Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a key role in the innate immune responses to periodontal pathogens in periodontal disease. The present study was performed to determine the roles of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling in alveolar bone resorption, using a Porphyromonas gingivalis-associated ligature-induced periodontitis model in mice. Wild-type (WT), Tlr2(-/-), and Tlr4(-/-) mice (8 to 10 weeks old) in the C57/BL6 background were used. Silk ligatures were applied to the maxillary second molars in the presence or absence of live P. gingivalis infection. Ligatures were removed from the second molars on day 14, and mice were kept for another 2 weeks before sacrifice for final analysis (day 28). On day 14, there were no differences in alveolar bone resorption and gingival RANKL expression between mice treated with ligation plus P. gingivalis infection and mice treated with ligation alone. Gingival interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) expression was increased, whereas IL-10 expression was decreased in WT and Tlr2(-/-) mice but not in Tlr4(-/-) mice. On day 28, WT and Tlr4(-/-) mice treated with ligation plus P. gingivalis infection showed significantly increased bone loss and gingival RANKL expression compared to those treated with ligation alone, whereas such an increase was diminished in Tlr2(-/-) mice. Gingival TNF-? upregulation and IL-10 downregulation were observed only in WT and Tlr4(-/-) mice, not in Tlr2(-/-) mice. In all mice, bone resorption induced by ligation plus P. gingivalis infection was antagonized by local anti-RANKL antibody administration. This study suggests that P. gingivalis exacerbates ligature-induced, RANKL-dependent periodontal bone resorption via differential regulation of TLR2 and TLR4 signaling.
B lymphocytes express multiple TLRs that regulate their cytokine production.We investigated the effect of TLR4 and TLR9 activation on receptor activator of NF?kB ligand (RANKL) expression by rat spleen B cells. Splenocytes or purified spleen B cells from Rowett rats were cultured with TLR4 ligand Escherichia coli LPS and/or TLR9 ligand CpG?oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG?ODN) for 2 days. RANKL mRNA expression and the percentage of RANKL?positive B cells were increased in rat splenocytes challenged by E. coli LPS alone. The increases were less pronounced when cells were treated with both CpG?ODN and E. coli LPS. Microarray analysis showed that expressions of multiple cyclin?dependent kinase (CDK) pathway?related genes were up?regulated only in cells treated with both E. coli LPS and CpG-ODN. This study suggests that CpG?ODN inhibits LPS?induced RANKL expression in rat B cells via regulation of the CDK pathway.
Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, 'red complex' pathogens and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity and diet, thereby extending direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past.
Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) is one of a constellation of oral organisms associated with human chronic periodontitis. While adaptive immunity to periodontal pathogen proteins has been investigated and is an important component of periodontal bone resorption, the effect of periodontal pathogen DNA in eliciting systemic and mucosal antibody and modulating immune responses has not been investigated.
Although elevated interleukin-7 (IL-7) levels have been reported in patients with primary Sjögrens syndrome (SS), the role of IL-7 in this disease remains unclear. We undertook this study to characterize the previously unexplored role of IL-7 in the development and onset of primary SS using the C57BL/6.NOD-Aec1Aec2 (B6.NOD-Aec) mouse model, which recapitulates human primary SS.
Prior studies have demonstrated an increased frequency of antibodies to Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg), a leading agent of periodontal disease, in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. However, these patients generally had long-standing disease, and clinical associations with these antibodies were inconsistent. Our goal was to examine Pg antibody responses and their clinical associations in patients with early RA prior to and after disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) therapy.
Porphyromonas gingivalis is one of the oral microorganisms associated with human chronic periodontitis. The purpose of this study is to determine the role of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B ligand (RANKL) in P. gingivalis infection-associated periodontal bone resorption. Inbred female Rowett rats were infected orally on four consecutive days (days 0 to 3) with 1 × 10(9) P. gingivalis bacteria (strain ATCC 33277). Separate groups of rats also received an injection of anti-RANKL antibody, osteoprotegerin fusion protein (OPG-Fc), or a control fusion protein (L6-Fc) into gingival papillae in addition to P. gingivalis infection. Robust serum IgG and salivary IgA antibody (P < 0.01) and T cell proliferation (P < 0.05) responses to P. gingivalis were detected at day 7 and peaked at day 28 in P. gingivalis-infected rats. Both the concentration of soluble RANKL (sRANKL) in rat gingival tissues (P < 0.01) and periodontal bone resorption (P < 0.05) were significantly elevated at day 28 in the P. gingivalis-infected group compared to levels in the uninfected group. Correspondingly, RANKL-expressing T and B cells in rat gingival tissues were significantly increased at day 28 in the P. gingivalis-infected group compared to the levels in the uninfected group (P < 0.01). Injection of anti-RANKL antibody (P < 0.05) or OPG-Fc (P < 0.01), but not L6-Fc, into rat gingival papillae after P. gingivalis infection resulted in significantly reduced periodontal bone resorption. This study suggests that P. gingivalis infection-associated periodontal bone resorption is RANKL dependent and is accompanied by increased local infiltration of RANKL-expressing T and B cells.
Sjögrens syndrome (SjS) is a chronic autoimmune disease that mainly targets the salivary and lacrimal glands. It has been controversial whether anti-muscarinic type 3 receptor (?-M3R) autoantibodies in patients with SjS inhibit intracellular trafficking of aquaporin-5 (AQP5), water transport protein, leading to secretory dysfunction. To address this issue, GFP-tagged human AQP5 was overexpressed in human salivary gland cells (HSG-hAQP5) and monitored AQP5 trafficking to the plasma membrane following carbachol (CCh, M3R agonist) stimulation. AQP5 trafficking was indeed mediated by M3R stimulation, shown in partial blockage of trafficking by M3R-antagonist 4-DAMP. HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma for 24 hours significantly reduced AQP5 trafficking with CCh, compared with HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with healthy control (HC) plasma. This inhibition was confirmed by monoclonal ?-M3R antibody and pre-absorbed plasma. Interestingly, HSG-hAQP5 pre-incubated with SjS plasma showed no change in cell volume, compared to the cells incubated with HC plasma showing shrinkage by twenty percent after CCh-stimulation. Our findings clearly indicate that binding of anti-M3R autoantibodies to the receptor, which was verified by immunoprecipitation, suppresses AQP5 trafficking to the membrane and contribute to impaired fluid secretion in SjS. Our current study urges further investigations of clinical associations between SjS symptoms, such as degree of secretory dysfunction, cognitive impairment, and/or bladder irritation, and different profiles (titers, isotypes, and/or specificity) of anti-M3R autoantibodies in individuals with SjS.
Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, has been found recently to possess anti-inflammatory properties. The present study investigates the effects of fluoxetine on inflammatory tissue destruction in a rat model of ligature-induced periodontal disease.
To examine the effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-?(PPAR?) ligand, 15d-PGJ2 on inhibition of T cell proliferation and T cell-mediated osteoclastogenesis, and clarify the possible mechanism.
Fluoxetine, one of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), has been found to possess immune modulation effects, in addition to its antidepressant effects. However, it remains unclear whether SSRIs can suppress the antigen-presenting function of dendritic cells (DCs). Therefore, Fluoxetine was applied to a co-culture of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa)-reactive T cells (×Aa-T) isolated from Aa-immunized mice and DCs. This resulted in the suppressed proliferation of ×Aa-T stimulated with Aa-antigen presentation by DCs. Specifically, Fluoxetine increased the extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) in the ×Aa-T/DC co-culture, whereas exogenously applied 5-HT promoted T-cell proliferation in the ×Aa-T/DC co-culture, indicating that Fluoxetine-mediated suppression of ×Aa-T/DC responses cannot be attributed to extracellular 5-HT. Instead, Fluoxetine remarkably suppressed the expression of costimulatory molecule ICOS-L on DCs. Fluoxetine also promoted a greater proportion of CD86(Low) immature DCs than CD86(High) mature DCs, while maintaining the expression levels of CD80, MHC-class-II and PD-L1. These results suggested that Fluoxetine suppressed the ability of DCs to present bacterial antigens to T cells, and the resulting T-cell proliferation, in a SERT/5-HT-independent manner and that diminished expression of ICOS-L on DCs and increase of CD86(Low) immature DCs caused by Fluoxetine might be partially associated with Fluoxetine-mediated suppression of DC/T-cell responses.
Tetracycline antibiotics, including doxycyclie (DOX), have been used to treat bone resorptive diseases, partially because of their activity to suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, their precise inhibitory mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of Dox on osteoclastogenesis signaling induced by RANKL, both in vitro and in vivo. Although Dox inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and down-modulated the mRNA expression of functional osteoclast markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K, Dox neither affected RANKL-induced MAPKs phosphorylation nor NFATc1 gene expression in RAW264.7 murine monocytic cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analyses showed that Dox down-regulated the enzyme activity of RANKL-induced MMP-9, but without affecting its protein expression. Furthermore, MMP-9 enzyme inhibitor also attenuated both RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and up-regulation of TRAP and cathepsin K mRNA expression, indicating that MMP-9 enzyme action is engaged in the promotion of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Finally, Dox treatment abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and TRAP activity in mouse calvaria along with the suppression of MMP9 enzyme activity, again without affecting the expression of MMP9 protein. These findings suggested that Dox inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by its inhibitory effect on MMP-9 enzyme activity independent of the MAPK-NFATc1 signaling cascade.
The onset and progressive pathogenesis of periodontal disease is thought to be initiated by the entry of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) into periodontal tissue, especially gingival epithelium. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying such bacterial entry remains to be clarified. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the possible role of Aa outer membrane protein 29 kD (Omp29), a homologue of E. coli OmpA, in promoting bacterial entry into gingival epithelial cells. To accomplish this, Omp29 expression vector was incorporated in an OmpA-deficient mutant of E. coli. Omp29(+)/OmpA(-) E. coli demonstrated 22-fold higher entry into human gingival epithelial line cells (OBA9) than Omp29(-)/OmpA(-) E. coli. While the entry of Aa and Omp29(+)/OmpA(-) E. coli into OBA9 cells were inhibited by anti-Omp29 antibody, their adherence to OBA9 cells was not inhibited. Stimulation of OBA9 cells with purified Omp29 increased the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK), a pivotal cell-signaling molecule that can up-regulate actin rearrangement. Furthermore, Omp29 increased the formation of F-actin in OBA9 cells. The internalization of Omp29-coated beads and the entry of Aa into OBA9 were partially inhibited by treatment with PI3-kinase inhibitor (Wortmannin) and Rho GTPases inhibitor (EDIN), both known to convey FAK-signaling to actin-rearrangement. These results suggest that Omp29 is associated with the entry of Aa into gingival epithelial cells by up-regulating F-actin rearrangement via the FAK signaling pathway.
To examine the possible enrolment of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase during osteoclast differentiation, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase inhibitors, including ouabain and vanadate, were used in this study. These inhibitors significantly inhibited cell-cell fusion of RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow cells induced by RANKL. Interestingly, in response to RANKL-stimulation, ouabain and vanadate decreased the number of large TRAP+ osteoclasts in the culture of RAW264.7 cells, as well as bone marrow cells. In contrast, the number of small TRAP+ osteoclasts either increased in RAW264.7 cells or were otherwise less affected in bone marrow cells than large TRAP+ osteoclasts. Large TRAP+ osteoclasts are defined as having ? 10 nuclei/cell and having more potency in bone resorption than small multinuclear osteoclasts with <9 nuclei/cell. Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?1 and ?2 mRNAs were detected in sRANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, real-time quantitative PCR showed that ouabain and vanadate suppressed the RANKL-dependent induction of the osteoclast fusion-promotion molecule DC-STAMP at the mRNA level. Finally, and importantly, RNAi-mediated suppression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?1 resulted in a diminished number of large TRAP+ osteoclasts in the sRANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells, along with the decreased level of DC-STAMP mRNA expression. These findings strongly suggest that blockage of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?1 subunit by ouabain or vanadate caused the inhibition of RANKL-induced cell-cell fusion, resulting in the generation of large osteoclasts through suppression of DC-STAMP expression. Thus, in addition to its known function of sodium and potassium ion exchange during bone resorption by mature osteoclasts, this study has revealed a novel molecular role of the Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase ?1 subunit in osteoclastogenesis.
Activated T and B lymphocytes in periodontal disease lesions express receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL), which induces osteoclastic bone resorption. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of anti-RANKL antibody on periodontal bone resorption in vitro and in vivo. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans outer membrane protein 29 (Omp29) and A. actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were injected into 3 palatal gingival sites, and Omp29-specific T clone cells were transferred into the tail veins of rats. Rabbit anti-RANKL IgG antibody or F(ab)? antibody fragments thereof were injected into the palatal sites in each rat (days -1, 1, and 3). Anti-RANKL IgG antibody significantly inhibited soluble RANKL (sRANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro, in a dose-dependent manner, but also gave rise to a rat antibody response to rabbit IgG in vivo, with no significant inhibition of periodontal bone resorption detected. Lower doses (1.5 and 0.15 ?g/3 sites) of F(ab)? antibody were not immunogenic in the context of the experimental model. Periodontal bone resorption was inhibited significantly by injection of the anti-RANKL F(ab)? antibody into gingivae. The sRANKL concentrations for the antibody-treated groups were decreased significantly compared to those for the untreated group. Osteoclasts on the alveolar bone surface were also diminished significantly after antibody injection. Gingival sRANKL concentration and bone loss showed a significant correlation with one another in animals receiving anti-RANKL F(ab)? antibody. These results suggest that antibody to RANKL can inhibit A. actinomycetemcomitans-specific T cell-induced periodontal bone resorption by blockade and reduction of tissue sRANKL, providing an immunological approach to ameliorate immune cell-mediated periodontal bone resorption.
The present study examined the bactericidal effects of orexin B (ORXB) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) alone or combined with cationic antimicrobial peptides, such as LL-37, on Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus. The bactericidal effect of ORXB or VIP alone was detected in low NaCl concentration, but attenuated in physiological NaCl concentration (150 mM). However, such attenuated bactericidal activities of ORXB and VIP in 150 mM NaCl were regained by adding LL-37. Therefore, our results indicate that VIP and ORXB appear to mediate bactericidal effects in concert with LL-37 in the physiological context of mucosal tissue.
Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), a volatile sulfur compound, is implicated as a cause of inflammation, especially when it is produced by bacteria colonizing gastrointestinal organs. However, it is unclear if H(2)S produced by periodontal pathogens affects the inflammatory responses mediated by oral/gingival epithelial cells. Therefore, the aims of this study were (1) to compare the in vitro production of H(2)S among 14 strains of oral bacteria and (2) to evaluate the effects of H(2)S on inflammatory response induced in host oral/gingival epithelial cells. Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) produced the most H(2)S in culture, which, in turn, resulted in the promotion of proinflammatory cytokine IL-8 from both gingival and oral epithelial cells. The up-regulation of IL-8 expression was reproduced by the exogenously applied H(2)S. Furthermore, the mutant strains of Pg that do not produce major soluble virulent factors, i.e. gingipains, still showed the production of H(2)S, as well as the promotion of epithelial IL-8 production, which was abrogated by H(2)S scavenging reagents. These results demonstrated that Pg produces a concentration of H(2)S capable of up-regulating IL-8 expression induced in gingival and oral epithelial cells, revealing a possible mechanism that may promote the inflammation in periodontal disease.
It is well known that some intestinal bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, can produce a remarkable amount of molecular hydrogen (H(2)). Although the antioxidant effects of H(2) are well documented, the present study examined whether H(2) released from intestinally colonized bacteria could affect Concanavalin A (ConA)-induced mouse hepatitis. Systemic antibiotics significantly decreased the level of H(2) in both liver and intestines along with suppression of intestinal bacteria. As determined by the levels of AST, ALT, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in serum, suppression of intestinal bacterial flora by antibiotics increased the severity of ConA-induced hepatitis, while reconstitution of intestinal flora with H(2)-producing E. coli, but not H(2)-deficient mutant E. coli, down-regulated the ConA-induced liver inflammation. Furthermore, in vitro production of both TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma by ConA-stimulated spleen lymphocytes was significantly inhibited by the introduction of H(2). These results indicate that H(2) released from intestinal bacteria can suppress inflammation induced in liver by ConA.
This longitudinal study evaluated the response to periodontal treatment by subjects infected with either JP2 (n = 25) or non-JP2 (n = 25) Aggregatibacter (Actinobacillus) actinomycetemcomitans. Participants were treated during the first 4 months by receiving (i) scaling and root planing, (ii) systemic antibiotic therapy, and (iii) periodontal surgery. Probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and gingival and plaque indices (GI and PI, respectively) were monitored at baseline and at 12 months, along with DNA-PCR-based subgingival detection of JP2 or non-JP2 A. actinomycetemcomitans. At baseline, PD, CAL, and GI scores were statistically higher in the JP2 strain-positive group than the non-JP2-strain-positive group. At 12 months, PD, CAL, and GI scores had decreased significantly for both groups, but the reduction rates of PD and CAL were higher in the non-JP2-strain-positive group. Among JP2-strain-positive patients in the baseline, patients who remained JP2 strain positive at 12 months showed significantly higher GIs than did the patients who had lost the detectable JP2 clone. Patients who remained JP2 strain positive at 12 months appeared to be more resistant to mechanical-chemical therapy than did those who were still non-JP2 strain positive, while the elimination of JP2 A. actinomycetemcomitans remarkably diminished gingival inflammation. Early identification and elimination of the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans will enable practitioners to effectively predict the outcome of treatments applied to periodontal patients.
By its antioxidant effect, molecular hydrogen gas (H2) was reported to protect organs from tissue damage induced by ischemia reperfusion. To evaluate its anti-inflammatory effects, we established a mouse model of human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by supplying mice with water containing (1) dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (5%), (2) DSS (5%) and H2, or (3) H2 only ad libitum up to 7 days. At day-7, DSS-induced pathogenic outcomes including, loss of body weight, increase of colitis score, pathogenic shortening of colon length, elevated level of IL-12, TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in colon lesion, were significantly suppressed by the addition of H2 to DSS solution. Histological analysis also revealed that the DSS-mediated colonic tissue destruction accompanied by macrophage infiltration was remarkably suppressed by H2. Therefore, the present study indicated that H2 can prevent the development of DSS-induced colitis in mice.
T-regulatory (Treg, CD4+ FOXP3+) cells constitute a unique subpopulation of CD4+ T cells that inhibit T-cell responses and prevent disease development/exacerbation in models of autoimmunity. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Treg cells are induced in periapical lesions by dental pulp infection.
Rosiglitazone (RGZ), an oral anti-hyperglycemic agent used for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, is a high-affinity synthetic agonist for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma). Both in vitro and in vivo experiments have also revealed that RGZ possesses anti-inflammatory properties. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of RGZ in a rat model of periodontal disease induced by ligature placed around the mandible first molars of each animal. Male Wister rats were divided into four groups: 1) animals without ligature placement receiving administration of empty vehicle (control); 2) animals with ligature receiving administration of empty vehicle; 3) animals with ligature receiving administration with oral RGZ (10 mg/kg/day); and 4) animals with ligature receiving administration of subcutaneous RGZ (10 mg/kg/day). Thirty days after induction of periodontal disease, the animals were sacrificed, and mandibles and gingival tissues were removed for further analysis. An in vitro assay was also employed to test the inhibitory effects of RGZ on osteoclastogenesis. Histomorphological and immunohistochemical analyses of periodontal tissue demonstrated that RGZ-treated animals presented decreased bone resorption, along with reduced RANKL expression, compared to those animals with ligature, but treated with empty vehicle. Corresponding to such results obtained from in vivo experiments, RGZ also suppressed in vitro osteoclast differentiation in the presence of RANKL in MOCP-5 osteoclast precursor cells, along with the down-regulation of the expression of RANKL-induced TRAP mRNA. These data indicated that RGZ may suppress the bone resorption by inhibiting RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis elicited during the course of experimental periodontitis in rats.
Although multiple-use dental napkin holders have a relatively low risk of transmitting infection, they do require disinfection between patients. This study sought to: 1) determine the presence of bacterial load on two types of clips of reusable bib chains after dental procedures at the Endodontics and Orthodontics clinics at Tufts University School of Dental Medicine; and 2) evaluate the effectiveness of disinfecting the clips. These specialty clinics represent a wide spectrum of patients, procedures, and appointment times. Bacterial load on the bib clips was determined immediately following dental treatments-both before and after their disinfection-during morning and afternoon sessions. The results revealed that, after treatments, there was a statistically significant difference when comparing the two clinics for bacterial burden on the clips. Furthermore, there was a statistically significant difference in bacterial load on the two types of clips. Disinfection of the bib clips was highly effective in both clinics. Clinically, the results suggest that due to the nature of the treatment, the demographic population, and the type of bib clips used, patients in different clinics may be exposed to varying bacterial concentrations on the bib clips, and thus to different possible cross-contamination risks. Future analyses will be performed to identify the bacterial species in samples from both pre- and post-disinfected clips, and to determine if they harbor disease-causing bacterial species that can pose a potential, yet undetermined risk for cross-contamination.
The present study examined the antimicrobial activity of the peptide ghrelin. Both major forms of ghrelin, acylated ghrelin (AG) and desacylated ghrelin (DAG), demonstrated the same degree of bactericidal activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa), while bactericidal effects against Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) were minimal or absent, respectively. To elucidate the bactericidal mechanism of AG and DAG against bacteria, we monitored the effect of the cationic peptides on the zeta potential of E. coli. Our results show that AG and DAG similarly quenched the negative surface charge of E. coli, suggesting that ghrelin-mediated bactericidal effects are influenced by charge-dependent binding and not by acyl modification. Like most cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), we also found that the antibacterial activity of AG was attenuated in physiological NaCl concentration (150mM). Nonetheless, these findings indicate that both AG and DAG can act as CAMPs against Gram-negative bacteria.
Muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R) plays a pivotal role in the induction of glandular fluid secretions. Although M3R is often the target of autoantibodies in Sjögrens syndrome (SjS), chemical agonists for M3R are clinically used to stimulate saliva secretion in patients with SjS. Aside from its activity in promoting glandular fluid secretion, however, it is unclear whether activation of M3R is related to other biological events in SjS. This study aimed to investigate the cytoprotective effect of chemical agonist-mediated M3R activation on apoptosis induced in human salivary gland (HSG) cells. Carbachol (CCh), a muscarinic receptor-specific agonist, abrogated tumor necrosis factor ?/interferon ?-induced apoptosis through pathways involving caspase 3/7, but its cytoprotective effect was decreased by a M3R antagonist, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt inhibitor, or an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor. Ligation of M3R with CCh transactivated EGFR and phosphorylated ERK and Akt, the downstream targets of EGFR. Inhibition of intracellular calcium release or protein kinase C ?, both of which are involved in the cell signaling of M3R-mediated fluid secretion, did not affect CCh-induced ERK or Akt phosphorylation. CCh stimulated Src phosphorylation and binding to EGFR. A Src inhibitor attenuated the CCh/M3R-induced cytoprotective effect and EGFR transactivation cascades. Overall, these results indicated that CCh/M3R induced transactivation of EGFR through Src activation leading to ERK and Akt phosphorylation, which in turn suppressed caspase 3/7-mediated apoptotic signals in HSG cells. This study, for the first time, proposes that CCh-mediated M3R activation can promote not only fluid secretion but also survival of salivary gland cells in the inflammatory context of SjS.
Streptococcus mutans is a cariogenic pathogen that produces an extracellular polysaccharide (glucan) from dietary sugars, which allows it to establish a reproductive niche and secrete acids that degrade tooth enamel. While two enzymes (GlmS and NagB) are known to be key factors affecting the entrance of amino sugars into glycolysis and cell wall synthesis in several other bacteria, their roles in S. mutans remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated the roles of GlmS and NagB in S. mutans sugar metabolism and determined whether they have an effect on virulence. NagB expression increased in the presence of GlcNAc while GlmS expression decreased, suggesting that the regulation of these enzymes, which functionally oppose one another, is dependent on the concentration of environmental GlcNAc. A glmS-inactivated mutant could not grow in the absence of GlcNAc, while nagB-inactivated mutant growth was decreased in the presence of GlcNAc. Also, nagB inactivation was found to decrease the expression of virulence factors, including cell-surface protein antigen and glucosyltransferase, and to decrease biofilm formation and saliva-induced S. mutans aggregation, while glmS inactivation had the opposite effects on virulence factor expression and bacterial aggregation. Our results suggest that GlmS and NagB function in sugar metabolism in opposing directions, increasing and decreasing S. mutans virulence, respectively.
IL-32 was recently found to be elevated in the tissue of rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by polymicrobial infections that result in soft tissue destruction and alveolar bone loss. Although IL-32 is also thought to be associated with periodontal disease, its expression and possible role in periodontal tissue remain unclear. Therefore, this study investigated the expression patterns of IL-32 in healthy and periodontally diseased gingival tissue. The expression of IL-32 in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (HGF) as well as effects of autocrine IL-32 on IL-8 production from HGF were also examined.
The present study investigated whether bacteria infecting the root canal can activate any infiltrating T cells to produce receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) ligand (RANKL).
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