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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The ratio of glycated albumin to hemoglobin A1c measured in IFCC units accurately represents the glycation gap.
Endocr. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The glycation gap (G-gap: difference between measured hemoglobin A1c [A1C] and the value predicted by its regression on the fructosamine level) is stable and associated with diabetic complications. Measuring A1C level in International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) units (A1C-SI; mmol/mol) and National Glycohemoglobin Standardization Program units (A1C-NGSP; %) and using glycated albumin (GA) level instead of fructosamine level for calculating the G-gap, we investigated whether the G-gap is better represented by GA/A1C ratio if expressed in SI units (GA/A1C-SI ratio) rather than in NGSP units (GA/A1C-% ratio). We examined 749 Japanese children with type 1 diabetes using simultaneous GA and A1C measurements. Of these, 369 patients were examined more than five times to assess the consistency of the G-gap and the GA/A1C ratio within individuals. The relationship of GA/A1C-% ratio to the corresponding A1C-NGSP was stronger than that of GA/A1C-SI ratio to A1C-IFCC. At enrollment, the inverse relationship between the GA/A1C-SI ratio and G-gap was highly significant (R(2) = 0.95) compared with that between the GA/A1C-% ratio and G-gap (R(2) = 0.69). A highly significant inverse relationship was also observed between the mean GA/A1C-SI ratio and the mean G-gaps obtained individually over time (R(2) = 0.95) compared with that using the corresponding A1C-NGSP (R(2) = 0.67). We conclude that the G-gap is better represented by the GA/A1C-SI ratio. We propose the use of mean GA/A1C-SI ratios easily obtained individually over time as reference values in Japanese children with type 1 diabetes (6.75 ± 0.60 [means ± SD]).
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Prenylation enhances quercetin uptake and reduces efflux in Caco-2 cells and enhances tissue accumulation in mice fed long-term.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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Prenyl flavonoids are widely distributed in plant foods and have attracted appreciable attention in relation to their potential benefits for human health. Prenylation may enhance the biological functions of flavonoids by introducing hydrophobic properties in their basic structures. Previously, we found that 8-prenyl naringenin exerted a greater preventive effect on muscle atrophy than nonprenylated naringenin in a mouse model. Here, we aimed to estimate the effect of prenylation on the bioavailability of dietary quercetin (Q). The cellular uptake of 8-prenyl quercetin (PQ) and Q in Caco-2 cells and C2C12 myotube cells was examined. Prenylation significantly enhanced the cellular uptake by increasing the lipophilicity in both cell types. In Caco-2 cells, efflux of PQ to the basolateral side was <15% of that of Q, suggesting that prenylation attenuates transport from the intestine to the circulation. After intragastric administration of PQ or Q to mice or rats, the area under the concentration-time curve for PQ in plasma and lymph was 52.5% and 37.5% lower than that of Q, respectively. PQ and its O-methylated form (MePQ) accumulated at much higher amounts than Q and O-methylated Q in the liver (Q: 3400%; MePQ: 7570%) and kidney (Q: 385%; MePQ: 736%) of mice after 18 d of feeding. These data suggest that prenylation enhances the accumulation of Q in tissues during long-term feeding, even though prenylation per se lowers its intestinal absorption from the diet.
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Easy and flexible carbohydrate counting sliding scale reduces blood glucose of hospitalized diabetic patient in safety.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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The in-hospital sliding scale (Sc) to determine the insulin dose was changed to a carbohydrate counting sliding scale (CSc). Blood glucose levels before and after the change were compared.
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Screening and treatment of childhood type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Japan.
Pediatr Endocrinol Rev
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A large number of children with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and a small number with a slowly progressive form of type 1 diabetes mellitus (SPT1DM) have been detected by a urine glucose screening program conducted at Japanese schools since 1974. The incidence of T2DM in children has increased over the last 3 decades and is estimated to be approximately 3.0/100,000/year, which is twice as that of T1DM. In contrast, SPT1DM in children is more prevalent in Asians, particularly Japanese, and exhibits unique clinical features that differ from those of the rapid onset form of T1DM, usually seen in Caucasians. In the first part of this review, we summarize the urine glucose screening program conducted at Japanese schools and clinical characteristics of the 2 diabetic subtypes in Japanese children. In recent years, concerns regarding childhood diabetes in Asian countries, including Japan, have risen, and medical care for the same is exceedingly developing. Intensive insulin therapy such as basal-bolus therapy by multiple daily insulin injections and pump therapy, both using insulin analogs, has been increasing in pediatric patients with T1DM. In addition, various antidiabetic medications have been introduced for children with T2DM. In the second part of this review, we describe treatment of Japanese children with T1DM and T2DM and changes in glycemic control as a result of development of the treatment.
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Prevention of disuse muscle atrophy by dietary ingestion of 8-prenylnaringenin in denervated mice.
PLoS ONE
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Flavonoids have attracted considerable attention in relation to their effects upon health. 8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN) is found in the common hop (Humulus lupulus) and assumed to be responsible for the health impact of beer consumption. We wanted to clarify the effects of prenylation on the physiological functions of dietary flavonoids by comparing the effects of 8-PN with that of intact naringenin in the prevention of disuse muscle atrophy using a model of denervation in mice. Consumption of 8-PN (but not naringenin) prevented loss of weight in the gastrocnemius muscle further supported by the lack of induction of the protein content of a key ubiquitin ligase involved in muscle atrophy, atrogin-1, and by the activation of Akt phosphorylation. 8-PN content in the gastrocnemius muscle was tenfold higher than that of naringenin. These results suggested that, compared with naringenin, 8-PN was effectively concentrated into skeletal muscle to exert its preventive effects upon disuse muscle atrophy. It is likely that prenylation generates novel functions for 8-PN by enhancing its accumulation into muscle tissue through dietary intake.
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Evaluation of the inhibitory effects of quercetin-related flavonoids and tea catechins on the monoamine oxidase-A reaction in mouse brain mitochondria.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
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Quercetin, a typical dietary flavonoid, is thought to exert antidepressant effects by inhibiting the monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A) reaction, which is responsible for regulation of the metabolism of the neurotransmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the brain. This study compared the MAO-A inhibitory activity of quercetin with those of O-methylated quercetin (isorhamnetin, tamarixetin), luteolin, and green tea catechins ((-)-epicatechin, (-)-epicatechin gallate, (-)-epigallocatechin, and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate) by measuring the formation of the oxidative deamination product of 5-HT, 5-hydroxyindole aldehyde (5-HIAL), in mouse brain mitochondria. Quercetin was inferior to luteolin in the inhibition of MAO-A activity, whereas isorhamnetin, tamarixetin, and tea catechins scarcely exerted inhibitory activity. Quercetin did not affect MAO-A activity in mouse intestinal mitochondria, indicating that it does not evoke side effects on the metabolism of dietary monoamines in the gut. These data suggest that quercetin is a weak (but safe) MAO-A inhibitor in the modulation of 5-HT levels in the brain.
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Synthesis of highly water-soluble fibrate derivatives via BGLation.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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Three water-soluble fibrates (fenofibrate, bezafibrate and chlofibrate) conjugated with a symmetrically branched glyceryl trimer (BGL003) were synthesized, and an evaluation of the fenofibrate-BGL003 conjugate as a candidate for anti-hyperlipemia drug was carried out using rats. The water-solubility of the fenofibrate-BGL003 conjugate was several thousand times greater than that of the original fenofibrate. The lipid-lowering effects of the fenofibrate-BGL003 conjugate were as strong as those of the same grams of fenofibrate. The actual active species of fenofibrate, fenofibric acid, was detected in rats blood, but neither the fenofibrate-BGL003 conjugate nor fenofibrate was detected, probably due to enzymatic hydrolysis of the ester bond. The plasma concentration of fenofibric acid derived from the fenofibrate-BGL003 conjugate was five times higher than that derived from fenofibrate 4h after administration.
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Identification of INS and KCNJ11 gene mutations in type 1B diabetes in Japanese children with onset of diabetes before 5 years of age.
Pediatr Diabetes
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The etiology of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is heterogeneous and is according to presence or absence of pancreatic autoantibodies divided into two subtypes: type 1A (autoimmune-mediated) and type 1B (non-autoimmune-mediated). Although several genes have been linked to type 1A diabetes, the genetic cause of type 1B diabetes in Japanese individuals is far from understood.
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Synthesis of paclitaxel-BGL conjugates.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
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Four kinds of symmetrically branched oligoglyceryl trimeric (BGL003)-paclitaxel conjugates and a corresponding heptameric (BGL007) conjugate were synthesized. Molecular weights of all the compounds were less than two times that of paclitaxel. The anti-tumor activity of the most water-soluble BGL003 conjugate was examined and found to be preserved in spite of the chemical modification that is displacement of the N3-debenzoyl residue with the BGL003 succinyl residue.
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Microscopic polyangiitis in a girl with severe anemia and no respiratory symptoms.
Pediatr Int
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ANCA-positive microscopic polyangiitis is a rare in children. We reported an 11-year-old girl without respiratory symptoms with sever anemia which shows signs of hemolytic anemia in test data. Chest X-ray and computed tomography scans suggested alveolar hemorrhage. The patent developed night hypoxia and moderate proteinuria. Serum MPO-antibody was highly positive and renal biopsy demonstrated segmental necrosis or crescent formation. A diagnosis of microscopic polyangiitis was made. She responded to pulsed methylprednisolon and pulsed Endoxan therapy. Microscopic polyangitiis should be considered early in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with anemia of an unknown origin.
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Synthesis and evaluation of water-soluble resveratrol and piceatannol via BGLation.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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Synthesis of four water-soluble resveratrol and piceatannol derivatives bearing symmetrically branched glyceryl trimer (BGL003) with a non-biocleavable linkage, and their biological evaluation as a mitochondrial fusion-inducing agent with cellular fat-reducing effect from cells, is described. The effect of Piceatannol-BGL003 conjugate was as high as that of original stilbenoids.
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Usefulness of insulin detemir in Japanese children with type 1 diabetes.
Pediatr Int
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This multicenter observational study was conducted to investigate the efficacy and safety of insulin detemir (detemir) for diabetes management in Japanese children and adolescents.
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Frequency of C-allylations on oligoglycinates via N-ylides.
J. Org. Chem.
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The highly selective mono-C-allylation of oligoglycinates such as a diethylenetriaminepentaacetate, an iminodiacetate, and an ethylenediaminetetraacetate via insertion of a vacuum operation between the N-allylation and C-migration steps is reported. It is contrastive that one-pot N-allylation-C-allylation procedure gave a mixture including multiallylated products. In the reaction with N-ylides, gem-C-diallylation and ?,?-C-diallylation of oligoglycinates are strongly inhibited even with the use of an excess of allyl bromide and base. A mechanism to explain this control of the frequency of C-allylation on oligoglycinates via N-ylides is also proposed.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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