JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Intraocular levels of IL-17A and IL-10 as respective determinant markers of toxoplasmosis and viral uveitis.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Uveitis is a potentially blinding inflammatory disease. 30-50% of uveitis cases are considered idiopathic. The present study sought to determine intraocular cytokine patterns in different etiological types of uveitis in order to better understand their immunological regulation and determine whether the cytokine pattern may be a useful diagnostic tool. From a multicenter institutional prospective study, clinical and biological datas from patients with various etiologies of uveitis, determined after a complete work-up, were compared with a control group of cataract patients. Multiplex assay was used to assess the profiles of 27 cytokines and chemokines in aqueous humor samples from these patients. In total, 62 patients with infectious or non-infectious uveitis and 88 controls were included. After a complete work-up, the cause of uveitis remained unknown in 25 patients (40% idiopathic uveitis). IL-1? levels were markedly increased in viral uveitis, as were IL-10 levels, whereas IL-17A levels were augmented in toxoplasmic uveitis. Based on the cytokine pattern, patients were reassigned to specific groups. At the end, the diagnosis of idiopathic uveitis was still valid in only 11 patients (18%). The observation that some markers are specific to certain diseases enables a better understanding of the disease pathogenesis and paves the way for new diagnostic methods aimed at identifying inflammatory markers, which may perhaps be targeted by therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Classification criteria and treatment modalities in primary Sjögren's syndrome.
Expert Rev Clin Immunol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Primary Sjögren's syndrome is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by a lymphocytic exocrinopathy. Oral and ocular dryness, asthenia and pain represent hallmarks of the disease. Systemic manifestations concern a third of patients, including lymphoma in 5% of the patients. The American European Consensus Group classification criteria have been used in current practice and clinical trials since 2002. New classification criteria were recently proposed by the American Congress of Rheumatology. A group of international experts are currently working to reach a new consensus between the American European Consensus Group classification criteria and the American Congress of Rheumatology proposal for disease classification. In addition, international consensus disease activity scores were recently established. Regarding treatment modalities, symptomatic treatments remain the cornerstone of therapy in pSS, but new biologic treatments are currently evaluated.
Related JoVE Video
Severe South American Ocular Toxoplasmosis Is Associated with Decreased Ifn-?/Il-17a and Increased Il-6/Il-13 Intraocular Levels.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In a cross sectional study, 19 French and 23 Colombian cases of confirmed active ocular toxoplasmosis (OT) were evaluated. The objective was to compare clinical, parasitological and immunological responses and relate them to the infecting strains. A complete ocular examination was performed in each patient. The infecting strain was characterized by genotyping when intraocular Toxoplasma DNA was detectable, as well as by peptide-specific serotyping for each patient. To characterize the immune response, we assessed Toxoplasma protein recognition patterns by intraocular antibodies and the intraocular profile of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Significant differences were found for size of active lesions, unilateral macular involvement, unilateral visual impairment, vitreous inflammation, synechiae, and vasculitis, with higher values observed throughout for Colombian patients. Multilocus PCR-DNA sequence genotyping was only successful in three Colombian patients revealing one type I and two atypical strains. The Colombian OT patients possessed heterogeneous atypical serotypes whereas the French were uniformly reactive to type II strain peptides. The protein patterns recognized by intraocular antibodies and the cytokine patterns were strikingly different between the two populations. Intraocular IFN-? and IL-17 expression was lower, while higher levels of IL-13 and IL-6 were detected in aqueous humor of Colombian patients. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that South American strains may cause more severe OT due to an inhibition of the protective effect of IFN-?.
Related JoVE Video
New clinical and experimental insights into Old World and neotropical ocular toxoplasmosis.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Retinal lesions or other ocular manifestations are serious consequences of infection with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Whilst classically considered a consequence of congenital transmission, recent screening studies estimated that 2% of T. gondii seropositive persons in Europe and North America have retinal lesions, most of them persisting unnoticed. The situation is more dramatic in South America, probably due to the predominance of virulent strains. Some of these strains seem to exhibit ocular or neuronal tropism and are responsible for severe ocular lesions. Despite the medical importance, the physiopathological mechanisms have only recently begun to be elucidated. The particular immune-privileged situation in the eye has to be considered. Studies on French patients showed low or undetectable ocular parasite loads, but a clear Th1/Th17 type immune reaction. Suitable mouse models have appeared in the last few years. Using such a model, IL-17A proved to impair parasite control and induce pathology. In contrast, in South American patients, the parasite seems to be much less efficiently controlled through a Th2 type or suppressive immune response that favors parasite replication. Finally, several host genetic markers controlling immune response factors have been associated with ocular involvement of T. gondii infection, mainly in South America.
Related JoVE Video
Sutureless intrascleral intraocular lens implantation after ocular trauma.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the results and safety of sutureless intrascleral haptic fixation in traumatized eyes and to compare this procedure with retropupillary iris-claw intraocular lens (IOL) fixation.
Related JoVE Video
Impairment of lacrimal secretion in the unaffected fellow eye of patients with recurrent unilateral herpetic keratitis.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the impact of recurrent unilateral herpetic keratitis (HK) on the tear secretion of the unaffected fellow eye.
Related JoVE Video
The local immune response to intraocular Toxoplasma re-challenge: less pathology and better parasite control through Treg/Th1/Th2 induction.
Int. J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ocular toxoplasmosis is a major cause of blindness world-wide. Ocular involvement is frequently seen following congenital infection. Many of these infections are quiescent but pose a life-time risk of reactivation. However, the physiopathology of ocular toxoplasmosis reactivation is largely unexplored. We previously developed a Swiss-Webster outbred mouse model for congenital toxoplasmosis by neonatal injection of Toxoplasma gondii cysts. We also used a mouse model of direct intraocular infection to show a deleterious local T helper 17 type response upon primary infection. In the present study, our two models were combined to study intravitreal re-challenge of neonatally infected mice, as an approximate model of reactivation, in comparison with a primary ocular infection. Using BioPlex proteomic assays in aqueous humour and reverse transcription-PCR for T helper cell transcription factors, we observed diminished T helper 17 type reaction in reinfection, compared with primary infection. In contrast, T helper 2 and T regulatory responses were enhanced. Interestingly, this was also true for T helper 1 markers such as IFN-?, which was paralleled by better parasite control. Secretion of IL-27, a central cytokine for shifting the immune response from T helper 17 to T helper 1, was also greatly enhanced. We observed a similar protective immune reaction pattern in the eye upon reinfection with the virulent RH strain, with the notable exception of IFN-?. In summary, our results show that the balance is shifted from T helper 17 to a less pathogenic but more effective anti-parasite Treg/T helper 1/T helper 2 pattern in a reactivation setting.
Related JoVE Video
p-Sulfonato-calix[n]arenes inhibit staphylococcal bicomponent leukotoxins by supramolecular interactions.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
PVL (Panton-Valentine leukocidin) and other Staphylococcus aureus ?-stranded pore-forming toxins are important virulence factors involved in various pathologies that are often necrotizing. The present study characterized leukotoxin inhibition by selected SCns (p-sulfonato-calix[n]arenes): SC4, SC6 and SC8. These chemicals have no toxic effects on human erythrocytes or neutrophils, and some are able to inhibit both the activity of and the cell lysis by leukotoxins in a dose-dependent manner. Depending on the type of leukotoxins and SCns, flow cytometry revealed IC50 values of 6-22 ?M for Ca2+ activation and of 2-50 ?M for cell lysis. SCns were observed to affect membrane binding of class S proteins responsible for cell specificity. Electrospray MS and surface plasmon resonance established supramolecular interactions (1:1 stoichiometry) between SCns and class S proteins in solution, but not class F proteins. The membrane-binding affinity of S proteins was Kd=0.07-6.2 nM. The binding ability was completely abolished by SCns at different concentrations according to the number of benzenes (30-300 ?M; SC8>SC6?SC4). The inhibitory properties of SCns were also observed in vivo in a rabbit model of PVL-induced endophthalmitis. These calixarenes may represent new therapeutic avenues aimed at minimizing inflammatory reactions and necrosis due to certain virulence factors.
Related JoVE Video
Floppy eyelid syndrome is associated with obstructive sleep apnoea: a prospective study on 127 patients.
J Sleep Res
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A few investigations have raised the question of a possible relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) and floppy eyelid syndrome (FES). FES is an easily inverted floppy eyelid with papillary conjunctivis, and is a subset of the general pathology, lax eyelid syndrome. The aim of the current study is to determine whether OSAS severity is associated with FES. One hundred and 27 consecutive subjects (aged 25-75 years) referred to the Strasbourg University Sleep Clinic with suspicion of OSAS were included. All patients underwent overnight ambulatory respiratory polygraphy, comprehensive ophthalmological examination and completed standard sleep questionnaires. OSAS severity was defined based on the patients obstructive apnoea-hypopnoea index (AHI). As expected, age, body mass index (BMI) and the proportion of males increased with OSAS severity. FES was observed in 15.8% of the subjects without OSAS, 25.8% of the total OSAS population and the frequency was significantly increased (40%) in patients with severe OSAS (AHI > 30 h(-1)). A significant correlation between OSAS severity and FES was found after adjustment for age, sex and BMI, using a principal component analysis (PCA). The multivariate analysis included clinical, polygraphic and comorbidity data and was followed by logistic regressions for the main components extracted from the PCA. In summary, our findings show an association between OSAS severity and FES and suggest that severe OSAS might be an independent risk factor for FES. These two disorders may share common biological determinants, such as tissue elasticity. Finally, clinicians should be aware of this association so that underlying OSAS or FES can be detected.
Related JoVE Video
Heavy chain-only antibodies and tetravalent bispecific antibody neutralizing Staphylococcus aureus leukotoxins.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) is a pore-forming toxin associated with current outbreaks of community-associated methicillin-resistant strains and implicated directly in the pathophysiology of Staphylococcus aureus-related diseases. Humanized heavy chain-only antibodies (HCAb) were generated against S. aureus PVL from immunized transgenic mice to neutralize toxin activity. The active form of PVL consists of the two components, LukS-PV and LukF-PV, which induce osmotic lysis following pore formation in host defense cells. One anti-LukS-PV HCAb, three anti-LukF-PV HCAbs with affinities in the nanomolar range, and one engineered tetravalent bispecific HCAb were tested in vitro and in vivo, and all prevented toxin binding and pore formation. Anti-LukS-PV HCAb also binds to ?-hemolysin C (HlgC) and inhibits HlgC/HlgB pore formation. Experiments in vivo in a toxin-induced rabbit endophthalmitis model showed that these HCAbs inhibit inflammatory reactions and tissue destruction, with the tetravalent bispecific HCAb performing best. Our findings show the therapeutic potential of HCAbs, and in particular, bispecific antibodies.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term outcomes of acute traumatic maculopathy.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report immediate and long-term outcomes of acute traumatic maculopathy.
Related JoVE Video
Ocular penetration of linezolid after oral administration in rabbits.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pharmacokinetics of linezolid (LZD) was investigated in rabbit eyes after single and multiple oral administrations.
Related JoVE Video
Microbial keratitis as a foreseeable complication of cosmetic contact lenses: a prospective study.
Acta Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A recent study shows that the relative risk of contact lenses (CL)-related microbial keratitis (MK) is highly increased with cosmetic contact lenses (CosCL). The aim of our study is to illustrate the implications of the CosCL on the occurence of MK and to describe the subpopulation of CosCL wearers.
Related JoVE Video
Processing of chromogranins/secretogranin in patients with diabetic retinopathy.
Regul. Pept.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation has been linked to the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR). Chromogranins A, B (CgA, CgB) and secretogranin II (SgII), are prohormones overexpressed in inflammatory diseases. The present study was conducted to evaluate the presence and processing of these prohormones in the vitreous of patients with DR (DV), compared with nondiabetic vitreous (NDV).
Related JoVE Video
Infectious crystalline keratopathy caused by Streptococcus Abiotrophia defectiva.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the first case of Streptococcus Abiotrophia defectiva-associated crystalline keratopathy.
Related JoVE Video
[Ocular side effects of steroids and other immunosuppressive agents].
Therapie
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The increasing use of immunosuppressive (IS) drugs in transplants or in systemic diseases, implies a long period of treatment and to be aware of possible side effects. These drugs can be used alone or in combination with steroids. This review deals with the issue of ocular side effects of the most used IS drugs, including steroids. Data were collected from Medline using Pubmed software. We first describe specific complication of each drug and then conclude on major common toxicity represented by opportunistic infections and induced cancers.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro efficacy of antifungal treatment using riboflavin/UV-A (365 nm) combination and amphotericin B.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To demonstrate the antimicrobial properties of riboflavin/UV-A (365 nm) against fungal pathogens.
Related JoVE Video
Ocular penetration of topically applied linezolid in a rabbit model.
J Cataract Refract Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate ocular penetration of topically applied linezolid, a new antibiotic agent targeted against gram-positive organisms.
Related JoVE Video
Spectral OCT analysis in Bietti crystalline dystrophy.
Eur J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the analysis of the cornea and the macular retina using both time domain (TD-OCT) and Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in a case of Bietti crystalline dystrophy (BCD).
Related JoVE Video
Spontaneous resolution of macular edema after panretinal photocoagulation in florid proliferative diabetic retinopathy.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To report the evolution of diabetic macular edema (DME) after extensive panretinal photocoagulation in patients with Type 1 diabetes exhibiting florid proliferative diabetic retinopathy (FPDR).
Related JoVE Video
Fusarium keratitis and endophthalmitis associated with lens contact wear.
Int Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fusarium keratitis is a severe corneal infection that is usually seen in tropical and subtropical countries after a corneal trauma. In 2005-2006, an epidemic of Fusarium keratitis, occurring predominantly among contact lens wearers, was observed in several countries.
Related JoVE Video
Cytokine profiles in toxoplasmic and viral uveitis.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Uveitis is a major cause of visual impairment throughout the world. Analysis of cytokine profiles in aqueous humor specimens may provide insight into the physiopathological processes that underly retinal damage in this context.
Related JoVE Video
Five cases of paralytic strabismus as a rare feature of lyme disease.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lyme borreliosis is the most common human tick-borne disease in the Northern Hemisphere. The prevalence of Lyme borreliosis is estimated to be 20-100 cases per 100,000 persons in the United States and 100-155 cases per 100,000 persons in Europe [ 1 , 2 ]. It is caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato [ 2 , 3 ]. The course of clinical manifestations is thought to occur in 3 stages: early, disseminated, and chronic [ 2 , 4 ]. Lyme borreliosis can cause a variety of ocular manifestations, and the frequency of these manifestations among cases of Lyme disease involving systemic manifestations is approximately 1% [ 5 ].
Related JoVE Video
Interleukin 17A as an effective target for anti-inflammatory and antiparasitic treatment of toxoplasmic uveitis.
J. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Toxoplasmosis is the most common cause of posterior uveitis in immunocompetent subjects. The requirement of limiting both parasite multiplication and tissue destruction suggests that the balance between T-helper (Th) 17 and T-regulatory cells is an important factor in toxoplasmosis-induced retinal damage.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy of intravitreal administrations of linezolid in an experimental model of S. aureus-related endophthalmitis.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal administration of linezolid (LZD) in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis.
Related JoVE Video
A comparison of azithromycin and tobramycin eye drops on epithelial wound healing and tolerance after penetrating keratoplasty.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
After keratoplasty, antibiotic eye drops are used to prevent ocular infection until the recipient corneal epithelium has healed. We compared the effects of azithromycin, a new macrolide, with the effect of the standard antibiotics, tobramycin, on the (i) prevention of infection, (ii) epithelial healing, and (iii) ocular tolerance after penetrating keratoplasty.
Related JoVE Video
Daptomycin versus vancomycin in a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus endophthalmitis rabbit model: bactericidal effect, safety, and ocular pharmacokinetics.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Staphylococcus aureus is a frequent cause of acute endophthalmitis, and infection with this virulent bacterium is often associated with a poor visual outcome. In this study, we investigated the bactericidal efficacy and the safety of intravitreal daptomycin (DAP), a lipopeptide antibiotic with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive bacteria, compared with those of intravitreal vancomycin (VAN) in a methicillin-resistant S. aureus endophthalmitis rabbit model. The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of daptomycin in the infected eyes were also studied. Rabbits were randomly divided into three treatment groups (n = 8) and one untreated group (n = 4), to compare the effect of single intravitreal injections of 0.2 mg and 1 mg of daptomycin (DAP 0.2 and DAP 1 groups, respectively) with that of 1 mg of intravitreal vancomycin (VAN 1 group). Vitreal aspirates were regularly collected and grading of ocular inflammation was regularly performed until euthanasia on day 7. In the DAP 0.2 group, 62.5% of the eyes were sterilized and the mean bacterial count presented a reduction of 1 log unit. In the DAP 1 and VAN 1 groups, the infection was eradicated (100% and 87.5% of eyes sterilized, respectively), with a 4-log-unit reduction of the mean bacterial count. The bactericidal efficacy in the DAP 1 group was not inferior to that in the VAN 1 group and was superior to that of the other regimens in limiting the ocular inflammation and preserving the architecture of the ocular structures (P < 0.05). The elimination half-life (t(1/2?)) of daptomycin was independent of the administered dose (38.8 ± 16.5 h and 40.9 ± 6.7 h, respectively, for the DAP 0.2 and DAP 1 groups) and was significantly longer than the t(1/2?) of vancomycin (20.5 ± 2.0 h for the VAN 1 group) (P < 0.05). This antibiotic could therefore be considered for the treatment of intraocular infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.