Our previous studies showed that atractylenolide II (AT-II) has antimelanoma effects in B16 melanoma cells. In this study, we investigated the involvement of STAT3 signalling in the antimelanoma action of AT-II. Daily administration of AT-II (12.5, 25 mg/kg, i.g.) for 14 days significantly inhibited tumor growth in a B16 xenograft mouse model and inhibited the activation/phosphorylation of STAT3 and Src in the xenografts. In B16 and A375 cells, AT-II (20, 40 ?m) treatment for 48 h dose-dependently reduced protein expression levels of phospho-STAT3, phospho-Src, as well as STAT3-regulated Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL. Overexpression of a constitutively active variant of STAT3, STAT3C in A375 cells diminished the antiproliferative and apoptotic effects of AT-II. These data suggest that inhibition of STAT3 signalling contributes to the antimelanoma action of AT-II. Our findings shed new light on the mechanism of action underlying the antimelanoma effects of AT-II and provide further pharmacological basis for developing AT-II as a novel melanoma chemopreventive/chemotherapeutic agent.
A highly convergent total synthesis of 7,8-dihydroaigialospirol is described. Key steps of the synthesis include a Nozaki-Hiyama-Kishi (NHK) coupling of an iodoalkyne with an advanced phthalide-aldehyde and a remarkable one-pot acid-mediated global deprotection/spiroacetalization.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.