Tubulin undergoes various posttranslational modifications, including polyglutamylation, which is catalyzed by enzymes belonging to the tubulin tyrosine ligase-like protein (TTLL) family. A previously isolated Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant, tpg1, carries a mutation in a gene encoding a homologue of mammalian TTLL9 and displays lowered motility because of decreased polyglutamylation of axonemal tubulin. Here we identify a novel tpg1-like mutant, tpg2, which carries a mutation in the gene encoding FAP234, a flagella-associated protein of unknown function. Immunoprecipitation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation experiments show that FAP234 and TTLL9 form a complex. The mutant tpg1 retains FAP234 in the cell body and flagellar matrix but lacks it in the axoneme. In contrast, tpg2 lacks both TTLL9 and FAP234 in all fractions. In fla10, a temperature-sensitive mutant deficient in intraflagellar transport (IFT), both TTLL9 and FAP234 are lost from the flagellum at nonpermissive temperatures. These and other results suggest that FAP234 functions in stabilization and IFT-dependent transport of TTLL9. Both TTLL9 and FAP234 are conserved in most ciliated organisms. We propose that they constitute a polyglutamylation complex specialized for regulation of ciliary motility.
We report a case of anal variceal bleeding successfully treated with endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS). A 64-year-old man with alcoholic liver cirrhosis was hospitalized because of repeated anal bleeding. Colonoscopy revealed external anal varices connecting with rectal varices. Three days after admission, external anal variceal bleeding was observed. Angiography revealed that the anorectal varices formed by hepatofugal inferior mesenteric vein drained into the internal iliac vein. On angiography, the variceal blood flow rate was extremely low, therefore we performed EIS. Seven days after therapy, thrombosis of anorectal varices was observed.
The rate of onset of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) has been reported recently to be comparable to that of patients with chronic hepatitis C. However, the precise mechanism contributing to carcinogenesis in the former remains unclear. Although increased oxidative stress is presumed to play a role in carcinogenesis in patients with NASH, this relationship remains to be directly proven. In this study, we investigated the involvement of oxidative DNA damage in hepatocarcinogenesis in patients with NASH.
We investigated the properties of ultrasonic waves in bovine bone marrow. Six bone marrow samples were obtained from different parts (proximal, middle and distal) of the shafts of two bovine femora without destruction. The measured frequency range was 3 to 10 MHz, and the temperature range was 15 to 40°C. Both wave velocity and attenuation coefficient in bone marrow always decreased as temperature increased. The velocity ranged from 1400 to 1610 m/s and attenuation coefficient ranged from 4 to 16 dB/cm. Wave velocities in bone marrow were similar to those in water, whereas the temperature dependences were different, and the wave attenuation coefficients were much higher than those in water. The dependence of velocity on temperature changed slightly around 23-24°C, where a transition from soft gel to oily liquid occurred. The transition temperature was confirmed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Below this transition temperature, positive velocity dispersion was observed.
The influence of cancellous bone microstructure on the ultrasonic wave propagation of fast and slow waves was experimentally investigated. Four spherical cancellous bone specimens extracted from two bovine femora were prepared for the estimation of acoustical and structural anisotropies of cancellous bone. In vitro measurements were performed using a PVDF transducer (excited by a single sinusoidal wave at 1 MHz) by rotating the spherical specimens. In addition, the mean intercept length (MIL) and bone volume fraction (BV/TV) were estimated by X-ray micro-computed tomography. Separation of the fast and slow waves was clearly observed in two specimens. The fast wave speed was strongly dependent on the wave propagation direction, with the maximum speed along the main trabecular direction. The fast wave speed increased with the MIL. The slow wave speed, however, was almost constant. The fast wave speeds were statistically higher, and their amplitudes were statistically lower in the case of wave separation than in that of wave overlap.
Tubulin polyglutamylation is a modification that adds multiple glutamates to the gamma-carboxyl group of a glutamate residue in the C-terminal tails of alpha- and beta-tubulin [1, 2]. This modification has been implicated in the regulation of axonal transport and ciliary motility. However, its molecular function in cilia remains unknown. Here, using a novel Chlamydomonas reinhardtii mutant (tpg1) that lacks a homolog of human TTLL9, a glutamic acid ligase enzyme , we found that the lack of a long polyglutamate side chain in alpha-tubulin moderately weakens flagellar motility without noticeably impairing the axonemal structure. Furthermore, the double mutant of tpg1 with oda2, a mutation that leads to loss of outer-arm dynein, completely lacks motility. More surprisingly, when treated with protease and ATP, the axoneme of this paralyzed double mutant displayed faster microtubule sliding than the motile oda2 axoneme. These and other results suggest that polyglutamylation directly regulates microtubule-dynein interaction mainly by modulating the function of inner-arm dyneins.
Pathogens are sensed by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) expressed in leukocytes in the innate immune system. However, excess stimulation of TLR pathways is supposed to be connected with provocation of autoimmunity. We show that paired immunoglobulin (Ig)-like receptor B (PIR-B), an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif-harboring receptor for major histocompatibility class I molecules, on relatively primitive B cells, B-1 cells, suppresses TLR9 signaling via Brutons tyrosine kinase (Btk) dephosphorylation, which leads to attenuated activation of nuclear factor kappaB p65RelA but not p38 or Erk, and blocks the production of natural IgM antibodies, including anti-IgG Fc autoantibodies, particularly rheumatoid factor. The autoantibody production in PIR-B-deficient (Pirb(-/-)) mice was further augmented in combination with the Fas(lpr) mutation, which might be linked to the development of autoimmune glomerulonephritis. These results show the critical link between TLR9-mediated sensing and a simultaneously evoked, PIR-B-mediated inhibitory circuit with a Btk intersection in B-1 cells, and suggest a novel way toward preventing pathogenic natural autoantibody production.
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