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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Transferring cognitive tasks between brain imaging modalities: implications for task design and results interpretation in FMRI studies.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2014
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As cognitive neuroscience methods develop, established experimental tasks are used with emerging brain imaging modalities. Here transferring a paradigm (the visual oddball task) with a long history of behavioral and electroencephalography (EEG) experiments to a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment is considered. The aims of this paper are to briefly describe fMRI and when its use is appropriate in cognitive neuroscience; illustrate how task design can influence the results of an fMRI experiment, particularly when that task is borrowed from another imaging modality; explain the practical aspects of performing an fMRI experiment. It is demonstrated that manipulating the task demands in the visual oddball task results in different patterns of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) activation. The nature of the fMRI BOLD measure means that many brain regions are found to be active in a particular task. Determining the functions of these areas of activation is very much dependent on task design and analysis. The complex nature of many fMRI tasks means that the details of the task and its requirements need careful consideration when interpreting data. The data show that this is particularly important in those tasks relying on a motor response as well as cognitive elements and that covert and overt responses should be considered where possible. Furthermore, the data show that transferring an EEG paradigm to an fMRI experiment needs careful consideration and it cannot be assumed that the same paradigm will work equally well across imaging modalities. It is therefore recommended that the design of an fMRI study is pilot tested behaviorally to establish the effects of interest and then pilot tested in the fMRI environment to ensure appropriate design, implementation and analysis for the effects of interest.
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Methods for pulse artefact reduction: experiences with EEG data recorded at 9.4 T static magnetic field.
J. Neurosci. Methods
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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The feasibility of recording electroencephalography (EEG) at ultra-high static magnetic fields up to 9.4 T was recently demonstrated and is expected to be incorporated into functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies at 9.4 T. Correction of the pulse artefact (PA) is a significant challenge since its amplitude is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field in which EEG is recorded.
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Removal of Pulse Artefact from EEG Data Recorded in MR Environment at 3T. Setting of ICA Parameters for Marking Artefactual Components: Application to Resting-State Data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allow for a non-invasive investigation of cerebral functions with high temporal and spatial resolution. The main challenge of such integration is the removal of the pulse artefact (PA) that affects EEG signals recorded in the magnetic resonance (MR) scanner. Often applied techniques for this purpose are Optimal Basis Set (OBS) and Independent Component Analysis (ICA). The combination of OBS and ICA is increasingly used, since it can potentially improve the correction performed by each technique separately. The present study is focused on the OBS-ICA combination and is aimed at providing the optimal ICA parameters for PA correction in resting-state EEG data, where the information of interest is not specified in latency and amplitude as in, for example, evoked potential. A comparison between two intervals for ICA calculation and four methods for marking artefactual components was performed. The performance of the methods was discussed in terms of their capability to 1) remove the artefact and 2) preserve the information of interest. The analysis included 12 subjects and two resting-state datasets for each of them. The results showed that none of the signal lengths for the ICA calculation was highly preferable to the other. Among the methods for the identification of PA-related components, the one based on the wavelets transform of each component emerged as the best compromise between the effectiveness in removing PA and the conservation of the physiological neuronal content.
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Cortical response variation with different sound pressure levels: a combined event-related potentials and FMRI study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Simultaneous recording of electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides high spatial and temporal resolution. In this study we combined EEG and fMRI to investigate the structures involved in the processing of different sound pressure levels (SPLs).
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Attention to Detail: Why Considering Task Demands Is Essential for Single-Trial Analysis of BOLD Correlates of the Visual P1 and N1.
J Cogn Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Single-trial fluctuations in the EEG signal have been shown to temporally correlate with the fMRI BOLD response and are valuable for modeling trial-to-trial fluctuations in responses. The P1 and N1 components of the visual ERP are sensitive to different attentional modulations, suggesting that different aspects of stimulus processing can be modeled with these ERP parameters. As such, different patterns of BOLD covariation for P1 and N1 informed regressors would be expected; however, current findings are equivocal. We investigate the effects of variations in attention on P1 and N1 informed BOLD activation in a visual oddball task. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI data were recorded from 13 healthy participants during three conditions of a visual oddball task: Passive, Count, and Respond. We show that the P1 and N1 components of the visual ERP can be used in the integration-by-prediction method of EEG-fMRI data integration to highlight brain regions related to target detection and response production. Our data suggest that the P1 component of the ERP reflects changes in sensory encoding of stimulus features and is more informative for the Passive and Count conditions. The N1, on the other hand, was more informative for the Respond condition, suggesting that it can be used to model the processing of stimulus, meaning specifically discriminating one type of stimulus from another, and processes involved in integrating sensory information with response selection. Our results show that an understanding of the underlying electrophysiology is necessary for a thorough interpretation of EEG-informed fMRI analysis.
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Do EEG paradigms work in fMRI? Varying task demands in the visual oddball paradigm: Implications for task design and results interpretation.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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We investigate the effects of variations in response requirements on BOLD activation in a visual oddball task and consider implications for fMRI task designs. Sixteen healthy subjects completed 3 runs of a visual oddball task: passive, count and respond. Besides expected activation patterns during passive viewing, we identified joint activations, but more importantly crucial differences between the count and respond versions of the task. Middle frontal gyrus activation was seen in the respond but not the count condition suggesting that this region is associated with action execution rather than the decision-making aspect of the task. In addition, activation observed in the central opercular cortex and parietal operculum in the respond (but not count) condition is likely to reflect integration of the sensory, decision and response processes. We also observed activation in the supplementary motor area (SMA) during count as well as respond. Since the count condition requires no motor planning or response our data provide evidence for an SMA involvement in decision-making. Our study clearly shows that the count and respond versions of the visual oddball task result in different patterns of BOLD activation that could both be attributed to target detection if information on the respective other condition was not available. We also show that considering the elements of a complex task is crucial when transferring it from one imaging modality to another and that a motor response is not always necessary in fMRI studies when the task has been set up appropriately.
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Parallel imaging acceleration of EPIK for reduced image distortions in fMRI.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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EPI with Keyhole (EPIK) is a hybrid imaging technique used to improve the performance of EPI in dynamic MRI applications. The method had been previously validated at 1.5 T with both phantom and in vivo images; EPIK was able to provide a higher temporal resolution and less image distortions than single-shot EPI. The data presented here demonstrate that the performance of EPIK can be further improved by accelerating it with the parallel imaging. For this work, this combination was tested at 3 T. After initial evaluation using phantom images, use of the method in functional MRI was verified with visual fMRI measurements as well as MRI simulation results. The results showed that accelerated EPIK had increased temporal resolution with favorable robustness against susceptibility artifacts when compared with EPI or non-accelerated EPIK.
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Brain grey matter deficits in smokers: focus on the cerebellum.
Brain Struct Funct
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Structural cerebral deficiencies in smokers have been well characterized by morphometric investigations focussing on cortical and subcortical structures. Although the role of the cerebellum is increasingly noted in mental and addiction disorders, no reports exist regarding cerebellar alterations in smokers employing a methodology specifically designed to assess the cerebellar morphology. We acquired high-resolution MRI scans from 33 heavy smokers and 22 never-smokers and used a voxel-based morphometry (VBM) approach utilizing the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial (SUIT) toolbox (Diedrichsen 2006) to provide an optimized and fine-grained exploration of cerebellar structural alterations associated with smoking. Relative to never-smokers, smokers showed significant reductions of grey matter volume in the right cerebellum Crus I. The grey matter volume in Crus I correlated negatively with the amount of nicotine dependence as assessed by means of the Fagerström scale. Since Crus I has been identified as the cognitive division of the cerebellum, the structural deficit may in part mediate cognitive deficits previously reported in smokers. Of note, the dependence-related magnitude of the volume deficit may support the notion that the cerebellum is substantially involved in core mechanisms of drug dependence.
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Spatial and sustained attention in relation to smoking status: behavioural performance and brain activation patterns.
J. Psychopharmacol. (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Nicotine enhances attentional functions. Since chronic nicotine exposure through smoking induces neuroadaptive changes in the brain at a structural and molecular level, the present functional MRI (fMRI) study aimed at investigating the neural mechanisms underlying visuospatial and sustained attention in smokers and non-smokers. Visuospatial attention was assessed with a location-cueing paradigm, while sustained attention was measured by changes in response speed over time. During invalid trials, neural activity within the basal forebrain was selectively enhanced in smokers and higher basal forebrain activity was associated with increased parietal cortex activation. Moreover, higher levels of expired carbon monoxide in smokers before scanning were associated with higher parietal cortex activation and faster responses to invalidly cued targets. Smokers showed a slowing of responses and additionally recruited an area within the right supramarginal gyrus with increasing time on task. Activity decreases over time were observed in visual areas in smokers. The data provide evidence for altered attentional functions in smokers as compared with non-smokers, which were partly modulated by residual nicotine levels and were observed at a behavioural level for sustained and at a neural level for spatial and sustained attention.
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Ketamine effects on brain function--simultaneous fMRI/EEG during a visual oddball task.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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Behavioral and electrophysiological human ketamine models of schizophrenia are used for testing compounds that target the glutamatergic system. However, corresponding functional neuroimaging models are difficult to reconcile with functional imaging and electrophysiological findings in schizophrenia. Resolving the discrepancies between different observational levels is critical to understand the complex pharmacological ketamine action and its usefulness for modeling schizophrenia pathophysiology.
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Direction and magnitude of nicotine effects on the fMRI BOLD response are related to nicotine effects on behavioral performance.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Considerable variability across individuals has been reported in both the behavioral and fMRI blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to nicotine. We aimed to investigate (1) whether there is a heterogeneous effect of nicotine on behavioral and BOLD responses across participants and (2) if heterogeneous BOLD responses are associated with behavioral performance measures. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study, 41 healthy participants (19 smokers)--drawn from a larger population-based sample--performed a visual oddball task after acute challenge with 1 mg nasal nicotine. fMRI data and reaction time were recorded during performance of the task. Across the entire group of subjects, we found increased activation in the anterior cingulate cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, post-central gyrus, planum temporal and frontal pole in the nicotine condition compared with the placebo condition. However, follow-up analyses of this difference in activation between the placebo and nicotine conditions revealed that some participants showed an increase in activation while others showed a decrease in BOLD activation from the placebo to the nicotine condition. A reduction of BOLD activation from placebo to nicotine was associated with a decrease in reaction time and reaction time variability and vice versa, suggesting that it is the direction of BOLD response to nicotine which is related to task performance. We conclude that the BOLD response to nicotine is heterogeneous and that the direction of response to nicotine should be taken into account in future pharmaco-fMRI research on the central action of nicotine.
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Dynamic EEG-informed fMRI modeling of the pain matrix using 20-ms root mean square segments.
Hum Brain Mapp
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Previous studies on the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical pain processing using electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG), or intracranial recordings point towards a high degree of parallelism, e.g. parallel instead of sequential activation of primary and secondary somatosensory areas or simultaneous activation of somatosensory areas and the mid-cingulate cortex. However, because of the inverse problem, EEG and MEG provide only limited spatial resolution and certainty about the generators of cortical pain-induced electromagnetic activity, especially when multiple sources are simultaneously active. On the other hand, intracranial recordings are invasive and do not provide whole-brain coverage. In this study, we thought to investigate the spatio-temporal dynamics of cortical pain processing in 10 healthy subjects using simultaneous EEG/functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Voltages of 20 ms segments of the EEG root mean square (a global, largely reference-free measure of event-related EEG activity) in a time window 0-400 ms poststimulus were used to model trial-to-trial fluctuations in the fMRI blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal. EEG-derived regressors explained additional variance in the BOLD signal from 140 ms poststimulus onward. According to this analysis, the contralateral parietal operculum was the first cortical area to become activated upon painful laser stimulation. The activation pattern in BOLD analyses informed by subsequent EEG-time windows suggests largely parallel signal processing in the bilateral operculo-insular and mid-cingulate cortices. In that regard, our data are in line with previous reports. However, the approach presented here is noninvasive and bypasses the inverse problem using only temporal information from the EEG.
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The val158met polymorphism of human catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) affects anterior cingulate cortex activation in response to painful laser stimulation.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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Pain is a complex experience with sensory, emotional and cognitive aspects. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to pain-related phenotypes such as chronic pain states. Genetic variations in the gene coding for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) have been suggested to affect clinical and experimental pain-related phenotypes including regional mu-opioid system responses to painful stimulation as measured by ligand-PET (positron emission tomography). The functional val158met single nucleotide polymorphism has been most widely studied. However, apart from its impact on pain-induced opioid release the effect of this genetic variation on cerebral pain processing has not been studied with activation measures such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), PET or electroencephalography. In the present fMRI study we therefore sought to investigate the impact of the COMT val158met polymorphism on the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to painful laser stimulation.
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Pleasant music overcomes the loss of awareness in patients with visual neglect.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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During the past 20 years there has been much research into the factors that modulate awareness of contralesional information in neurological patients with visual neglect or extinction. However, the potential role of the individuals emotional state in modulating awareness has been largely overlooked. In the current study, we induced a pleasant and positive affective response in patients with chronic visual neglect by allowing them to listen to their pleasant preferred music. We report that the patients showed enhanced visual awareness when tasks were performed under preferred music conditions relative to when tasks were performed either with unpreferred music or in silence. These results were also replicated when positive affect was induced before neglect was tested. Functional MRI data showed enhanced activity in the orbitofrontal cortex and the cingulate gyrus associated with emotional responses when tasks were performed with preferred music relative to unpreferred music. Improved awareness of contralesional (left) targets with preferred music was also associated with a strong functional coupling between emotional areas and attentional brain regions in spared areas of the parietal cortex and early visual areas of the right hemisphere. These findings suggest that positive affect, generated by preferred music, can decrease visual neglect by increasing attentional resources. We discuss the possible roles of arousal and mood in generating these effects.
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Optimizing the measurement of contact heat evoked potentials.
J Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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Our aim was to determine whether single trial averaging could improve quantification of contact heat evoked potentials measured from fixed position contact heat stimulation. Event-related brain potentials were measured in response to contact heat stimuli applied to the arm and the leg of 10 subjects via a circular thermode, using fixed and varied thermode positions at 41 degrees C and 51 degrees C. Contact heat evoked potentials were successfully recorded from varied position stimulation of the leg at 51 degrees C in 80% of subjects, but from only 60% of subjects using a fixed position. Contact heat evoked potentials were only identified in a small number of subjects when stimulating at 41 degrees C. The amplitude of the N2-P2 complex and pain intensity ratings were larger for the varied compared with the fixed thermode position and were also larger when stimulating the arm. Automated single trial analysis of the data resulted in larger amplitude of the N2-P2 complex than standard averaging. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the reduced contact heat evoked potentials amplitude seen for fixed location stimulation can be improved with single-trial averaging.
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Advances in multimodal neuroimaging: hybrid MR-PET and MR-PET-EEG at 3 T and 9.4 T.
J. Magn. Reson.
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Multi-modal MR-PET-EEG data acquisition in simultaneous mode confers a number of advantages at 3 T and 9.4 T. The three modalities complement each other well; structural-functional imaging being the domain of MRI, molecular imaging with specific tracers is the strength of PET, and EEG provides a temporal dimension where the other two modalities are weak. The utility of hybrid MR-PET at 3 T in a clinical setting is presented and critically discussed. The potential problems and the putative gains to be accrued from hybrid imaging at 9.4 T, with examples from the human brain, are outlined. Steps on the road to 9.4 T multi-modal MR-PET-EEG are also illustrated. From an MR perspective, the potential for ultra-high resolution structural imaging is discussed and example images of the cerebellum with an isotropic resolution of 320 ?m are presented, setting the stage for hybrid imaging at ultra-high field. Further, metabolic imaging is discussed and high-resolution images of the sodium distribution are presented. Examples of tumour imaging on a 3 T MR-PET system are presented and discussed. Finally, the perspectives for multi-modal imaging are discussed based on two on-going studies, the first comparing MR and PET methods for the measurement of perfusion and the second which looks at tumour delineation based on MRI contrasts but the knowledge of tumour extent is based on simultaneously acquired PET data.
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EEG acquisition in ultra-high static magnetic fields up to 9.4 T.
Neuroimage
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The simultaneous acquisition of electroencephalographic (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data has gained momentum in recent years due to the synergistic effects of the two modalities with regard to temporal and spatial resolution. Currently, only EEG-data recorded in fields of up to 7 T have been reported. We investigated the feasibility of recording EEG inside a 9.4 T static magnetic field, specifically to determine whether meaningful EEG information could be recovered from the data after removal of the cardiac-related artefact. EEG-data were recorded reliably and reproducibly at 9.4 T and the cardiac-related artefact increased in amplitude with increasing B0, as expected. Furthermore, we were able to correct for the cardiac-related artefact and identify auditory event related responses at 9.4 T in 75% of subjects using independent component analysis (ICA). Also by means of ICA we detected event related spectral perturbations (ERSP) in subjects at 9.4 T in response to opening/closing the eyes comparable with the response at 0 T. Overall our results suggest that it is possible to record meaningful EEG data at ultra-high magnetic fields. The simultaneous EEG-fMRI approach at ultra-high-fields opens up the horizon for investigating brain dynamics at a superb spatial resolution and a temporal resolution in the millisecond domain.
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Epoch versus impulse models in the analysis of parametric fMRI studies.
Clin Neurophysiol
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In parametric fMRI studies the relationship between the amplitude of the hemodynamic response and electrophysiological or behavioral parameters is commonly analyzed using the general linear model (GLM). We examined ways of using single-trial response time (RT) in the analysis of a decision-making task to better isolate task-specific activation.
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Nicotine effects on anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia and healthy smokers as revealed by EEG-informed fMRI.
Psychiatry Res
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Nicotine can have beneficial effects on attention performance and corresponding brain function in both schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, but it remains controversial whether nicotine affects brain function differentially in patients vs. controls. The effects of nicotine on brain activity elicited by attention-requiring oddball-type tasks have not been studied in schizophrenia patients. In this study we sought to investigate the impact of nicotine on the p300 evoked potential component and corresponding fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging) activation measures in schizophrenia patients and controls. Applying a double-blind, placebo-controlled cross-over design, the effects of 1mg nasal nicotine on brain activity elicited by a visual oddball-type task in N=14 schizophrenia and N=15 control smokers were studied with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. EEG single trial amplitudes were used to inform the fMRI analysis. We found a nicotine-associated increase in P300-informed fMRI activation in schizophrenia patients and controls, mainly in the anterior cingulate and adjacent medial frontal cortex. No group differences in the response to nicotine were found. Remarkably, averaged EEG and fMRI activation measures considered in isolation were largely unaffected by nicotine. Taken together, the effects of nicotine on P300 amplitude-associated brain activation do not seem to be fundamentally different in schizophrenic smokers and healthy controls.
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Effects of nicotine on social cognition, social competence and self-reported stress in schizophrenia patients and healthy controls.
Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci
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More than 80 % of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia are nicotine-dependent. Self-medication of cognitive deficits and an increased vulnerability to stress are discussed as promoting factors for the development of nicotine dependence. However, the effects of nicotine on social cognition and subjective stress responses in schizophrenia are largely unexplored. A 2 × 2-factorial design (drug × group) was used to investigate the effects of nicotine versus placebo in smoking schizophrenia patients and healthy controls after 24 h of abstinence from smoking. Participants performed a facial affect recognition task and a semi-standardized role-play task, after which social competence and self-reported stress during social interaction were assessed. Data analysis revealed no significant group differences in the facial affect recognition task. During social interaction, healthy controls showed more non-verbal expressions and a lower subjective stress level than schizophrenia patients. There were no significant effects of nicotine in terms of an enhanced recognition of facial affect, more expressive behaviour or reduced subjective stress during social interaction. While schizophrenia patients unexpectedly recognized facial affect not significantly worse than healthy controls, the observed group differences in subjective stress and non-verbal expression during social interaction in the role-play situation are in line with previous findings. Contrary to expectations derived from the self-medication hypothesis, nicotine showed no significant effects on the dependent variables, perhaps because of the dosage used and the delay between the administration of nicotine and the performance of the role-play.
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Nicotine effects on brain function during a visual oddball task: a comparison between conventional and EEG-informed fMRI analysis.
J Cogn Neurosci
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In a previous oddball task study, it was shown that the inclusion of electrophysiology (EEG), that is, single-trial P3 ERP parameters, in the analysis of fMRI responses can detect activation that is not apparent with conventional fMRI data modeling strategies [Warbrick, T., Mobascher, A., Brinkmeyer, J., Musso, F., Richter, N., Stoecker, T., et al. Single-trial P3 amplitude and latency informed event-related fMRI models yield different BOLD response patterns to a target detection task. Neuroimage, 47, 1532-1544, 2009]. Given that P3 is modulated by nicotine, including P3 parameters in the fMRI analysis might provide additional information about nicotine effects on brain function. A 1-mg nasal nicotine spray (0.5 mg each nostril) or placebo (pepper) spray was administered in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject, randomized, cross-over design. Simultaneous EEG-fMRI and behavioral data were recorded from 19 current smokers in response to an oddball-type visual choice RT task. Conventional general linear model analysis and single-trial P3 amplitude informed general linear model analysis of the fMRI data were performed. Comparing the nicotine with the placebo condition, reduced RTs in the nicotine condition were related to decreased BOLD responses in the conventional analysis encompassing the superior parietal lobule, the precuneus, and the lateral occipital cortex. On the other hand, reduced RTs were related to increased BOLD responses in the precentral and postcentral gyri, and ACC in the EEG-informed fMRI analysis. Our results show how integrated analyses of simultaneous EEG-fMRI data can be used to detect nicotine effects that would not have been revealed through conventional analysis of either measure in isolation. This emphasizes the significance of applying multimodal imaging methods to pharmacoimaging.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.