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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Timing of antiretroviral therapy after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Cryptococcal meningitis accounts for 20 to 25% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related deaths in Africa. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is essential for survival; however, the question of when ART should be initiated after diagnosis of cryptococcal meningitis remains unanswered.
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Impact of ejection fraction on the clinical response to cardiac resynchronization therapy in mild heart failure.
Circ Heart Fail
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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Background- Current guidelines recommend cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in mild heart failure (HF) patients with QRS prolongation and ejection fraction (EF) ?30%. To assess the effect of CRT in less severe systolic dysfunction, outcomes in the REsynchronization reVErses Remodeling in Systolic left vEntricular dysfunction (REVERSE) study were evaluated in which patients with left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (LVEF) >30% were included. Methods and Results- The results of patients with baseline EF >30% (n=177) and those with EF ?30% (n=431), as determined by a blinded core laboratory, were compared. In the LVEF >30% subgroup, there was a trend for improvement in the clinical composite response with CRT ON versus CRT OFF (P=0.06) and significant reductions in LV end systolic volume index (-6.7±21.1 versus 2.1±17.6 mL/m(2); P=0.01) and LV mass (-20.6±50.5 versus 5.0±42.4 g; P=0.04) after 12 months. The time to death or first HF hospitalization was significantly prolonged with CRT (hazard ratio, 0.26; P=0.012). In the LVEF <30% subgroup, significant improvements in clinical composite response (P=0.02), reverse remodeling parameters, and time to death or first HF hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.58; P=0.047) were observed. After adjusting for important covariates, the CRT ON assignment remained independently associated with improved time to death or first HF hospitalization (hazard ratio, 0.54; P=0.035), whereas there was no significant interaction with LVEF. Conclusions- Among subjects with mild HF, QRS prolongation, and LVEF >30%, CRT produced reverse remodeling and similar clinical benefit compared with subjects with more severe LV systolic dysfunction. Clinical Trial Registration- URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00271154.
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Malaria with neurological involvement in Ugandan children: effect on cognitive ability, academic achievement and behaviour.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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Malaria is a leading cause of ill health and neuro-disability in children in sub-Saharan Africa. Impaired cognition is a common outcome of malaria with neurological involvement. There is also a possibility that academic achievement may be affected by malaria with neurological involvement given the association between cognitive ability and academic achievement. This study investigated the effect of malaria with neurological involvement on cognitive ability, behaviour and academic achievement.
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Proportion statistics to detect differentially expressed genes: a comparison with log-ratio statistics.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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In genetic transcription research, gene expression is typically reported in a test sample relative to a reference sample. Laboratory assays that measure gene expression levels, from Q-RT-PCR to microarrays to RNA-Seq experiments, will compare two samples to the same genetic sequence of interest. Standard practice is to use the log(2)-ratio as the measure of relative expression. There are drawbacks to using this measurement, including unstable ratios when the denominator is small. This paper suggests an alternative estimate based on a proportion that is just as simple to calculate, just as intuitive, with the added benefit of greater numerical stability.
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Transmission of HLA-DP variants from parents to children with B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: log-linear analysis using the case-parent design.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL) is usually initiated in utero and is thought to progress to overt leukemia under the influence of delayed exposure to a common infection. Based on the hypothesis that polymorphic HLA-DP variants can restrict T-cell responses to infection, we previously compared DP supertype frequencies in BCP ALL patients with that of unrelated newborn controls. We reported that the DP2 supertype was associated with susceptibility, whereas DP1 was associated with protection. However, the association of genetic variants in children with early-onset diseases such as ALL may be a proxy for parental effects. Here we examine whether maternal DP1 and DP2 are associated with BCP ALL by fitting log-linear models in a combined series of family triads (both parents and case child) and dyads (1 parent and case child; n = 571) in comparison with similar models in non-BCP leukemia (n = 198). We report no evidence of maternal DP1 or DP2 associations with BCP ALL, but we did identify suggestive evidence of maternal undertransmission of the infrequent supertypes DP11 and DP15. Although these results require confirmation, they suggest that DP11 and DP15 may be protective or that there is transmission ratio distortion of these supertypes in BCP ALL.
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Sarcomas in TP53 germline mutation carriers: a review of the IARC TP53 database.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2011
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Sarcoma is the index diagnosis of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a familial predisposition to cancer that also includes brain cancer, breast cancer, and adrenal cortical carcinoma. Germline mutations in the TP53 gene are detected in approximately 80% of families that fulfill LFS criteria and in 15% to 25% of families that fulfill criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (LFS), a group of related syndromes with broader clinical criteria.
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Antiretroviral therapy down-regulates innate antiviral response genes in patients with AIDS in sub-saharan Africa.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
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HIV pathogenesis is characterized by destructive imbalances between virus-mediated immune damage, antiviral immune responses, and immune activation. We characterized the effects of successful antiretroviral therapy (ART) to identify the breadth and patterns of HIV-associated gene expression.
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Clinical features and serum biomarkers in HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after cryptococcal meningitis: a prospective cohort study.
PLoS Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) improves survival in persons with cryptococcal meningitis (CM) and AIDS, ART frequently elicits HIV immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), an exaggerated and frequently deadly inflammatory reaction that complicates recovery from immunodeficiency. The pathogenesis of IRIS is poorly understood and prediction of IRIS is not possible.
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Signal quality measurements for cDNA microarray data.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Concerns about the reliability of expression data from microarrays inspire ongoing research into measurement error in these experiments. Error arises at both the technical level within the laboratory and the experimental level. In this paper, we will focus on estimating the spot-specific error, as there are few currently available models. This paper outlines two different approaches to quantify the reliability of spot-specific intensity estimates. In both cases, the spatial correlation between pixels and its impact on spot quality is accounted for. The first method is a straightforward parametric estimate of within-spot variance that assumes a Gaussian distribution and accounts for spatial correlation via an overdispersion factor. The second method employs a nonparametric quality estimate referred to throughout as the mean square prediction error (MSPE). The MSPE first smoothes a pixel region and then measures the difference between actual pixel values and the smoother. Both methods herein are compared for real and simulated data to assess numerical characteristics and the ability to describe poor spot quality. We conclude that both approaches capture noise in the microarray platform and highlight situations where one method or the other is superior.
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TLR9 polymorphisms are associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with cerebral malaria.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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Toll-like receptor (TLR) polymorphisms have been associated with disease severity in malaria infection, but mechanisms for this association have not been characterized. The TLR2, 4, and 9 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) frequencies and serum interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels were assessed in Ugandan children with cerebral malaria (CM, N = 65) and uncomplicated malaria (UM, N = 52). The TLR9 C allele at -1237 and G allele at 1174 were strongly linked, and among children with CM, those with the C allele at -1237 or the G allele at 1174 had higher levels of IFN-gamma than those without these alleles (P = 0.03 and 0.008, respectively). The TLR9 SNPs were not associated with altered IFN-gamma levels in children with UM or altered TNF-alpha levels in either group. We present the first human data that TLR SNPs are associated with altered cytokine production in parasitic infection.
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Use of signal quality measurements to gain efficiency in the analysis of cDNA microarray data.
J Genet Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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This research provides a new way to measure error in microarray data in order to improve gene expression analysis. Microarray data contains many sources of error. In order to glean information about mRNA expression levels, the true signal must first be segregated from noise. This research focuses on the variation that can be captured at the spot level in cDNA microarray images. Variation at other levels, due to differences at the array, dye, and block levels, can be corrected for by a variety of existing normalization procedures. Two signal quality estimates that capture the reliability of each spot printed on a microarray are described. A parametric estimate of within-spot variance, referred to here as sigma(2)(spot), assumes that pixels follow a normal distribution and are spatially correlated. A non-parametric estimate of error, called the mean square prediction error (MSPE), assumes that spots of high quality possess pixels that are similar to their neighbors. This paper will provide a framework to use either spot quality measure in downstream analysis, specifically as weights in regression models. Using these spot quality estimates as weights can result in greater efficiency, in a statistical sense, when modeling microarray data.
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A transposon-based genetic screen in mice identifies genes altered in colorectal cancer.
Science
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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Human colorectal cancers (CRCs) display a large number of genetic and epigenetic alterations, some of which are causally involved in tumorigenesis (drivers) and others that have little functional impact (passengers). To help distinguish between these two classes of alterations, we used a transposon-based genetic screen in mice to identify candidate genes for CRC. Mice harboring mutagenic Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposons were crossed with mice expressing SB transposase in gastrointestinal tract epithelium. Most of the offspring developed intestinal lesions, including intraepithelial neoplasia, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. Analysis of over 16,000 transposon insertions identified 77 candidate CRC genes, 60 of which are mutated and/or dysregulated in human CRC and thus are most likely to drive tumorigenesis. These genes include APC, PTEN, and SMAD4. The screen also identified 17 candidate genes that had not previously been implicated in CRC, including POLI, PTPRK, and RSPO2.
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Donors with group B KIR haplotypes improve relapse-free survival after unrelated hematopoietic cell transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Survival for patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is limited by treatment-related mortality (TRM) and relapse after unrelated donor (URD) hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Natural killer (NK)-cell alloreactivity, determined by donor killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and recipient HLA, correlates with successful HCT for AML. Hypothesizing that donor KIR genotype (A/A: 2 A KIR haplotypes; B/x: at least 1 B haplotype) would affect outcomes, we genotyped donors and recipients from 209 HLA-matched and 239 mismatched T-replete URD transplantations for AML. Three-year overall survival was significantly higher after transplantation from a KIR B/x donor (31% [95% CI: 26-36] vs 20% [95% CI: 13-27]; P = .007). Multivariate analysis demonstrated a 30% improvement in the relative risk of relapse-free survival with B/x donors compared with A/A donors (RR: 0.70 [95% CI: 0.55-0.88]; P = .002). B/x donors were associated with a higher incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD; RR: 1.51 [95% CI: 1.01-2.18]; P = .03), but not of acute GVHD, relapse, or TRM. This analysis demonstrates that unrelated donors with KIR B haplotypes confer significant survival benefit to patients undergoing T-replete HCT for AML. KIR genotyping of prospective donors, in addition to HLA typing, should be performed to identify HLA-matched donors with B KIR haplotypes.
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Case-parent analysis of variation in pubertal hormone genes and pediatric osteosarcoma: a Childrens Oncology Group (COG) study.
Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet
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Osteosarcoma (OS) is a rare malignant bone tumor with an overall incidence rate of 4.6 cases per million children aged 0-19 years in the United States. While the etiology of OS is largely unknown, its distinctive age-incidence pattern suggests that growth and development is crucial in genesis. Prior studies have suggested that variants in genes in the estrogen metabolism (ESTR) and insulin-like growth factor/growth hormone (IGF/GH) pathways are associated with OS. We examined 798 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 42 genes from these pathways in a case-parent study (229 complete triads and 56 dyads) using buccal cell samples. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with transmitting one or two copies of the variant were estimated using log-linear models. After Bonferroni correction, 1 SNP within the ESTR pathway (rs1415270: RR = 0.50 and 8.37 for 1 and 2 vs. 0 copies, respectively; p = 0.010), and two SNPs in the IGF/GH pathway (rs1003737: RR = 0.91 and 0.0001 for 1 and 2 vs. 0 copies, respectively; p <0.0001 and rs2575352: RR = 2.62 and 0.22 for 1 and 2 vs. 0 copies; p < 0.0001) were significantly associated with OS incidence. These results confirm previous findings that variation in the estrogen metabolism and bone growth pathways influence OS risk and further support a biologically and epidemiologically plausible role in OS development.
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New methods for finding common insertion sites and co-occurring common insertion sites in transposon- and virus-based genetic screens.
Nucleic Acids Res.
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Insertional mutagenesis screens in mice are used to identify individual genes that drive tumor formation. In these screens, candidate cancer genes are identified if their genomic location is proximal to a common insertion site (CIS) defined by high rates of transposon or retroviral insertions in a given genomic window. In this article, we describe a new method for defining CISs based on a Poisson distribution, the Poisson Regression Insertion Model, and show that this new method is an improvement over previously described methods. We also describe a modification of the method that can identify pairs and higher orders of co-occurring common insertion sites. We apply these methods to two data sets, one generated in a transposon-based screen for gastrointestinal tract cancer genes and another based on the set of retroviral insertions in the Retroviral Tagged Cancer Gene Database. We show that the new methods identify more relevant candidate genes and candidate gene pairs than found using previous methods. Identification of the biologically relevant set of mutations that occur in a single cell and cause tumor progression will aid in the rational design of single and combinatorial therapies in the upcoming age of personalized cancer therapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.