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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Rapid detection of dermatophytes and Candida albicans in onychomycosis specimens by an oligonucleotide array.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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BackgroundOnychomycosis is a fungal infection of nails, leading to the gradual destruction of the nail plate. Treatment of onychomycosis may need long-time oral antifungal therapy that can have potential side effects, thus accurate diagnosis of the disease before treatment is important. Culture for diagnosis of onychomycosis is time-consuming and has high false-negative rates. To expedite the diagnosis, an oligonucleotide array, based on hybridization between immobilized oligonucleotide probes and PCR products, for direct detection of dermatophytes and Candida albicans in clinical specimens was evaluated.MethodsSpecies-specific oligonucleotide probes designed from the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of the rRNA gene were immobilized on a nylon membrane. The assay procedures consisted of PCR amplification of the ITS using universal primers, followed by hybridization of the digoxigenin-labeled amplicons to probes on the array. Thirty two nail samples (29 patients) were analyzed by the array, and the results were compared with those obtained by culture. Array-positive but culture-negative samples were confirmed by cloning and re-sequencing of the amplified ITS and by reviewing patient¿s clinical data. The total recovery of culture and confirmed array-positive but culture-negative results was considered 100% and was used for performance evaluation of both methods.ResultsConcordant results were obtained in 21 samples (10 positives and 11 negatives) by both methods. Eleven samples were array-positive but culture-negative; among them, 9 samples were considered true positives after discrepant analysis. Comparing with culture, the array had significantly higher sensitivity [100% (95% CI 82.2% ¿100%) vs 52.6% (28.9% ¿75.5%), p <0.001] and negative predictive value [100% (71.3% ¿100%) vs 59.1% (36.4% ¿79.3%), p <0.05), while no significant differences were observed in specificity (84.6% vs 100%, p =0.48) and positive predictive value (90.5% vs 100%, p =1.0). The whole procedures of the array were about 24 h, whilst results from culture take 1 to 3 weeks.ConclusionsThe array offers an accurate and rapid alternative to culture. Rapid diagnosis can expedite appropriate antifungal treatment of onychomycosis. However, the single site nature of this study conducted at a referral hospital invites caution.
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HBsAg expression of liver correlates with histological activities and viral replication in chronic hepatitis B.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Introduction. The intrahepatic hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) expression is related to disease progression of chronic hepatitis B. We examined the features of intrahepatic HBsAg expression. Material and methods. A total of 181 patients with e antigen positive chronic hepatitis B were enrolled. Patterns and semi-quantitative measurement of intrahepatic HBsAg expression were analyzed. The association of intrahepatic hepatitis HBsAg expression with clinical, viral, and histological characteristics was evaluated. Results. Higher necroinflammation grade and greater fibrosis stage accompanied with lower serum HBV DNA and HBsAg levels were observed in patients with type II ground glass hepatocytes and 2+/3+ scales of intrahepatic HBsAg expression. Basal core promoter T1762/A1764 mutations were strongly associated with the pattern of type II ground glass hepatocytes expression (P < 0.001) and higher level of HBsAg expression (9.3 ± 8.0% vs. 4.3 ± 5.0%, P = 0.008). In multivariate analysis, basal core promoter mutations (Odds ratio: 6.356, 95% confidence interval: 1.204 ~ 33.356, P = 0.029) was associated with 2+/3+ scale of HBsAg expression. Conclusion. Both pattern and levels of intrahepatic HBsAg expression were associated with severity of liver disease in e antigen positive chronic hepatitis B. Strong relationship between intrahepatic HBsAg expression and basal core promoter 1762/A1764 mutations indicated that HBsAg expression may be the histological manifestation of hepatitis B virus genomic evolution under host immune surveillance.
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Hydroxychloroquine-Inhibited Dengue Virus Is Associated with Host Defense Machinery.
J. Interferon Cytokine Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an antimalarial drug also used in treating autoimmune diseases. Its antiviral activity was demonstrated in restricting HIV infection in vitro; however, the clinical implications remain controversial. Infection with dengue virus (DENV) is a global public health problem, and we lack an antiviral drug for DENV. Here, we evaluated the anti-DENV potential of treatment with HCQ. Immunofluorescence assays demonstrated that HCQ could inhibit DENV serotype 1-4 infection in vitro. RT-qPCR analysis of HCQ-treated cells showed induced expression of interferon (IFN)-related antiviral proteins and certain inflammatory cytokines. Mechanistic study suggested that HCQ activated the innate immune signaling pathways of IFN-?, AP-1, and NF?B. Knocking down mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS), inhibiting TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1)/inhibitor-?B kinase ? (IKK?), and blocking type I IFN receptor reduced the efficiency of HCQ against DENV-2 infection. Furthermore, HCQ significantly induced cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which was involved in the host defense system. Suppression of ROS production attenuated the innate immune activation and anti-DENV-2 effect of HCQ. In summary, HCQ triggers the host defense machinery by inducing ROS- and MAVS-mediated innate immune activation against DENV infection and may be a candidate drug for DENV infection.
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Carbon nanodots prepared from o-phenylenediamine for sensing of Cu(2+) ions in cells.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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A simple hydrothermal method was applied to prepare carbon nanodots (C dots) from o-phenylenediamine (OPD). The C dots exhibit photoluminescence at 567 nm when excited at 420 nm. In the presence of Cu(2+) ions, the colour of C dots changes from yellow to orange, with an increased PL intensity as a result of the formation of Cu(OPD)2 complexes on the surfaces of C dots. The D-band to G-band ratios of C dots in the absence and presence of 80 nM Cu(2+) ions are 1.31 and 4.75, respectively. The C dots allow the detection of Cu(2+) ions with linearity over a concentration range of 2-80 nM, with a limit of detection of 1.8 nM at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The cell viability values of A549, MCF-10A, and MDA-MB-231 cells treated with 3 ?g mL(-1) of C dots are all greater than 99%, showing their great biocompatibility. Having great water dispersibility, photostability, chemical stability (against NaCl up to 0.5 M), great selectivity, and biocompatibility, the C dots have been employed for the localization of Cu(2+) ions in the cancer cells (A549 cells) treated with 10 ?M Cu(2+) ions.
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Somatic mutations in DROSHA and DICER1 impair microRNA biogenesis through distinct mechanisms in Wilms tumours.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Wilms tumour is the most common childhood kidney cancer. Here we report the whole-exome sequencing of 44 Wilms tumours, identifying missense mutations in the microRNA (miRNA)-processing enzymes DROSHA and DICER1, and novel mutations in MYCN, SMARCA4 and ARID1A. Examination of tumour miRNA expression, in vitro processing assays and genomic editing in human cells demonstrates that DICER1 and DROSHA mutations influence miRNA processing through distinct mechanisms. DICER1 RNase IIIB mutations preferentially impair processing of miRNAs deriving from the 5'-arm of pre-miRNA hairpins, while DROSHA RNase IIIB mutations globally inhibit miRNA biogenesis through a dominant-negative mechanism. Both DROSHA and DICER1 mutations impair expression of tumour-suppressing miRNAs, including the let-7 family, important regulators of MYCN, LIN28 and other Wilms tumour oncogenes. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms through which mutations in miRNA biogenesis components reprogramme miRNA expression in human cancer and suggest that these defects define a distinct subclass of Wilms tumours.
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Organ-targeted high-throughput in vivo biologics screen identifies materials for RNA delivery.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Therapies based on biologics involving delivery of proteins, DNA, and RNA are currently among the most promising approaches. However, although large combinatorial libraries of biologics and delivery vehicles can be readily synthesized, there are currently no means to rapidly characterize them in vivo using animal models. Here, we demonstrate high-throughput in vivo screening of biologics and delivery vehicles by automated delivery into target tissues of small vertebrates with developed organs. Individual zebrafish larvae are automatically oriented and immobilized within hydrogel droplets in an array format using a microfluidic system, and delivery vehicles are automatically microinjected to target organs with high repeatability and precision. We screened a library of lipid-like delivery vehicles for their ability to facilitate the expression of protein-encoding RNAs in the central nervous system. We discovered delivery vehicles that are effective in both larval zebrafish and rats. Our results showed that the in vivo zebrafish model can be significantly more predictive of both false positives and false negatives in mammals than in vitro mammalian cell culture assays. Our screening results also suggest certain structure-activity relationships, which can potentially be applied to design novel delivery vehicles.
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Self-assembly of hybridized ligands on gold nanodots: tunable photoluminescence and sensing of nitrite.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Highly photoluminescent gold nanodots (Au NDs) via etching and co-deposition of hybridized ligands [11-mercaptoundecanol (11-MU) and its complexes with amphiphilic ligands] on gold nanoparticles (?3 nm) have been prepared and employed for the detection of nitrite based on the analyte-induced photoluminescence quenching.
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All-oral daclatasvir plus asunaprevir for hepatitis C virus genotype 1b: a multinational, phase 3, multicohort study.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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An unmet need exists for interferon-free and ribavirin-free treatments for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. In this study, we assessed all-oral therapy with daclatasvir (NS5A replication complex inhibitor) plus asunaprevir (NS3 protease inhibitor) in patients with genotype 1b infection, including those with high unmet needs or cirrhosis, or both.
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Sensitive detection of platelet-derived growth factor through surface-enhanced Raman scattering.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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A surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay using two different nanomaterials has been demonstrated for highly sensitive and selective detection of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs; 13 nm) are conjugated with aptamer (Apt) and 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) as the recognition element and reporter, respectively, while Au pearl necklace nanomaterials (Au PNNs) are used for generating reproducible and enhanced SERS signal of 4-MBA. The Apt/MBA-Au NPs bind PDGF through a specific interaction between Apt and PDGF in a fashion of 2:1, leading to concentration of the analyte and removal of the sample matrix. Through electrostatic interaction, the PDGF-Apt/MBA-Au NPs complexes form aggregates with Au PNNs, leading to an enhanced Raman signal of 4-MBA. Au PNNs allow enhancement factors up to 1.3 × 10(7) and relative standard deviations of Raman signals for 4-MBA down to 15% (five measurements). The assay allows detection of PDGF BB down to 0.5 pM, with linearity of the Raman signal of 4-MBA against the concentration of PDGF over 1-50 pM. Having advantages of sensitivity and reproducibility, this assay has been further applied for the determination of the concentration of PDGF in urine samples, showing its great potential for ultrasensitive analysis of target proteins in biological samples.
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Aberrant Serum Immunoglobulin G Glycosylation in Chronic Hepatitis B Is Associated With Histological Liver Damage and Reversible by Antiviral Therapy.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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?Aberrant serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) glycosylation and its immunomodulatory effect are rarely addressed in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.
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Detection of mercury(II) ions using colorimetric gold nanoparticles on paper-based analytical devices.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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An on-field colorimetric sensing strategy employing gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and a paper-based analytical platform was investigated for mercury ion (Hg(2+)) detection at water sources. By utilizing thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine (T-Hg(2+)-T) coordination chemistry, label-free detection oligonucleotide sequences were attached to unmodified gold nanoparticles to provide rapid mercury ion sensing without complicated and time-consuming thiolated or other costly labeled probe preparation processes. Not only is this strategy's sensing mechanism specific toward Hg(2+), rather than other metal ions, but also the conformational change in the detection oligonucleotide sequences introduces different degrees of AuNP aggregation that causes the color of AuNPs to exhibit a mixture variance. To eliminate the use of sophisticated equipment and minimize the power requirement for data analysis and transmission, the color variance of multiple detection results were transferred and concentrated on cellulose-based paper analytical devices, and the data were subsequently transmitted for the readout and storage of results using cloud computing via a smartphone. As a result, a detection limit of 50 nM for Hg(2+) spiked pond and river water could be achieved. Furthermore, multiple tests could be performed simultaneously with a 40 min turnaround time. These results suggest that the proposed platform possesses the capability for sensitive and high-throughput on-site mercury pollution monitoring in resource-constrained settings.
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Evaluation of phytoavailability of heavy metals to Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) in rural soils.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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This study compared the extractability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn by 8 extraction protocols for 22 representative rural soils in Taiwan and correlated the extractable amounts of the metals with their uptake by Chinese cabbage for developing an empirical model to predict metal phytoavailability based on soil properties. Chemical agents in these protocols included dilute acids, neutral salts, and chelating agents, in addition to water and the Rhizon soil solution sampler. The highest concentrations of extractable metals were observed in the HCl extraction and the lowest in the Rhizon sampling method. The linear correlation coefficients between extractable metals in soil pools and metals in shoots were higher than those in roots. Correlations between extractable metal concentrations and soil properties were variable; soil pH, clay content, total metal content, and extractable metal concentration were considered together to simulate their combined effects on crop uptake by an empirical model. This combination improved the correlations to different extents for different extraction methods, particularly for Pb, for which the extractable amounts with any extraction protocol did not correlate with crop uptake by simple correlation analysis.
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One-pot synthesis of fluorescent BSA-Ce/Au nanoclusters as ratiometric pH probes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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A facile, one-pot synthetic approach has been developed for the preparation of BSA-Ce/Au NCs. The fluorescence intensities of BSA-Ce/Au NCs at 410 and 650 nm are pH dependent and independent, respectively. The fluorescence intensity ratio (I410/I650) is linear against pH values from 6.0 to 9.0. These stable and biocompatible BSA-Ce/Au NCs have been used as ratiometric probes for monitoring local pH values inside HeLa cells.
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Biologically inspired flexible quasi-single-mode random laser: An integration of Pieris canidia butterfly wing and semiconductors.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Quasi-periodic structures of natural biomaterial membranes have great potentials to serve as resonance cavities to generate ecological friendly optoelectronic devices with low cost. To achieve the first attempt for the illustration of the underlying principle, the Pieris canidia butterfly wing was embedded with ZnO nanoparticles. Quite interestingly, it is found that the bio-inspired quasi-single-mode random laser can be achieved by the assistance of the skeleton of the membrane, in which ZnO nanoparticles act as emitting gain media. Such unique characteristics can be interpreted well by the Fabry-Perot resonance existing in the window-like quasi-periodic structure of butterfly wing. Due to the inherently promising flexibility of butterfly wing membrane, the laser action can still be maintained during the bending process. Our demonstrated approach not only indicates that the natural biological structures can provide effective scattering feedbacks but also pave a new avenue towards designing bio-controlled photonic devices.
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Association of serum IgG N-glycome and transforming growth factor-?1 with hepatitis B virus e antigen seroconversion during entecavir therapy.
Antiviral Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Aberrant serum IgG N-glycome has been demonstrated in various autoimmune diseases and viral infections. However, the correlation between serum IgG N-glycome and cytokine is unclear. In addition, the clinical relevance of IgG glycosylation and cytokine changes in the treatment outcome of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) has never been assessed. One hundred and three treatment-naive patients with CHB and 101 healthy controls were enrolled in this retrospective cohort study. Serum samples in patients before and after 48weeks of entecavir treatment were collected. In-gel trypsinized serum IgG heavy chain was analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Selected ion chromatograms corresponding to 10 N-glycoforms on asparagine 297 were individually extracted to calculate the percentage of each glycoforms. Serum cytokine profiles were examined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Forty-eight weeks of entecavir treatment resulted in decreases in galactose-deficient (total G0) IgG and transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1 levels (both P<0.001) in patients with CHB. The changes in TGF-?1 (?TGF-?1) and IgG total G0 (?total G0) levels during treatment were significantly correlated (r=0.403, P<0.001). Furthermore, higher levels of ?total G0 (P<0.01) and ?TGF-?1 (P<0.001) were found in hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients than in HBeAg-negative patients and were also found in patients with HBeAg seroconversion at week 48. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for ?total G0 and ?TGF-?1 to discriminate a week-48 HBeAg seroconversion were 0.835 and 0.830, respectively. These results suggested a correlation between serum cytokine and IgG N-glycome and its effect on the outcome of entecavir treatment in patients with CHB.
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Cognitive inference device for activity supervision in the elderly.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Human activity, life span, and quality of life are enhanced by innovations in science and technology. Aging individual needs to take advantage of these developments to lead a self-regulated life. However, maintaining a self-regulated life at old age involves a high degree of risk, and the elderly often fail at this goal. Thus, the objective of our study is to investigate the feasibility of implementing a cognitive inference device (CI-device) for effective activity supervision in the elderly. To frame the CI-device, we propose a device design framework along with an inference algorithm and implement the designs through an artificial neural model with different configurations, mapping the CI-device's functions to minimise the device's prediction error. An analysis and discussion are then provided to validate the feasibility of CI-device implementation for activity supervision in the elderly.
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Fluorescent silver nanoclusters stabilized by DNA scaffolds.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Fluorescent silver nanoclusters, in particular DNA stabilized (templated) silver nanoclusters, have attracted much attention because of their molecule-like optical properties, strong fluorescence and good biocompatibility. In this feature article, we summarize the DNA stabilized silver nanoclusters from the viewpoints of synthesis, optical properties, as well as recent applications in biological detection and imaging.
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Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of gold/silver-tellurium nanostructures.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Gold-tellurium nanostructures (Au-Te NSs), silver-tellurium nanostructures (Ag-Te NSs), and gold/silver-tellurium nanostructures (Au/Ag-Te NSs) have been prepared through galvanic reactions of tellurium nanotubes (Te NTs) with Au(3+), Ag(+), and both ions, respectively. Unlike the use of less environmentally friendly hydrazine, fructose as a reducing agent has been used to prepare Te NTs from TeO2 powders under alkaline conditions. The Au/Ag-Te NSs have highly catlaytic activity to convert nonfluorescent Amplex Red to form fluorescent product, revealing their great strength of generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). Au/Ag-Te NSs relative to the other two NSs exhibit greater antimicrobial activity toward the growth of E. coli, S. enteritidis, and S. aureus; the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of Au/Ag-Te NSs were much lower (>10-fold) than that of Ag-Te NSs and Au-Te NSs. The antibacterial activity of Au/Ag-Te NSs is mainly due to the release of Ag(+) ions and Te-related ions and also may be due to the generated ROS which destroys the bacteria membrane. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolysis analyses have revealed their low toxicity in selected human cell lines and insignificant hemolysis in red blood cells. In addition, inhibition zone measurements using a Au/Ag-Te NSs-loaded konjac jelly film have suggested that it has great potential in practial application such as wound dressing for reducing bacterial wound infection. Having great antibacterial activitiy and excellent biocompatibility, the low-cost Au/Ag-Te NSs hold great potential as effective antimicrobial drugs.
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Detection of hydrogen sulfide through photoluminescence quenching of penicillamine-copper nanocluster aggregates.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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We have developed a one-pot, inexpensive, simple and rapid method to synthesize photoluminescent copper nanocluster (Cu NC) aggregates from Cu(2+) ions in 65% (v v(-1)) dimethylformamide aqueous solution containing penicillamine (PA) as a capping and reducing agent. As-prepared PA-Cu NC aggregates emit at 580 nm when excited at 326 nm, with a quantum yield of 2.0%. The photoluminescence of PA-Cu NC aggregates originate from ligand-to-metal charge transfer, which is supported by a long lifetime (126.5 ns) and a large Stokes shift (254 nm). As-prepared PA-Cu NC aggregates have different emission wavelengths with the same excitation wavelength in various organic-aqueous solutions. The PA-Cu NC aggregates are highly selective and sensitive to the detection of hydrogen sulfide (H?S), based on analyte-induced photoluminescence quenching through the formation of CuS nanoparticles. The probe allows the detection of H?S, with a linear range of 1-100 ?M and a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) of 500 nM. The practicality of this probe has been validated through the analysis of hot spring water samples.
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Functional microgels assisted tryptic digestion and quantification of cytochrome C through internal standard mass spectrometry.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Quantitation of cytochrome c (Cyt c) in cell lysates through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) as the matrix and GR-10 peptide as an internal standard has been demonstrated. To shorten digestion time, temperature sensitive microgels containing trypsin (TR) and Au NPs have been employed. As-prepared functional microgels (TR/Au NPs/MGs) allow digestion of Cyt c within 15 s under microwave irradiation. The internal standard SALDI-MS approach provides linearity (R(2) = 0.98) of MS signal ratio (I 1168.6/I 1067.6) of the tryptic digested peptide (m/z 1168.6) to GR-10 peptide (m/z 1067.6) against the concentration of Cyt c ranging from 25 to 200 nM, with a limit of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 10 nM. This approach has been validated by the analysis of the lysates of HeLa cells, with an average concentration of 13.7?±?3.5 ?M for cytoplasmic Cyt c. Increased concentrations of Cyt c in the HeLa cells treated with etoposide (a commercial drug) or carbon dots (potential drug) have been revealed through this simple, sensitive, and rapid SALDI-MS approach, supporting the drugs induced Cyt c-mediated apoptosis of the cells. This study has shown that this internal standard SALDI-MS approach holds great potential for cell study.
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miR-34a blocks osteoporosis and bone metastasis by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and Tgif2.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Bone-resorbing osteoclasts significantly contribute to osteoporosis and bone metastases of cancer. MicroRNAs play important roles in physiology and disease, and present tremendous therapeutic potential. Nonetheless, how microRNAs regulate skeletal biology is underexplored. Here we identify miR-34a as a novel and critical suppressor of osteoclastogenesis, bone resorption and the bone metastatic niche. miR-34a is downregulated during osteoclast differentiation. Osteoclastic miR-34a-overexpressing transgenic mice exhibit lower bone resorption and higher bone mass. Conversely, miR-34a knockout and heterozygous mice exhibit elevated bone resorption and reduced bone mass. Consequently, ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis, as well as bone metastasis of breast and skin cancers, are diminished in osteoclastic miR-34a transgenic mice, and can be effectively attenuated by miR-34a nanoparticle treatment. Mechanistically, we identify transforming growth factor-?-induced factor 2 (Tgif2) as an essential direct miR-34a target that is pro-osteoclastogenic. Tgif2 deletion reduces bone resorption and abolishes miR-34a regulation. Together, using mouse genetic, pharmacological and disease models, we reveal miR-34a as a key osteoclast suppressor and a potential therapeutic strategy to confer skeletal protection and ameliorate bone metastasis of cancers.
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New nanostructured zinc phosphite templated by cetyltrimethylammonium cations: synthesis, crystal structure, adsorption, and photoluminescence properties.
Inorg Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Nanostructured zinc phosphite templated by cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA(+)) cations was synthesized using a hydro(solvo)thermal method. This is the first example of a crystalline metal phosphite containing long carbon tails of the CTA(+) ions as templates in its structure, as is structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The 2D inorganic structures with 4.8(2) topologies are constructed from the interconnection of tetrahedral ZnO3Br and HPO3 units, which are sandwiched between CTA(+) ion surfactants in a packing behavior of a largely lamellar liquid-crystalline structure to extend the interlayer d spacing to 28.05 Å. Adsorption experiment shows selective adsorption properties of 1-naphthol and a adsorption capacity of 0.17 mmol/mmol (CTA)ZnBr(HPO3). This compound has potential as an adsorbent for the removal of 1-naphthol pollutant from wastewater. In addition, the naphthol-adsorbed sample shows interesting luminescent properties that are different from that of an as-synthesized sample. The crystal structure, thermal stability, IR spectrum, adsorption, and photoluminescence properties have been studied.
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Quantification of saccharides in honey samples through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry using HgTe nanostructures.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Quantification of monosaccharides and disaccharides in five honey samples through surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) using HgTe nanostructures as the matrix and sucralose as an internal standard has been demonstrated. Under optimal conditions (1× HgTe nanostructure, 0.2 mM ammonium citrate at pH 9.0), the SALDI-MS approach allows detection of fructose and maltose at the concentrations down to 15 and 10 ?M, respectively. Without conducting tedious sample pretreatment and separation, the SALDI-MS approach allows determination of the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in honey samples within 30 min, with reproducibility (relative standard deviation <15%). Unlike only sodium adducts of standard saccharides detected, sodium adducts and potassium adducts with differential amounts have been found among various samples, showing different amounts of sodium and potassium ions in the honey samples. The SALDI-MS data reveal that the contents of monosaccharides and disaccharides in various honey samples are dependent on their nectar sources. In addition to the abundant amounts of monosaccharides and disaccharides, oligosaccharides in m/z range of 650?-?2700 are only detected in pomelo honey. Having advantages of simplicity, rapidity, and reproducibility, this SALDI-MS holds great potential for the analysis of honey samples.
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Photoluminescent AuCu bimetallic nanoclusters as pH sensors and catalysts.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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A facile and one-pot approach to the preparation of gold (Au) and copper (Cu) bimetallic nanoclusters (NCs) is unveiled. AuCu NCs reveal features of orange photoluminescence (PL), reversible pH-dependent PL properties, and efficient catalytic activity for degradation of methylene blue (MB).
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Apolipoprotein J, a glucose-upregulated molecular chaperone, stabilizes core and NS5A to promote infectious hepatitis C virus virion production.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection leads to glucose abnormality. HCV depends on lipid droplets (LDs) and very-low density lipoproteins for assembly/releasing; however, the components and locations for this process remain unidentified. Apolipoprotein J (ApoJ), upregulated by glucose, functions as Golgi chaperone of secreted proteins and resides abundantly in very-low density lipoproteins. This study investigates the interplay between glucose, ApoJ and HCV virion production.
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Logic control of enzyme-like gold nanoparticles for selective detection of lead and mercury ions.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Functional logic gates based on lead ions (Pb(2+)) and mercury ions (Hg(2+)) that induce peroxidase-like activities in gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) in the presence of platinum (Pt(4+)) and bismuth ions (Bi(3+)) are presented. The "AND" logic gate is constructed using Pt(4+)/Pb(2+) as the input and the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output; this logic gate is denoted as "Pt(4+)/Pb(2+)(AND)-Au NPPOX". When Pt(4+) and Pb(2+) coexist, strong metallophilic interactions (between Pt and Pb atoms/ions) and aurophilic interactions (between Au and Pb/Pt atoms/ions) result in significant increases in the deposition of Pt and Pb atoms/ions onto the Au NPs, leading to enhanced peroxidase-like activity. The "INHIBIT" logic gate is fabricated by using Bi(3+) and Hg(2+) as the input and the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output; this logic gate is denoted as "Bi(3+)/Hg(2+)(INHIBIT)-Au NPPOX". High peroxidase-like activity of Au NPs in the presence of Bi(3+) is a result of the various valence (oxidation) states of Bi(3+) and Au (Au(+)/Au(0)) atoms on the nanoparticle's surface. When Bi(3+) and Hg(2+) coexist, strong Hg-Au amalgamation results in a large decrease in the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs. These two probes (Pt(4+)/Pb(2+)(AND)-Au NPPOX and Bi(3+)/Hg(2+)(INHIBIT)-Au NPPOX) allow selective detection of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) down to nanomolar quantities. The practicality of these two probes has been validated by analysis of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) in environmental water samples (tap water, river water, and lake water). In addition, an integrated logic circuit based on the color change (formation of reddish resorufin product) and generation of O2 bubbles from these two probes has been constructed, allowing visual detection of Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) in aqueous solution.
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Efficacy of entecavir in chronic hepatitis B patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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It is still inconclusive whether chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients with persistently normal alanine aminotransferase (PNALT) should receive nucleos(t)ides analogues. This study is to evaluate the efficacy of entecavir in improving liver histology in CHB patients with PNALT.
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Sensitive and selective DNA probe based on "turn-on" photoluminescence of C-dots@RGO.
Anal Bioanal Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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In this study, highly hydrophilic and photoluminescent sheets of reduced graphene oxide decorated with carbon dots (C-dots@RGO), methylene blue (MB), and a probe DNA have been used for the detection of DNA. The photoluminescence of C-dots@RGO is quenched by MB, which is restored in the presence of a target DNA. The combination of the C-dots@RGO, MB, and a DNA probe is selective for perfectly matched DNA over mismatched DNA, mainly because relative to single-stranded DNA, double-stranded DNA intercalates more strongly with MB, but interacts more weakly with RGO. In the presence of a target DNA, MB intercalates with the as-formed double-stranded DNA and is released from the surface of C-dots@RGO, leading to "turn-on" photoluminescence. The practicality of this assay has been validated by the determination of tumor suppressor gene BRCA1, with linearity over the concentration range from 25 to 250 nM and a limit of detection (LOD, at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 14.6 nM. The C-dots@RGO probe provides higher specificity towards target DNA than towards common salts, carbohydrates, amino acids, and proteins found in real samples. Having the advantages of simplicity, cost-effectiveness, selectivity, and sensitivity, the DNA-P/C-dots@RGO-MB probe on microwells has been successfully employed for the detection of DNA, suggesting its potential for multiple analyses of DNA targets when various DNA probes are employed.
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Effects of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in hepatitis B e antigen-positive patients with normal levels of alanine aminotransferase and high levels of hepatitis B virus DNA.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Little is known about the benefit of antiviral therapy for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive patients with high viral load and normal levels of alanine aminotransferase. We evaluated the effects of single and combination therapies in immune-tolerant patients with chronic hepatitis B.
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Detection of adenosine 5'-triphosphate by fluorescence variation of oligonucleotide-templated silver nanoclusters.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Oligonucleotide-templated Ag nanoclusters (DNA-Ag NCs) prepared from AgNO3 using an oligonucleotide (5'-TAACCCCTAACCCCT-3') as a template and NaBH4 as a reducing agent have been used for sensing of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). The fluorescence intensity and emission wavelength of DNA-Ag NCs are dependent on the pH value and ATP concentration. At pH 3.0 and 11.0, ATP shows greater effects on fluorescence of the DNA-Ag NCs. Upon increasing ATP concentration from 10 to 50?M, their emission wavelength at pH 3.0 shifts from 525 to 585nm. At pH 11.0, their fluorescence intensity (510nm) increases upon increasing ATP concentration. The circular dichroism (CD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), absorption, and fluorescence results indicate that ATP and pH affect the interactions between DNAs and Ag atoms, resulting in changes in their fluorescence. The DNA-Ag NCs allow detection of ATP over a concentration range of 0.1-10?M, with a limit of detection 33nM. Practicality of the DNA-Ag NCs probe has been validated with the determination of ATP concentrations in the lysate of MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells.
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma in Taiwan shows a frequent gain of ITK gene.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is an aggressive peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) of follicular helper T-cell origin and is rare in Taiwan. There are overlapping features of AITL and peripheral T-cell lymphoma with a follicular growth pattern (PTCL-F). Around one fifth of PTCL-F exhibits t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK chromosomal translocation, which is essentially absent in AITL. We retrospectively investigated 35 cases of AITL from Taiwan with histopathology review, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK and correlated the results with overall survival. Twenty-six cases of not otherwise specified PTCL (PTCL-NOS) were also examined by FISH for comparison. Most AITL patients were male (69%) and elderly (median age at 67 years) with frequent bone marrow involvement (53%), high Ann Arbor stages (77%), and elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (68%). Most cases (80%) showed a typical CD4+/CD8- phenotype and in 90% cases there were scattered EBV-positive B-cells (less than 10% cells). None of these cases showed t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation by FISH. Gain of ITK and SYK gene was identified in 38% and 14% tumors, respectively, but both were not associated with overall survival. Performance status < 2 was associated with a better outcome but not the other clinicopathological factors. All PTCL-NOS cases were negative for ITK-SYK translocation with similar rates (38% and 12%, respectively) of gains at ITK and SYK loci as that of AITL. In this so far the largest series of AITL from Taiwan, we reported the clinicopathological features and FISH findings on ITK and SYK genes. We confirmed the absence of t(5;9)(q33;q22)/ITK-SYK translocation, which may serve as an additional differential diagnostic tool from PTCL-F when present. PTCL-NOS shared a similar pattern of ITK and SYK gains with AITL. More studies are warranted to elucidate the roles of SYK and ITK and other genes in the lymphomagenesis of AITL in Taiwan.
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Enhanced Cytotoxicity of Natural Killer Cells following the Acquisition of Chimeric Antigen Receptors through Trogocytosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Natural killer (NK) cells have the capacity to target tumors and are ideal candidates for immunotherapy. Viral vectors have been used to genetically modify in vitro expanded NK cells to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs), which confer cytotoxicity against tumors. However, use of viral transduction methods raises the safety concern of viral integration into the NK cell genome. In this study, we used trogocytosis as a non-viral method to modify NK cells for immunotherapy. A K562 cell line expressing high levels of anti-CD19 CARs was generated as a donor cell to transfer the anti-CD19 CARs onto NK cells via trogocytosis. Anti-CD19 CAR expression was observed in expanded NK cells after these cells were co-cultured for one hour with freeze/thaw-treated donor cells expressing anti-CD19 CARs. Immunofluorescence analysis confirmed the localization of the anti-CD19 CARs on the NK cell surface. Acquisition of anti-CD19 CARs via trogocytosis enhanced NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against the B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) cell lines and primary B-ALL cells derived from patients. To our knowledge, this is the first report that describes the increased cytotoxicity of NK cells following the acquisition of CARs via trogocytosis. This novel strategy could be a potential valuable therapeutic approach for the treatment of B-cell tumors.
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Spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-associated T-cell lymphoproliferative disorder in adolescents and young adults in Taiwan.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is a herpesvirus usually infecting B-cells but may occasionally infect T- or natural killer (NK)-cells. EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferations represent a continuous spectrum of diseases ranging from asymptomatic infection, infectious mononucleosis (IM), to clonal and malignant lymphoproliferations including systemic EBV-positive T/NK-cell lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-T/NK-LPD) of childhood and hydroa-vacciniforme-like lymphoma of the skin. The clonal diseases are more prevalent in East Asia and exhibit overlapping clinical and pathological features with chronic active EBV infection. Here we report our experience on 10 cases of EBV-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation from Taiwan including five males and five females with a median age of 18 years old (range, 15-28). The most common clinical symptoms were fever, neck mass and hepatosplenomegaly. Eight of these patients showed elevated lactate dehydrogenase level and half of the patients had cytopenia. All patients had either elevated EBV antibody titers or increased serum EBV DNA levels. Five cases were clinically IM-like with polyclonal (3 cases) or clonal (2 cases) T-cell lymphoproliferation. Two patients each had chronic active EBV infection (CAEBV) and hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). One patient had both CAEBV and HLH. One of the HLH patients with marrow infiltration by intra-sinusoidal large atypical lymphocytes experienced a fulminant course. In a median follow-up time of 21.5 months, seven patients were free of disease, one was alive with disease, and two died of disease in 31 and 3 months, respectively, despite chemotherapy. We confirmed a wide clinicopathological range of EVB-associated T-cell lymphoproliferation in Taiwan. Furthermore, monomorphic LPD and the single case with fulminant course as defined by Ohshima et al (Pathol Int 2018) as categories A3 and B, respectively, died of disease despite chemotherapy. Our report, the largest series in the recent decade from Taiwan, adds to the understanding of these rare diseases with variable clinical and histopathological presentations.
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Peginterferon alfa-2a is associated with elevations in alanine aminotransferase at the end of treatment in chronic hepatitis C patients with sustained virologic response.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence and demographic/clinical factors of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) abnormalities at the end of treatment (EOT) in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients with sustained virologic response (SVR).
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Functionally distinct effects of the C-terminal regions of IKK? and TBK1 on type I IFN production.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Inhibitor of ?B kinase ? (IKK?) and TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1), so-called non-canonical IKKs or IKK-related kinases, are involved in the cellular innate immunity by inducing type I IFNs. Two kinases commonly phosphorylate transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7 in type I IFN production pathway. In contrast to TBK1, underlying mechanisms of IKK? activation and regions required for activation of downstream molecules are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated regions of IKK? required for the activation of type I IFN promoter specially, by focusing on the C-terminal region. To show the functional significance of the IKK? C-terminal region on type I IFN production, we employed various mutant forms of IKK? and compared to corresponding region of TBK1. We identified the specific regions and residues of IKK? involved in the activation of downstream signaling. Interestingly, corresponding region and residues are not required for activation of downstream signaling by TBK1. The results highlight the importance of the C-terminal region in the functional activity of IKK? in innate immune response and also the difference in activation mechanisms between IKK? and the closely related TBK1.
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Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2C is highly expressed in breast microcalcification lesions.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 2C (UBE2C) contributes to ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation of cell cycle progression in breast cancer. Microcalcification (MC) is the most common mammographic feature of early breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated whether UBE2C could be a tumor marker of early breast cancer with MC found on screening mammography. UBE2C protein and mRNA expression were measured in breast core biopsy pairs of MC and adjacent non-MC breast tissue from each subject. Immunohistochemistry revealed UBE2C positivity in 69.4% of MC samples and 77.6% negativity in non-MC samples (p<0.0001). On RT-qPCR, 56.1% of malignant MC lesion samples showed high mRNA level of UBE2C and 80% of benign MC lesion samples showed a low level of UBE2C (p = 0.1766). We investigated the carcinogenic role of UBE2C in MCF-7 breast cancer cells with UBE2C knockdown; UBE2C knockdown downregulated cell proliferation and activated the cellular apoptosis pathway to inhibit cell colony formation. Furthermore, UBE2C expression was associated with that of carcinogenic genes human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2), cellular c-Ki-ras2 proto-oncogene (KRAS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), C-C motif chemokine 5 (CCL5), neural precursor cell expressed, developmentally downregulated 9 (NEDD9) and Ras homolog family member C (RhoC). UBE2C may be a marker for diagnosis of nonpalpable breast lesions but not benign or malignant tumors in mammography core biopsies. Suppression of UBE2C may be a potential therapy target in breast cancer.
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Rapidly fatal leukemia comprising pleomorphic large granular lymphocytes: a report of 2 cases.
Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) are either cytotoxic T or natural killer (NK) cells exhibiting round nuclei and azurophilic cytoplasmic granules. Morphologically, neoplastic LGLs of T cell lineage (T-LGLLs) are usually indistinguishable from normal LGLs, while there is a wide morphological range of aggressive NK cell leukemia (ANKL).
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Aggregation-induced emission of GFP-like chromophores via exclusion of solvent-solute hydrogen bonding.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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The fluorescence of GFP-like chromophores in aqueous solutions is turned on upon forming aggregates or embedment in cell membranes as a result of exclusion of solvent-solute H-bonding.
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Acute Meningitis Caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum.
Am. J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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: Phaeohyphomycosis of the central nervous system is rare but typically associated with high mortality. Treatment has not been standardized, but the combination of antifungal chemotherapy with surgical debridement is recommended. We report a 73-year-old, retired, male timber merchant with acute meningitis caused by Cladosporium sphaerospermum. The patient, who had well-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus, presented with fever and weakness of the lower limbs. No brain abscess was apparent by cranial computed tomography. C. sphaerospermum was isolated from the cerebral spinal fluid and identified based on both morphology and DNA sequencing. He was treated with combination antifungal chemotherapy with amphotericin B and voriconazole for 28 days, followed by voriconazole monotherapy for 46 days. To date, the patient has recovered without significant sequelae. This patient represents the first reported case of cerebral phaeohyphomycosis caused by C. sphaerospermum. Moreover, the therapy was successful for totally less than 3 months of treatment duration.
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Gold nanosponges: green synthesis, characterization, and cytotoxicity.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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A simply approach for the synthesis of Au nanostructures in tea infusions at room temperature is developed. By controlling the concentrations of tea infusions, Au nanostructures in various shapes and sizes have been prepared. From 1 x (original concentration) and 0.01 x (100 times diluted) tea infusions, 52.2 +/- 8.1 nm Au nanosponges (T-Au NSs) and 23 +/- 2 nm spherical Au nanoparticles (T-Au NPs) were prepared. The phytochemicals present on the surface of T-Au NSs were proved by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and capillary electrophoresis coupled with UV detection. The energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction data reveal pure crystalline structures of the T-Au NSs. The dark field scattering images observe that the T-Au NSs have significant affinity toward HeLa cells. The cytotoxicity of T-Au NSs on HeLa cells is through caspase-3 activation.
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Epstein-Barr virus is rarely associated with diffuse large B cell lymphoma in Taiwan and carries a trend for a shorter median survival time.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) of the elderly is characterised by frequent extranodal involvement, a morphological spectrum from polymorphous to monomorphous and a poor prognosis. The frequency is higher in Japan and Korea but lower in the West, while the status in Taiwan has not been reported yet.
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Detection of adenosine triphosphate through polymerization-induced aggregation of actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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We have developed a simple and selective nanosensor for the optical detection of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) using globular actin-conjugated gold/silver nanorods (G-actin-Au/Ag NRs). By simply mixing G-actin and Au/Ag NRs (length ~56 nm and diameter ~12 nm), G-actin-Au/Ag NRs were prepared which were stable in physiological solutions (25 mM Tris-HCl, 150 mM NaCl, 5.0 mM KCl, 3.0 mM MgCl2 and 1.0 mM CaCl2; pH 7.4). Introduction of ATP into the G-actin-Au/Ag NR solutions in the presence of excess G-actin induced the formation of filamentous actin-conjugated Au/Ag NR aggregates through ATP-induced polymerization of G-actin. When compared to G-actin-modified spherical Au nanoparticles having a size of 13 nm or 56 nm, G-actin-Au/Ag NRs provided better sensitivity for ATP, mainly because the longitudinal surface plasmon absorbance of the Au/Ag NR has a more sensitive response to aggregation. This G-actin-Au/Ag NR probe provided high sensitivity (limit of detection 25 nM) for ATP with remarkable selectivity (>10-fold) over other adenine nucleotides (adenosine, adenosine monophosphate and adenosine diphosphate) and nucleoside triphosphates (guanosine triphosphate, cytidine triphosphate and uridine triphosphate). It also allowed the determination of ATP concentrations in plasma samples without conducting tedious sample pretreatments; the only necessary step was simple dilution. Our experimental results are in good agreement with those obtained from a commercial luciferin-luciferase bioluminescence assay. Our simple, sensitive and selective approach appears to have a practical potential for the clinical diagnosis of diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis) associated with changes in ATP concentrations.
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Synthesis of fluorescent gold nanodot-liposome hybrids for detection of phospholipase C and its inhibitor.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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We report the synthesis of fluorescent 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-gold nanodot-liposome (11-MUA-Au ND/Lip) hybrids by incorporation of gold nanoparticles (?3 nm) and 11-MUA molecules in hydrophobic phospholipid membranes that self-assemble to form small unilamellar vesicles. A simple and homogeneous fluorescence assay for phospholipase C (PLC) was developed on the basis of the fluorescence quenching of 11-MUA-Au ND/Lip hybrids in aqueous solution. The fluorescence of the 11-MUA-Au ND/Lip hybrids is quenched by oxygen (O2) molecules in solution, and quenching is reduced in the presence of PLC. PLC catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine units from Lip to yield diacylglycerol (DAG) and phosphocholine (PC) products, leading to the decomposition of Lip. The diacylglycerol further interacts with 11-MUA-Au NDs via hydrophobic interactions, leading to inhibition of O2 quenching. The 11-MUA-Au ND/Lip probe provides a limit of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 0.21 nM for PLC, with high selectivity over other proteins, enzymes, and phospholipases. We have validated the practicality of using this probe for the determination of PLC concentrations in breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines) and nontumor cells (MCF-10A cell line), revealing that the PLC activity in the first two is at least 1.5-fold higher than that in the third. An inhibitor assay using 11-MUA-Au ND/Lip hybrids demonstrated that tricyclodecan-9-yl potassium xanthate (D609) inhibits PLC (10 nM) with an IC50 value of 3.81 ± 0.22 ?M. This simple, sensitive, and selective approach holds great potential for detection of PLC in cancer cells and for the screening of anti-PLC drugs.
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Chemical stabilization of cadmium in acidic soil using alkaline agronomic and industrial by-products.
J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2013
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In situ immobilization of heavy metals using reactive or stabilizing materials is a promising solution for soil remediation. Therefore, four agronomic and industrial by-products [wood biochar (WB), crushed oyster shell (OS), blast furnace slag (BFS), and fluidized-bed crystallized calcium (FBCC)] and CaCO3 were added to acidic soil (Cd = 8.71 mg kg(-1)) at the rates of 1%, 2%, and 4% and incubated for 90 d. Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) was then planted in the soil to test the Cd uptake. The elevation in soil pH caused by adding the by-products produced a negative charge on the soil surface, which enhanced Cd adsorption. Consequently, the diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA)-extractable Cd content decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in the incubated soil. These results from the sequential extraction procedure indicated that Cd converted from the exchangeable fraction to the carbonate or Fe-Mn oxide fraction. The long-term effectiveness of Cd immobilization caused by applying the 4 by-products was much greater than that caused by applying CaCO3. Plant shoot biomass clearly increased because of the by-product soil amendment. Cd concentration in the shoots was < 10.0 mg kg(-1) following by-product application, as compared to 24 mg kg(-1) for plants growing in unamended soil.
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Logical regulation of the enzyme-like activity of gold nanoparticles by using heavy metal ions.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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In this study we employed self-deposition and competitive or synergistic interactions between metal ions and gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) to develop OR, AND, INHIBIT, and XOR logic gates through regulation of the enzyme-like activity of Au NPs. In the presence of various metal ions (Ag(+), Bi(3+), Pb(2+), Pt(4+), and Hg(2+)), we found that Au NPs (13 nm) exhibited peroxidase-, oxidase-, or catalase-like activity. After Ag(+), Bi(3+), or Pb(2+) ions had been deposited on the Au NPs, the particles displayed strong peroxidase-like activity; on the other hand, they exhibited strong oxidase- and catalase-like activities after reactions with Ag(+)/Hg(2+) and Hg(2+)/Bi(3+) ions, respectively. The catalytic activities of these Au NPs arose mainly from the various oxidation states of the surface metal atoms/ions. Taking advantage of this behavior, we constructed multiplex logic operations-OR, AND, INHIBIT, and XOR logic gates-through regulation of the enzyme-like activity after the introduction of metal ions into the Au NP solution. When we deposited Hg(2+) and/or Bi(3+) ions onto the Au NPs, the catalase-like activities of the Au NPs were strongly enhanced (>100-fold). Therefore, we could construct an OR logic gate by using Hg(2+)/Bi(3+) as inputs and the catalase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output. Likewise, we constructed an AND logic gate by using Pt(4+) and Hg(2+) as inputs and the oxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output; the co-deposition of Pt and Hg atoms/ions on the Au NPs was responsible for this oxidase-like activity. Competition between Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) ions for the Au NPs allowed us to develop an INHIBIT logic gate-using Pb(2+) and Hg(2+) as inputs and the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs as the output. Finally, regulation of the peroxidase-like activity of the Au NPs through the two inputs Ag(+) and Bi(3+) enabled us to construct an XOR logic gate.
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Synthesis of graphene-ZnO-Au nanocomposites for efficient photocatalytic reduction of nitrobenzene.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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A simple hydrothermal method of preparing highly photocatalytic graphene-ZnO-Au nanocomposites (G-ZnO-Au NCs) has been developed. Zinc acetate and graphene oxide are reduced by catechin to form graphene-zinc oxide nanospheres (G-ZnO NSs; average diameter of (45.3 ± 3.7) nm) in the presence of ethylenediamine (EDA) as a stabilizing agent and gold nanorods (Au NRs) at 300 °C for 2 h. Then Au NRs are deposited onto as-formed G-ZnO NSs to form G-ZnO-Au NCs. Upon ultraviolet light activation, G-ZnO-Au NCs (4 mg mL(-1)) in methanol generates electron-hole pairs. Methanol (hydroxyl group) assists in trapping holes, enabling photogenerated electrons to catalyze reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) to aniline with a yield of 97.8% during a reaction course of 140 min. The efficiency of G-ZnO-Au NCs is 3.5- and 4.5-fold higher than those provided by commercial TiO2 and ZnO NSs, respectively. Surface assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry has been for the first time applied to detect the intermediates (nitrosobenzene and phenylhydroxylamine) and major product (aniline) of NB through photoelectrocatalytic or photocatalytic reactions. The result reveals that the reduction of NB to aniline is through nitrosobenzene to phenylhydroxylamine in the photoelectrocatalytic reaction, while via nitrosobenzene directly in the photocatalytic reaction. G-ZnO-Au NC photocatalyst holds great potential in removal of organic pollutants like NB and in the production of aniline.
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Synthesis of photoluminescent Au ND-PNIPAM hybrid microgel for the detection of Hg2+.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) microgels (PNIPAM MGs) incorporated with photoluminescent gold nanodots (Au NDs) have been prepared and employed for the detection of mercury ions (Hg(2+)). Each of the PNIPAM MGs (hydrodynamic diameter 615 ± 15 nm) contains several Au NDs (diameter 1.8 ± 0.2 nm) in the Au ND-PNIPAM MGs. Like Au NDs, Au ND-PNIPAM MGs exhibit an absorption band at 375 nm that is assigned for ligand to metal charge transfer mixed with metal centered (ds/dp) states and photoluminescence at 520 nm originated from Au ND/polynuclear gold(I)-thiolate (core/shell) complexes. Purification of Au ND-PNIPAM MGs relative to Au NDs is much easier through a simple centrifugation/wash process. On the basis of Hg(2+)-induced photoluminescence quenching due to the formation of Au-Hg amalgam and formation of Au ND-PNIPAM MGs aggregates, the signal response of Au ND-PNIPAM MGs against Hg(2+) concentration is linear over a range from 2 to 20 nM (r = 0.9945). This selective approach provides limits of detection for Hg(2+) (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 1.9 and 1.7 nM in phosphate buffer solutions (5 mM, pH 7.0) with and without containing 500 mM NaCl, respectively. This selective and sensitive Au ND-PNIPAM MG probe has been applied to the determination of the concentration of Hg in a representative fish sample, showing its practical potential for monitoring of Hg levels in complicated biological and environmental samples.
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Photoluminescent C-dots@RGO for sensitive detection of hydrogen peroxide and glucose.
Talanta
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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We have demonstrated sensitive detections of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and glucose using reduced graphene oxide decorated with carbon dots (C-dots@RGO). The C-dots@RGO prepared from catechin (reducing agent and carbon source) and graphene oxide via hydrothermal routes possesses excitation-wavelength-dependence photoluminescence (PL) characteristics, with maximum excitation and emission wavelengths of 365 and 440 nm, respectively. The C-dots@RGO is stable in solution containing NaCl up to 350 mM, but is quenched by reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS reacts with H2O2 and thus its PL quenching toward the C-dots@RGO is minimized. When using C-dots@RGO and glucose oxidase (GOx), the PL assay allows detection of glucose in the presence of 10 µM of bovine serum albumin, with linearity over a concentration range from 1 to 60 µM (r=0.99) and a limit of detection (at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) of 140 nM. The practicality of this assay has been validated by determining the concentrations of glucose in serum and saliva samples, with results of 5.1 ± 0.6mM (n=3) and 117.9 ± 8.1 ?M (n=3), respectively. Our simple and sensitive assay opens a new avenue of developing assays for various analytes using C-dots@RGO in conjunction with different enzymes.
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Synthesis of aluminum oxide supported fluorescent gold nanodots for the detection of silver ions.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Photoluminescent gold nanodots (Au NDs) on aluminum oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3 NPs) with the emission wavelengths ranging from 510 to 630 nm are unveiled. Orange Al2O3 NP@AuNDs show high selectivity and sensitivity towards Ag(+) ions by metallophilic Ag(+)-Au(+) interactions and induced fluorescence quenching of Au NDs.
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Disassembly mediated fluorescence recovery of gold nanodots for selective sulfide sensing.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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We report a one-pot, two-step strategy to synthesize fluorescent gold nanodots (AuNDs) co-modified with 1-(10-mercaptodecyl)-5-methylpyrimidine-2,4-dione (TSH) and 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) through a ligand exchange reaction and demonstrate their capability of selective sulfide sensing in aqueous media on the basis of fluorescence recovery.
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Clinical significance of serum HBsAg levels and association with liver histology in HBeAg positive chronic hepatitis B.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Despite its recognized role as a prognostic marker for antiviral treatment, the clinical significance of serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) level in the immune-clearance stage of chronic hepatitis B remains unclear.
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Te/Pt nanonetwork modified carbon fiber microelectrodes for methanol oxidation.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Te/Pt nanonetwork-decorated carbon fiber microelectrodes (CFMEs) have been fabricated and employed as anodic catalysts in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Te nanowires were prepared from tellurite ions (TeO3(2-)) through a seed-mediated growth process and were deposited onto CFMEs to form three-dimensional Te nanonetworks. The Te nanonetworks then acted as a framework and reducing agent to reduce PtCl6(2-) ions to form Te/Pt through a galvanic replacement reaction, leading to the formation of Te/PtCFMEs. By controlling the reaction time, the amount of Pt and morphology of Te/Pt nanonetworks were controlled, leading to various degrees of electrocatalytic activity. The Te/PtCFMEs provide a high electrochemical active surface area (129.2 m(2) g(-1)), good catalytic activity (1.2 A mg(-1)), high current density (20.0 mA cm(-2)), long durability, and tolerance toward the poisoning species for methanol oxidation in 0.5 M sulfuric acid containing 1 M methanol. We have further demonstrated an enhanced current density by separately using 3 and 5 Te/PtCFMEs. Our results show that the low-cost, stable, and effective Te/PtCFMEs have great potential in the fabrication of cost-effective fuel cells.
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Factors associated with newly diagnosed tic disorders among children in Taiwan: a 10-year nationwide longitudinal study.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Increased attention has been paid to tic disorders clinically, yet relatively few studies have probed potential factors that account for the occurrence of tic disorders in the general population. In this study, we used data derived from the Taiwans National Health Insurance Research Database to examine an array of factors related to the diagnosis of tic disorders and to further probe gender heterogeneity in clinical manifestation. Poisson regression analyses were applied to model the effects of birth cohort, period, and age, separately, on tic disorders. A total of 880 newly diagnosed tic disorders were identified from 2002 to 2009 among 100,516 youngsters in the study dataset who were born between 1997 and 2005. The results showed that a significant increase in the adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was observed when age increased, with the highest adjusted IRR found at age 8-9 years. Compared to the time period from 2002 to 2005, an elevated IRR was found in the time period from 2006 to 2009 (adjusted IRR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.05-1.80). Boys tended to be more likely to receive their initial diagnosis from psychiatrists and have higher comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), as compared with their girl counterparts. In conclusion, the findings indicate that the effects of age and period, respectively, influence the occurrence of newly diagnosed tic disorders. Gender difference and higher frequent comorbid ADHD in boys than in girls were observed in this study.
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Photoluminescent C-dots@RGO probe for sensitive and selective detection of acetylcholine.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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We have developed a sensitive and selective photoluminescence (PL) quenching assay for the detection of acetylcholine (ACh) that uses reduced graphene oxide decorated with carbon dots (C-dots@RGO). The highly stable C-dots@RGO synthesized from catechin and graphene oxide through a hydrothermal reaction displays excitation-wavelength dependence of PL. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) converts ACh to choline, which in turn is oxidized by choline oxidase (ChOx) to produce betaine and H2O2 that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS). The as-produced ROS induces PL quenching of the C-dots@RGO through an etching process. With respect to sensitivity, the optimal reaction/sensing temperature and pH are 37 °C and 9.0, respectively, using C-dots@RGO (0.4 mg·mL(-1)) and AChE and ChOx at the activities of 0.5 and 0.1 unit·mL(-1), respectively. The PL intensity (excitation/emission wavelengths 365/440 nm) of the C-dots@RGO is inversely proportional to the concentration of ACh over a range of 0.05-10 nM (r = 0.997), with a limit of detection (signal-to-noise ratio 3) of 30 pM. We have validated this assay by determination of concentrations of ACh in plasma and blood samples, with results of 2.6 ± 0.8 nM (n = 5) and 6.8 ± 0.4 nM (n = 5), respectively. Our study opens an avenue for the detection of various analytes by use of C-dots@RGO in conjunction with different enzymes, substrates, and/or inhibitors.
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Highly efficient inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase by aptamers functionalized gold nanoparticles.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2013
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We have developed aptamer (Apt)-conjugated gold nanoparticles (Apt-Au NPs, 13 nm in diameter) as highly effective inhibitors for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT). Two Apts, RT1t49 (Aptpol) and ODN 93 (AptRH), which recognize the polymerase and RNase H regions of HIV-1 RT, are used to conjugate Au NPs to prepare Aptpol-Au NPs and AptRH-Au NPs, respectively. In addition to DNA sequence, the surface density of the aptamers on Au NPs (nApt-Au NPs; n is the number of aptamer molecules on each Au NP) and the linker length number (Tm; m is the base number of the deoxythymidine linker) between the aptamer and Au NPs play important roles in determining their inhibition activity. A HIV-lentiviral vector-based antiviral assay has been applied to determine the inhibitory effect of aptamers or Apt-Au NPs on the early stages of their replication cycle. The nuclease-stable G-quadruplex structure of 40AptRH-T45-Au NPs shows inhibitory efficiency in the retroviral replication cycle with a decreasing infectivity (40.2%).
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Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen analysis in hepatitis B e antigen-positive nucleoside-naive patients treated with entecavir.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Entecavir is a potent nucleoside analogue for treating chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen (qHBsAg) levels are predictive of response to interferon-? in CHB treatment; however, the clinical utility of qHBsAg in nucleoside/nucleotide analogue-based CHB therapy is not fully characterized. This study assessed changes in qHBsAg in patients treated with entecavir in the Phase III study ETV-022.
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Acrophialophora fusispora brain abscess in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and review of the literature.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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We reported a fatal case of brain abscess caused by Acrophialophora fusispora in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Identification of the fungus was based on microscopic morphology and sequence analyses of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) and 2 (ITS2) of ribosomal RNA gene from the isolate recovered from brain abscess. Four published cases were reviewed as well.
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Effect of human leukocyte antigen class I and II alleles on hepatitis C viral load among chronic hepatitis C patients in Southern Taiwan.
Hum. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
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The viral load of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in chronic hepatitis C patients affects clinical outcomes and response to interferon treatment. Various factors may be involved in determining the viral load, including host genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between HCV viral load and human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles. One hundred and six HCV RNA positive subjects were enrolled, and viral load was measured. HLA-A, -B, -C, -DR, and -DQ loci were determined by sequence-based genotyping. Univariate analysis indicated that HLA-B(*)40 and HLA-C(*)07 alleles had significantly higher HCV RNA levels (P<0.05). Patients with the HLA-C(*)15 allele exhibited a trend toward a lower HCV viral load (P=0.06). After controlling for confounding factors, multivariate analysis revealed that only HLA-C(*)15 allele was identified as a significant determinant for HCV-RNA level (slope=-0.91, 95% CI: -1.58, -0.24; Holms P<0.01). Patients expressing the HLA-C(*)15 allele had significantly lower HCV RNA levels. HCV genotype 1 was significantly associated with high HCV RNA levels (P<0.05 by Mann-Whitney U test). In conclusion, HLA-C(*)15 is an important host immunogenetic factor with an inverse association to HCV viral load in CHC patients in Taiwan. HCV genotype 1 is the viral factor that associated with high viral load.
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Using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry to detect ss- and ds-oligodeoxynucleotides.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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We applied surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) with HgTe nanostructures as the matrix for the detection of single- and double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ss-ODNs and ds-ODNs). The concentrations of surfactant and additives (metal ions, an amine) and the pH and ionic strength of the sample matrix played significantly different roles in the detection of ss- and ds-ODNs with various sequences. In the presence of Brij 76 (1.5 %), Hg(2+) (7.5 ?M), and cadaverine (10 ?M) at pH 5.0, this SALDI-MS approach allowed the simultaneous detection of T15, T20, T33, and T40, with limits of detection at the femtomole-to-picomole level and sample-to-sample intensity variation <23 %. In the presence of Ag(+) (1 ?M) and cadaverine (10 ?M) at pH 7.0, this technique allowed the detection of randomly sequenced ss- and ds-ODNs at concentrations down to the femtomole level. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to report the detection of ss-ODNs (up to 50-mer) and ds-ODNs (up to 30 base pairs) through the combination of SALDI-MS with HgTe nanostructures as matrices. We demonstrated the practicality of this approach through analysis of a single nucleotide polymorphism that determines the fate of the valine residue in the ?-globin of sickle cell megaloblasts.
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Complete genome sequence of the first aichi virus isolated in taiwan.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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The first Aichi virus (AiV), kvgh99012632/2010, was identified in Taiwan. The entire genome of the AiV isolate was sequenced and compared to known AiV sequences. Genome alignment revealed that the Taiwan AiV strain shares 96.3% nucleotide and 99% amino acid identities with the German strain D/VI2287/2004.
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Photoluminescent organosilane-functionalized carbon dots as temperature probes.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Organosilane-functionalized carbon dots (SiC-dots) were prepared by a simple one-pot hydrothermal approach. The photoluminescence (PL) properties of the SiC-dots revealed a reversible response toward the temperature (293-343 K). Through Si-O-Si bonding, temperature-sensitive PL SiC-dot films could be easily fabricated on glass substrates.
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Analysis of the formation process of gold nanoparticles by surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.
J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Chemical reactions of reducing agents in the gold nanoparticle (AuNP) formation process were characterized using surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS). As the reaction of the AuNPs progresses, the produced AuNPs can serve as an efficient SALDI substrate. SALDI-MS revealed that the reducing agents and their oxidation products can be determined in the mass spectra. With respect to the transmission electron microscopic and UV-Vis spectroscopic examination of AuNPs, SALDI-MS results confirm not only the tendency toward AuNPs formation, but also reflect the information of the redox reaction process. Our results provide useful information for developing SALDI-MS methods to explore the chemical information regarding the surface behavior between adsorbates and nanomaterials.
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Detection of Aichi virus with antibody targeting of conserved viral protein 1 epitope.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Aichi virus (AiV) is an emerging single-stranded, positive-sense, non-enveloped RNA virus in the Picornaviridae that causes acute gastroenteritis in humans. The first case of AiV infection in Taiwan was diagnosed in a human neonate with enterovirus-associated symptoms; the virus was successfully isolated and propagated. To establish a method to detect AiV, we analyzed the antigen epitope and generated a polyclonal antibody against AiV viral protein 1 (VP1). This peptide-purified anti-AiV VP1 antibody showed high specificity against AiV VP1 without cross-reaction to nine other tested strains of Picornaviruses. The anti-AiV VP1 antibody was used in immunofluorescence analysis, immunoblotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to elucidate the cell tropism and replication kinetics of AiV. Use of the anti-AiV VP1 antibody also revealed AiV infection restriction with interferon type I and polyI/C antiviral treatment. The AiV infection and detection system may provide an in vitro platform for AiV virology study.
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Fibrinolysis and thrombosis of fibrinogen-modified gold nanoparticles for detection of fibrinolytic-related proteins.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Fibrinolysis (plasmin-mediated cleavage of fibrin structures) is a process in which fibrin clots can be removed from blood vessels, allowing the return of normal vascular function. Although several methods have been developed to measure plasmin activity and plasminogen (the plasmin precursor) concentrations, they are only moderately sensitive and quantitative and require large amounts of reagents, limiting their applicability. We developed two simple, label-free homogeneous assays using gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) for detection of fibrinolysis-related proteins and their activator (urokinase that converts plasminogen to plasmin) and inhibitor (?2-plasmin inhibitor that inhibits plasmin and plasminogen bound to fibrin). We used a fibrinolysis-based sensor, based on plasmin-mediated cleavage of fibrinogen-modified Au NPs (Fib-Au NPs) leading to aggregation of Au NPs, to determine plasmin activity in a biological medium mimic solution. A combination of thrombin (Thr) and Fib-Au NPs allowed us to analyze plasmin activity and plasminogen concentrations in serum through Thr-induced agglutination of Fib-Au NPs. The limit of detection (LOD; S/N=3) of this sensor for plasmin in serum was 0.4 nM (ca. 1.7×10(-4) unit mL(-1)). These label-free assays offer several advantages over conventional assays, including allowing rapid and simple readings with the naked eye or measurement by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy.
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Lin28B Is an Oncofetal Circulating Cancer Stem Cell-Like Marker Associated with Recurrence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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By using an expressed sequence tag bioinformatic algorithm, we identified that Lin28 homolog B (Lin28B) may have an oncofetal expression pattern which may facilitate detecting cancer cells in adults. It is also reported to be a potential marker for cancer stem cells. Therefore, we sought to verify oncofetal-stemness characters of Lin28B and test its potential as a circulating cancer stem cell-like marker in adult HCC patients. Lin28B mRNA was examined in a panel of fetal tissue, adult tissue and tumors. Lin28B was over-expressed or knocked down in HepG2 cells to evaluate its potential as a stem cell-like marker. RT-qPCR for Lin28B was performed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with HCC receiving surgery (n=96) and non-HCC controls (n=60) and analyzed its clinical significance. Lin28B showed an oncofetal expression pattern. Its overexpression could upregulate stemness markers (OCT4, Nanog and SOX2) and enhance tumorsphere formation in vitro. Lin28B knockdown had opposite effects. Circulating Lin28B was detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 3 cases (5%) of non-HCC controls and 32 cases (33.3%) of HCC patients. In HCC patients, circulating Lin28B was associated with high tumor grade (P=0.046), large size (P=0.005), high AJCC stage (P=0.044) and BCLC stage (P=0.017). Circulating Lin28B was significantly associated with decreased recurrence-free survival (P<0.001). Circulating Lin28B separated early stage HCC into 2 recurrence-free survival curves (P=0.003). In multivariate analysis, circulating Lin28B was an independent variable associated with early recurrence (P=0.045) and recurrence in early stage HCC (P=0.006). In conclusion, the oncofetal gene Lin28B is a potential oncofetal cancer-stem-cell-like circulating tumor cell marker that correlates with HCC recurrence after hepatectomy. Circulating Lin28B could refine early AJCC stages. Our finding supports the possible use of a TNMC (C for circulating tumor cells) staging system in HCC.
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Fully automated cellular-resolution vertebrate screening platform with parallel animal processing.
Lab Chip
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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The zebrafish larva is an optically-transparent vertebrate model with complex organs that is widely used to study genetics, developmental biology, and to model various human diseases. In this article, we present a set of novel technologies that significantly increase the throughput and capabilities of our previously described vertebrate automated screening technology (VAST). We developed a robust multi-thread system that can simultaneously process multiple animals. System throughput is limited only by the image acquisition speed rather than by the fluidic or mechanical processes. We developed image recognition algorithms that fully automate manipulation of animals, including orienting and positioning regions of interest within the microscopes field of view. We also identified the optimal capillary materials for high-resolution, distortion-free, low-background imaging of zebrafish larvae.
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Use of fluorescent DNA-templated gold/silver nanoclusters for the detection of sulfide ions.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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We have developed a one-pot approach to prepare fluorescent DNA-templated gold/silver nanoclusters (DNA-Au/Ag NCs) from Au(3+), Ag(+), and DNA (5-CCCTTAATCCCC-3) in the presence of NaBH(4) in order to detect sulfide (S(2-)) ions on the basis of fluorescence quenching. The as-prepared DNA-Au/Ag NCs have been characterized by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry measurements. Relative to DNA-Ag NCs, DNA-Au/Ag NCs are much more stable in high ionic strength media (e.g., 200 mM NaCl). The quantum yield of the as-prepared DNA-Au/Ag NCs is 4.5%. We have demonstrated that the fluorescence of DNA-Au/Ag NCs is quenched by S(2-) ions through the interaction between sulfide ions and gold/silver atoms/ions, a result which leads to changes in the conformation of the templated DNA from packed hairpin to random coil structures. These changes in fluorescence intensity allow sensitive detection of S(2-) ions at concentrations as low as 0.83 nM. To minimize interference from I(-) ions for the detection of S(2-) ions using the DNA-Au/Ag NCs, the addition of sodium peroxydisulfate to the solution is essential. We have validated the practicality of this probe for the detection of S(2-) ions in hot spring and seawater samples, demonstrating its advantages of simplicity, sensitivity, selectivity, and low cost.
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Tripartite motif-containing protein 28 is a small ubiquitin-related modifier E3 ligase and negative regulator of IFN regulatory factor 7.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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IFN regulatory factor 7 (IRF7) is a potent transcription factor of type I IFNs and IFN-stimulated genes and is known as the master regulator of type I IFN-dependent immune responses. Because excessive responses could harm the host, IRF7 itself is delicately regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and posttranslational levels. Modification of IRF7 by small ubiquitin-related modifiers (SUMOs) has been shown to regulate IFN expression and antiviral responses negatively, but the specific E3 ligase needed for IRF7 SUMOylation has remained unknown. As reported in this article, we have identified the tripartite motif-containing protein 28 (TRIM28) as a binding partner of IRF7. We have demonstrated that TRIM28 also interacts with the SUMO E2 enzyme and increases SUMOylation of IRF7 both in vivo and in vitro, suggesting it acts as a SUMO E3 ligase of IRF7. Unlike the common SUMO E3 ligase, protein inhibitor of activated STAT1, the E3 activity of TRIM28 is specific to IRF7, because it has little effect on IRF7s close relative IRF3. TRIM28 is therefore, so far as we know, the first IRF7-specific SUMO E3 reported. TRIM28-mediated SUMOylation of IRF7 is increased during viral infection, and SUMOylation of transcription factors usually results in transcriptional repression. Overexpression of TRIM28 therefore inhibits IRF7 transactivation activity, whereas knockdown of TRIM28 has the opposite effect and potentiates IFN production and antiviral responses. Collectively, our results suggest that TRIM28 is a specific SUMO E3 ligase and negative regulator of IRF7.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.