To further investigate the airborne infection mechanism of Marek's disease virus (MDV), a MDV aerosol infection model was established, and the generation, transmission and infectiosity of MDV aerosols were monitored in this study. Two positive/negative pressure isolators, in which SPF chickens were raised, were connected with a closed conduit. Two repetitive trials, Trial 1 (T1) and Trial 2 (T2) were carried out for objective assessment. Air samples were collected using the AGI-30 sampler. Viral DNA in air samples and feather follicle samples were detected using real-time quantitative PCR (QRT-PCR). MDV in air and blood samples was detected by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). In chickens of isolator A (MDV inoculation group), MDV was detected in feather follicles in 100% of the tested chickens at 6 days post inoculation (dpi) in both trials; and MDV was isolated from blood samples at 9-10 dpi. MDV DNA was detected in air samples from isolator A at 12 dpi in T1 and 14 dpi in T2 and concentration of aerosolized MDV DNA was peaked at 3.84 × 10(6)copies/m(3) air at 40 dpi in T1, and 6.17 × 10(5)copies/m(3) air at 38 dpi in T2, respectively. Infectious MDV (cell culture) was isolated from isolator A at 17 in T1 and 19 dpi in T2, respectively. MDV aerosol in Isolator B was almost same as isolator A. Viremia was detected in isolator B at 26-30 dpi. The incidence of viremia in isolator B reached 70% at 3 months post inoculation. These results demonstrated that infected chicken could discharge virus, the MDV could form aerosols and infect neighboring chickens. Understanding the mechanism of generation and infection of MDV aerosols is helpful to prevent and control MD.
A one-step immunochromatographic assay using gold nanoparticles coated with polyclonal antibody (pAb) against Mycoplasma suis (M. suis) was developed in this study for the detection of M. suis in porcine plasma. The colloidal gold was prepared by the reduction of gold salt with sodium citrate coupled with pAb against M. suis. The pAb was produced by immunizing the BALB/c mice with recombinant MSG1 (rMSG1) protein from M. suis expressed in Escherichia coli. The optimal concentrations of the capture antibody and the coating antibody were 12 ?g/ml and 1.5 mg/ml, respectively, and that of the blocking buffer was 1% bovine serum albumin. The lower detection limit of the immunochromatographic assay test was 100 ng/ml with visual detection under optimal conditions of analysis. Classical swine fever virus, porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, swine pneumonia mycoplasma, swine toxoplasma, and porcine parvovirus were used to evaluate the specificity of the immunochromatographic strips. No cross-reaction of the antibodies with other related swine pathogens was observed. This qualitative test based on the visual evaluation of the results did not require any equipment. The assay time for M. suis detection was less than 10 min, suitable for rapid detection at the grassroots level. The one-step colloidal gold immunochromatographic strips that we developed had high specificity and sensitivity. Therefore, this method would be feasible, convenient, rapid, and effective for detecting M. suis in porcine plasma.
The circulation of H9N2 viruses throughout the world, along with their expanded host range, poses a potential health risk to the public, but the host responses to H9N2 virus in mammals were little known. To obtain insight into the host immune responses to the avian H9N2 virus, the expressions of both cytokines and chemokines in the lungs of infected mice were examined by real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that interferon gamma (IFN-?) was the dominant antiviral component, and IFN-?-induced protein 10 kDa, interleukin 6, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha all played a role in pro-inflammatory responses to H9N2 viruses. In conclusion, this research can make us further understand the infection characteristics of H9N2 virus in mammalian host by providing the data on mice lung immune responses to the avian H9N2 virus.
The study was conducted to investigate drug resistance, OXA-type carbapenemases-encoding genes and genetic diversity in airborne Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) in burn wards. Airborne A. baumannii were collected in burn wards and their corridors using Andersen 6-stage air sampler from January to June 2011. The isolates susceptibility to 13 commonly used antibiotics was examined according to the CLSI guidelines; OXA-type carbapenemases-encoding genes and molecular diversity of isolates were analyzed, respectively. A total of 16 non-repetitive A. baumannii were isolated, with 10 strains having a resistance rate of greater than 50% against the 13 antibiotics. The resistance rate against ceftriaxone, cyclophosvnamide, ciprofloxacin, and imipenem was 93.75% (15/16), but no isolate observed to be resistant to cefoperazone/sulbactam. Resistance gene analyses showed that all 16 isolates carried OXA-51, and 15 isolates carried OXA-23 except No.15; but OXA-24 and OXA-58 resistance genes not detected. The isolates were classified into 13 genotypes (A-M) according to repetitive extragenic palindromic sequence PCR (REP-PCR) results and only six isolates had a homology ?90%. In conclusion, airborne A. baumannii in the burn wards had multidrug resistance and complex molecular diversity, and OXA-23 and OXA-51 were dominant mechanisms for resisting carbapenems.
The novel swine-origin influenza A (H1N1) virus (S-O 2009 IV) can cause respiratory infectious diseases in humans and pigs, but there are few studies investigating the airborne spread of the virus. In January 2011, a swine-origin H1N1 epidemic emerged in eastern China that rapidly spread to neighboring farms, likely by aerosols carried by the wind.
Avian influenza virus (AIV) has caused serious epidemics all over the world. Notably, the low-pathogenic AIV H9N2 has been spreading widely, leading to enormous economic losses to the poultry industry. To rapidly monitor airborne H9 AIVs in chicken houses, a real-time RT-PCR method was established and used to detect virus in air samples, and it was also compared with the traditional RT-PCR. The results showed that the real-time RT-PCR possessed high specificity and sensitivity for H9 AIVs, and the sensitivity reached 100 copies/reaction, much higher than the traditional RT-PCR; airborne H9 AIVs were found in the six chicken houses by real-time RT-PCR, and their mean concentrations ranged from 1.25×10(4) to 6.92×10(4) copies/m(3) air. Overall, the real-time PCR is a valuable tool for detecting airborne H9 AIVs.
To better understand the transmission route of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV), two duplicate trials were conducted to observe the process of aerosol infection and direct contact in specific pathogen free chickens. Fifteen chickens (G1) were inoculated with H9N2 AIV and housed together with another 15 chickens (G2) in the same positive-negative-pressure isolator (A). Fifteen chickens (G3) were bred in another isolator (B) which was connected with A so that air could flow unidirectionally from A to B. Air, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs, and blood samples were collected for the detection of aerosolized virus, virus shedding, and seroconversion. AIV aerosols were initially detected at day 2-3 post inoculation (dpi), reaching peak concentrations at 7 dpi. Virus shedding was detected in all chickens of G2, but only in a part in G3 (T1: 87%, T2: 80%). Antibodies were initially detected at 4-5 dpi, peaking at 14-21 dpi. The results showed that H9N2 AIV could be transmitted by both aerosol exposure and direct contact.
Babesiosis (piroplasmosis) is a zoonotic disease caused by an intraerythrocytic protozoan transmitted by Ixodes ticks. The aim of this study was to detect Babesia spp. infection using molecular methods in 377 blood samples from anemic patients. Sequence analysis showed that the 18S rRNA gene was 439 bases long by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and that the PCR products from the samples had an identical sequence (named Taian China, HM355854). BLAST search showed that the sequence was identical to the 18S rRNA sequences of Babesia divergens. The 18S rRNA sequence for Toxoplasma gondii was included as the outlier for phylogenetic analysis by using the program MEGA4.0 software. The results showed that the 18S rRNA gene sequences obtained from the present study was most closely related to B. divergens Switzerland (DQ312439) with 98.4% similarity (differing only by seven bases). The phylogenetic analysis also revealed that this sequence closely resembled B. divergens strains from other countries and belonged to the same clade. This is the first report of a human being infected by B. divergens in China.
The recombinant ppa protein of Mycoplasma suis migrated to 21 kDa. Using this antigen, an ELISA system to detect the antibody against M. suis infection in swine was established. The rELISA demonstrated 98.5% specificities among negative samples and 96.9% sensitivity among positive samples with M. suis infection. A comparison of this ELISA system with an indirect hemagglutination assay (IHA) test using 132 swine samples revealed that the positive rate was 34.0% in ELISA and 28.0% in IHA. Compared with IHA, the present rELISA system using recombinant ppa antigen significantly improves the specificity, sensitivity, and stability for serodiagnosis of M. suis infection in swine.
Mycoplasma suis (M. suis), a hemotrophic pathogen of pigs, causes economic losses in swine production throughout the world. Inorganic pyrophosphatase (ppa) is a very important gene in M. suis. The ppa gene of M. suis was synthesized by PCR-based accurate synthesis (PAS) and overlapextension PCR, inserted into vector pMD18-T, and then subcloned to the prokaryotic expression vector pET28c.The recombinant plasmid pET28c_ppa was transformed to E. coli BL21 for expression under induction of isopropyl thiogalactoside. The expressed product was identified by SDS-PAGE and Western blot, which suggested that the recombinant protein has good antigenicity. Piglets were immunised with purified recombinant protein, and specific antibodies to the recombinant protein were detected in piglet serum. The results show that the ppa gene can be efficiently expressed in E. coli and that the expressed recombinant protein can elicit a specific serum antibody response in piglets. PAS and overlap-extension PCR were first used to synthesize the ppa of M. suis. They provide simple, rapid, reliable and relatively inexpensive methods to synthesize, clone, and express genes. The experiment conducted in this paper will enable future research into the role and function of the ppa gene.
One hundred and forty three airborne Fusarium isolates in chicken houses belonging to seven Fusarium species were analyzed by PCR with Tri5 gene as a specific marker of mycotoxin product . The result of Tri5 gene sequence analysis indicates that the PCR amplification products were 89%-96% identical to the previously reported Tri5 genes, which were all amplified from four F. poae isolates. T-2 toxin and DON was measured by immunoaffinity column and high performance liquid chromatography in Tri5-positive F. poae isolates after being cultured at constant and alternating temperatures. The production of T-2 toxin under alternating temperatures was 14 and 53 times higher than those at constant temperature of 8 °C and 25 °C. No DON was detected under either testing temperature condition. It is concluded that T-2 toxin-producing F. poae isolates were present in poultry houses, and the concentration of T-2 toxin produced by Tri5-positive F. poae isolates was increased under alternating temperatures. The application of Tri5-PCR associated with IMC-HPLC is an effective and accurate method for rapid detection of T-2 and DON mycotoxins.
In order to better understand airborne transmission of Newcastle disease, a model system was established and two trials were conducted. Twenty-five principal specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were inoculated with NDV and were housed in one isolator. 6 days after the chickens were challenged, 15 chickens were placed into another isolator which received its air supply from the first isolator. The NDV aerosol originating from inoculated chickens was collected with All Glass Impinger-30 (AGI-30) to study the occurrence and concentration of NDV aerosol. The antibody response to infection was assessed by the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and viral shedding was detected by RT-PCR and Dot-ELISA. NDV aerosol was initially detectable by RT-PCR and cell culture at day 2 or 3 post-inoculation (dpi). The aerosol concentration peaked at 1.69x10(4)PFU/m(3) air at 13dpi in trial 1, 9.14x10(3)PFU/m(3) air at 11dpi in trial 2 and was consistently detectable up to 40dpi. NDV shedding was detectable from 2 to 40dpi of inoculated chickens and from 6 days post-aerosol exposed infection (dpi) to 33dpi of aerosol exposed chickens. The viral strain induced high antibody level, both in inoculated and in aerosol exposed chickens. Airborne transmission did occur, as shown by NDV shedding and seroconversion to NDV in aerosol exposed chickens. The results indicated that viruses shed from infected chickens readily aerosolized and airborne transmission of NDV was possible.
The co-infection of duck circovirus (DuCV) with Riemerella anatipestifer (RA) or/and Escherichia coli (E. coli) or/and duck hepatitis virus I (DHV-I) in Cherry Valley ducks in Chinas Shandong Province was investigated by using polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR)-based methods. For this study, 742 ducks sampled at random from 70 duck farms during 2006-2007 were examined using PCR and dot-blot hybridisation (DBH) tests. Overall the DuCV infection rate was 33.29%. Compared with those at 2 weeks of age, the ducks at 3-4 weeks of age were more susceptible to DuCV infection. Compared with the DuCV-negative ones, the DuCV-positive ducks had a higher rate of infection by DHV-I (25.5% vs. 7.475%), RA (23.48% vs. 8.28%) and E. coli (16.19% vs. 4.85%). This investigation shows that DuCV infection is common in Cherry Valley ducks on some farms in Shandong Province.
Evidence is mounting that microorganisms originating from livestock impact the air quality of the animal houses themselves and the public in the surrounding neighborhoods. The aim of this study was to develop efficient bacterial source tracking capabilities to identify sources of Escherichia coli aerosol pollution caused by pigs. Airborne E. coli were isolated from indoor air, upwind air (10 and 50 m away) and downwind air samples (10, 50, 100, 200 and 400 m away) for five swine houses using six-stage Andersen microbial samplers and Reuter-Centrifugal samplers (RCS). E. coli strains from pig fecal samples were also collected simultaneously. The enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus polymerize chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) and the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP-PCR) approaches were used to study the genetic variability and to determine the strain relationships among E. coli isolated from different sites in each swine house. Results showed that 35.1% (20/57) of the bacterial DNA fingerprints from the fecal isolates matched with the corresponding strains isolated from indoor and downwind air samples (similarity > or = 90%). E. coli strains from the indoor and downwind air samples were closely related to the E. coli strains isolated from feces, while those isolated from upwind air samples (swine house C) had low similarity (61-69%). Our results suggest that some strains isolated from downwind and indoor air originated in the swine feces. Effective hygienic measures should be taken in animal farms to prevent or minimize the downwind spread of microorganism aerosol.
Airborne Newcastle disease (ND) viruses in the air of five chicken houses were detected and differentiated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using degenerate primers. Fifteen air samples were collected with All Glass Impinger-30 (AGI-30) air samplers in each house. Airborne ND viruses were also isolated and virulence identified by in vivo tests. Avirulent viruses were detected both in air samples and swab samples in four houses by degenerate primers based RT-PCR. Virulent viruses were detected only in the air samples by degenerate primers based RT-PCR in two houses. Seven strains viruses were isolated from the RT-PCR positive air samples. Of the seven strains, three strains were virulent viruses and four strains were avirulent viruses identified by in vivo tests. The results showed that it was feasible to detect and differentiate NDV in the air samples using degenerate primers based RT-PCR. This technique could decrease the time it required identify NDV infected flocks while distinguishing between virulent and avirulent viruses. It will help effectively to control Newcastle disease.
Bacterial ghost is intact envelope of Gram-negative bacteria, which is produced by the function of the lysis gene E from bacteriophage PhiX174. The expression of the lysis gene E is usually controlled by the thermosensitive lambdapL/pR-cI857 promoter. In this study, we described a mutation (T --> C) at the ninth nucleotide of the OR2 in the lambdapR promoter of the lambdapL/pR-cI857 system by overlap PCR. The bacteriolytic assay showed that the mutation in the lambdapL/pR-cI857 system enhanced the temperature of repressing the expression of gene E up to 37 degrees C. The lysis efficiency of altered lambdapR promoter in Escherichia coli DH5a and avian pathogenic E. coli DE17 was up to 99.9%. The expanded range of temperature will benefit for the production of bacterial ghost.
Shandong is a porcine circovirus 2b (PCV2b) strain that was isolated and purified from tissue samples from pigs with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) in the Shandong Province of China. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of strain Shandong, which may aid in understanding the molecular characteristics of this strain.
This study aimed to determine the transmission characteristics of H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIVs) derived from the air. Eight H9N2 AIVs were isolated from chicken houses between 2009 and 2010. We analyzed the phylogenic and pathogenic traits of these isolates. What is more, transmission characteristics in guinea pigs of two airborne isolates were determined in experimental conditions. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that the homologies of HA and NA genes of eight isolates were 95.4-99.7% and 86.6-99.8% respectively. They were able to duplicate in lung tissues of guinea pigs without prior adaptation. Two airborne isolates could both transmit among guinea pigs by direct contact. No infection was detected in aerosol contact animals while H9N2 AIV aerosols were detected in the air of isolators. Aerosol infection dose experiment showed that aerosol median infective dose (ID(50)) of H9N2 AIV to guinea pigs was 3.58×10(6)copies, demonstrating that the aerosols could infect guinea pigs at certain concentrations in experimental condition. In conclusion, H9N2 AIV aerosols were infectious to mammals, suggesting that urgent attention will need to be paid to its transmission.
There is a rather limited understanding concerning the antibiotic-resistance of the airborne S. aureus and the transmission of the antibiotic-resistant genes it carries Therefore, we isolated 149 S. aureus strains from the samples collected from the feces, the indoor air and the outdoor air of 6 chicken farms, and performed the research on them with 15 types of antibiotics and the REP-PCR trace identification. The 100% homologous strains were selected to conduct the research on the carrying and transmission status of the antibiotic-resistant genes. The results revealed that 5.37% strains (8/149) were resistant to methicillins (MRSA), and 94% strains (140/149) were resistant to compound sulfamethoxazole, etc. In addition, these strains displayed a resistance to multiple antibiotics (4, 5 or 6 types) and there were also 3 strains resistant to 9 antibiotics. It should be noted that the antibiotic-resistance of some strains isolated from the feces, the indoor and outdoor air was basically the same, and the strains with the same REP-PCR trace identification result carried the same type of antibiotic-resistant genes. The results showed that airborne transmission not only causes the spread of epidemic diseases but also exerts threats to the public health of a community.
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