc is known to be efficacious for the repair of damaged tissue and has been shown to protect against gastric ulceration. This study focused on Polaprezinc (PZ), N-(3-aminopropionyl)-L-histidinato zinc, which accelerates ulcer healing through actions such as prostaglandin-independent cytoprotection and antioxidative activity. Methods. In this randomized, placebo-controlled, investigator-blinded trial, 28 patients with active UC at The Jikei University Hospital were randomly divided into two groups: one treated with a 150 mg PZ enema (n = 18) and the other not treated with a PZ enema (n = 10). All patients received usual induction therapy. Clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings and histological findings were evaluated at entry and one week later. Results. In the PZ group, modified Matts endoscopic scores were significantly improved after treatment compared to baseline in the rectum (p = 0.004), sigmoid colon (p = 0.03) and descending colon (p = 0.04). In the non-PZ group, scores were not significantly improved in the rectum (p = 0.14) and descending colon (p = 0.34), but were improved in the sigmoid colon (p = 0.04). In the PZ group, the Mayo scores at baseline and at Day 8 were 9.1 ± 1.6 and 5.8 ± 2.7 (p = 0.00004), respectively, and in the placebo group, the scores were 8.9 ± 1.7 and 7.4 ± 2.1 (p = 0.009), respectively. Clinical response or remission was significantly better in the PZ group (71%) than in the placebo group (10%). Conclusions. A zinc-carnosine chelate compound, PZ, enema may become a useful new add-on treatment to accelerate mucosal healing in UC.
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Visualization of colorectal neoplasia by a second-generation autofluorescence imaging system.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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Autofluorescence imaging (AFI) systems may allow better visualization of colorectal neoplasia than conventional methods. However, this is difficult to demonstrate objectively. Recently, a second-generation AFI system with a noise-reduction algorithm was developed. We aimed to objectively evaluate the visualization of colorectal neoplasia by using a second-generation AFI system and software to calculate the color-contrast index.
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Computer-aided diagnosis of neoplastic colorectal lesions using real-time numerical color analysis during autofluorescence endoscopy.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Differentiating non-neoplastic colorectal lesions from neoplastic lesions during screening colonoscopies is essential to reduce the unnecessary treatment of non-neoplastic lesions. The present study was conducted to verify the diagnostic yields of the computer-aided diagnostic system that enables real-time color analysis of colorectal lesions when applied to autofluorescence endoscopy (AFE).
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Metallic stents are more efficacious than plastic stents in unresectable malignant hilar biliary strictures: a randomized controlled trial.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Endoscopic biliary stenting is a well-established palliative treatment for unresectable malignant biliary strictures, for which plastic tube stents (PSs) and self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) are most commonly used. The efficacy of these stents has been extensively described in distal biliary strictures, but not in hilar biliary strictures. The present study aimed to compare the efficacy of PSs and SEMSs for unresectable malignant hilar biliary strictures.
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Novel effects of edaravone on human brain microvascular endothelial cells revealed by a proteomic approach.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Edaravone (3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one) is a free radical scavenger used for acute ischemic stroke. However, it is not known whether edaravone works only as a free radical scavenger or possess other pharmacological actions. Therefore, we elucidated the effects of edaravone on human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) by 2 dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE). We found 38 protein spots the intensity of which was significantly altered 1.3 fold on average (p< 0.05) by the edaravone treatment and successfully identified 17 proteins of those. Four of those 17 proteins were cytoskeleton proteins or cytoskeleton-regulating proteins. Therefore, we subsequently investigated the change of size and shape of the cells, the actin network, and the tight junction of HBMEC by immunocytochemistry. As a result, most edaravone-treated HBMECs became larger and rounder compared with those that were not treated. Furthermore, edaravone-treated HBMECs formed gathering zona occludens (ZO)-1, a tight junction protein, along the junction of the cells. In addition, we found that edaravone suppressed interleukin (IL)-1?-induced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), which was reported to increase cell permeability. We found a novel function of edaravone is the promotion of tight junction formations of vascular endothelial cells partly via the down-regulation of MCP-1 secretion. These data provide fundamental and useful information in the clinical use of edaravone in patients with cerebral vascular diseases.
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Endoscopic features of colorectal serrated lesions using image-enhanced endoscopy with pathological analysis.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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To clarify of the features of sessile serrated adenoma/polyp (SSA/P) observed with image-enhanced endoscopy using immunohistochemical staining.
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Efficacy of a novel auto-fluorescence imaging system with computer-assisted color analysis for assessment of colorectal lesions.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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To evaluate the efficacy of computer-assisted color analysis of colorectal lesions using a novel auto-fluorescence imaging (AFI) system to distinguish neoplastic lesions from non-neoplastic lesions and to predict the depth of invasion.
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Roles of serum fibrinogen ? chain-derived peptides in Alzheimers disease.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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To find a blood biomarker and disease-related peptides in Alzheimers disease (AD), we comprehensively detected serum peptides.
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[Clinical significance of the measurement of serum cytokeratin-18 in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis].
Rinsho Byori
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Epidemiologic data suggest that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have an increased tendency to occur in patients who are associated with metabolic conditions such as obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia. NAFLD represents a wide spectrum of conditions ranging from fatty liver, which in general follows a benign, no-progressive clinical course, to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a more serious form of NAFLD that may progress to cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. However, currently the diagnosis of NASH requires an invasive liver biopsy. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether Cytokeratin 18 (CK-18) has potential non-invasive diagnostic capability for the NASH. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, adiponectin, leptin, and CK-18 were measured in 27 patients (8 patients with simple fatty liver, 6 fatty liver with fibrosis patients, 13 patients with NASH) and 23 healthy controls. Regarding gender difference in the control group, although both adiponectin and leptin significantly increased in the female compared with the male (p < 0.002 and p < 0.01, respectively), there were no significant gender differences in CK-18. For the conventional liver function tests, there were no significant differences in 4 groups. Serum levels of adiponectin was significantly lower in patients with NASH compared with the control group(p < 0.001), and both leptin and CK-18 were markedly higher in patients with NASH compared with control group (p < 0.001). These results suggested that measurement of serum CK-18 is useful for assessing the NASH.
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Comparative proteomic analysis of neutrophils from patients with microscopic polyangiitis and granulomatosis with polyangiitis.
J Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
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Both microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA) belong to ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV), in which neutrophils play a key role in their pathology. In this study, in order to discriminate between MPA and GPA, protein profiles of peripheral blood polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) of 11 MPA patients and 9 GPA patients and 10 healthy controls (HC) were analyzed by 2D-DIGE. In all the 864 spots detected, intensity of 55 spots was significantly different (p<0.05) among the three groups by ANOVA. 31 out of the 55 spots were identified by mass spectrometry. Orthogonal partial-least-squares-discriminate analysis revealed that the abundance profile of the protein spots discriminated the AAV group from the HC group, and the MPA group from the GPA group completely. 13 protein spots were considered as biomarker candidates to distinguish between MPA and GPA. In those, spots whose intensity was higher in MPA than in GPA included actin with various pI values, while a considerable part of spots whose intensity was higher in GPA were proteins related with the activity of neutrophils. Among the candidate proteins, ROC analysis showed that a combination of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and a-kinase anchor protein 7 isoforms beta had a high diagnostic potential.
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Protein profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a candidate biomarker for Behçets disease.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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To investigate the pathophysiology of Behçets disease (BD) and find biomarkers for the disease, we analysed protein profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
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Collapsin response mediator protein 4 affects the number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive neurons in the sexually dimorphic nucleus in female mice.
Dev Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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In the sexually dimorphic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) of the hypothalamus, females have a greater number of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) and kisspeptin-immunoreactive (kisspeptin-ir) neurons than males. In this study, we used proteomics analysis and gene-deficient mice to identify proteins that regulate the number of TH-ir and kisspeptin-ir neurons in the AVPV. Analysis of protein expressions in the rat AVPV on postnatal day 1 (PD1; the early phase of sex differentiation) using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis followed by MALDI-TOF-MS identified collapsin response mediator protein 4 (CRMP4) as a protein exhibiting sexually dimorphic expression. Interestingly, this sexually differential expressions of CRMP4 protein and mRNA in the AVPV was not detected on PD6. Prenatal testosterone exposure canceled the sexual difference in the expression of Crmp4 mRNA in the rat AVPV. Next, we used CRMP4-knockout (CRMP4-KO) mice to determine the in vivo function of CRMP4 in the AVPV. Crmp4 knockout did not change the number of kisspeptin-ir neurons in the adult AVPV in either sex. However, the number of TH-ir neurons was increased in the AVPV of adult female CRMP4-KO mice as compared with the adult female wild-type mice. During development, no significant difference in the number of TH-ir neurons was detected between sexes or genotypes on embryonic day 15, but a female-specific increase in TH-ir neurons was observed in CRMP4-KO mice on PD1, when the sex difference was not yet apparent in wild-type mice. These results indicate that CRMP4 regulates the number of TH-ir cell number in the female AVPV.
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Evaluation of intrinsic spectroscopic properties of chromophore assemblies by shielding with cyclohexyl base pairs within a DNA duplex.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Here, we investigated spectroscopic behaviors of tetramethylrhodamine (TMR) homo- and hetero-dimers within DNA duplex. In order to shield the chromophores from natural base pairs, we used cyclohexyl base pairs as insulators; these pairs were inserted between the chromophores and nucleobases. When a single TMR moiety was sandwiched between cyclohexyl base pairs, the emission intensity increased by fivefold relative to a TMR between natural base pairs, because electron transfer from nucleobases was suppressed. Next, we inserted two TMRs between the cyclohexyl base pairs and found that they facilitated H-dimer formation of TMR; a distinct hypsochromic shift was induced only when cyclohexyl base pairs were inserted. We further examined quenching behavior of a TMR paired with a quencher dye between cyclohexyl base pairs. Interestingly, fluorescence from TMR was quenched by nitro methyl red more efficiently in the presence of cyclohexyl base pairs than in their absence. This suggests that neighboring natural base pairs disturbed electron or hole transfer between the fluorophore and the quencher. The cyclohexyl base pairs shielded the chromophore pair from the natural base pairs and allowed intrinsic electron transfer.
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Autoantigenicity of carbonic anhydrase 1 in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm, revealed by proteomic surveillance.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is sometimes detected in patients with atherosclerosis. One of the histological characteristics of AAA walls is infiltration of inflammatory cells, in which autoimmunity may be involved. Thereby, we here surveyed autoantigens in AAA walls by proteomics. Specifically, we separated proteins extracted from AAA wall samples by 2-dimensional electrophoresis and detected candidate autoantigens by western blotting. One of the detected candidates was carbonic anhydrase 1 (CA1). ELISA confirmed that the autoantibodies to CA1 were detected more frequently in AAA patients (n=13) than in healthy donors (n=25) (p=0.03). Interestingly, some serum samples from the AAA patients reacted to CA1 of the AAA walls stronger than to CA1 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors. Our data indicate that CA1 in the AAA walls would be modified to express neo-epitope(s) and that the autoimmunity to CA1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of AAA.
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Clinical significance of jejunoileal involvement of non-Hodgkins lymphoma detected by double-balloon enteroscopy.
Int. J. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Jejunoileal involvement of non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL) is an important diagnostic factor in determining optimal treatment strategies. Here, we used double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) to detect jejunoileal involvement of NHL and studied its clinical significance in a series of patients with NHL. Adults aged between 18 and 85 years with infiltration of the stomach, duodenum, or colon confirmed by gastrointestinal endoscopy or colonoscopy, suspected jejunoileal involvement determined by CT or FDG-PET, or any other gastrointestinal symptoms, were eligible for inclusion in the study. Among 428 patients with histologically confirmed NHL between 2004 and 2011, 83 were eligible for DBE, but 20 patients were excluded due to rejection or poor clinical status. Thus, 63 underwent DBE. The 3-year overall survival rate was significantly lower in patients with (n = 33), than without (n = 30) jejunoileal involvement of NHL confirmed by DBE (49 vs. 92 %, p < 0.005). Four participants developed aspiration pneumonia, but recovered after treatment with antibiotics.
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Is there a difference in gastric emptying between myotonic dystrophy type 1 patients with and without gastrointestinal symptoms?
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Gastrointestinal symptoms are frequent complaints in patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (MyD1) and may be associated with reduced gastrointestinal motility caused by smooth muscle dysfunction. Although previous studies have found delayed gastric emptying (GE) in MyD1 patients, the relationship between GE and symptoms has been unclear. We investigated GE in 23 MyD1 patients and 20 healthy volunteers using the 13C-acetate breath test. The MyD1 patients were divided into two groups: those with gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 9) and those without gastrointestinal symptoms (n = 14). The GE function was estimated using the 13C-acetate breath test as half-emptying time (HET) and peak time of the 13C-%-dose-excess curve (T max). GE (HET and T max) was more significantly delayed in patients with MyD1 than in the controls. The GE in MyD1 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms was significantly delayed compared to those without gastrointestinal symptoms. The GE in MyD1 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms was more significantly delayed than in the controls. The GE was significantly delayed in MyD1 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms for >5 years as compared to those with the disease for <5 years, while GE of MyD1 patients without gastrointestinal symptoms did not correlate with the duration of the disease. The GE in MyD1 patients did not correlate with the muscular disability rating scale. These findings suggest that impairment of GE evolves over time and that the progression of delayed GE and skeletal muscle impairment are independent. Smooth muscle impairment may be affected at an earlier stage in MyD1.
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Development of a robust model system of FRET using base surrogates tethering fluorophores for strict control of their position and orientation within DNA duplex.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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Although distance dependence of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) is well-studied and FRET has been extensively applied as "molecular ruler", only limited examples of orientation-dependent FRET have been reported. To create a robust FRET system that precisely reflects the orientation between donor and acceptor, donor and acceptor fluorophores were introduced into a DNA via a D-threoninol scaffold. Strong stacking interactions among intercalated dyes and natural base-pairs suppress free movement of the dyes, clamping them in the duplex in a fixed orientation. Pyrene and perylene were used as donor and acceptor, respectively, and both the distance and orientation between these dyes were systematically controlled by varying the number of intervening AT pairs from 1 to 21 (corresponding to two turns of helix). FRET efficiency determined from static fluorescence measurement did not decrease linearly with the number (n) of inserted AT pairs but dropped significantly every 5 base pairs (i.e., n = 8, 13, and 18), corresponding to a half-turn of the B-type helix. This clearly demonstrates that FRET efficiency reflects the orientation between pyrene and perylene. We also measured time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy with a streak camera and successfully observed the time-course of the energy transfer directly. As expected, the FRET efficiencies determined from the lifetime of pyrene emission were in good agreement with static measurements. Theoretical calculation of FRET efficiency assuming that the DNA duplex is a rigid cylinder with B-type geometry coincided with the experimental results. We believe that our method of using d-threoninol will contribute to further development of FRET-based measurement techniques.
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The utility of balloon enteroscopy in the diagnosis of histiocytic sarcoma of the small intestine: a case report.
Pathol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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The diagnosis of the rare neoplasm histiocytic sarcoma (HS) relies on morphology and the presence of immunophenotypic features of histiocytic lineage. More than 57 cases, including 16 cases involving the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, have been described since the World Health Organization issued its classification system for tumors of hematopoietic and lymphoid tissue in 2001. HS is often diagnosed in its late stages, at which point the prognosis is poor. Only a small proportion of these patients can undergo surgical resection with curative intent. The present report describes how HS can be diagnosed at a stage of favorable prognosis using balloon enteroscopy (BE), thereby enabling surgical resection before the development of metastases. This strategy is reviewed in the setting of a patient with jejunal HS, followed by a discussion of data from 16 other reported cases of GI HS.
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Cyclohexyl "base pairs" stabilize duplexes and intensify pyrene fluorescence by shielding it from natural base pairs.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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In this study, we investigated the stability and structure of artificial base pairs that contain cyclohexyl rings. The introduction of a single pair of isopropylcyclohexanes into the middle of DNA slightly destabilized the duplex. Interestingly, as the number of the "base pairs" increased, the duplex was remarkably stabilized. A duplex with six base pairs was even more stable than one containing six A-T pairs. Thermodynamic analysis revealed that changes in entropy and not enthalpy contributed to duplex stability, demonstrating that hydrophobic interactions between isopropyl groups facilitated the base pairing, and thus stabilized the duplex. NOESY of a duplex containing an isopropylcyclohexane-methylcyclohexane pair unambiguously demonstrated its "pairing" in the duplex because distinct NOEs between the protons of cyclohexyl moieties and imino protons of both of the neighboring natural base pairs were observed. CD spectra of duplexes tethering cyclohexyl moieties also showed a positive-negative couplet that is characteristic of the B-form DNA duplex. Taken together, these results showed that cyclohexyl moieties formed base pairs in the DNA duplex without severely disturbing the helical structure of natural DNA. Next, we introduced cyclohexyl base pairs between pyrene and nucleobases as an "insulator" that suppresses electron transfer between them. We found a massive increase in the quantum yield of pyrene due to the efficient shielding of pyrene from nucleobases. The cyclohexyl base pairs reported here have the potential to prepare highly fluorescent labeling agents by multiplying fluorophores and insulators alternately into DNA duplexes.
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Acute Pancreatitis due to pH-Dependent Mesalazine That Occurred in the Course of Ulcerative Colitis.
Case Rep Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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We report the case of a 26-year-old male who presented with acute pancreatitis during the course of treatment for pancolitic ulcerative colitis (UC) with a time-dependent mesalazine formulation, prednisolone and azathioprine (AZA). Despite a review of his clinical history and various tests, the cause of pancreatitis could not be determined. Since drug-induced pancreatitis was considered possible, administration of the time-dependent mesalazine preparation and AZA was discontinued, and conservative treatment for acute pancreatitis was performed. The pancreatitis promptly improved with these treatments, but drug lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST) for both the time-dependent mesalazine formulation and AZA was negative. A pH-dependent mesalazine formulation was given for maintenance therapy of UC. Subsequently, as the pancreatitis relapsed, drug-induced pancreatitis was strongly suspected. Administration of mesalazine was discontinued, and pancreatitis was smoothly in remission by conservative treatment. According to the positive DLST result for the pH-dependent mesalazine formulation and the clinical course, a diagnosis of pH-dependent mesalazine-induced pancreatitis due to this formulation was made. During the clinical course of UC, occurrence of drug-induced pancreatitis must always be considered.
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AC13, a C-terminal fragment of apolipoprotein A-I, is a candidate biomarker for microscopic polyangiitis.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) is necrotizing vasculitis of unknown etiology. We analyzed the serum peptide profile of MPA to find a biomarker for this disease.
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Esophageal Capsule Endoscopy for Screening Esophageal Varices among Japanese Patients with Liver Cirrhosis.
Gastroenterol Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2011
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Purpose. Although esophageal capsule endoscopy (ECE) is reportedly useful in the diagnosis of esophageal varices (EV), few reports have described the benefits of this technique in Asian countries. The present paper evaluates the usefulness of ECE for diagnosing EV in Japanese patients with cirrhosis. Methods. We examined 29 patients with cirrhosis (20 males and 9 females; mean age 60 years; Child-Pugh classification A/B/C; 14/14/1) using ECE followed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD). High-risk EV were defined as F2 and/or RC2 and above. Results. The sensitivity and specificity of ECE for the diagnosis of high-risk EV were 92% and 80%, respectively. Conclusions. The findings showed that ECE is a highly sensitive method of diagnosing high-risk EV that requires endoscopic or pharmacological therapy. Thus, ECE might be a useful method for the screening and followup of EV in patients with cirrhosis.
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Comparison of axial force and cell width of self-expandable metallic stents: which type of stent is better suited for hilar biliary strictures?
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2011
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Various types of self-expandable metallic stents (SEMSs) are commercially available. However, few reports have compared the performance of the various SEMSs. In addition to long-term patency, maneuverability during initial placement and feasibility of re-intervention for the stent occlusion are also very important.
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Use of balloon enteroscopy in preoperative diagnosis of neurofibromatosis-associated gastrointestinal stromal tumours of the small bowel: a case report.
Case Rep Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2011
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Neurofibromatosis type I (NF1) is one of the most common inheritable disorders and is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs). However, the predominant location of these lesions in the small bowel makes them difficult to diagnose. We report the successful use of balloon enteroscopy in conjunction with conventional methods for clinical diagnosis of jejunal GISTs in a 70-year-old man with NF1 who presented with melaena. The importance of screening NF1 patients for GISTs and the complementary role of balloon enteroscopy with capsule endoscopy in such diagnoses is discussed.
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Correlation between symptomatic improvement and quality of life in patients with reflux and dyspeptic symptoms.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2011
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We investigated the correlation between symptomatic improvement and quality of life in Japanese gastroesophageal reflux disease patients with PPI. Eighty one patients with reflux and dyspeptic symptom were enrolled. The evaluation of the symptom was used he Frequency Scale for the Symptom of GERD in 3 categories: total score of 12 questions, score related to reflux symptoms, and score related to dyspeptic symptoms and the evaluation of the quality of life was use the 8-item Short Form Health Survey in 2 categories, the physical component summary score and mental component summary score. All patients administered rabeprazole 10 mg/day for 8 weeks. We investigated the correlation between symptomatic improvement with proton pump inhibitor and quality of life. Significant symptomatic improvement was seen in the total score of 12 questions (26.7 ± 8.8 ? 17.5 ± 5.9, p<0.0001), score related to reflux symptoms (14.9 ± 5.4 ? 9.6 ± 3.6, p<0.0001), and score related to dyspeptic symptoms (11.8 ± 4.3 ? 8.0 ± 2.9, p<0.0001). Significant improvement in quality of life was seen in the physical component summary score (47.8 ± 6.6 ? 50.0 ± 5.9, p = 0.0209) and mental component summary score (47.4 ± 8.5 ? 50.4 ± 5.3, p = 0.0133) with proton pump inhibitor. With proton pump inhibitor, a significant positive correlation was seen between the improvement rates in total score of 12 questions, score related to dyspeptic symptoms and in mental component summary score at 8 weeks (total score of 12 questions: r = 0.275, p = 0.0265, score related to dyspeptic symptoms: r = 0.367, p = 0.0027). In conclusion, quality of life was associated with improvement in dyspeptic symptoms with proton pump inhibitor treatment.
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Arthritogenicity of annexin VII revealed by phosphoproteomics of rheumatoid synoviocytes.
Ann. Rheum. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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To identify novel proteins involved in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to characterise the identified proteins based on pathogenic and therapeutic aspects.
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Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) in patients with systemic vasculitis: our research using proteomics.
Expert Opin Biol Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Anti-endothelial cell antibodies (AECA) may cause damage to endothelial cell (EC) functions and therefore may be of a pathophysiological role in systemic vasculitis. The pathophysiological role of AECA, however, is still uncertain.
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Increased expression of S100 calcium binding protein A8 in GM-CSF-stimulated neutrophils leads to the increased expressions of IL-8 and IL-16.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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In our previous proteomic surveillance, we found that at least 11 proteins in neutrophils were increased more than 2.5-fold by the stimulation of GM-CSF. In this paper, focusing on one of the 11 proteins, S100 calcium binding protein A8 (S100A8), we tried to elucidate the effect of S100A8 and the cooperative effect of S100A8 and GM-CSF on production and secretion of cytokines of neutrophils.
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Is there a delayed gastric emptying of patients with early-stage, untreated Parkinsons disease? An analysis using the 13C-acetate breath test.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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During the pre-symptomatic stage of Parkinsons disease (PD), the idiopathic PD related abnormal synuclein immunostaining is confined to the medulla oblongata and olfactory bulb, according to Braak. In the study of the enteric nervous system of PD, it has reported that Lewy bodies were found in the Auerbachs and Meissners plexuses. These lesions may cause dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract (GI) as pre-clinical symptoms of PD. However, because L: -dopa therapy itself may worsen the symptoms of the digestive tract function, it is needed to evaluate the gastrointestinal tract function in patients with early-stage, untreated (de novo) PD. In the present study, using the (13)C-acetate breath test ((13)C-ABT), we investigated gastric emptying in 20 untreated, early-stage PD patients and 40 treated, advanced-stage PD patients, and 20 healthy volunteers. Gastric emptying was examined by the (13)C-ABT [the half emptying time (HET), the peak time of the (13)C% dose-excess curve (T (max))]. The T (max) and HET of gastric emptying as assessed using the (13)C-ABT was significantly delayed in untreated, early-stage PD patients as compared to the controls (P < 0.001). The T (max) and HET of gastric emptying were not significantly delayed in untreated, early-stage PD patients as compared to treated, advanced-stage PD patients. The results demonstrated that delay in gastric emptying did not differ between untreated, early-stage and treated, advanced-stage PD patients. Gastric emptying of untreated, early-stage PD is already delayed. Delayed gastric emptying may be one of markers of the pre-clinical stage of PD.
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Proteomic surveillance of autoantigens in patients with Behcets disease by a proteomic approach.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2010
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To promote an understanding of autoimmunity in BD, we surveyed autoAgs in patients with BD and investigated the prevalence and clinical significance of the identified autoAbs. Specifically, proteins, extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and separated by 2DE, were subjected to WB, using five serum samples from patients with BD. The detected candidate autoAgs were identified by mass spectrometry. As a result, 17 autoantigenic spots were detected by the 2DE-WB, out of which eight spots were identified. They are enolase-1, cofilin-1, vimentin, Rho-GDI beta protein, tubulin-like protein, and actin-like proteins. The autoAbs to one of the identified proteins, cofilin-1, were investigated by WB using a recombinant protein in 30 patients with BD, 35 patients with RA, 32 patients with SLE, and 16 patients with PM/DM. The autoAbs to cofilin-1 were detected by WB in four (13.3%) of the 30 patients with BD, five (14.3%) of the 35 patients with RA, two (6.3%) of the 32 patients with SLE, and eight (24.2%) of the 33 patients with PM/DM. Our data indicate that the generation of autoAbs to cofilin-1 may reflect common immunological disorders in BD, RA, and PM/DM. Our data would help understanding of the immunopathology of BD. In addition, the proteomic approach would be a useful way to investigate autoAgs.
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Micro-sieving: isolation of whole glomeruli from a single renal needle biopsy sample.
Nephron Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2010
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Renal biopsy samples are important not only for the diagnosis of glomerulonephritis, but also for the investigation of its pathogenesis. However, it remains difficult to biochemically analyze proteins extracted solely from the glomeruli of needle biopsy samples, since the samples contain various components like renal tubules and connective tissue. Even a recent micro-dissection method, recovering the glomeruli in the sliced sections of the biopsy samples, has not fully solved the difficulty because the amount of obtainable proteins by this method is not usually enough for protein analysis. To overcome this problem, we established a simple but reliable method to isolate whole glomeruli from needle biopsy samples. By this method, termed micro-sieving, we were able to isolate on average more than 50 glomeruli from a single needle biopsy sample in an hour. The amount of the extracted glomerular proteins was on average 23 ?g per biopsy sample. As a representative use of this method, we were able to obtain a glomerular protein profile by fluorescent 2-dimensional electrophoresis for each of the tested patients with glomerulonephritis. Micro-sieving can be used widely as a fundamental technique to analyze glomeruli in renal needle biopsy samples.
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Prostaglandin E2 regulates the expression of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF/CCN2) in human osteoarthritic chondrocytes via the EP4 receptor.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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The regulatory mechanisms of the expression of connective tissue growth factor/CCN family member 2 (CTGF/CCN2) in human articular chondrocytes have not been clarified. We investigated the effect of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on CTGF/CCN2 expression in chondrocytes.
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Protein profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells are useful for differential diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and Crohns disease.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Effective biomarkers for discrimination between ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohns disease (CD) have not been established yet. In this study, we analyzed protein profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of the patients to find such a biomarker.
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Comprehensive analysis of short peptides in sera from patients with IgA nephropathy.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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We analyzed serum short peptides comprehensively to know whether they were useful to characterize IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Serum samples from 26 patients with untreated IgAN and 25 healthy donors were tested. Short peptides with molecular weights of approximately 7 kDa, purified from the serum samples by magnetic-beads-based weak cation exchange, were detected by mass spectrometry. Then the peptide peaks detected were subjected to the multivariate data analysis by SIMCA-P+ containing principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial-least-squares-discriminate analysis (OPLS-DA). A total of 92 peptide peaks were detected in the tested serum samples. The OPLS-DA analysis revealed that the profile of all the peptide peak intensities discriminated the IgAN group and the healthy group completely with a high R2 value (0.919) and a high Q2 value (0.861). Further, the profile of only five peptide peaks was found to discriminate the two groups. By tandem mass spectrometry and database searching, three of the five peptides which increased in the IgAN group were identified as fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the two peptides which increased in the healthy group were identified as fragments of complement C3f and kininogen-1 light chain. Taken together, the profile of the serum short peptides would be useful to discriminate IgAN and healthy conditions. Further, the five peptides may be candidate serum markers for IgAN and may be related to pathogenesis of IgA.
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Water-soluble fullerene (C60) inhibits the osteoclast differentiation and bone destruction in arthritis.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2009
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Recently, it has been demonstrated that oxygen free radicals have an important role as a signaling messenger in the receptor activator NFkappaB (RANK) signal pathway required for osteoclast differentiation. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of a strong free-radical scavenger, water-soluble fullerene (C60), as a protective agent against the RANK-induced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone destruction in arthritis, both in vitro and in vivo. The effects of C60 on the RANK-induced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption were examined in vitro. Adjuvant-induced arthritic rats were used as an animal model of arthritis. Rats were divided into two subgroups: control and treatment with C60 at 1.0 microM. The left ankle joint was injected intra-articularly with water-soluble C60 (20 microl) in the C60-treated group, while, as a control, the left ankle joint in the control rats received phosphate-buffered saline (20 microl) once weekly for eight weeks. Ankle joint tissues were prepared for histologic analysis. C60 significantly inhibited the responses of osteoclast precursor cells to RANK ligand, including osteoclast differentiation and osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro. In adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, intra-articular treatment with C60 in vivo reduced the number of osteoclasts and alleviated bone resorption and destruction in the joints, while control ankle joints showed progression of joint destruction with time. These findings indicate that C60 downregulates the RANK-induced osteoclast differentiation and is a potential therapeutic agent for inhibition of osteoclastic bone destruction in arthritis.
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Water-soluble fullerene (C60) inhibits the development of arthritis in the rat model of arthritis.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2009
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Recently, it has been demonstrated that oxygen free radicals have an important role as a signaling messenger in the development of inflammation and osteoclastogenesis, suggesting the implication of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of arthritis. The aim of this study was to examine the potential of a strong free-radical scavenger, water-soluble fullerene (C60), as a protective agent against synovitis in arthritis, both in vitro and in vivo. In the presence or absence of C60 (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 muM), human synovial fibroblasts, synovial infiltrating lymphocytes or macrophages were incubated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (10.0 ng/mL), and the production of proinflammatory cytokines by the individual cells were analyzed. C60 significantly suppressed the TNF-alpha-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in synovial fibroblasts, synovial infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages in vitro. Adjuvant induced arthritic rats were used as an animal model of arthritis. Rats were divided into two subgroups: control and treatment with C60 at 10.0 muM. The left ankle joint was injected intraarticularly with water-soluble C60 (20 mul) in the C60-treated group, while, as a control, the left ankle joint in the control rats received phosphate-buffered saline (20 mul), once weekly for eight weeks. Ankle joint tissues were prepared for histological analysis. In adjuvant-induced arthritic rats, intra-articular treatment with C60 in vivo reduced synovitis and alleviated bone resorption and destruction in the joints, while control ankle joints showed progression of synovitis and joint destruction with time. These findings indicate that C60 is a potential therapeutic agent for inhibition of arthritis.
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Anti-inflammatory effects of hyaluronan in arthritis therapy: Not just for viscosity.
Int J Gen Med
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2009
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Hyaluronic acid (HA) has been widely used for viscosupplementation of diseased or aged articular joints. However, recent investigations have revealed the active anti-inflammatory or chondroprotective effect of HA, suggesting its potential role in attenuation of joint damage. In particular, interactions between HA and other inflammatory mediators are attracting interest. This review summarizes several aspects of recent investigations of the anti-inflammatory effects of HA in arthritis.
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Clinical trial: rebamipide promotes gastric ulcer healing by proton pump inhibitor after endoscopic submucosal dissection--a randomized controlled study.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
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Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is useful for treating gastric tumors. Several trials have shown the efficacy of 4 or 8 weeks of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) administration for post-ESD ulcers. However, if the size of the post-ESD ulcer is larger than predicted, PPI administration alone might not be sufficient for the ulcer to heal within 4 weeks. We examined the efficacy of a combination therapy of PPI and rebamipide, a mucosal-protective antiulcer drug, on the acceleration of post-ESD ulcer healing.
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Is there a difference in gastric emptying between Parkinsons disease patients under long-term L-dopa therapy with and without motor fluctuations? An analysis using the 13C-acetate breath test.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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The mechanism underlying the motor fluctuations that develop after long-term L-dopa therapy is not fully known. It has been speculated that malabsorption of L-dopa from the small intestine occurs. It was reported that gastric retention in Parkinsons disease (PD) patients with motor fluctuations is increased as compared with that in PD without fluctuations. Because L-dopa therapy may worsen the symptoms of delayed gastric emptying (GE), it was not clear whether the delayed GE of PD patients with motor fluctuation was affected by L-dopa therapy. We assessed GE in PD patients with and without motor fluctuations. We investigated GE in 40 patients with PD under long-term L-dopa therapy, 20 fluctuators with "delayed-on" and "noon" phenomena, 20 nonfluctuators, and 20 healthy volunteers. GE was examined by the 13C-acetate breath test ((13)CABT) [the half emptying time (HET), the peak time of the (13)C-%-dose-excess curve (T(max))], with expirations collected for 4 h after a test meal and analyzed for (13)CO(2) using an infrared (IR) spectrophotometer. The T(max) of GE as assessed using the (13)C-ABT was significantly delayed in all PD patients as compared with controls (P = 0.002). The HET was significantly delayed in all PD patients as compared with controls (P < 0.001). The T(max) and HET were not significantly delayed in PD patients with motor fluctuations as compared with PD patients without motor fluctuations. These results demonstrated that GE is commonly delayed in PD patients with long-term L-dopa therapy. Delayed GE does not differ between PD patients with and without motor fluctuations. This finding demonstrated that the motor fluctuation in PD may not be influenced by GE.
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Alpha-sulfanyl and alpha-selanyl propadienyl cations: regioselective generations and cycloadditions with thioamides and selemides controlled by MeNO2-H2O system.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2009
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Alpha-sulfanyl and alpha-selanyl propadienyl cations were easily generated by the catalytic system, scandium triflate-nitromethane-H(2)O in the presence of Bu(4)NHSO(4), to regioselectively afford the multifunctionalized thiazoles and selenazoles in high yields.
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[An autopsied case of thoracic esophageal cancer with polymyositis].
Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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A 47-year-old woman patient who presented with weakness in the proximal parts of the upper and lower limbs and difficulty in swallowing was given a diagnosis of advanced esophageal cancer complicated with polymyositis. Steroid therapy was initiated for the polymyositis, but the CK level remained high. Chemotherapy was then selected as the preferred treatment option for the esophageal cancer, however, the treatment was ineffective and the patient died of respiratory failure. There is currently no consensus on the safety of therapy for malignant carcinoma complicated with collagen diseases, therefore, the selection of treatment modality for the disease must be made with care.
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Hypoxia upregulates the expression of angiopoietin-like-4 in human articular chondrocytes: role of angiopoietin-like-4 in the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and cartilage degradation.
J. Orthop. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
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The objective of this article was to investigate the role and expression of a novel adipocytokine, angiopoietin-like-4 (ANGPTL4), in arthropathy. Human chondrocytes were obtained from articular cartilage of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and osteoarthritis (OA), who underwent total knee or hip arthroplasty. Isolated chondrocytes were cultured under hypoxic (95% N(2), 5% CO(2)) or normoxic conditions. The effects of hypoxia on ANGPTL4 expression were determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. We examined the role of ANGPTL4 using small interference RNA or by stimulating chondrocytes with recombinant ANGPTL4 protein. ANGPTL4 expression in the articular cartilage specimens was examined by immunohistochemistry. Hypoxia induced a significant increase in ANGPTL4 production (p < 0.05). Incubation of chondrocytes in vitro with recombinant ANGPTL4 enhanced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3. Downregulation of ANGPTL4 mRNA expression by siRNA diminished the expression of MMP-1, but not that of MMP-3, suggesting that each proteinase has a distinct response to ANGPTL4. Although the in vitro responses of chondrocytes to hypoxia were similar between RA and OA samples, the in vivo expression of ANGPTL4 had unique disease-specific patterns, suggesting differences in oxygen tension in vivo. Human chondrocytes expressed ANGPTL4 and the expression was enhanced by hypoxia. ANGPTL4 might modulate cartilage metabolism by regulating MMPs.
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Implication of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor induced neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis revealed by proteome analysis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), synovial fluid (SF)contains a large number of neutrophils that contribute to the inflammation and destruction of the joints. The SF also contains granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF),which sustains viability of neutrophils and activates their functions. Using proteomic surveillance, we here tried to elucidate the effects of GM-CSF on neutrophils.
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Proteomic analysis of the rat cerebellar flocculus during vestibular compensation.
J Vestib Res
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) in rats is used as a human vertigo model. In this model, spontaneous nystagmus and dysequilibrium caused by UL are ameliorated within 48-72 hours. The amelioration, termed vestibular compensation (VC), is long lasting. Although cerebellar flocculi have been reported to be involved in VC, the molecular mechanisms behind VC are unknown. In this study, we used 2D-DIGE to detect protein changes in flocculi during acute (48 hours) and chronic (1 week) stages of VC. We found 99 out of 967 protein spots that showed significant changes in their intensities. Of the 99 spots, 45 spots (ipsilateral side, 15; contralateral side, 30) changed unilaterally during the acute stage, whereas 46 spots (ipsilateral side, 21; contralateral side, 25) changed unilaterally during the chronic stage. Thus, the acute compensation mechanism is more complicated in the contralateral flocculus than in the ipsilateral flocculus. Using MALDI-TOF MS, we identified 10 proteins out of the 12 protein spots. Of these, 3 proteins involved in synaptic transmission, neuronal filament formation and vesicular transport, respectively, demonstrated altered expression only in the acute stage. Our results enhance the understanding of the role of the cerebellar flocculi in VC generation.
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Expression of Angiotensin II Receptor-1 in Human Articular Chondrocytes.
Arthritis
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Background. Besides its involvement in the cardiovascular system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAS) system has also been suggested to play an important role in inflammation. To explore the role of this system in cartilage damage in arthritis, we investigated the expression of angiotensin II receptors in chondrocytes. Methods. Articular cartilage was obtained from patients with osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and traumatic fractures who were undergoing arthroplasty. Chondrocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro with or without interleukin (IL-1). The expression of angiotensin II receptor types 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R) mRNA by the chondrocytes was analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). AT1R expression in cartilage tissue was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The effect of IL-1 on AT1R/AT2R expression in the chondrocytes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and flow cytometry. Results. Chondrocytes from all patient types expressed AT1R/AT2R mRNA, though considerable variation was found between samples. Immunohistochemical analysis confirmed AT1R expression at the protein level. Stimulation with IL-1 enhanced the expression of AT1R/AT2R mRNA in OA and RA chondrocytes. Conclusions. Human articular chondrocytes, at least partially, express angiotensin II receptors, and IL-1 stimulation induced AT1R/AT2R mRNA expression significantly.
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Combination of proton pump inhibitor and rebamipide, a free radical scavenger, promotes artificial ulcer healing after endoscopic submucosal dissection with dissection size >40 mm.
J Clin Biochem Nutr
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In our previous study, the healing effect of proton pump inhibitor plus rebamipide for endoscopic submucosal dissection-related artificial ulcer smaller than 40 mm showed statistical significance. However, such effect of the combination was not yet clear for ulcers with dissected diameter more than 40 mm. The aim of this present study was to resolve this problem under sufficient statistical power, with adequate sample size. We conducted a randomized controlled study. Either the proton pump inhibitor mono-therapy or the combination therapy was prescribed for 28 days after endoscopic submucosal dissection. Eighty-seven patients were eligible for outcome evaluation. Combination therapy was significantly superior to mono-therapy, 27.8% vs 0% reached healing stage (scar stage) in cases with ulcers of dissection diameter more than 40 mm. In conclusion, the combination therapy with rebamipide was favorable regimen in patients with larger artificial ulcer after endoscopic submucosal dissection.
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Efficacy and safety of radiofrequency ablation for hepatocellular carcinoma in the caudate lobe of the liver.
Hepatol. Res.
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Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a promising alternative to hepatic resection for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) located in the caudate lobe. We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy and safety of RFA for HCC located in the caudate lobe compared with HCC located elsewhere in the liver.
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A pilot study using reduced-volume oral sulfate solution as a preparation for colonoscopy among a Japanese population.
Int J Colorectal Dis
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This pilot study sought to investigate the performance and safety of a reduced-volume oral sulfate solution for use as a bowel-cleansing regimen prior to colonoscopy in a Japanese population.
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Model of elongation of short DNA sequence by thermophilic DNA polymerase under isothermal conditions.
Biochemistry
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Short DNA sequences, especially those that are repetitive or palindromic, can be used as the seeds for synthesis of long DNA by some DNA polymerases in an unusual manner. Although several elongation mechanisms have been proposed, there is no well-established model that explains highly efficient elongation under isothermal conditions. In the present study, we analyzed the elongation of nonrepetitive sequences with distinct hairpins at each end. These DNAs were elongated efficiently under isothermal conditions by thermophilic Vent (exo(-)) DNA polymerase, and the products were longer than 10 kb within 10 min of the reaction. A 20-nucleotide DNA with only one hairpin was also elongated. Sequence analysis revealed that the long products are mainly tandem repeats of the short seed sequences. The thermal melting temperatures of the products were much higher than the reaction temperature, indicating that most DNAs form duplexes during the reaction. Accordingly, a terminal hairpin formation and self-priming extension model was proposed in detail, and the efficient elongation was explained. Formation of the hairpin at the 5 end plays an important role during the elongation.
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Early duodenal adenocarcinoma resembling a submucosal tumor cured with endoscopic resection: a case report.
J Med Case Rep
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Primary adenocarcinomas resembling submucosal tumors are rare in the gastrointestinal tract. Almost all the submucosal tumor-like adenocarcinomas previously reported invaded the submucosa or deeper. Therefore, submucosal tumor-like lesions are usually treated by surgical resection, and those that arise in the duodenum have been treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy.
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Sphingosine-1-phosphate modulates expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in human articular chondrocytes: a possible new role in arthritis.
Int J Rheum Dis
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Although sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is suggested to have an important role in arthritis, its function in chondrocytes remains unknown. In contrast, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been speculated to contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA), most likely by regulating angiogenesis. We here investigated the in vitro effect of S1P on VEGF expression in human articular chondrocytes from OA patients.
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Altered posttranslational modification on U1 small nuclear ribonucleoprotein 68k in systemic autoimmune diseases detected by 2D Western blot.
Electrophoresis
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Anti-ribonucleoprotein (anti-RNP) antibodies are one of the representative autoantibodies detectable in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). Generally, posttranslational modifications (PTMs) on autoantigens are proposed to be involved in the production of autoantibodies. In this study, we tried to detect the alteration in PTMs on a U1 small nuclear RNP 68k subunit (U1-68k), a major antigen of anti-RNP antibodies. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were obtained from patients with MCTD, SLE, and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and from healthy donors. U1-68ks in the PBMCs were detected by 2D Western blot (WB), where extracted nuclear proteins were separated by 2DE, followed by the detection of U1-68k using WB. More than 20 PTM isoforms were detected with different molecular weights of 65.0 , 66.5, and 68.0kDa, and different pIs between 6.0 and 8.5. Importantly, the relative intensity of the spot with 66.5 kDa and pI 7.5 was significantly increased in the MCTD and SLE groups compared to the RA and healthy groups. Further, this U1-68k isoform, in particular, in its RS domain, was found to have significantly decreased phosphorylation compared to the other isoforms. The PTM alternation may be one of the steps to generate the anti-RNP antibodies.
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Infliximab- and immunosuppressant-resistant Crohns disease successfully treated with adsorptive granulocyte apheresis combined with prednisolone.
Case Rep Gastroenterol
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Activated granulocytes, monocytes, and platelets appear to be closely involved in active Crohns disease (CD). Adsorptive granulocyte apheresis (GCAP) is a new treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. GCAP was used to treat a 23-year-old female patient with CD resistant to both infliximab (IFX) and azathioprine (AZA). At 16 years of age, the patient underwent a partial ileal resection for peritonitis caused by perforative ileitis. On pathological examination of the resected specimen, the diagnosis was CD. Mesalazine was started, but the patient did not comply with therapy. She was admitted to our hospital again in 2007 due to an acute exacerbation. IFX induction therapy was started. The combination of both AZA daily and IFX every 8 weeks was continued as maintenance therapy. However, she developed severe abdominal pain in September 2009. Computed tomography revealed ileitis and ascending colitis, and blood tests showed high inflammatory response marker levels. She was considered to have IFX- and AZA-resistant CD. Initial intravenous steroid therapy did not result in any improvement. Therefore, weekly GCAP therapy was given for 5 weeks, which immediately improved the inflammatory response markers. GCAP combined with prednisolone could be effective for IFX- and AZA-refractory CD.
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Layilin, a talin-binding hyaluronan receptor, is expressed in human articular chondrocytes and synoviocytes and is down-regulated by interleukin-1?.
Mod Rheumatol
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Layilin (LAYN), a 55-kDa transmembrane protein with homology to C-type lectins, has been identified as a receptor of hyaluronan (HA). Interestingly, LAYN does not share any sequence homology with CD44, a primary HA receptor. The primary aim of our study was to examine the expression and potential function of LAYN in human articular chondrocytes and synoviocytes.
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[Hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like disease caused by exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex in bathtub water at home: a case report].
Kekkaku
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We report here a case of hypersensitivity pneumonitis-like disease in an adult, likely due to exposure to Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) in his bathtub water at home. A 63-year-old man was referred to our hospital with exertional dyspnea. Chest computed tomography showed bilateral, diffuse, centrilobular ground-glass nodules. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed marked lymphocytosis. Transbronchial biopsy showed epithelioid cell granulomas and lymphocyte alveolitis. Cultures of the patients sputum and bathtub water yielded MAC. Variable-number tandem repeat analysis of the MAC strains in the sputum and bathtub water samples showed that the strains were genetically identical. The clinical condition of the patient improved at home under chemotherapy by avoiding the use of the bathtub.
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Utility of single balloon enteroscopy (SBE) for difficult cases of total colonoscopy.
J Interv Gastroenterol
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Balloon enteroscopy (BE) was originally developed for observation of the deep small intestine, and has recently been utilized for difficult cases of total colonoscopy due to reasons such as adhesions and elongation. In this report, we present our experience with single balloon enteroscopy (SBE) to facilitate successful colonoscopy when standard techniques failed. In two cases, early colon cancers were detected in the cecum by SBE and were removed endoscopically or surgically. A third case is discussed in which SBE was attempted but was ultimately not successful. In that case, total colonoscopy was not performed because of looping in the sigmoid and transverse colon. A fourth case in which SBE was performed in order to remove colonic gas in a patient with megacolon. In that case, total colonoscopy could not be completed because the SBE balloon could not "grab" the dilated colon and therefore could not advance. SBE is a useful adjunct to standard colonoscopy in challenging cases, but has limitations and does not always ensure success.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.