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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An ultrathin transparent conductive polyimide foil embedding silver nanowires.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Metallic nanowires are among the most promising transparent conductor (TC) alternatives to widely used indium tin oxide (ITO) because of their excellent trade-off between electrical and optical properties, together with their mechanical flexibility. However, they tend to suffer from relatively large surface roughness, instability against oxidation and poor adhesion to the substrate. Embedding in a suitable material can overcome these shortcomings. Here we propose and demonstrate a new TC comprising silver nanowires (AgNWs) in an ultrathin polyimide foil that presents an optical transmission in the visible larger than ITO ( >90%), while maintaining similar electrical sheet resistance (15 ohm/sq). The polyimide protects the Ag against environmental agents such as oxygen and water and, thanks to its deformability and very small thickness (5 µm), provides an ideal mechanical support to the NW's network, in this way ensuring extreme flexibility (bending radius as small as at least 1 mm) and straightforwardly removing any adhesion issue. The initial AgNWs roughness is also reduced by a factor of about 15, reaching RMS values as low as 2.4 nm, suitable for the majority of applications. All these properties together with the simple fabrication technique based on all-solution processing put the developed TC in a competitive position as a lightweight, mechanically flexible and inexpensive substrate for consumer electronic and optoelectronic devices.
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[Rapid determination of cyclamate in foods by capillary zone electrophoresis with indirect ultraviolet detection].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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A new method for the rapid determination of cyclamate in foods by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) with indirect ultraviolet detection was developed. The separation was carried out with an uncoated fused-silica capillary (75 microm i.d., total length 80 cm, effective length 70 cm). The separation buffer consisted of 2 mmol/L sodium benzoate, 10 mmol/L sodium carbonate and 0.5 mmol/L hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide. The separation voltage was -30 kV and the detection wavelength was 200 nm. The liquid samples could be directly injected after dilution with ultrapure water. The solid samples were first grounded or cut into pieces, and then extracted with ultrapure water. Then, the mixed solution was centrifuged. The supernatant was directly injected or injected after dilution with ultrapure water. The analytes were determined by external calibration. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) and the limits of quantification (S/N = 9) were 8.9 mg/kg and 26.7 mg/kg, respectively. The linear range between the corrected peak area and the mass concentration was from 1.2 mg/L to 80 mg/L with the correlation coefficient of 0.999 9. The average spiked recoveries of five replicates at three spiked levels (2.5, 10 and 20 mg/L) were 93.4%, 100.3% and 101.9% with the relative standard deviations of 6.7%, 2.0% and 2.2%, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions of the method were 2.6% and 4.5%, respectively. The method is simple and rapid with minimal sample pretreatment and reagent consumption. No solvent was needed throughout the whole process of analysis. The analysis could be completed within 11 min (6 min for rinsing and 5 min for separation). The newly established method was used for the determination of cyclamate in a proficiency test sample. The results were in good agreement with that of the National Standard method, which illustrated the accuracy of the present method. Then, seven food samples were analyzed using the current new method and satisfactory results were obtained.
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In?uence of temperature and atmosphere on polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans desorption from waste incineration fly ash.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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A fly ash sample was heated for 1?h to 200°C, 300°C and 400°C, in order to study the influence of temperature and gas phase composition on the removal of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) from fly ash derived from municipal solid waste incineration. The tests were conducted by treating a fixed bed of fly ash both in an inert (nitrogen) and in a reducing (nitrogen?+?hydrogen) gas flow in a horizontal bench-scale quartz tubular reactor, heated by a surrounding tubular furnace. The results indicate that most of the PCDD/Fs in fly ash were removed by thermal treatment, especially when the temperature was higher than 300°C: the PCDD/Fs' removal efficiency attained up to 96%. PCDD/Fs dechlorination and destruction were much more important than PCDD/Fs desorption, under either inert or reducing atmosphere. At 200°C and 300°C, the experiments with reducing atmosphere yielded slightly better results than those in nitrogen; yet, this tendency was reversed at 400°C. In general, both treatment modes can fully meet the requirements regarding the concentration of dioxins in fly ash to be sent for landfill in China.
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Psoriatic arthritis: Epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment.
World J Orthop
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Our understanding of psoriatic arthritis has evolved as new knowledge of the disease has emerged. However, the exact prevalence of psoriatic arthritis is unknown, and its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. Genetic, environmental, and immunologic factors have all been implicated in disease development. Early diagnosis and treatment have become primary objectives in clinical rheumatology. Psoriatic arthritis not only causes functional impairment, but also increases mortality risk of patients. The advent of new therapeutic agents capable of arresting the progression of joint damage is expected. However, early psoriatic arthritis assessment remains limited. The objectives of this article are to outline the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of psoriatic arthritis and to suggest a paradigm for identifying early psoriatic arthritis patients.
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Overexpression of human ?-defensin 2 promotes growth and invasion during esophageal carcinogenesis.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Human ?-defensin 2 (HBD-2) is an antimicrobial peptide produced by mucosal surfaces in response to microbial exposure or inflammatory cytokines. Although HBD-2 is expressed in the esophagus in response to stress and infectious agents, little is known regarding its expression and functional role in esophageal carcinogenesis. In the current investigation, normal esophagus and N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine (NMBA)-induced precancerous and papillomatous lesions of the rat esophagus were characterized for HBD-2 encoding gene Defb4 and protein. HBD-2 was found to be overexpressed in esophagi of rats treated with NMBA compared to animals in control group. Results of Real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated a positive correlation between the overexpression of HBD-2 and the progression of rat squamous cell carcinogenesis (SCC) in the esophagus. We also observed that HBD-2 is overexpressed in tumor tissues removed from patients with esophageal SCC. Moreover, Defb4 silencing in vitro suppresses the tumor cell proliferation, mobility and invasion in esophageal SCC cell line KYSE-150. The results from this study provide experimental evidence that HBD-2 may play an oncogenic role in the initiation and progression of esophageal SCC and thus serve as a target for chemopreventive and therapeutic interventions.
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A small-sized graphene oxide supramolecular assembly for targeted delivery of camptothecin.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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A small-sized graphene oxide supramolecular assembly was obtained by the inclusion complexation of hyaluronated adamantane with ?-cyclodextrin and the ?-stacking of graphene oxide with camptothecin, exhibiting an excellent stability in the serum environment and a higher inhibition effect toward malignant cells than a free drug.
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Three-combination probiotics therapy in children with salmonella and rotavirus gastroenteritis.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Quantitative Vesikari scales and qualitative severe diarrhea (Vesikari scale ?11) assessments were used to grade the Salmonella-induced and rotavirus-induced gastroenteritis severity. A significant reduction in severe diarrhea (Vesikari score ?11) was used to evaluate the efficacy of three-combination probiotics (BIO-THREE).
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Induction of peroxiredoxin 1 by hypoxia regulates heme oxygenase-1 via NF-?B in oral cancer.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Overexpression of peroxiredoxin 1 (Prx1) has been observed in numerous cancers including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The precise molecular mechanism of up-regulation of Prx1 in carcinogenesis, however, is still poorly understood. The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between Prx1 and hypoxia, and potential mechanism(s) of Prx1 in OSCC cell line SCC15 and xenograft model. We treated wild-type and Prx1 knockdown SCC15 cells with transient hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. We detected the condition of hypoxia, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and expression and/or activity of Prx1, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B). We found that hypoxia induces ROS accumulation, up-regulates Prx1, increases NF-?B translocation and DNA binding activity, and down-regulates HO-1 in vitro. In Prx1 knockdown cells, the expression level of HO-1 was increased, while NF?B translocation and DNA binding activity were decreased after hypoxia or hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. Moreover, we mimicked the dynamic oxygenation tumor microenvironment in xenograft model and assessed the above indices in tumors with the maximal diameter of 2 mm, 5 mm, 10 mm or 15 mm, respectively. Our data showed that tumor hypoxic condition and expression of Prx1 are significantly associated with tumor growth. The expression of HO-1 and NF-?B, and NF-?B DNA binding activity were significantly elevated in 15 mm tumors, and the level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine was increased in 10 mm and 15 mm tumors, compared to those in size of 2 mm. The results from this study provide experimental evidence that overexpression of Prx1 is associated with hypoxia, and Prx1/NF-?B/HO-1 signaling pathway may be involved in oral carcinogenesis.
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Distribution of PCDD/Fs in the fly ash and atmospheric air of two typical hazardous waste incinerators in eastern China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) in the fly ash and atmospheric air of one medical waste incinerator (MWI) and one industrial hazardous waste incinerator (IHWI) plants were characterized. The PCDD/F concentrations of the stack gas (fly ash) produced from MWI and IHWI were 17.7 and 0.7 ng international toxic equivalent (I-TEQ)/Nm(3) (4.1 and 2.5 ng I-TEQ/g), respectively. For workplace air, the total concentrations of PCDD/Fs were 11.32 and 0.28 pg I-TEQ/Nm(3) (819.5 and 15.3 pg/Nm(3)). We assumed that the large differences of PCDD/F concentrations in workplace air were due to the differences in chlorine content of the waste, combustion conditions, and other contamination sources. With respect to the homologue profiles, the concentrations of PCDFs decreased with the increase of the substituted chlorine number for each site. Among all of the PCDD/F congeners, 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF was the most important contributor to the I-TEQ value accounting for ca. 43 % of two sites. The gas/particle partition of PCDD/Fs in the atmosphere of the workplace in the MWI was also investigated, indicating that PCDD/Fs were more associated in the particle phase, especially for the higher chlorinated ones. Moreover, the ratio of the I-TEQ values in particle and gas phase of workplace air was 11.0. At last, the relationship between the distribution of PCDD/Fs in the workplace air and that from stack gas and fly ash was also analyzed and discussed. The high correlation coefficient might be a sign for diffuse gas emissions at transient periods of fumes escaping from the incinerator.
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Compact 4.7 W, 18.3% wall-plug efficiency green laser based on an electrically pumped VECSEL using intracavity frequency doubling.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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We have demonstrated a compact, 4.7 W green laser based on an electrically pumped vertical external-cavity surface emitting laser through intracavity frequency doubling. The overall wall-plug efficiency (electrical to green) was 18.3%. The power fluctuations were measured to be ±1.4% over a 2 h time period.
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Application of quality by design (QbD) to formulation and processing of naproxen pellets by extrusion-spheronization.
Pharm Dev Technol
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Abstract The aim of this research was to apply quality by design (QbD) to the development of naproxen loaded core pellets which can be used as the potential core for colon-specific pellets. In the early stages of this study, prior knowledge and preliminary studies were systematically incorporated into the risk assessment using failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) and fishbone diagram. Then Plackett-Burman design was used to screen eight potential high risk factors (spheronization speed, spheronization time, extrusion speed, drying method, CCMC-Na concentration, lactose concentration, water concentration and Tween 80 concentration) obtained from the above risk assessment. It was discovered that out of the eight potential high risk factors only three factors (spheronization speed, extrusion speed and CCMC-Na concentration) had significant effects on the quality of the pellets. This allowed the use of Box-Behnken design (BBD) to fully elucidate the relationship between the variables and critical quality attribute (CQA). Finally, the final control space was established within which the quality of the pellets can meet the requirement of colon-specific drug delivery system. This study demonstrated that naproxen loaded core pellets were successfully designed using QbD principle.
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Inhibition of aldose reductase ameliorates diet?induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice via modulating the phosphorylation of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Aldose reductase (AR) is involved in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. This study aimed to determine the mechanism by which AR affects the development of murine diet?induced nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Steatohepatitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by administration of a methionine?choline?deficient (MCD) diet, a commonly used nutrition?induced model of steatohepatitis. Hematoxylin and eosin staining was used for histological analyses. Western blot analyses were used to determine protein expression levels and quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze mRNA expression levels. The results showed that the AR protein expression level was significantly higher in C57BL/6 mice fed the MCD diet than in mice fed the control diet. Diet?induced hepatic steatosis and necroinflammation were attenuated in the MCD diet?fed mice treated with the AR inhibitor, zopolrestat. The ameliorating effect of AR inhibition on steatohepatitis was associated with decreased levels of serum alanine aminotransferase and hepatic lipoperoxides, reduced expression of phosphorylated peroxisome proliferator?activated receptor (PPAR)? and increased mRNA expression of acyl coenzyme A oxidase. These data indicated that induction of hepatic AR expression in mice with steatohepatitis resulted in the phosphorylation of PPAR? and suppression of PPAR? activity. Inhibition of AR decreased lipid accumulation and inflammation in the liver, at least in part through the modulation of PPAR? phosphorylation and PPAR? transcriptional activity.
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Polychlorinated biphenyls, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons around a thermal desorption plant in China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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This study was launched to establish comprehensive environmental monitoring on the levels and patterns of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) both in soil and ambient air around a thermal desorption plant in China. All 209 congeners of PCBs, 136 congeners of PCDD/Fs (P?=?4 to 8) and 16 EPA priority PAHs were analyzed. The concentration of PCBs ranged from 20.0 to 536 ng g(-1) (or 0.077-5.27 pg WHO-TEQ g(-1)) in soil and from 972 to 991 ng Nm(-3) (or 0.245-0.374 pg WHO-TEQ Nm(-3)) in air samples, much higher than the levels in cities. A single soil sampling point could have been affected by some transfer of PCBs from the untreated soil by the fingerprint characteristics and the statistical analysis. Establishing blank values prior to the start-up of new plant is a safe and sure method to establish subsequent impacts on the environment. During the treatment of hazardous waste, strict control of all waste materials and all emissions is required.
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Improvement of salinity in sewage sludge compost prior to its utilization as nursery substrate.
J Air Waste Manag Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Soluble salts are enriched in sewage sludge compost because of their inherent derivation. Accordingly, the content of soluble salt in sludge compost is usually much higher than most seedlings can tolerate. To determine whether sludge compost is suitable for use as a nursery substrate, some experiments were conducted. Reduction of the electrical conductivity (EC) value could improve seed germination in saturated extract from sludge compost. In addition, water elution and mixing dilution with raw soil were all shown to be able to alleviate saline inhibition on seed germination and seedling growth, including stem diameter, seedling height, and above-ground weight. Overall, salinity is a crucial problem when sewage sludge compost is reused as a nursery substrate, and some effective and convenient approaches to reduce salt should be served prior to its reuse.
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Catalytic synthesis and antioxidant activity of sulfated polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L.
Biopolymers
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Sulfated derivatives of polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L. (MCPS) with different degree of sulfation (DS) were synthesized by chlorosulfonic acid method with ionic liquids as solvent. Fourier transform infrared spectra and (13) C nuclear magnetic resonance spectra indicated that C-6 substitution was predominant in MCPS compared with the C-2 position. Compared with the native polysaccharide from Momordica charantia L. (MCP), MCPS exhibited more excellent antioxidant activities in vitro, which indicated that sulfated modification could enhance antioxidant activities of MCP. Furthermore, high DS and moderate molecular weight could improve the antioxidant activities of polysaccharide. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Biopolymers 101: 210-215, 2014.
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A nanodiamond/CNT-SiC monolith as a novel metal free catalyst for ethylbenzene direct dehydrogenation to styrene.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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A novel nanodiamond/CNT-SiC monolith catalyst has been prepared by a facile two-step approach. The as-synthesized monolith afforded high activity and stability for ethylbenzene direct dehydrogenation to styrene, showing its potential application as a metal free catalyst in gaseous catalytic reactions.
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Retinoschisis and intravitreal ranibizumab treatment for myopic choroidal neovascularization.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Intravitreal ranibizumab injection is effecitve on treating myopic CNVs, but it could be a risk factor for developing more severe retinoschisis in eyes with preexisted retinoschisis and epiretinal membrane. This study aimed to explore the incidence and features of retinoschisis after intravitreal ranibizumab injection for myopic choroidal neovascularization.
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Inhibition of the de novo synthesis of PCDD/Fs on model fly ash by sludge drying gases.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Sludge drying gases (SDG), evolving from drying and mild thermal decomposition (<300°C) of raw sewage sludge contain NH3 and SO2 as well as other N- and S-compounds. All of these are potential PCDD/Fs suppressants. It is indeed observed that these SDG suppress 2,3,7,8-substitued PCDD/Fs formation on Model Fly Ash (MFA) with an efficiency up to 97.6% in wt. units and 96% in I-TEQ, respectively. This suppression is strong for (the bulk of) PCDD/Fs, adsorbed on the model fly ash; conversely, sludge drying gases enhance PCDD/Fs desorption from MFA. Moreover, TCDD/Fs are suppressed least, possibly following stepwise dechlorination of higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs. Characteristics, such as the type, origins and amount of sludge, its moisture-, nitrogen- and sulfur content and the nature of the thermal treatment applied are all expected to influence upon the suppression capabilities. In this study three types of dry sludge are tested and applied as suppressant in four different amounts or modes. The quality of the sludge drying gases is continuously monitored: the Gasmet results reveal that NH3 and SO2 are the most important components of SDG. The MFA reaction residue is scrutinized by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) analysis. A large number of particles attaching to the surface of model fly ash are observed by SEM. Moreover, EDS analysis reveals that part of the chlorine in MFA is carried away with the SDG and replaced by sulfur, so that eliminating chlorine may be part of the inhibition mechanism. However, further research is still needed to establish the optimum operating modes and to confirm the role of both inorganic and organic nitrogen and sulfur compounds in the suppression of PCDD/Fs formation on model fly ash.
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Simulation of water removal process and optimization of aeration strategy in sewage sludge composting.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Reducing moisture in sewage sludge is one of the main goals of sewage sludge composting and biodrying. A mathematical model was used to simulate the performance of water removal under different aeration strategies. Additionally, the correlations between temperature, moisture content (MC), volatile solids (VS), oxygen content (OC), and ambient air temperature and aeration strategies were predicted. The mathematical model was verified based on coefficients of correlation between the measured and predicted results of over 0.80 for OC, MC, and VS, and 0.72 for temperature. The results of the simulation showed that water reduction was enhanced when the average aeration rate (AR) increased to 15.37 m(3) min(-1) (6/34 min/min, AR: 102.46 m(3) min(-1)), above which no further increase was observed. Furthermore, more water was removed under a higher on/off time of 7/33 (min/min, AR: 87.34 m(3) min(-1)), and when ambient air temperature was higher.
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Elevated Orai1 expression mediates tumor-promoting intracellular Ca2+ oscillations in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Effective treatment as well as prognostic biomarker for malignant esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is urgently needed. The present study was aimed at identifying oncogenic genes involving dysregulated intracellular Ca2+ signaling, which is known to function importantly in cellular proliferation and migration. Tumors from patients with ESCC were found to display elevated expression of Orai1, a store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) channel, and the high expression of Orai1 was associated with poor overall and recurrence-free survival. In contrast to the quiescent nature of non-tumorigenic epithelial cells, human ESCC cells exhibited strikingly hyperactive in intracellular Ca2+ oscillations, which were sensitive to treatments with Orai1 channel blockers and to orai1 silencing. Moreover, pharmacologic inhibition of Orai1 activity or reduction of Orai1 expression suppressed proliferation and migration of ESCC in vitro and slowed tumor formation and growth in in vivo xenografted mice. Combined, these findings provide the first evidence to imply Orai1 as a novel biomarker for ESCC prognostic stratification and also highlight Orai1-mediated Ca2+ signaling pathway as a potential target for treatment of this deadly disease.
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Geniposide attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction and memory deficits in APP/PS1 transgenic mice.
Curr Alzheimer Res
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction appear early and contribute to the disease progression in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which can be detected extensively in AD patients brains as well as in transgenic AD mice brains. Thus, treatments that result in attenuation of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction may hold potential for AD treatment. Geniposide, a pharmacologically active component purified from gardenia fruit, exhibits anti-oxidative, antiinflammatory and other important therapeutic properties. However, whether geniposide has any protective effect on oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in AD transgenic mouse model has not yet been reported. Here, we demonstrate that intragastric administration of geniposide significantly reduces oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in addition to improving learning and memory in APP/PS1 mice. Geniposide exerts protective effects on mitochondrial dysfunction in APP/PS1 mice through suppressing the mitochondrial oxidative damage and increasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and activity of cytochrome c oxidase. These studies indicate that geniposide may attenuate memory deficits through the suppression of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Thus, geniposide may be a potential therapeutic reagent for halting and preventing AD progress.
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Clathrin and Membrane Microdomains Cooperatively Regulate RbohD Dynamics and Activity in Arabidopsis.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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Arabidopsis thaliana respiratory burst oxidase homolog D (RbohD) functions as an essential regulator of reactive oxygen species (ROS). However, our understanding of the regulation of RbohD remains limited. By variable-angle total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy, we demonstrate that green fluorescent protein (GFP)-RbohD organizes into dynamic spots at the plasma membrane. These RbohD spots have heterogeneous diffusion coefficients and oligomerization states, as measured by photobleaching techniques. Stimulation with ionomycin and calyculin A, which activate the ROS-producing enzymatic activity of RbohD, increases the diffusion and oligomerization of RbohD. Abscisic acid and flg22 treatments also increase the diffusion coefficient and clustering of GFP-RbohD. Single-particle analysis in clathrin heavy chain2 mutants and a Flotillin1 artificial microRNA line demonstrated that clathrin- and microdomain-dependent endocytic pathways cooperatively regulate RbohD dynamics. Under salt stress, GFP-RbohD assembles into clusters and then internalizes into the cytoplasm. Dual-color fluorescence cross-correlation spectroscopy analysis further showed that salt stress stimulates RbohD endocytosis via membrane microdomains. We demonstrate that microdomain-associated RbohD spots diffuse at the membrane with high heterogeneity, and these dynamics closely relate to RbohD activity. Our results provide insight into the regulation of RbohD activity by clustering and endocytosis, which facilitate the activation of redox signaling pathways.
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Epidemiological features of intestinal infection with Entamoeba histolytica in Taiwan, 2002-2010.
Travel Med Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Amebiasis remains an important public health problem worldwide, and immigration and an increase in international travel have affected the incident cases of the disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of Entamoeba histolytica in Taiwan between 2002 and 2010. We analyzed data from surveillance programs run by the Centers for Disease Control, Taiwan (Taiwan CDC), and only laboratory-confirmed cases were analyzed. In total, 1796 cases with E. histolytica infections were included in our analysis. Among them, 788 (44%) of the cases were imported, and 1008 (56%) were locally acquired. The average annual incidence rate of E. histolytica infections was 0.49 and 9.26 per 100,000 for local patients and immigrants/foreign workers from endemic countries, respectively. The annual incidence of E. histolytica infections among immigrants/foreign workers was significantly higher than among Taiwanese who had not traveled abroad (P < 0.0001). Travelers to E. histolytica-endemic areas (e.g., Southeast countries) had a higher risk acquiring an E. histolytica infection. This study emphasized that E. histolytica infection is an important intestinal infectious disease in Taiwan. The risk of infection with E. histolytica for travelers was higher for those with destinations in South and Southeast Asia. To control E. histolytica infections in Taiwan, a sensitive surveillance system needs to be established, and the amebiasis-screening program for immigrants/foreign workers from endemic countries should be enforced.
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[Inhibition of chlorobenzene formation via various routes during waste incineration by ammonium sulfate and urea].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Chlorobenzene (CBz) is the precursor of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) generated in the processes of waste incineration, and it is regarded as a good indicator of PCDD/Fs for realizing PCDD/Fs online monitoring, moreover, pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz) and Hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) belong to Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs). However, the emission control of CBz in waste incineration does not attract enough attention, so this study focused on the inhibition of the 3 CBz formation routes in waste combustion by ammonium sulfate and urea, including CB formation from fly ash, CB formation from 1,2-dichlorobenzene (1,2-DiCBz) and the combustion of model medical waste. The results showed that both ammonium sulfate and urea reduced CBz yield during these three thermal processes. For instance, the inhibition rates of tetrachlorobenzene (TeCBz), PeCBz and HxCBz were 66.8%, 57.4% and 50.4%, respectively, when 1% urea was co-combusted with medical waste. By comparing the effect of ammonium sulfate and urea on CBz formation by three routes, urea was considered as a comparatively stable inhibitor for CBz.
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Gadolinium complexes functionalized persistent luminescent nanoparticles as a multimodal probe for near-infrared luminescence and magnetic resonance imaging in vivo.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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The development of multimodal nanoprobes that combined properties of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) within a single probe is very important for medical diagnosis. The NIR-emitting persistent luminescent nanoparticles (PLNPs) are ideal for optical imaging owing to no need for in situ excitation, the absence of background noise, and deep tissue penetration. However, no PLNP based multimodal nanoprobes have been reported so far. Here, we report a novel multimodal nanoprobe based on the gadolinium complexes functionalized PLNPs (Gd(III)-PLNPs) for in vivo MRI and NIR luminescence imaging. The Gd(III)-PLNPs not only exhibit a relatively higher longitudinal relaxivity over the commercial Gd(III)-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid complexes but also keep the superlong persistent luminescence. The prepared Gd(III)-PLNPs multimodal nanoprobe offers great potential for MRI/optical imaging in vivo.
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Effect of Trifolium pratense extract on methionine-choline-deficient diet-induced steatohepatitis in C57BL/6 mice.
Chin J Nat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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The potential of Trifolium pratense (red clover) extract in the prevention of lipid disorder has attracted increasing attention in recent years. In this study, the aim was to determine whether and how red clover extract affected the development of murine diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis.
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Thermal desorption of PCBs from contaminated soil using nano zerovalent iron.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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In this study, thermal desorption was combined with the addition of nano zerovalent iron (nZVI) to remediate polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-contaminated soil collected from a storage point for PCB-contaminated capacitors and transformers. The thermal desorption test conditions were varied from 300 to 600 °C, both with blank soil and with 100 mg of nZVI added. Next, the effect of the amount of nZVI added (0, 20, 40, 100, 200 mg) was investigated by thermal treatment at 400 °C. The test results show that thermal desorption eliminates most of the PCB load and that the presence of nZVI clearly enhances thermal desorption. After thermal treatment at 400 °C, a removal efficiency of 94.2 % was reached, with the use of 200 mg of nZVI. At 600 °C, the PCB removal efficiency after 1 h attained 98.35 % with 100 mg of nZVI and 97.40 % without nZVI. The presence of nZVI effectively decreased both the sum and the WHO-TEQ value of the 12 dl-PCBs.
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Priming of Toll-like receptor 4 pathway in mesenchymal stem cells increases expression of B cell activating factor.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be polarized into two distinct populations, MSC1 and MSC2, by activation of different Toll-like receptors (TLRs). TLR4-primed MSC1 expressed proinflammatory factors, whereas TLR3-primed MSC2 expressed suppressive factors. However, little is known about the function of TLRs on B lymphocyte-related immune modulation. In this study, we investigated the expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF), a member of the tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily with notable stimulating activity on B cells, in human MSCs (hMSCs) and in murine MSCs (mMSCs) after activation of TLRs. BAFF was increasingly expressed in presence of TLR4 agonist (lipopolysaccharide, LPS), while TLR2 agonist (Zymosan) and TLR3-agonist (polyinocinic-polycytidykic acid, poly I:C) had no effect on BAFF expression. In addition, we demonstrated that signaling pathways of NF-?B, p38 MAPK, and JNK were involved in TLR4-primed BAFF expression. Our results suggested that TLR4 and downstream pathways in MSCs exert an important function in B lymphocyte-related immune regulation. Further defining a homogeneous population of MSCs should provide insight into MSC-based immune-modulating therapy.
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Influence of organic and inorganic flocculants on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2014
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Flocculants are widely used to improve the properties of sludge dewatering in industrial wastewater treatment. However, there have been no studies conducted on the influence of flocculants on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) during sewage sludge incineration. This paper selected three typical kinds of flocculants, including polyacrylamide (PAM), poly-ferric chloride (PFC), and polyaluminum chloride (PAC) flocculant, to study their influences on the formation of PCDD/Fs during sewage sludge incineration. The results indicated that PAM flocculant, which is an organic flocculant, inhibited the formation of PCDD/Fs in sewage sludge incineration, while inorganic flocculant, such as PFC and PAC flocculant, promoted the formation. The most probable explanation is that the amino content in the PAM flocculant acted as an inhibitor in the formation of PCDD/Fs, while the chlorine content, especially the metal catalyst in the PFC and PAC flocculants, increased the formation rate. The addition of flocculants nearly did not change the distribution of PCDD/F homologues. The PCDFs contributed the most toxic equivalent (TEQ) value, especially 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF. Therefore, the use of inorganic flocculants in industrial wastewater treatment should be further assessed and possibly needs to be strictly regulated if the sludge is incinerated. From this aspect, a priority to the use of organic flocculants should be given.
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Design and characterization of whispering-gallery spiral waveguides.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Whispering gallery delay lines have demonstrated record propagation length on a silicon chip and can provide a way to transfer certain applications of optical fiber to wafer-based systems. Their design and fabrication requires careful control of waveguide curvature and etching conditions to minimize connection losses between elements of the delay line. Moreover, loss characterization based on optical backscatter requires normalization to account for the impact of curvature on backscatter rate. In this paper we provide details on design of Archimedean whispering-gallery spiral waveguides, their coupling into cascaded structures, as well as optical loss characterization by optical backscatter reflectometry.
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Fc?RIIB regulates T-cell autoreactivity, ANCA production, and neutrophil activation to suppress anti-myeloperoxidase glomerulonephritis.
Kidney Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated glomerulonephritis involves innate and adaptive immune cells in the induction of autoimmunity and in autoimmune effector responses. Most Fc? receptors (Fc?Rs) activate immune cells, but Fc?RIIB, found in humans and mice on B cells and innate cells, is an inhibitory receptor. Here we tested whether endogenous Fc?RIIB negatively regulates autoreactivity and effector responses in experimental anti-myeloperoxidase (MPO) glomerulonephritis, using wild-type and Fc?RIIB(-/-) mice. After MPO immunization, Fc?RIIB(-/-) mice developed higher MPO-ANCA titers and increased anti-MPO T-cell responses. Transfer of Fc?RIIB-deficient dendritic cells loaded with a nephritogenic MPO peptide (MPO409-428) into wild-type mice induced stronger autoimmunity than dendritic cells derived from wild-type mice. Transferring anti-MPO antibodies into lipopolysaccharide-primed mice resulted in increased glomerular neutrophil accumulation and injury in Fc?RIIB(-/-) mice, showing a role for Fc?RIIB in suppressing neutrophil activation. Inducing active autoimmunity to MPO followed by triggering T cell-mediated glomerular injury by transfer of sub-nephritogenic doses of lipopolysaccharide and anti-MPO antibodies resulted in more disease in Fc?RIIB(-/-) mice. Thus, endogenous Fc?RIIB negatively regulates anti-MPO autoimmunity and glomerulonephritis by dendritic cells, B cells, and neutrophils to limit MPO-ANCA production, T-cell responses, and neutrophil activation.Kidney International advance online publication, 28 May 2014; doi:10.1038/ki.2014.189.
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A dual-targeting upconversion nanoplatform for two-color fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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The targetability of a theranostic probe is one of the keys to assuring its theranostic efficiency. Here we show the design and fabrication of a dual-targeting upconversion nanoplatform for two-color fluorescence imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). The nanoplatform was prepared from 3-aminophenylboronic acid functionalized upconversion nanocrystals (APBA-UCNPs) and hyaluronated fullerene (HAC60) via a specific diol-borate condensation. The two specific ligands of aminophenylboronic acid and hyaluronic acid provide synergistic targeting effects, high targetability, and hence a dramatically elevated uptake of the nanoplatform by cancer cells. The high generation yield of (1)O2 due to multiplexed Förster resonance energy transfer between APBA-UCNPs (donor) and HAC60 (acceptor) allows effective therapy. The present nanoplatform shows great potential for highly selective tumor-targeted imaging-guided PDT.
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The epidemiology of imported malaria in Taiwan between 2002-2013: the importance of sensitive surveillance and implications for pre-travel medical advice.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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The purpose of this study was to assess the epidemiology of imported malaria in Taiwan between 2002 and 2013. We analyzed the national data recorded by the Taiwan Centers for Disease Control (Taiwan CDC). Malaria cases were diagnosed by blood films, polymerase chain reaction, or rapid diagnostic tests. The risk of re-establishment of malarial transmission in Taiwan was assessed. A total of 229 malaria cases were included in our analysis. All of the cases were imported. One hundred and ninety-two cases (84%) were diagnosed within 13 days of the start of symptoms/signs; 43% of these cases were acquired in Africa and 44% were acquired in Asia. Plasmodium falciparum was responsible for the majority (56%) of these cases. Travel to an endemic area was associated with the acquisition of malaria. The malaria importation rate was 2.36 per 1,000,000 travelers (range 1.20-5.74). The reproductive number under control (Rc) was 0. No endemic transmission of malaria in Taiwan was identified. This study suggests that a vigilant surveillance system, vector-control efforts, case management, and an educational approach focused on travelers and immigrants who visit malaria endemic countries are needed to prevent outbreaks and sustain the elimination of malaria in Taiwan.
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[Research progress on visual observations of hematopoietic stem cell homing].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an important mean for clinical treatment to many of hematological diseases, malignant diseases, hereditary diseases and autoimmune diseases. Whether the implanted hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) can home to bone marrow (BM) smoothly and reconstitute the hematopoiesis is the key to successful HSCT. With the cognition of HSC homing mechanism, the visual observation of HSC homing to BM is attracting more and more attention and helps to clarify the micro-dialogue between HSC and BM microenvironment. In recent years, with the development of imaging technology, confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and two-photon microscope are able to make 3D reconstruction and real-time observation of the tissue or cells. Researches on HSC homing process visibly become reality. In this article the methods of visual research and their application in HSC homing observation are reviewed.
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Is graphene a promising nano-material for promoting surface modification of implants or scaffold materials in bone tissue engineering?
Tissue Eng Part B Rev
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Bone tissue engineering promises to restore bone defects that are caused by severe trauma, congenital malformations, tumors, and nonunion fractures. How to effectively promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or seed cells has become a hot topic in this field. Many researchers are studying the ways of conferring a pro-osteodifferentiation or osteoinductive capability on implants or scaffold materials, where osteogenesis of seed cells is promoted. Graphene (G) provides a new kind of coating material that may confer the pro-osteodifferentiation capability on implants and scaffold materials by surface modification. Here, we review recent studies on the effects of graphene on surface modifications of implants or scaffold materials. The ability of graphene to improve the mechanical and biological properties of implants or scaffold materials, such as nitinol and carbon nanotubes, and its ability to promote the adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs or osteoblasts have been demonstrated in several studies. Most previous studies were performed in vitro, but further studies will explore the mechanisms of graphene's effects on bone regeneration, its in vivo biocompatibility, its ability to promote osteodifferentiation, and its potential applications in bone tissue engineering.
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Influenza vaccination coverage and factors affecting adherence to influenza vaccination among patients with diabetes in Taiwan.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate influenza vaccination coverage and the factors influencing acceptance of influenza vaccination among patients with diabetes in Taiwan using the Health Belief Model (HBM). From January 1 to February 28, 2012, 700 patients with diabetes who visited National Cheng Kung University Hospital were invited to participate in the study. A total of 691 (99%) patients with diabetes were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 64.7 years (SD = 10.7). The percentages of patients with diabetes who received seasonal influenza vaccination were 31%, 33%, and 35% in 2009-2010, 2010-2011, and 2011-2012, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that patients with diabetes who were female, were older, had comorbidities, had a more positive perception of the benefits of the influenza vaccine and had lower perceived barriers to influenza vaccination were more likely to receive the influenza vaccine in 2011-2012 (adjusted R(2) = 0.47; Chi-square = 276.50; P<0.001). Patients with diabetes perceived the risk of swine influenza to be similar to that of seasonal influenza. Consequently, in the absence of an increase in the perceived risk of influenza, a low level of actual vaccination against seasonal influenza is forecasted. Strategies to improve the uptake of influenza vaccination include interventions that highlight the risk posed by pandemic influenza while simultaneously offering tactics to ameliorate this risk.
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The epigenetic promotion of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells by the genetic and chemical blockade of histone demethylase LSD1.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are a highly attractive source in bone tissue engineering. It has become increasingly clear that chromatin regulators play an important role in cell fate determination. However, how osteogenic differentiation of hASCs is controlled by epigenetic mechanisms is not fully understood. Here we use genetic tools and chemical inhibitors to modify the epigenetic program of hASCs and identify lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1), a histone demethylase that specifically catalyzes demethylation of di- and mono- methyl histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me2/1), as a key regulator in osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Specifically, we demonstrated that genetic depletion of LSD1 with lentiviral strategy for gene knockdown promoted osteogenic differentiation of hASCs by cell studies and xenograft assays. At the molecular level, we found that LSD1 regulates osteogenesis-associated genes expression through its histone demethylase activity. Significantly, we demonstrated LSD1 demethylase inhibitors could efficiently block its catalytic activity and epigenetically boost osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. Altogether, our study defined the functional and biological roles of LSD1 and extensively explored the effects of its enzymatic activity in osteogenic differentiation of hASCs. A better understanding of how LSD1 influences on osteogenesis associated epigenetic events will provide new insights into the modulation of hASCs based cell therapy and improve the development of bone tissue engineering with epigenetic intervention.
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Smad7 maintains epithelial phenotype of ovarian cancer stem?like cells and supports tumor colonization by mesenchymal?epithelial transition.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a lethal gynecological malignancy. Epithelial?mesenchymal transition (EMT) has an important role in the tumorigenesis and progression of EOC. During the process of EMT, the transforming growth factor?? (TGF??)?Smad signaling pathway has been indicated to regulate cell motility and tumor development. Among numerous EMT?associated transcripts, Smad7 is considered to be an inhibitor, however its involvement together with TGF??1 in the progression of ovarian cancer remains to be elucidated. The present study demonstrated that Smad7 was overexpressed in SK?OV?3 and stem?like side populations of EOC cells, both of which grow in an epithelial pattern. The transformation of cells from an epithelial to a mesenchymal phenotype was stimulated by TGF??1 with a corresponding increase in Smad7 expression in SK?OV?3 cells. These results indicate that Smad7 is a regulator in the maintenance of the epithelial phenotype in EOC cells, and may serve as an inhibitory element which targets TGF???stimulated EMT. Furthermore, inhibition of Smad7 resulted in cellular mesenchymal transformation, with an increased expression of N?cadherin and a decreased expression of E?cadherin. The invasiveness and migratory capabilities of Smad7 small hairpin RNA transduced EOC cells was also reduced. The findings of the present study have identified Smad7 as a fundamental factor in the maintenance of epithelial growth of EOC cells. Reversal of EMT results in a mesenchymal?epithelial transition, which is necessary for EOC cell colonization at metastatic sites.
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Effects of Alisma Decoction on lipid metabolism and inflammatory response are mediated through the activation of the LXR? pathway in macrophage-derived foam cells.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The liver X receptor ? (LXR?)/ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) pathway and LXR-modulated cytokines play an important role in macrophages which mediate lipid engulfment and the inflammatory response, and participate in the process of atherosclerosis. Therefore, lipid-lowering and anti-inflammatory therapy through the activation of the LXR?/ABCA1 pathway and LXR?-modulated cytokines may prove to be one of the main treatment strategies for atherosclerosis. Alisma Decoction (AD) has long been used in China to clinically treat cardiovascular and cerebral diseases; however, the precise mechanisms involved remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the regulation of lipids and the anti-inflammatory effects exerted by AD and investigated the underlying molecular mechanisms using oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-stimulated foam cells derived from rat peritoneal macrophages. We first found that AD markedly relieved lipid deposition in foam cells as it increased LXR? and ABCA1 expression and decreased the ox-LDL-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines, such as matrix metalloproteinase-9 and interleukin-1?. Collectively, our findings suggest that blocking lipid deposition and inhibiting inflammatory response through the activation of the LXR? pathway may be one of the main mechanisms through which AD exerts its anti-atherosclerotic effects.
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The effect of simvastatin on chemotactic capability of SDF-1? and the promotion of bone regeneration.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the cooperative effects of simvastatin (SIM) and stromal cell-derived factor-1? (SDF-1?) on the osteogenic and migration capabilities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), and construct a cell-free bone tissue engineering system comprising SIM, SDF-1? and scaffold. We found that 0.2 ?m SIM significantly increased alkaline phosphatase activity (P < 0.05) of mouse bone marrow MSCs with no inhibition of cell proliferation, and enhanced the chemotactic capability of SDF-1? (P < 0.05). Next, we constructed a novel cell-free bone tissue engineering system using PLGA loaded with SIM and SDF-1?, and applied it in critical-sized calvarial defects in mice. New bone formation in the defect was evaluated by micro-CT, HE staining and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that PLGA loaded with SIM and SDF-1? promoted bone regeneration significantly more than controls. We investigated possible mechanisms, and showed that SDF-1? combined with SIM increased MSC migration and homing in vivo, promoted angiogenesis and enhanced the expression of BMP-2 in newly-formed bone tissue. In conclusion, SIM enhanced the chemotactic capability of SDF-1? and the cell-free bone tissue engineering system composed of SIM, SDF-1? and scaffold promoted bone regeneration in mouse critical-sized calvarial defects.
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Dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPP10(789)): a voltage gated potassium channel associated protein is abnormally expressed in Alzheimer's and other neurodegenerative diseases.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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The neuropathological features associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) include the presence of extracellular amyloid-? peptide-containing plaques and intracellular tau positive neurofibrillary tangles and the loss of synapses and neurons in defined regions of the brain. Dipeptidyl peptidase 10 (DPP10) is a protein that facilitates Kv4 channel surface expression and neuronal excitability. This study aims to explore DPP10789 protein distribution in human brains and its contribution to the neurofibrillary pathology of AD and other tauopathies. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed predominant neuronal staining of DPP10789 in control brains, and the CA1 region of the hippocampus contained strong reactivity in the distal dendrites of the pyramidal cells. In AD brains, robust DPP10789 reactivity was detected in neurofibrillary tangles and plaque-associated dystrophic neurites, most of which colocalized with the doubly phosphorylated Ser-202/Thr-205 tau epitope. DPP10789 positive neurofibrillary tangles and plaque-associated dystrophic neurites also appeared in other neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration, diffuse Lewy body disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy. Occasional DPP10789 positive neurofibrillary tangles and neurites were seen in some aged control brains. Western blot analysis showed both full length and truncated DPP10789 fragments with the later increasing significantly in AD brains compared to control brains. Our results suggest that DPP10789 is involved in the pathology of AD and other neurodegenerative diseases.
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Clinical features of dementia with lewy bodies in 35 Chinese patients.
Transl Neurodegener
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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To investigate the clinical features of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) in a Chinese population.
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A Stabilization Device That Promotes the Efficiency of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation during Ambulance Transportation to the Level as under Non-Moving Conditions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The survival rate of patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest is low, and measures to improve the quality of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during ambulance transportation are desirable. We designed a stabilization device, and in a randomized crossover trial we found performing CPR in a moving ambulance with the device (MD) could achieve better efficiency than that without the device (MND), but the efficiency was lower than that in a non-moving ambulance (NM).
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Facilitation drives the positive effects of plant richness on trace metal removal in a biodiversity experiment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Phytoextraction is an environmentally acceptable and inexpensive technique for mine tailing rehabilitation that uses metallophyte plants. These plants reduce the soil trace metal contents to environmentally acceptable levels by accumulating trace metals. Recently, whether more trace metals can be removed by species-rich communities of these plants received great attention, as species richness has been reported having positive effects on ecosystem functions. However, how the species richness affects trace metals removal of plant communities of mine tailing is rarely known.
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mUbiSiDa: a comprehensive database for protein ubiquitination sites in mammals.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Protein ubiquitination is one of the important post-translational modifications by attaching ubiquitin to specific lysine (K) residues in target proteins, and plays important regulatory roles in many cell processes. Recent studies indicated that abnormal protein ubiquitination have been implicated in many diseases by degradation of many key regulatory proteins including tumor suppressor, oncoprotein, and cell cycle regulator. The detailed information of protein ubiquitination sites is useful for scientists to investigate the mechanism of many cell activities and related diseases.
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The miR-7 Identified from Collagen Biomaterial-Based Three-Dimensional Cultured Cells Regulates Neural Stem Cell Differentiation.
Stem Cells Dev.
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2013
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Increasing evidence suggests that three-dimensional (3D) cultures provide more appropriate microenvironments to control stem cell response compared with traditional two-dimensional (2D) cultures. However, the molecular mechanism involved in 3D cultured stem cells is not well known. Several microRNAs whose target genes involved in the regulation of self-renewal and differentiation of stem cells were found to be downregulated in 3D cultured PA-1 cells. Among them, miR-7 was predicted to target Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4), a key gene for self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs). We showed that the differentiation of NSCs was inhibited in 3D collagen scaffolds compared with 2D cultured cells. The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis indicated that the expression of miR-7 and Klf4 changed significantly in 2D cultures, whereas the expression stability of miR-7 and Klf4 was detected in 3D cultures. Using luciferase assay and western blot, Klf4 was identified as a target of miR-7 indicating that miR-7 plays a critical role in maintaining the self-renewal capacity through a Klf4-dependent mechanism in 3D cultured cells. Thus, the collagen scaffold-based 3D cell cultures may provide a platform to reveal the regulatory mechanism of cell regulators, which are difficult to find in traditional 2D cell cultures.
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[Effect of lead on soil quality and human health around a lead smeltery].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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In order to disclose soil pollution caused by lead (Pb) smeltery and its human health risks, this study investigated Pb concentrations in farmland soil, hair and blood of residents surrounding a Pb smeltery in Henan Province, and discussed the rationality of estimation of the health protection zone from the Pb smeltery. It was found that the Pb concentrations in blood of children living in both M and Y villages exceeded the international Pb poisoning diagnostic criteria. The highest Pb concentration in blood was 491 microg x L(-1), with the percentages of mild, medium and severe Pb poisoning reaching 52.5%, 42.5% and 5.0%, respectively. Pb concentrations in hair of children living in Y village were in excess of the related standard, with the highest being 156 mg x kg(-1), and the average value 2.9 times of that in hair of adults. In terms of Pb in soil, Pb concentrations in 66.7% of the topsoils (0-20 cm) around the smeltery exceeded Grade II (350 mg x kg(-1), pH > 7.5) of the National Soil Environmental Quality Standard (GB 15618-1995), with the highest reaching up to 1687 mg x kg(-1). The severe soil pollution may have played a role in childrens health issues in the villages surrounding the smeltery. Therefore, more attention should be paid to the scientific estimation of health protection zone from Pb smeltery and the remediation of heavy-metal contaminated soil in the surrounding areas.
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Targeted polysaccharide nanoparticle for adamplatin prodrug delivery.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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A series of conjugated hyaluronic acid particles (HAP), composed of a hydrophobic anticancer drug core and hydrophilic cyclodextrin/hyaluronic acid shell, were prepared through self-assembling and characterized by (1)H NMR titration, electron microscopy, zeta potential, and dynamic light-scattering experiments. The nanometer-sized HAP thus prepared was biocompatible and biodegradable and was well-recognized by the hyaluronic acid receptors overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells, which enabled us to exploit HAP as an efficient targeted delivery system for anticancer drugs. Indeed, HAP exhibited anticancer activities comparable to the commercial anticancer drug cisplatin but with lower side effects both in vitro and in vivo.
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Hybrid transparent conductive film on flexible glass formed by hot-pressing graphene on a silver nanowire mesh.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Polycrystalline graphene and metallic nanowires (NWs) have been proposed to replace indium tin oxide (ITO), the most widely used transparent electrode (TE) film on the market. However, the trade-off between optical transparency (Topt) and electrical sheet resistance (Rs) of these materials taken alone makes them difficult to compete with ITO. In this paper, we show that, by hot-press transfer of graphene monolayer on Ag NWs, the resulting combined structure benefits from the synergy of the two materials, giving a Topt-Rs trade-off better than that expected by simply adding the single material contributions Ag NWs bridge any interruption in transferred graphene, while graphene lowers the contact resistance among neighboring NWs and provides local conductivity in the uncovered regions in-between NWs. The hot-pressing not only allows graphene transfer but also compacts the NWs joints, thus reducing contact resistance. The dependence on the initial NW concentration of the effects produced by the hot press process on its own and the graphene transfer using hot press was investigated and indicates that a low concentration is more suitable for the proposed geometry. A TE film with Topt of 90% and Rs of 14 ?/sq is demonstrated, also on a flexible glass substrate about 140 ?m thick, a very attractive platform for efficient flexible electronic and photonic devices.
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One-step solvothermal synthesis of targetable optomagnetic upconversion nanoparticles for in vivo bimodal imaging.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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Bionanoparticles and nanostructures with high biocompatibility and stability, low toxicity, diversification of imaging modality, and specificity of targeting to desired organs or cells are of great interest in nanobiology and medicine. However, integrating all of these desired features into a single bionanoparticle, which can be applied to biomedical applications and eventually in clinical prediagnosis and therapy, is still a challenge. We herein report a facile one-step solvothermal approach to fabricate targetable and biocompatible ?-NaYF4:Yb,Gd,Tm upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) with bimodal-signals (near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and magnetic resonance (MR) signals) using hyaluronic acid (HA) as a multifunctional molecule. The prepared UCNPs with low toxicity are successfully applied for in vitro and in vivo targeted tumor imaging. The developed biomimetic surface modification approach for the synthesis of biomolecule-guided multifunctional UCNPs holds great potential applications in medical diagnostics and therapy.
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[Progress of research on interaction between bone marrow mensenchymal stem cell and other intra-bone marrow cells].
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Bone marrow mensenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) are capable of supporting the survival, differentiation and migration of hematopoietic stem cell, and have a profound application prospect in transplantation and treatment of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). This review aims to illustrate the interaction between BM-MSCs and other intra-bone marrow cells, including hematopoietic stem cells, endothelial cells and osteoblasts. The investigation of their regulating mechanism will help better understanding of the BM-MSCs role in hematopoiesis.
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Functional near infrared-emitting Cr3+/Pr3+ co-doped zinc gallogermanate persistent luminescent nanoparticles with superlong afterglow for in vivo targeted bioimaging.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Near infrared (NIR)-emitting persistent luminescent nanoparticles (PLNPs) have great potential for in vivo bioimaging with the advantages of no need for in situ excitation, high signal-to-noise ratio, and deep tissue penetration. However, functional NIR-emitting PLNPs with long afterglow for long-term in vivo imaging are lacking. Here, we show the synthesis of NIR-emitting long-persistent luminescent nanoparticles (LPLNPs) Zn2.94Ga1.96Ge2O10:Cr(3+),Pr(3+) by a citrate sol-gel method in combination with a subsequent reducing atmosphere-free calcination. The persistent luminescence of the LPLNPs is significantly improved via codoping Pr(3+)/Cr(3+) and creating suitable Zn deficiency in zinc gallogermanate. The LPLNP powder exhibits bright NIR luminescence in the biological transparency window with a superlong afterglow time of over 15 days. A persistent energy transfer between host and Cr(3+) ion in the LPLNPs is observed and its mechanism is discussed. PEGylation greatly improves the biocompatibility and water solubility of the LPLNPs. Further bioconjugation with c(RGDyK) peptide makes the LPLNPs promising for long-term in vivo targeted tumor imaging with low toxicity.
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Effect of temperature and particle size on the thermal desorption of PCBs from contaminated soil.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Thermal desorption is widely used for remediation of soil contaminated with volatiles, such as solvents and distillates. In this study, a soil contaminated with semivolatile polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was sampled at an interim storage point for waste PCB transformers and heated to temperatures from 300 to 600 °C in a flow of nitrogen to investigate the effect of temperature and particle size on thermal desorption. Two size fractions were tested: coarse soil of 420-841 ?m and fine soil with particles <250 ?m. A PCB removal efficiency of 98.0 % was attained after 1 h of thermal treatment at 600 °C. The residual amount of PCBs in this soil decreased with rising thermal treatment temperature while the amount transferred to the gas phase increased up to 550 °C; at 600 °C, destruction of PCBs became more obvious. At low temperature, the thermally treated soil still had a similar PCB homologue distribution as raw soil, indicating thermal desorption as a main mechanism in removal. Dechlorination and decomposition increasingly occurred at high temperature, since shifts in average chlorination level were observed, from 3.34 in the raw soil to 2.75 in soil treated at 600 °C. Fine soil particles showed higher removal efficiency and destruction efficiency than coarse particles, suggesting that desorption from coarse particles is influenced by mass transfer.
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Application of a recyclable plastic bulking agent for sewage sludge composting.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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A recyclable plastic bulking agent (RPBA) that can be screened and reused was developed to improve sludge composting and to reduce costs. Two RPBAs were developed: RPBA35 (35mm in diameter) and RPBA50 (50mm in diameter). The objective was to study the influence of size and quantity of RPBA on temperature, oxygen content, water removal during sludge composting, and phytotoxicity of the compost. RPBAs of both sizes improved the temperature, oxygen supply, and water removal compared with the treatment with no RPBA, and obtained phytotoxic-free compost. RPBA50 more effectively removed water than RPBA35. Oxygen diffusion rate in the composting pile containing RPBA50 was higher than in the treatment with no RPBA. When the RPBA50: sludge mixture ratio was above 1:1.5, the period over which the temperature exceeded 55°C was insufficient to meet the harmless treatment requirement. The water evaporation rate was highest at a ratio of 1:2.
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The pathophysiology of venous hypertensive myelopathy--study of an animal model: laboratory investigation.
J Neurosurg Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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The authors undertook this study to establish an animal model to investigate the pathophysiological changes of venous hypertensive myelopathy (VHM).
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Regenerated distributed Bragg reflector fiber lasers for high-temperature operation.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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This Letter presents distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) fiber lasers for high-temperature operation at 750°C. Thermally regenerated fiber gratings were used as the feedback elements to construct an erbium-doped DBR fiber laser. The output power of the fiber laser can reach 1 mW at all operating temperatures. The output power fluctuation tested at 750°C was 1.06% over a period of 7 hours. The thermal regeneration grating fabrication process opens new possibilities to design and to implement fiber laser sensors for extreme environments.
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[Study on the association of oral contraceptives, angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms and the risk of stroke in women].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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To evaluate the associations of oral contraceptives (OC) exposure, angiotensinogen (AGT) gene polymorphism and joint effects on the risk of stroke in Chinese women.
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A new ditopic ratiometric receptor for detecting zinc and fluoride ions in living cells.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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The synthesis, characterization and ion binding properties of a new ditopic ratiometric receptor (1), based on 2-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenol and crown ether moieties, have been described. The ditopic ratiometric receptor has been studied in sensing both F(-) and Zn(2+) ions, exhibiting different fluorescent colour changes from cyan green to blue/black observable by the naked eye under UV-light. The addition of Zn(2+) to the solution of 1 induced the formation of a 2?:?2 ligand-metal complex 1-Zn(2+), which displays a remarkable blue shift of the emission maxima of 1 from 455 nm to 400 nm due to the inhibition of excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) mechanism. The sensing processes were monitored by fluorescence/absorption titrations, and further confirmed by Jobs plot and (1)H NMR titrations. The crystal structure of 1-Zn(2+) reveals that 1 binds Zn(2+) in four-coordinated modes. Furthermore, 1 is cell permeable and may be applied to detect trace Zn(2+) and F(-) during the development of a living organism.
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Functionalized heterocyclic scaffolds derived from Morita-Baylis-Hillman Acetates.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Five series of heterocycles with extraordinary structural diversity have been regiospecifically synthesized from the same Morita-Baylis-Hillman Acetates (MBHAs). All four potential electrophilic sites (?, ?, ?, ?) of MBHAs are proved to be reactive.
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Emissions behavior and distribution of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs) from cement kilns in China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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The production of cement in China is accompanied by various emissions, such as fine particulate matter, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon dioxide…. Moreover, cement kiln presents a potential health risk to its surroundings, linking to emissions of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), in brief dioxins. Flue gas samples were collected from five typical cement kilns during twelve runs and were used to evaluate the levels and distribution of PCDD/Fs in the emissions from cement kilns. The PCDD/Fs concentrations (136 congeners) and I-TEQ values ranged from 2.3 to >40 ng/m(3) and 9.3???90.8?×?10(-3) ng I-TEQ/m(3), respectively, which were lower than the emission standard in China (0.1 ng I-TEQ/m(3)). In weight units, the dominant congeners were OCDD, 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-HpCDF, and OCDF; 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF is the largest contributor (36-66 %) to the total I-TEQ value of twelve runs. HxCDF and TCDF were the first two most abundant homologue groups (12-85 and 4-52 %), and the homologue concentration decreased with rising chlorine number for PCDDs. In addition, there was no marked difference in homologue profiles when solid wastes (refuse-derived fuel and municipal solid waste) and hazardous wastes (DDT and POPs) were combusted as supplemental fuels. The use of various supplemental fuels had no obvious effect on the fingerprint of PCDD/F homologues. Moreover, there was no significant difference in levels of PCDD/Fs emission due to the diversity of production capacity, which were consistent with reported previously. Air pollution control device had effect on the homologue profiles, and cement system with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) had more fractions of octachloro congeners to the total.
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ONTD induces apoptosis of human hepatoma Bel-7402 cells via a MAPK-dependent mitochondrial pathway and the depletion of intracellular glutathione.
Int. J. Biochem. Cell Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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3-Oxo-29-noroleana-1,9(11),12-trien-2,20-dicarbonitrile (ONTD) is a novel synthetic derivative of glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), which has the ability to inhibit the proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells. However, the mechanisms by which ONTD exerts its inhibitory effects remain elusive. The present study was conducted to investigate the cytotoxicity of ONTD in Bel-7402 cells and its molecular mechanisms. We found that ONTD depleted intracellular GSH, increased the level of ROS, and consequently induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) leading to the release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and cytochrome c (Cyt c) to the cytosol. Mitochondrial alteration and subsequent apoptotic cell death in ONTD-treated Bel-7402 cells could be blocked by addition of exogenous antioxidants N-acetylcystein (NAC), GSH and the MTP inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA). In addition, ONTD activated the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) but not extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK 1/2). When the cells were exposed to SP600125 (a JNK inhibitor) and SB203580 (a p38 inhibitor), the deregulation of the expression of apoptotic proteins was attenuated. Furthermore, 40 mg/kg ONTD significantly reduced tumor weight (-70.62%, p<0.01) in the H22 tumor-bearing mouse model in vivo. Taken together, these findings provide the first experimental evidence supporting that ONTD could induce apoptosis of Bel-7402 cells via MAPK-mediated mitochondrial pathway and ONTD has the potential to be developed as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of HCC.
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Glycemic variability in normal glucose regulation subjects with elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose levels.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR), whose 1-h postload plasma glucose is ?8.6 mmol/L (155 mg/dL, NGR 1 h ? 8.6) during 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), have an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and subclinical organ damage. And, the deficiency in islet ? cell function is responsible for glycemic disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate glycemic variability in NGR subjects with elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose levels and its association with islet ? cell function. The 29 NGR subjects with 1-h postload plasma glucose ?8.6 mmol/L (NGR 1 h ? 8.6) and 29 age- and sex-matched NGR subjects with 1-h postload plasma glucose <8.6 mmol/L (NGR 1 h < 8.6) were recruited in the study. Insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index, ISI), insulin secretion (insulinogenic index ?I30/?G30), and integrated ? cell function measured by the oral disposition index (?I30/?G30 multiplied by the ISI) were derived from OGTT. All subjects were monitored using the continuous glucose monitoring system for consecutive 72 h. The multiple parameters of glycemic variability included the standard deviation of blood glucose (SDBG), mean blood glucose (MBG), mean of daily differences (MODD), and mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE). MAGE is considered as a gold standard of glycemic variability. Glycemic variability parameters SDBG, MBG, MODD, and MAGE in NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group were higher than those in NGR 1 h < 8.6 group (p < 0.05), and oral disposition index in NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group was lower than that in NGR 1 h < 8.6 group (p < 0.05). SDBG, MBG, MODD, MAGE, and 1-h postload plasma glucose all negatively associated with oral disposition index in the separate group (p < 0.05) and in the whole subjects (p < 0.05). After multivariate regression analysis, oral disposition index was the strongest independent contributor to MAGE and 1-h postload plasma glucose in the separate group (p < 0.05) and in the whole subjects (p < 0.05). It is concluded that NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group had higher glycemic variability and lower oral disposition index, compared with NGR 1 h < 8.6 group. Increased glycemic variability parameters and elevated 1-h postload plasma glucose consistently associated with declined oral disposition index in subjects from NGR 1 h < 8.6 to NGR 1 h ? 8.6 group.
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Spiral resonators for on-chip laser frequency stabilization.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Frequency references are indispensable to radio, microwave and time keeping systems, with far reaching applications in navigation, communication, remote sensing and basic science. Over the past decade, there has been an optical revolution in time keeping and microwave generation that promises to ultimately impact all of these areas. Indeed, the most precise clocks and lowest noise microwave signals are now based on a laser with short-term stability derived from a reference cavity. In spite of the tremendous progress, these systems remain essentially laboratory devices and there is interest in their miniaturization, even towards on-chip systems. Here we describe a chip-based optical reference cavity that uses spatial averaging of thermorefractive noise to enhance resonator stability. Stabilized fibre lasers exhibit relative Allan deviation of 3.9 × 10?¹³ at 400??s averaging time and an effective linewidth <100?Hz by achieving over 26?dB of phase-noise reduction.
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Spontaneous remission in patients with acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;21) or cutaneous myeloid sarcoma: two case reports and a review of the literature.
Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Spontaneous remission (SR) in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is rare. We herein present two such cases. The first case was of AML-M2 accompanied by a bone marrow cytogenetic analysis revealing 46, XY, t(8;21)(q22,q22). The second case was of isolated cutaneous myeloid sarcoma (MS) that progressed to AML within seven months. Both of the patients had symptoms of infection and anemia and were therefore treated with antibiotics and transfusions. The SR lasted for two months and one month, respectively. Currently, the mechanisms underlying SR remain ambiguous. Possible underlying mechanisms with a review of the related literature are discussed.
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Morphology, differentiation and adhesion molecule expression changes of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells from acute myeloid leukemia patients.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been identified as an important component of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niche, which is essential for the maintenance of HSCs. HSC niche alternation has been considered to be the main cause of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, little is known with regard to BMSC alteration in AML patients. BMSCs were collected from 10 AML patients and 13 controls in order to examine the morphology, differentiation and adhesion molecule expression changes. It was observed that primary BMSCs from AML patients exhibited aberrant morphologies compared with those from the controls. Prior to adipogenic differentiation, the mRNA and protein levels of the lipid marker gene lipoprotein lipase, from the BMSCs of AML patients, were significantly higher. lipid drops were present early during differentiation in the BMSCs of AML patients and exhibited greater numbers later. Following adipogenic differentiation, the mRNA level of E-cadherin in the BMSCs of AML patients was significantly lower than that identified in the BMSCs of the control groups. Following osteogenic induction, the mRNA level of E-cadherin in the BMSCs of AML patients was significantly higher than in the controls. Therefore BMSCs from the AML patients exhibited irregular morphology, tendency to pre-differentiate to adipocytes and different adhesion molecule expression following differentiation. These differences may further our understanding of the HSC niche in the pathological condition.
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Treating PCDD/Fs by combined catalysis and activated carbon adsorption.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalysts are used to destroy dioxins present in the gas phase, yet both their removal efficiency (RE) and destruction efficiency (DE) decrease with rising initial concentration (IC). Therefore, activated carbons (AC-1: based on lignite; AC-2: based on coconut shell) were mixed with the catalyst to tackle these high IC gases. A gas phase dioxin-generating system was used to supply three different stable IC-values. When the highest IC is used (20.5ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) without AC, at 200°C, the RE and DE-value of PCDD/Fs reaches only 76% and 64%, respectively. At the same conditions, using a mix of catalyst and AC-2, these RE and DE-values rise to 90.1% and 82.0%, respectively. The mix catalyst/AC also shows better performance at low temperature (160 and 180°C). The AC characteristics influence upon the adsorption and degradation abilities of the mixtures.
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?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) homeostasis regulates pollen germination and polarized growth in Picea wilsonii.
Planta
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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?-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a four-carbon non-protein amino acid found in a wide range of organisms. Recently, GABA accumulation has been shown to play a role in the stress response and cell growth in angiosperms. However, the effect of GABA deficiency on pollen tube development remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that specific concentrations of exogenous GABA stimulated pollen tube growth in Picea wilsonii, while an overdose suppressed pollen tube elongation. The germination percentage of pollen grains and morphological variations in pollen tubes responded in a dose-dependent manner to treatment with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MP), a glutamate decarboxylase inhibitor, while the inhibitory effects could be recovered in calcium-containing medium supplemented with GABA. Using immunofluorescence labeling, we found that the actin cables were disorganized in 3-MP treated cells, followed by the transition of endo/exocytosis activating sites from the apex to the whole tube shank. In addition, variations in the deposition of cell wall components were detected upon labeling with JIM5, JIM7, and aniline blue. Our results demonstrated that calcium-dependent GABA signaling regulates pollen germination and polarized tube growth in P. wilsonii by affecting actin filament patterns, vesicle trafficking, and the configuration and distribution of cell wall components.
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Factors affecting the use of anti-malaria preventive measures among Taiwan immigrants returning to malaria-endemic regions.
Travel Med Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The aim of this study was to investigate the predictors of anti-malaria preventive measures (AMPMs) among Taiwan immigrants returning to their country of origin using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Between March and May 2011, all permanent immigrants originating from malaria-endemic countries, attended by either the Taipei or Tainan Immigrant Service Center, Taiwan, and who reported a history of returning to their country of origin within the preceding year during the malarious season in their country of origin were enrolled in the study. Complete information was collected from 316 immigrants, with a response rate of 87% (316/364). The mean age of the subjects was 38.1 years (SD = 9.9). The majority (70%) of participants did not receive travel information through a pre-travel consultation; more than 40% reported that they did not use measures to prevent insect bites. Multiple regression analyses revealed that Chinese proficiency, travel consultation before travel, lower perceived susceptibility to malaria, higher perceived severity of malaria infection, higher perceived benefit for taking measures, and higher self-efficacy for taking measures significantly predicted the use of AMPMs during the return to their country of origin (R(2) = 0.20; F = 50.42; P < 0.001). A high proportion of immigrants were not using appropriate AMPMs when they returned to their country. Educational approaches should be targeted toward immigrants who return to visit their country of origin.
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[Rapid analysis of 28 primary aromatic amines in aqueous food simulants by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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A novel method for rapid analysis of the migration amounts of 28 primary aromatic amines (PAAs) in aqueous food simulants (10% ethanol, 30 g/L acetic acid and 20% ethanol aqueous solution) was developed using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). After the migration test, the soaking solution was cooled down from 100 degrees C, vortexed, filtered through a hydrophilic polytetrafluoroethylene filter with a disposable syringe, and then the filtrate was analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. A Zorbax SB-Phenyl column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) was selected for chromatography. The mobile phase consisted of water and 0.1% formic acid-25% acetonitrile-methanol solution with gradient elution. The 28 PAAs in aqueous food simulants were detected by tandem mass spectrometer operated in positive electrospray ionization (ESI+) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The limits of quantification for the 28 PAAs were between 0.002 microg/L and 10 microg/L. The linearity of the method was good with correlation coefficients (r2) greater than 0.995 over the concentration range from 5 microg/L or 10 microg/L to 100 microg/L. The average recoveries of the 28 PAAs were between 76.6% and 114% with the relative standard deviations between 1.53% and 8.97% at the levels of 10, 20, and 40 microg/L. The method shows rapid pretreatment, the lower limits of quantification, good recoveries and accuracies, and meets the requirement of European Union (EU) No 10/2011 regulation for the specific migration of PAAs. The method has been applied to analyze the 28 PAAs in different aqueous food simulants from the migration test of 30 batches of food contact material samples exported to EU.
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