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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Estimated HIV Incidence in California, 2006-2009.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Accurate estimates of HIV incidence are crucial for prioritizing, targeting, and evaluating HIV prevention efforts. Using the methodology the CDC used to estimate national HIV incidence, we estimated HIV incidence in Los Angeles County (LAC), San Francisco (SF), and Californias remaining counties.
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A plausible causal model of HAART-efficacy beliefs, HIV/AIDS complacency, and HIV-acquisition risk behavior among young men who have sex with men.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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Despite considerable research, the causal relationship remains unclear between HIV/AIDS complacency, measured as reduced HIV/AIDS concern because of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and HIV risk behavior. Understanding the directionality and underpinnings of this relationship is critical for programs that target HIV/AIDS complacency as a means to reduce HIV incidence among men who have sex with men (MSM). This report uses structural equation modeling to evaluate a theory-based, HIV/AIDS complacency model on 1,593 MSM who participated in a venue-based, cross-sectional survey in six U.S. cities, 1998-2000. Demonstrating adequate fit and stability across geographic samples, the model explained 15.0% of the variance in HIV-acquisition behavior among young MSM. Analyses that evaluated alternative models and models stratified by perceived risk for HIV infection suggest that HIV/AIDS complacency increases acquisition behavior by mediating the effects of two underlying HAART-efficacy beliefs. New research is needed to assess model effects on current acquisition risk behavior, and thus help inform prevention programs designed to reduce HIV/AIDS complacency and HIV incidence among young MSM.
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Sex drugs, peer connections, and HIV: Use and risk among African American, Latino, and Multiracial young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in Los Angeles and New York.
J Gay Lesbian Soc Serv
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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African American and Latino young men who have sex with men are at high risk for HIV infection. We administered brief intercept surveys (N=416) at 18 Black and Latino gay pride events in Los Angeles and New York in 2006 and 2007. Ordinal logistic regressions were used to model the effects of substance use during sex, peer connectedness, relationship status, and homelessness on condom use. Alcohol use, crystal use, homelessness, and having a primary relationship partner were negatively associated with condom use, while peer connectedness and marijuana use during sex were positively associated with condom use. Implications for service providers and future research are discussed.
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Older partner selection, sexual risk behaviour and unrecognised HIV infection among black and Latino men who have sex with men.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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The authors examine whether young black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) who have older sex partners are more likely than those who do not have older sex partners to have unrecognised HIV infection. The authors examine whether the association stems from (1) increased sexual risk behaviour with male partners of any age, (2) heightened risk of being exposed to HIV infection by older partners or (3) a combination of these two factors.
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Mistaken assumptions and missed opportunities: correlates of undiagnosed HIV infection among black and Latino men who have sex with men.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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To identify demographic, behavioral, and psychological variables associated with being HIV positive unaware among black and Latino men who have sex with men (MSM).
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Seroprevalence and correlates of hepatitis a among HIV-negative American men who have sex with men.
Sex Health
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Hepatitis A outbreaks are well documented among men who have sex with men (MSM). This analysis examines characteristics associated with hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection among a large group of young adult MSM from five USA cities.
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HIV/AIDS complacency and HIV infection among young men who have sex with men, and the race-specific influence of underlying HAART beliefs.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the United States, the influence of HIV/AIDS complacency and beliefs about the efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on HIV-infection risk is unknown.
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The role of peer support on condom use among Black and Latino MSM in three urban areas.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2010
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This article examines the sociodemographic/behavioral variables associated with low peer support of condom use and the relation between low peer support of condom use and unprotected anal sex for Black and Latino MSM in cities heavily impacted by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Our findings indicate that perceived low peer support of condom use is associated with increased odds of recent unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) among Black and Latino MSM, regardless of male partner type. Although many participants reported having high peer support of condom use, this analysis highlights a considerable subgroup of Black and Latino MSM, 21% and 30%, respectively, who report low peer support of condoms. Given the prevalence of low peer support of condom use and its association with UAI in these highly impacted MSM populations, we recommend future intervention work that draws upon Black and Latino MSMs peer and social network members to reduce HIV risk behaviors.
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Prevalence and protective value of serosorting and strategic positioning among Black and Latino men who have sex with men.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2010
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Self-reported HIV-negative black and Latino MSM who engaged in serosorting or strategic positioning were less likely to have unrecognized HIV infection than men who engaged in unprotected anal intercourse without using these risk-reduction strategies.
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Understanding differences in HIV sexual transmission among Latino and black men who have sex with men: The Brothers y Hermanos Study.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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HIV sexual transmission risk behaviors were examined among 1,065 Latino and 1,140 black men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants completed a computer-administered questionnaire and were tested for HIV infection. Of men who reported that their last HIV test was negative or that they had never been tested or did not get the result of their last test, 17% of black and 5% of Latino MSM tested HIV-positive in our study. In both ethnic groups, the three-month prevalence of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with HIV-negative or unknown serostatus partners was twice as high among men unaware of their HIV infection than men who knew they were HIV seropositive at the time of enrollment. UAI exclusively with HIV-positive partners was more prevalent among HIV-positive/aware than HIV-positive/unaware men. The findings advance understanding of the high incidence of HIV infection among black MSM in the U.S.
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Exploring HIV prevention utilization among female sex workers and male-to-female transgenders.
AIDS Educ Prev
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Female sex worker (FSW) and male-to-female transgender (TGW, transgender women) populations both experience elevated levels of HIV infection and have unique prevention needs because of their stigmatized social status and often-precarious economic circumstances. We analyzed data from 104 FSWs and 128 TGW to assess their level of exposure to active and passive HIV prevention services and identify which subgroups are underserved. Data were collected, in Los Angeles for the cross-sectional 2003-2004 HIV Testing Survey (HITS), through face-to-face interviews with participants recruited primarily from street, club, and social service venues. Both groups reported more passive than active prevention exposure, with overall participation less common for FSWs than for TGW. Although some differences were observed between groups, predictors of lower HIV prevention utilization identified in both study populations included African American (versus Hispanic) race/ethnicity, higher household incomes, cohabitation/marriage, and not seeking recent health care. Prevention efforts should increase outreach to these subgroups, tailor programs for those who are African American or partnered, and increase the proportion of FSWs and TGW who periodically engage in active HIV prevention services such as client-centered counseling and small-group interventions to build skills related to safer sex.
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Drug use, high-risk sex behaviors, and increased risk for recent HIV infection among men who have sex with men in Chicago and Los Angeles.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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We examined how drugs, high-risk sexual behaviors, and socio-demographic variables are associated with recent HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a case-control study. Interviewers collected risk factor data among 111 cases with recent HIV infection, and 333 HIV-negative controls from Chicago and Los Angeles. Compared with controls, cases had more unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) with both HIV-positive and HIV-negative partners. MSM with lower income or prior sexually transmitted infections (STI) were more likely to be recently HIV infected. Substances associated with UAI included amyl nitrate ("poppers"), methamphetamine, Viagra (or similar PDE-5 inhibitors), ketamine, and gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Cases more frequently used Viagra, poppers, and methamphetamine during UAI compared with controls. In multivariate analysis, income, UAI with HIV-positive partners, Viagra, and poppers remained associated with recent HIV seroconversion. Better methods are needed to prevent HIV among MSM who engage in high-risk sex with concurrent drug use.
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Using arrest charge to screen for undiagnosed HIV infection among new arrestees: a study in Los Angeles County.
J Correct Health Care
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Despite high documented HIV prevalence, few jail systems offer universal HIV screening, nor is this always feasible. The authors evaluated undiagnosed HIV infection and HIV risk history by arrest charge among 1,322 new arrestees to examine whether specific charges may help prioritize jail-based screening. Undiagnosed HIV prevalence was 2.7% and 1.0% among males and females, with 32% and 45% reporting recent STD diagnoses or high-risk behaviors for HIV. HIV risk history distinguished HIV-infected males but not females. Males with parole violation, sex, or theft charges had high undiagnosed HIV infection rates relative to other males. A weaker trend was observed for females with parole violation, drug, or violent charges. These charges represented 30% and 66% of males and females studied and 56% and 100% of their undiagnosed HIV infections, respectively. Using arrest charge to target screening may efficiently increase HIV diagnosis in jail inmates where universal HIV screening is not possible.
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Exposure to HIV partner counseling and referral services and notification of sexual partners among persons recently diagnosed with HIV.
Sex Transm Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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Among HIV-infected persons, we evaluated use of client partner notification (CPN) and health-department partner notification strategies to inform sex partners of possible HIV exposure, and prior exposure to partner counseling and referral services.
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Gender role conflict among African American men who have sex with men and women: associations with mental health and sexual risk and disclosure behaviors.
Am J Public Health
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We investigated whether high gender role conflict (GRC; internal conflict with traditional gender-role stereotypes and an individuals perceived need to comply with these roles) is associated with psychological distress and HIV-related risk behaviors in a sample of African American men who have sex with men and women (MSMW).
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Late HIV detection among adult males in Los Angeles County, 2000-2004.
AIDS Care
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We analyzed HIV surveillance data on white, black, and Latino males diagnosed with HIV between 2000 and 2004 in Los Angeles County (LAC) to identify associations between individual- and community-level factors and late HIV detection by race/ethnicity. We defined late HIV detection as an AIDS diagnosis within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. We conducted multilevel analysis to determine individual- and community-level risk factors associated with late HIV detection stratified by race/ethnicity. We mapped HIV-positive males with late HIV detection by race/ethnicity at the zip code level within LAC to determine high burden areas. Overall, 38% of all males met the definition of late HIV detection. By race/ethnicity, 44% of Latinos, 38% of blacks, and 30% of whites were detected late in their course of HIV infection. Latinos and whites had multiple individual-level risk factors associated with late HIV detection. Among black males, only older age at HIV diagnosis was associated with late HIV detection. The only community-level risk factor associated with late HIV detection was among Latinos living in communities with less than 6% of men who have sex with men (proxy for stigma). Mapping the distribution of late HIV detection showed late detection areas generalized across LAC for Latino males in comparison with white and black males whose maps showed clustered areas of late HIV detection. Analysis and mapping of individual- and community-level risk factors associated with late HIV detection provides an important tool for targeting prevention resources to areas and populations with the highest burden of disease.
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Using laboratory surveillance data to estimate engagement in care among persons living with HIV in Los Angeles County, 2009.
AIDS Patient Care STDS
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Poor engagement in HIV care has been associated with delayed access to antiretroviral treatment and increased HIV transmission. Using viral load (VL) results from HIV laboratory surveillance data to conduct longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses, we examined linkage to care, retention in care, and their associated factors in 37,325 persons living with HIV (PLWH) in Los Angeles County (LAC). Linkage to care was considered timely if a VL test result was present ?3 months of diagnosis. Successful retention in care was defined as having two or more VL test results ?90 days apart during 2009. Of 6841 persons newly diagnosed with HIV in 2007-2009, 67% were linked to care within 3 months of diagnosis. Factors associated with delayed linkage to care included being African American, Latino, and Asian/Pacific Islander (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR]=0.81; 95% CI=0.75-0.87, AHR=0.83; 95% CI=0.77-0.89, AHR=0.82; 95% CI=0.71-0.94, respectively). Of the 37,325 PLWH, 52% were retained in care during 2009. Factors associated with lack of retention in care included injection drug use (adjusted prevalence ratio [APR]=0.88; 95% CI=0.84-0.93), incarceration at diagnosis (APR=0.56; 95% CI=0.51-0.61), being diagnosed in pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era (APR=0.94; 95% CI=0.92-0.96) or at a public facility (APR=0.97; 95% CI=0.95-1.00), age <45 years (APR=0.87; 95% CI=0.86-0.89), and having concurrent HIV/AIDS diagnoses (APR=0.94; 95% CI=0.92-0.96). This study demonstrates the value of using VL surveillance data to monitor engagement in care among PLWH, and its potential to improve linkage and retention efforts where disparities in care are observed.
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Modeling the impact of social discrimination and financial hardship on the sexual risk of HIV among Latino and Black men who have sex with men.
Am J Public Health
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We examined the impact of social discrimination and financial hardship on unprotected anal intercourse with a male sex partner of serodiscordant or unknown HIV status in the past 3 months among 1081 Latino and 1154 Black men who have sex with men (MSM; n = 2235) residing in Los Angeles County, California; New York, New York; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
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Comparison of demographic and behavioral characteristics of men who have sex with men by enrollment venue type in the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System.
Sex Transm Dis
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During 2003-2005, the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS) enrolled men who have sex with men (MSM) from 12 different venue types in 15 metropolitan areas in the United States. Our goal was to examine whether limiting NHBS enrollment venues to gay bars and dance clubs could increase efficiency without changing the overall results and conclusions.
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Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) Infection, Immunity and Susceptibility Among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM), Los Angeles County, USA.
AIDS Behav
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Men who have sex with men (MSM) bear a disproportionate burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. We used serologic data from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance (NHBS) system to determine the prevalence and correlates of HBV infection, immunization, and susceptibility in a sample of Los Angeles County MSM. Approximately 19 % (95 % CI 15-24 %) had serologic evidence of current or past infection, while 35 % (95 % CI 30-40 %) were susceptible. Compared with the youngest age group, MSM ages 40-49 years had a lower prevalence of immunization (aPR 0.28, 95 % CI 0.17-0.45) and a higher prevalence of infection (aPR 8.53, 95 % CI 3.95-18.4) and susceptibility (aPR 2.02, 95 % CI 1.13-3.63). We also observed poor concordance between self-reported and serologic measures of vaccination. Our results indicate the possibility of missed opportunities to vaccinate MSM. Gaps in implementing existing vaccination strategies must be addressed to increase hepatitis B vaccination coverage for MSM, especially in older age groups.
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Engagement in HIV Care Among HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men From 21 Cities in the United States.
AIDS Behav
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We assessed factors associated with HIV care among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). We used 2008 data on MSM from the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance System (NHBS). Venue-based, time-space sampling was used to recruit and interview men in 21 U.S. cities with high AIDS prevalence. Among self-reported HIV-positive MSM, we used generalized estimating equations (clustered on city of interview) to evaluate factors associated with delayed linkage to care (care entry >3 months after diagnosis), not currently receiving care (no visit for HIV care during the 6 months before the study interview), and not being on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Among 8,153 MSM, 882 (11 %) were self-reported HIV-positive. 25 % had delayed linkage, 12 % were not currently receiving care and among those with at least one heath care visit 30 % were not on ART. In multivariate analysis, lower income and testing positive at their first HIV test were associated with delayed linkage. Age 18-29 years, and not having health insurance were associated with not currently receiving care. Among those with at least one health care visit, being age 18-39 years, having private or no health insurance, and stimulant use were associated with not being on ART. These findings can inform efforts to improve engagement in care.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.