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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Combination of ACE inhibitor with nicorandil provides further protection in chronic kidney disease.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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An inhibition in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is one of the most widely used therapies to treat chronic kidney disease. However, its effect is occasionally not sufficient and additional treatments may be required. Recently, we reported that nicorandil exhibited renoprotective effects in a mouse model of diabetic nephropathy. Here we examined if nicorandil can provide an additive protection on enalapril in chronic kidney disease. Single treatment with either enalapril or nicorandil significantly ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury in the rat remnant kidney while the combination of these two compounds provided additive effects. In addition, an increase in oxidative stress in remnant kidney was also blocked by either enalapril or nicorandil while the combination of the drugs was more potent. A mechanism was likely due for nicorandil to preventing manganase superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and sirtuin (Sirt)-3 from being reduced in injured kidneys. A study with cultured podocytes indicated that the anti-oxidative effect could be mediated through sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) in the mitochondrial K-ATP channel since blocking SUR with glibenclamide reduced MnSOD and Sirt3 expression in podocytes. In conclusion, nicorandil may synergize with enalapril to provide superior protection in chronic kidney disease.
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Blood pressure control and satisfaction of hypertensive patients following a switch to combined drugs of an angiotensin receptor blocker and a calcium channel blocker in clinical practice of nephrology.
Clin. Exp. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Combination drugs containing an angiotensin receptor blocker and a calcium channel blocker have been widely commercialized in recent years, and their advantages, such as improvements in adherence, and reductions in medication costs, have been greatly emphasized. However, the actual situations and the impact of switching to combination drugs in clinical practice of nephrology are not fully understood.
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Therapeutic dose of acetaminophen as a possible risk factor for acute kidney injury: learning from two healthy young adult cases.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Acetaminophen overdose can lead to severe liver and kidney failure; however, the risk of therapeutic doses in healthy individuals causing acute kidney injury (AKI) is less clear. We herein describe the cases of two young adults with renal biopsy-proven acute tubular necrosis under a therapeutic dose of acetaminophen. The first patient exhibited mild reversible renal insufficiency, whereas, in the second case, the patient demonstrated a slightly increased serum creatinine level and enlarged kidneys and the administration of contrast media and antibiotics may have worsened the renal dysfunction, leading to the need for temporal hemodialysis. Physicians should be aware of the risk of acetaminophen causing AKI and avoid administering other nephrotoxic agents in such cases.
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Characterization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111 and O157 strains isolated from outbreak patients in Japan.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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In April and May 2011, there was a serious food-poisoning outbreak in Japan caused by enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains O111:H8 and O157:H7 from raw beef dishes at branches of a barbecue restaurant. This outbreak involved 181 infected patients, including 34 hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) cases (19%). Among the 34 HUS patients, 21 developed acute encephalopathy (AE) and 5 died. Patient stool specimens yielded E. coli O111 and O157 strains. We also detected both EHEC O111 stx2 and stx-negative E. coli O111 strains in a stock of meat block from the restaurant. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) showed that the stx-negative E. coli O111 isolates were closely related to EHEC O111 stx2 isolates. Although the EHEC O157 strains had diverse stx gene profiles (stx1, stx2, and stx1 stx2), the PFGE and MLVA analyses indicated that these isolates originated from a single clone. Deletion of the Stx2-converting prophage from the EHEC O111 stx2 isolates was frequently observed during in vitro growth, suggesting that strain conversion from an EHEC O111 stx2 to an stx-negative strain may have occurred during infection.
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Serodiagnosis using microagglutination assay during the food-poisoning outbreak in Japan caused by consumption of raw beef contaminated with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O111 and O157.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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A microagglutination (MA) assay to identify antibodies to Escherichia coli O111 and O157 was conducted in sera collected from 60 patients during a food-poisoning outbreak affecting 181 patients in Japan which was caused by the consumption of contaminated raw beef. Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) O111:H8 and/or O157:H7 was isolated from the stools of some of the patients, but the total rate of positivity for antibodies to O111 (45/60, 75.0%) was significantly higher than that for antibodies to O157 (10/60, 16.7%). The MA titers of antibodies to O111 measured in patients with hemolytic-uremic syndrome and bloody diarrhea were higher than those measured in patients with only diarrhea. In patients from whose stool no isolates of E. coli O111 and O157 were obtained, the positive antibody detection rates were 12/19 (63.2%) for O111 and 2/19 (10.5%) for O157, and the MA titers of antibodies to O111 measured were higher than those to O157. Similarly, the MA titers of antibodies to O111 were significantly higher than those to O157, regardless of the other groups, including groups O111, O111 and O157, and O157. These serodiagnosis results suggest that EHEC O111:H8 stx2 played a primary role in the pathogenesis of this outbreak. Furthermore, our findings suggest that the isolates from the patients' stool specimens were not always the major causative pathogen in patients with multiple EHEC infections, because the sera from patients from whose stools only O157 was isolated were positive for antibodies to O111. Measuring antibodies to E. coli O antigen is helpful especially in cases with multiple EHEC infections, even with a non-O157 serotype.
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A Patient with Localized Scleroderma Successfully Treated with Etretinate.
Case Rep Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There are several treatment methods for localized scleroderma, but treatment is difficult when the lesion is widely distributed. We encountered a case who was treated successfully with etretinate, a vitamin A derivative. The usefulness of this agent is discussed.
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Close genetic relationship between Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from sputum specimens and puddles on roads, as determined by sequence-based typing.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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We investigated the prevalence of Legionella species isolated from puddles on asphalt roads. In addition, we carried out sequence-based typing (SBT) analysis on the genetic relationship between L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (SG 1) isolates from puddles and from stock strains previously obtained from sputum specimens and public baths. Sixty-nine water samples were collected from puddles on roads at 6 fixed locations. Legionella species were detected in 33 samples (47.8%) regardless of season. Among the 325 isolates from puddles, strains of L. pneumophila SG 1, a major causative agent of Legionnaires disease, were the most frequently isolated (n = 62, 19.1%). Sixty-two isolates of L. pneumophila SG 1 from puddles were classified into 36 sequence types (STs) by SBT. ST120 and ST48 were identified as major STs. Environmental ST120 strains from puddles were found for the first time in this study. Among the 14 STs of the clinical isolates (n = 19), 4 STs (n = 6, 31.6%), including ST120, were also detected in isolates from puddles on roads, and the sources of infection in these cases remained unclear. The lag-1 gene, a tentative marker for clinical isolates, was prevalent in puddle isolates (61.3%). Our findings suggest that puddles on asphalt roads serve as potential reservoirs for L. pneumophila in the environment.
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Characterization of regulatory T cells in decidua of miscarriage cases with abnormal or normal fetal chromosomal content.
J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Decreased regulatory T (Treg) cells have been reported in cases of recurrent pregnancy loss. To understand the role of Treg cells in human pregnancy, we have studied the frequency, localization and characterization of Treg cells in the decidua. The frequency of Foxp3(+) cells among CD3(+)CD8(-) cells at the decidua basalis in cases of miscarriage with a normal embryo karyotype (n=10) was significantly lower than in normally progressing pregnancies (n=10). However, those frequencies in miscarriage with an abnormal embryo karyotype were similar to normally progressing pregnancies. Next, we used flow cytometry to study Treg cell expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 and functional Treg marker CCR5. The frequency of Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells in miscarriage with a normal embryo (n=10) was significantly lower than those in normally progressing pregnancies (n=15) and in miscarriage with an abnormal embryo (n=14). In miscarriage with a normal embryo, the population of Ki67(-)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells was significantly smaller than in normal pregnancy. However, the frequencies of Ki67(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells and CCR5(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells were not different between the three groups. These data suggest that increased Ki67(-) Treg cells in the decidua basalis may play an important role in the induction of immune tolerance, and that immune-medicated pregnancy loss may be caused by decreased Ki67(-) Treg cells in the implantation site.
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Phenotypic and genetic analyses of Campylobacter jejuni Lior serotype 76 isolated from chicken meat and clinical specimens.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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The aim of this study was to examine the link between Campylobacter jejuni isolates obtained from chicken meat (n = 7) and gastroenteritis patients (n = 744). In total, 751 isolates were subjected to Lior serotyping. All the isolates from chicken meats were serotyped as Lior serotype 76 (LIO76). Among 23 of the identified LIO76 strains, 13 strains (6 from chicken meat and 7 from clinical specimens) were indistinguishable by Penner serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. These strains were isolated in 2 different Japanese prefectures in 2004-2005, suggesting that chicken meat is an etiological agent of Campylobacter gastroenteritis and that a diffuse outbreak occurred during this time. Therefore, a continuous surveillance program should be established in Japan in order to prevent Campylobacter gastroenteritis, especially large-scale food-borne outbreaks.
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Which types of regulatory T cells play important roles in implantation and pregnancy maintenance?
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Regulatory T cells (Treg) play essential roles in implantation and allogeneic pregnancy maintenance in mice and humans. Recent data have shown the heterogeneity of Treg, such as thymic (naturally occurring) Treg, extrathymic (inducible or peripheral) Treg, naïve Treg, effector Treg, resting (non-proliferating) Treg and activated (proliferating) Treg. Importantly, Foxp3, which was believed to be a specific marker for Treg, is transiently expressed in T cells when conventional T cells are activated and proliferating in humans showing that Foxp3 is not a specific marker for Treg. Therefore, we should evaluate the true Treg level and clarify which types of Treg cells play important roles in implantation and pregnancy maintenance in mice and humans.
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Impaired autophagy by soluble endoglin, under physiological hypoxia in early pregnant period, is involved in poor placentation in preeclampsia.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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In early pregnancy, trophoblasts and the fetus experience hypoxic and low-nutrient conditions; nevertheless, trophoblasts invade the uterine myometrium up to one third of its depth and migrate along the lumina of spiral arterioles, replacing the maternal endothelial lining. Here, we showed that autophagy, an intracellular bulk degradation system, occurred in extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells under hypoxia in vitro and in vivo. An enhancement of autophagy was observed in EVTs in early placental tissues, which suffer from physiological hypoxia. The invasion and vascular remodeling under hypoxia were significantly reduced in autophagy-deficient EVT cells compared with wild-type EVT cells. Interestingly, soluble endoglin (sENG), which increased in sera in preeclamptic cases, suppressed EVT invasion by inhibiting autophagy. The sENG-inhibited EVT invasion was recovered by TGFB1 treatment in a dose-dependent manner. A high dose of sENG inhibited the vascular construction by EVT cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), meanwhile a low dose of sENG inhibited the replacement of HUVECs by EVT cells. A protein selectively degraded by autophagy, SQSTM1, accumulated in EVT cells in preeclamptic placental biopsy samples showing impaired autophagy. This is the first report showing that impaired autophagy in EVT contributes to the pathophysiology of preeclampsia.
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Autophagy induced by HIF1? overexpression supports trophoblast invasion by supplying cellular energy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) characterize the invasion of the maternal decidua under low oxygen and poor nutrition at the early feto-maternal interface to establish a successful pregnancy. We previously reported that autophagy in EVTs was activated under 2% O2 in vitro, and autophagy activation was also observed in EVTs at the early feto-maternal interface in vivo. Here, we show that autophagy is an energy source for the invasion of EVTs. Cobalt chloride (CoCl2), which induces hypoxia inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) overexpression, activated autophagy in HTR8/SVneo cells, an EVT cell line. The number of invading HTR8-ATG4B(C74A) cells, an autophagy-deficient EVT cell line, was markedly reduced by 81 percent with the CoCl2 treatment through the suppression of MMP9 level, although CoCl2 did not affect the cellular invasion of HTR8-mStrawberry cells, a control cell line. HTR8-ATG4B(C74A) cells treated with CoCl2 showed a decrease in cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels and a compensatory increase in the expression of purinergic receptor P2X ligand-gated ion channel 7 (P2RX7), which is stimulated with ATP, whereas HTR8-mStrawberry cells maintained cellular ATP levels and did not affect P2RX7 expression. Furthermore, the decreased invasiveness of HTR8-ATG4B(C74A) cells treated with CoCl2 was neutralized by ATP supplementation to the level of HTR8-ATG4B(C74A) cells treated without CoCl2. These results suggest that autophagy plays a role in maintaining homeostasis by countervailing HIF1?-mediated cellular energy consumption in EVTs.
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Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis associated with ovarian immature teratoma.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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Anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis is a treatment-responsive encephalitis associated with anti-NMDAR antibodies. Unlike classic paraneoplastic encephalitis, this disorder usually develops in young women with ovarian teratoma who typically present with marked neuropsychiatric symptoms, followed by prolonged respiratory failure, clouding of consciousness, and bizarre dyskinesia. This disorder is often treatable by resection of ovarian tumor and immunotherapy, but, delayed diagnosis results in a worse condition and sometimes fatal outcome. However, some gynecologists are not familiar with this disorder. When physicians encounter a female patient with encephalitis showing marked neuropsychiatric symptoms, search for an ovarian tumor should be promptly initiated. We present a case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis associated with ovarian immature teratoma. The symptoms were dramatically relieved by tumor resection and immunotherapy.
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Clinical implication of recent advances in our understanding of IL-17 and reproductive immunology.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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The identification of a novel helper T (Th)-cell subset, the IL-17-producing Th (Th17) cells, has provided new insight into our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of reproduction. IL-17 has an important role in induction of the protective immune response against extracellular bacteria or fungal pathogens. Th17 cells seem to participate in successful pregnancy processes. Th17 cells also play a pivotal role in pathogenesis of endometriosis, miscarriage, preterm labor and preeclampsia. Recent data show the reciprocal development of pathways between Th1/Th17 subsets and between Th17/Treg subsets, and the imbalance of Th17/Treg development has been reported in recurrent pregnancy loss and preeclampsia.
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Prediction of exact delivery time in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes at admission by amniotic fluid interleukin-8 level and preterm labor index.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2011
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To examine whether delivery time for preterm labor can be predicted by clinical and biochemical markers at admission.
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Peripheral blood galectin-1-expressing T and natural killer cells in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.
Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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The purpose of this study was to determine whether the proportion of galectin-1-expressing peripheral blood T and NK cells is altered in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia (PE). We also examined whether circulating levels of galectin-1 and anti-galectin-1 autoantibodies are affected in PE. Seventy preeclamptic patients, 75 healthy pregnant and 21 healthy non-pregnant women were involved in this study. Serum galectin-1 and anti-galectin-1 autoantibody levels were measured by ELISA. Intracellular galectin-1 expression of lymphocytes was determined with flow cytometry. Serum galectin-1 and anti-galectin-1 IgG levels did not differ significantly between the healthy pregnant and the PE group. In healthy pregnant women, significantly higher percentage of T and NK cells expressed gal-1 in their cytoplasma than in healthy non-pregnant women. However, the proportion of galectin-1-expressing peripheral blood T and NK cells was markedly decreased in PE compared to normal pregnancy, which might contribute to the activation of innate and acquired immune cells.
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Future directions of studies for recurrent miscarriage associated with immune etiologies.
J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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A significant proportion of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is associated with immune etiologies. The immunological environment is different between decidua basalis and decidua parietalis, and also different between RPL cases with normal fetal chromosomes and those with abnormal fetal chromosomes. Recent data show that the immune system in a late-stage abortion is completely different from that in an early-stage abortion. If immunocompetent cells can cause RPL, the immunological environment may be a causative factor, especially in an early-stage abortion, and/or at decidua basalis and/or in the cases of RPL with a normal embryo. Careful examination of the immune system at the decidua basalis in an early-stage abortion in RPL cases with normal fetal chromosome may reveal useful information.
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Stage I ovarian cancer cases during early, mid and late pregnancy periods: three case reports and review of the literature.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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Since ovarian cancer during pregnancy is rare, the decisions regarding pregnancy discontinuation or fertility preservation are often difficult. We report three ovarian cancer cases detected at early, mid and late pregnancy periods in which both babies and mothers were saved. In particular, case 2 is the first reported instance of a sertoliform endometrioid carcinoma of the ovary during pregnancy. In addition, we review the clinical characteristics of previously reported patients with stage I ovarian cancer diagnosed during pregnancy. Even with stage Ia ovarian cancer, restaging laparotomy at cesarean section or post-delivery may be important to determine the treatment plan because staging during pregnancy is rarely complete.
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Surveillance of severe invasive group G streptococcal infections in Japan during 2002-2008.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2010
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Group G Streptococcus strains isolated from patients with severe invasive infections in the period 2002-2008 were surveyed and their prevalence compared with that observed in the period 1995-2001 in Japan. Strains with genotypes stg485, stg6792, stc36, stg6, and stg652 were isolated in both periods, whereas various new genotypes appeared in 2002-2008 and some genotypes found in 1995-2001 were not found subsequently, thus indicating a change in the prevalent genotyped strains causing severe invasive streptococcal infections.
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Carcinomatous meningitis associated with ovarian cancer complicated by SIADH.
Gan To Kagaku Ryoho
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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We experienced a case of carcinomatous meningitis originating from stage IIIc ovarian cancer complicated by syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). A 51-year-old woman had been treated with multiple chemotherapy regimens after an initial operation for ovarian cancer. During the last chemotherapy regimen, she suffered headache, mood changes and ataxia. After one week, she had a convulsive seizure and lost consciousness. Laboratory studies showed hyponatremia, low serum osmolality, elevated urinary sodium level and urine osmolality. Cranial-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abnormal meningeal enhancement. A lumbar puncture examination revealed that numerous atypical cells were present. Carcinomatous meningitis complicated by SIADH was diagnosed and treatment for hyponatremia and whole brain radiotherapy were performed; however, she died two weeks after the radiation therapy. Clinicians should consider carcinomatous meningitis when there are findings of SIADH.
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Th1/Th2/Th17 and regulatory T-cell paradigm in pregnancy.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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T-helper (Th) cells play a central role in modulating immune responses. The Th1/Th2 paradigm has now developed into the new Th1/Th2/Th17 paradigm. In addition to effector cells, Th cells are regulated by regulatory T (Treg) cells. Their capacity to produce cytokines is suppressed by immunoregulatory cytokines such as transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and interleukin (IL)-10 or by cell-to-cell interaction. Here, we will review the immunological environment in normal pregnancy and complicated pregnancy, such as implantation failure, abortion, preterm labor, and preeclampsia from the viewpoint of the new Th1/Th2/Th17 and Treg paradigms.
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Accumulation of IL-17-positive cells in decidua of inevitable abortion cases.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2010
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Th17 cells, a new subset of helper T cells, have been focused on as a producer pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is, however, still unknown how Th17 cells affect pregnancy outcome. We investigated the expression of IL-17-producing cells in human spontaneous abortion.
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Regulatory T cells are necessary for implantation and maintenance of early pregnancy but not late pregnancy in allogeneic mice.
J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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Maternal T cells acquire a transient state of tolerance specific for paternal alloantigens during pregnancy. CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells play a central role in induction and maintenance of tolerance. We have studied the role of Treg cells for the maintenance of allogeneic pregnancy during the implantation period, early pregnancy period and late pregnancy period. We performed depletion of Treg cells using treatment with anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb) in allogeneic or syngeneic pregnant mice. BALB/c or C57BL/6 female mice were mated with BALB/c or C57BL/6 male mice, and anti-CD25 mAb was injected intraperitoneally on day 2.5 post-coitum (pc), or days 4.5 and 7.5 pc, or days 10.5 and 13.5 pc. Administration of 0.5mg of anti-CD25 mAb induced depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in both allogeneic and syngeneic pregnancy. The extent of depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+) Treg cells in spleen cells was 82.7%. This mAb treatment on day 2.5 pc of pregnancy induced implantation failure in allogeneic pregnant mice, but not in syngeneic pregnant mice. In addition, anti-CD25 mAb treatment on days 4.5 and 7.5 pc significantly increased resorption rates in allogeneic pregnant mice, but not in syngeneic pregnant mice. Interestingly, anti-CD25mAb treatment on days 10.5 and 13.5 pc reduced Treg cell numbers, but this treatment did not induce any abnormal pregnancy parameters such as intrauterine growth restriction, hypertension, or proteinuria. These findings suggest that CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells are important to mediate maternal tolerance to the allogeneic fetus in the implantation phase and early stage of pregnancy, but Treg cells might not be necessary for maintenance of the late stage of allogeneic pregnancy.
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Decreased proportion of peripheral blood vascular endothelial growth factor-expressing T and natural killer cells in preeclampsia.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2010
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The purpose of this study was to determine the proportion of circulating T and natural killer (NK) cells that express intracellular vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in women with preeclampsia compared to those with a normal pregnancy.
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Systemic lymphadenectomy cannot be recommended for low-risk corpus cancer.
Obstet Gynecol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
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Objective. The objective of this study is to ascertain whether omission of lymphadenectomy could be possible when uterine corpus cancer is considered low-risk based on intraoperative pathologic indicators. Patient and Methods. Between 1998 and 2007, a total of 83 patients with low risk corpus cancer (endometrioid type, grade 1 or 2, myometrial invasion <==50%, and no intraoperative evidence of macroscopic extrauterine spread, including pelvic and paraaortic lymph node swelling and adnexal metastasis) underwent the total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy without lymphadenectomy. A retrospective review of the medical records was performed, and the disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), peri- and postoperative morbidities and complications were evaluated. Results. The 5-year DFS rates and the 5-year OS rates were 97.6% and 98.8%, respectively. No patient presented postoperative leg lymphedema and deep venous thrombosis. Conclusion. Omission of lymphadenectomy did not worsen the DFS or OS. The present findings suggest that systemic lymphadenectomy could be omitted in low-risk endometrial carcinoma.
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Toll-like receptor signaling in uterine natural killer cells--role in embryonic loss.
J. Reprod. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
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Embryonic development is a complex process that is regulated by many cell types and signaling pathways. This review focuses on the role of NK cells and regulatory T-cells (Treg cells) in embryonic loss. Approximately 70% of uterine leukocytes until the time of mid-gestation are found to be CD16(-)CD56(bright) NK cells. This subset of NK cells, along with Treg cells, has been shown to regulate fetal development. We recently found a population of NK cells in the pregnant mouse uterus with a unique CD3(-)CD49b(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) phenotype. This review summarizes the studies indicating critical roles for expression of IL-10 by CD3(-)CD49b(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) cells and CXCR4 expression on CD16(-)CD56(bright) NK cells in preventing embryonic loss. In addition, the roles of toll-like receptors (TLRs) and CXCR4 in NK cell migration and functional modulation are discussed.
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Herbal medicine Shakuyaku-kanzo-to reduces paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy in mice.
Eur J Pain
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Paclitaxel is widely used in cancer chemotherapy for the treatment of solid tumors such as breast, ovarian and lung cancer. However, it sometimes induces moderate to severe muscle pain, and impairs the patients quality of life. An appropriate method for relieving this pain is not well established. Shakuyaku-kanzo-to, a herbal medicine, is known to relieve menstrual pain, muscle spasm, and muscle pain, and its effectiveness is expected. To ascertain the effectiveness of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to on paclitaxel-induced pain, we investigated the effects of Shakuyaku-kanzo-to and its constituent herbal medicines in a mouse model.
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Functional delineation and differentiation dynamics of human CD4+ T cells expressing the FoxP3 transcription factor.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2009
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FoxP3 is a key transcription factor for the development and function of natural CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Treg cells). Here we show that human FoxP3(+)CD4(+) T cells were composed of three phenotypically and functionally distinct subpopulations: CD45RA(+)FoxP3(lo) resting Treg cells (rTreg cells) and CD45RA(-)FoxP3(hi) activated Treg cells (aTreg cells), both of which were suppressive in vitro, and cytokine-secreting CD45RA(-)FoxP3(lo) nonsuppressive T cells. The proportion of the three subpopulations differed between cord blood, aged individuals, and patients with immunological diseases. Terminally differentiated aTreg cells rapidly died whereas rTreg cells proliferated and converted into aTreg cells in vitro and in vivo. This was shown by the transfer of rTreg cells into NOD-scid-common gamma-chain-deficient mice and by TCR sequence-based T cell clonotype tracing in peripheral blood in a normal individual. Taken together, the dissection of FoxP3(+) cells into subsets enables one to analyze Treg cell differentiation dynamics and interactions in normal and disease states, and to control immune responses through manipulating particular FoxP3(+) subpopulations.
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Molecular epidemiology of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates identify a prevalent sequence type, ST505, and a distinct clonal group of clinical isolates in Toyama Prefecture, Japan.
J. Infect. Chemother.
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We performed comparative analyses of Legionella pneumophila serogroup (SG) 1 isolates obtained during 2005-2012 in Toyama Prefecture, Japan, by sequence-based typing (SBT) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Seventy-three isolates of L. pneumophila SG 1, including 17 isolates from patients, 51 from public baths, 4 from cooling towers, and 1 from a shower, were analyzed. The isolates were classified into 43 sequence types (STs) by SBT and 52 types by PFGE. Fourteen STs were unique to Toyama Prefecture, as determined from the SBT database of European Working Group for Legionella Infections (EWGLI), as of October 31, 2012. ST505 strain was identified in 4 isolates from patients and 5 isolates from public baths, and these isolates belonged to 2 PFGE types. These, however, were similar because of the difference with only two restriction fragments, indicating that ST505 strain was prevalent among L. pneumophila SG 1 isolates in this area. ST505 strains isolated from patients and public baths were distributed along the river in a western part of Toyama Prefecture. SBT and PFGE profiles of 3 clinical isolates were identical with those of 3 environmental isolates from the suspected origins of the infection in each case, respectively. This finding suggested that SBT and PFGE were useful for epidemiological study. Furthermore, by SBT analysis, we identified a clonal group formed only by 7 clinical isolates that are not associated with bathwater, suggesting that they were derived from unrecognized sources.
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The frequency of peripheral blood CD4+ CD25high FoxP3+ and CD4+ CD25- FoxP3+ regulatory T cells in normal pregnancy and pre-eclampsia.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
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Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play an important role in the development of pregnancy-specific immune tolerance. We aimed to determine the peripheral frequency of a recently described Treg subpopulation, the CD4+ CD25- FoxP3+ Treg subset, and its correlation with the conventional CD4+ CD25high FoxP3+ Tregs in normal pregnancy (NP) and pre-eclampsia (PE) compared to non-pregnant (non-P) women. We also examined the proportion of the activated CD4+ CD25high FoxP3high Treg subset within conventional Treg cells.
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The balance of the immune system between T cells and NK cells in miscarriage.
Am. J. Reprod. Immunol.
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Immunological dysfunction has been proposed to explain the etiology of recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL). The immunological environment differs between the decidua basalis and decidua parietalis, and also between RPL cases with normal fetal chromosomes and those with abnormal fetal chromosomes. The problem with analyzing decidual tissues from spontaneous abortions is that cause versus effect phenomena are difficult to distinguish. Recent data show that the immune system in a late-stage miscarriage is completely different from that in an early-stage miscarriage. If immunocompetent cells can cause RPL, the immunological environment may be a causative factor, especially in an early-stage miscarriage, at the decidua basalis, and/or in cases of RPL with a normal embryo. Careful examination of the immune system at the decidua basalis in an early-stage miscarriage in RPL cases with normal fetal chromosomes may reveal useful information. This paper aimed at finding a cause of RPL by analyzing the balance of the immune system between T cells and NK cells in an early-stage miscarriage.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.