Our objective was to examine whether severe head injury, subtypes of head injury, or repeated head injuries are associated with ALS risk based on the Swedish population and health registers. We conducted a case-control study, nested within a cohort of 5,764,522 individuals who were born in Sweden during 1901-1970 and followed between 1991 and 2007. The study included 4004 ALS patients identified from the Swedish Patient Register during follow-up and 20,020 randomly selected controls matched by gender and birth year. We evaluated hospitalization for severe head injury that was recorded in the inpatient register before ALS diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results showed that there was an association of ALS risk with severe head injury ? 1 year before diagnosis (OR: 3.9, 95% CI 2.6-6.1). No association was observed for severe head injury > 3 years before ALS diagnosis, nor was ALS associated with subtypes of head injury or repeated injuries occurring > 3 years before diagnosis. In conclusion, our findings from the Swedish registers provide no strong support for an etiological relationship between severe head injury in adulthood and ALS risk.
Executive dysfunction occurs in many patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but it has not been well studied in primary lateral sclerosis (PLS). The aims of this study were to (1) compare cognitive function in PLS to that in ALS patients, (2) explore the relationship between performance on specific cognitive tests and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) metrics of white matter tracts and gray matter volumes, and (3) compare DTI metrics in patients with and without cognitive and behavioral changes.
Severe infections may lead to chronic inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) which may in turn play a role in the etiopathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relentless progression and invasive supportive treatments of ALS may on the other hand induce severe infections among ALS patients.
This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the 6th grade. Questionnaire variables of exposure to community violence were regressed onto ESM companionship and location variables, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, separately for boys and girls. At different points, time spent with parents, in school, and outside in private space was associated with less exposure to violence for boys and girls, while time spent with girls was protective for boys. In addition, time spent outside in public and with older peers was associated with increased risk for boys and girls. These findings are discussed in relation to previous and potential future research, and to strategies to prevent exposure to community violence.
Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) rely on a variety of support services during the course of their illness. Patients with primary lateral sclerosis (PLS) have a slower progression of disease and different clinical spectrum. Their needs for allied health services and social support have not been well characterized. To investigate these needs, 25 patients with PLS and caregivers were surveyed on the use of assistive devices and support services. Needs for assistance changed as the disease progressed. Their greatest need was for gait-assistive devices and home help for activities requiring mobility. As in other chronic diseases, there was a striking use of the internet to gather information and for patient support groups.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.