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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Molecular Differentiation of Treponema pallidum Subspecies in Skin Ulceration Clinically Suspected as Yaws in Vanuatu Using Real-Time Multiplex PCR and Serological Methods.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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We developed a TaqMan-based real-time quadriplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to simultaneously detect Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, and T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, the causative agents of venereal syphilis, yaws, and bejel, respectively. The PCR assay was applied to samples from skin ulcerations of clinically presumptive yaws cases among children on Tanna Island, Vanuatu. Another real-time triplex PCR was used to screen for the point mutations in the 23S rRNA genes that have previously been associated with azithromycin resistance in T. pallidum subsp. pallidum strains. Seropositivity by the classical syphilis serological tests was 35.5% among children with skin ulcerations clinically suspected with yaws, whereas the presence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue DNA was only found in lesions from 15.5% of children. No evidence of T. pallidum subsp. pertenue infection, by either PCR or serology was found in ?59% of cases indicating alternative causes of yaws-like lesions in this endemic area.
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HIV and STI Prevalence and Injection Behaviors Among People Who Inject Drugs in Nairobi: Results from a 2011 Bio-behavioral Study Using Respondent-Driven Sampling.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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There is a dearth of evidence on injection drug use and associated HIV infections in Kenya. To generate population-based estimates of characteristics and HIV/STI prevalence among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Nairobi, a cross-sectional study was conducted with 269 PWID using respondent-driven sampling. PWID were predominantly male (92.5 %). An estimated 67.3 % engaged in at least one risky injection practice in a typical month. HIV prevalence was 18.7 % (95 % CI 12.3-26.7), while STI prevalence was lower [syphilis: 1.7 % (95 % CI 0.2-6.0); gonorrhea: 1.5 % (95 % CI 0.1-4.9); and Chlamydia: 4.2 % (95 % CI 1.2-7.8)]. HIV infection was associated with being female (aOR, 3.5; p = 0.048), having first injected drugs 5 or more years ago (aOR, 4.3; p = 0.002), and ever having practiced receptive syringe sharing (aOR, 6.2; p = 0.001). Comprehensive harm reduction programs tailored toward PWID and their sex partners must be fully implemented as part of Kenya's national HIV prevention strategy.
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[Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm: report of two cases].
Cir Cir
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Hepatic pseudoaneurysm is rare and potentially fatal. It occurs as a consequence of injury to the vascular wall, erosion diathermy through clips, biliary leakage and secondary infection. The main symptom is intra-abdominal bleeding.
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Using a 2-Stage Strategy with Respondent-Driven Sampling to Recruit a Hard-to-Reach Population for a Placebo Microbicide Gel Clinical Trial in Nellore, Andhra Pradesh (India).
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Traditional recruitment methods for microbicide efficacy trials are labor intensive and may fail to reach high-risk hard-to-reach populations. We report duration of recruitment and lessons learned from a two-stage process to recruit female sex workers (FSWs) into a placebo microbicide trial, and examined characteristics associated with successful recruitment of peers who screened for and enrolled in the trial. FSWs were first recruited via respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to complete a survey and subsequently invited to screen for enrollment into a placebo microbicide trial taking place at a local clinic. It took 6 months to enroll 267 participants into the trial. Successful recruiters of peers who enrolled were more likely to have enrolled themselves (AOR 2.0, CI 1.3-2.9) and less likely to visit Nellore city (AOR 0.5, CI 0.3-0.9). Recruitment of FSWs via a two-stage recruitment strategy with RDS can be a good option for future clinical trials.
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Automated analysis of angle closure from anterior chamber angle images.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Purpose:To evaluate a novel software capable of automatically grading angle closure on EyeCamTM (Clarity Medical Systems, Pleasanton, CA) angle images in comparison to manual grading of images, with gonioscopy as the reference standard. Methods:In this hospital-based, prospective study, subjects underwent gonioscopy by a single observer, and EyeCam imaging by a different operator. The anterior chamber angle in a quadrant was classified as closed if the posterior trabecular meshwork could not be seen. An eye was classified as having angle closure if there were 2 or more quadrants of closure. Automated grading of the angle images was performed using customized software. Agreement between the methods was ascertained by kappa statistic and comparison of area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Results:One hundred and forty subjects (140 eyes) were included, the majority of whom were Chinese (102/140, 72.9%) and females (72/140, 51.5%). Angle closure was detected in 61 eyes (43.6%) with gonioscopy in comparison to 59 eyes (42.1%, p=0.73) using manual grading and 67 eyes (47.9%, p=0.24) with automated grading of EyeCam images. The agreement for angle closure diagnosis between gonioscopy and both manual (k=0.88; 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.81-0.96) and automated grading of EyeCam images was good (k=0.74; 95% CI, 0.63-0.85). The AUC for detecting eyes with gonioscopic angle closure was comparable for manual and automated grading (AUC 0.974 vs 0.954, p = 0.31) of EyeCam image. Conclusions:Customized software for automated grading of EyeCam angle images was found to have good agreement with gonioscopy. Human observation of the EyeCam images may still be needed to avoid gross misclassification, especially in eyes with extensive angle closure.
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The BCL2 inhibitor ABT-199 significantly enhances imatinib-induced cell death in chronic myeloid leukemia progenitors.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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BCR-ABL1-specific tyrosine kinase inhibitors prolong the life of patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but cannot completely eradicate CML progenitors. The BH3 mimetic, ABT-263, targets prosurvival BCL2 family members, and has activity against CML progenitors. However, the inhibitory effect of ABT-263 on BCL-XL, which mediates platelet survival, produces dose-limiting thrombocytopenia. A second-generation BH3 mimetic, ABT-199, has been developed to specifically bind BCL2 but not BCL-XL. We determined the activity of ABT-199 against CML cell lines, as well as primary CML and normal cord blood (NCB) progenitors. We find that BCL2 expression levels predict sensitivity to ABT-199 in CML and NCB progenitors, and that high NCB BCL2 levels may explain the reported hematologic toxicities in ABT-199-treated patients. Also, while single agent ABT-199 has modest activity against CML progenitors, when combined with imatinib, ABT-199 significantly enhances imatinib activity against CML progenitors at concentrations predicted to avoid hematologic toxicities.
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Genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the medicinal fungus Antrodia cinnamomea for its metabolite biosynthesis and sexual development.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Antrodia cinnamomea, a polyporus mushroom of Taiwan, has long been used as a remedy for cancer, hypertension, and hangover, with an annual market of over $100 million (US) in Taiwan. We obtained a 32.15-Mb genome draft containing 9,254 genes. Genome ontology enrichment and pathway analyses shed light on sexual development and the biosynthesis of sesquiterpenoids, triterpenoids, ergostanes, antroquinonol, and antrocamphin. We identified genes differentially expressed between mycelium and fruiting body and 242 proteins in the mevalonate pathway, terpenoid pathways, cytochrome P450s, and polyketide synthases, which may contribute to the production of medicinal secondary metabolites. Genes of secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways showed expression enrichment for tissue-specific compounds, including 14-?-demethylase (CYP51F1) in fruiting body for converting lanostane to ergostane triterpenoids, coenzymes Q (COQ) for antroquinonol biosynthesis in mycelium, and polyketide synthase for antrocamphin biosynthesis in fruiting body. Our data will be useful for developing a strategy to increase the production of useful metabolites.
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[Emergency treatment of large amputated ear defect with auricular cartilage replantation].
Zhonghua Zheng Xing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To investigate the emergency treatment for large amputated ear defect.
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Transcriptomic and biochemical evidence for the role of lysine biosynthesis against linoleic acid hydroperoxide-induced stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Free Radic. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Abstract Amino acid biosynthesis forms part of an integrated stress response against oxidants in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and higher eukaryotes. Here we show an essential protective role of the l-lysine biosynthesis pathway in response to the oxidative stress condition induced by the lipid oxidant-linoleic acid hydroperoxide (LoaOOH), by means of transcriptomic profiling and phenotypic analysis, and using the deletion mutant dal80? and lysine auxotroph lys1?. A comprehensive up-regulation of lysine biosynthetic genes (LYS1, LYS2, LYS4, LYS9, LYS12, LYS20 and LYS21) was revealed in dal80? following the oxidant challenge. The lysine auxotroph (lys1?) exhibited a significant decrease in growth compared with that of BY4743 upon exposure to LoaOOH, albeit with the sufficient provision of lysine in the medium. Furthermore, the growth of wild type BY4743 exposed to LoaOOH was also greatly reduced in lysine-deficient conditions, despite a full complement of lysine biosynthetic genes. Amino acid analysis of LoaOOH-treated yeast showed that the level of cellular lysine remained unchanged throughout oxidant challenge, suggesting that the induced lysine biosynthesis leads to a steady-state metabolism as compared to the untreated yeast cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that lysine availability and its biosynthesis pathway play an important role in protecting the cell from lipid peroxide-induced oxidative stress, which is directly related to understanding environmental stress and industrial yeast management in brewing, wine making and baking.
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Directive emission of red conjugated polymer embedded within zero index metamaterials.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We numerically demonstrate an impedance-matched multilayer stacked fishnet metamaterial that has zero index with flat high transmittance from 600nm to 620nm. The effective refractive index(neff) is calculated to be -0.045 + 0.466i and the normalize effective impedance(Zeff/Z0) is 0.956-0.368i at 610nm. The light emitted by a red conjugated polymer layer embedded in such a zero index metamaterial (ZIM) is concentrated in a narrow cone in the surrounding media, where the half-power beam width (HPBW) of the center lobe of the radiation pattern is around 25° in the wavelength range between 600nm and 620nm, giving directive emission in the visible region. This proposed light focusing system can be applied to sensing, beam collimating and filtering functionalities.
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Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia-related diseases or chance association?
Blood Coagul. Fibrinolysis
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) are thrombotic disorders due to specific autoimmune-mediated antibodies. Catastrophic APS (CAPS), also known as Asherman's syndrome, is a life-threatening severe form of APS. Diagnostic criteria for CAPS include the development of a thrombotic event of three or more organs in less than a week with the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies and microvascular thrombosis on histology. Thrombocytopenia is seen in more than 60% of cases of CAPS. HIT is a life-threatening disorder with the clinical presentation of thrombocytopenia and arterial or venous thrombosis in patients who develop antibodies to heparin and platelet factor 4 typically within 10 days after starting heparin treatment. Due to the multiple similarities in clinical features and pathophysiology of CAPS and HIT, it has been postulated that these two antibody-mediated disorders may be related. We report two cases in which patients diagnosed with CAPS developed HIT very soon during the same admission as well as a case of a patient initially diagnosed with HIT who presented with CAPS years later.
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Epithelial cell transformation sequence 2 is a potential biomarker of unfavorable survival in human gliomas.
Neurol India
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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High-grade primary gliomas are invasive and have poor outcome. The identification of biomarkers predictive of outcome in patients with gliomas is crucial for clinical follow-up. Epithelial cell transformation sequence 2 (ECT2) modulates cancer invasion, progression, metastasis and cell cycle regulation. However, its role in determining the clinical outcome of human gliomas warrants further elucidation.
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Modified Endoscopic Release of Gastrocnemius Aponeurosis.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Recession of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis is the operation of choice in the case of isolated gastrocnemius contracture, because it addresses the major deforming force without weakening the entire musculotendinous unit. Endoscopic recession of the gastrocnemius aponeurosis has been proved to be effective but can be associated with the wrong level of release, incomplete release, sural nerve injury, or a palpable gap at the aponeurosis. A modification of the endoscopic technique is described to provide solutions to these potential problems.
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Acute Posterior Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome Caused by Gouty Tophus.
Foot Ankle Spec
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Gouty tophus of the tarsal tunnel is a rare cause of posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome. We present a case of acute posterior tarsal tunnel syndrome due to gouty tophus that required early tarsal tunnel release in order to avoid irreversible nerve damage. The presence of background neuropathy resulted in a less favorable result than expected.
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Ankle and Subtalar Synovitis in a Ball-and-Socket Ankle Joint Causing Posterolateral Painful Coarse Crepitus: A Case Report.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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A 17-year-old girl with bilateral ball-and-socket ankles reported left medial heel pain. Her left heel had gone into a varus position on tiptoeing, and a painful clunk had occurred when returning to normal standing. The clunk persisted after physiotherapy and treatment with an orthosis. Subtalar arthroscopy and peroneal tendoscopy showed mild diffuse synovitis of the ankle joint, especially over the posterior capsule, and a patch of inflamed and fibrotic synovium at the posterolateral corner of the subtalar joint. The clunk subsided immediately after arthroscopic synovectomy and had not recurred during 5 years of follow-up. We found no other reported cases of ankle and subtalar synovitis occurring in patients with a ball-and-socket ankle joint.
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Percutaneous Osteotomy of the Fifth Metatarsal for Symptomatic Bunionette.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The bunionette is a lateral prominence of the fifth metatarsal head. Operative correction of a symptomatic bunionette is indicated if conservative treatment has failed to relieve the symptoms. Although numerous bony or soft tissue surgical procedures have been described, the ideal treatment has not yet been identified. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively evaluate the results of a series of 15 feet affected by symptomatic bunionette deformity treated by percutaneous osteotomy of the fifth metatarsal. From January 2009 to December 2009, 15 feet in 12 patients with symptomatic type 2 and 3 bunionette deformities were treated with percutaneous fifth metatarsal osteotomy, alone or combined with percutaneous shaving of the fifth metatarsal head. The mean patient age was 44 (range 18 to 56) years at surgery. The mean follow-up duration was 24 (range 16 to 28) months. The average lesser toe American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society scale score increased from 61.8 ± 11.1 points preoperatively to 100 points at the last follow-up visit (p < .0001). The mean fifth metatarsophalangeal angle decreased from 18.8° ± 3.6° (range 13° to 26°) preoperatively to 1.7° ± 1.4° (range -2° to 4°) at the final follow-up visit, and this difference was statistically significant (p < .0001). The average 4-5 intermetatarsal angle was 11.2° ± 1.7° (range 9° to 15°) before surgery and 3.1° ± 1.3° (range 1° to 5°) after surgery, and this difference was also statistically significant (p < .0001). The mean interval to radiographic union was 9 (range 8 to 12) weeks postoperatively. The complications included 1 case of wound dehiscence. In conclusion, percutaneous osteotomy of the fifth metatarsal is an effective and safe technique for the treatment of painful bunionette.
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NATURAL HISTORY OF RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY: Two-Year Outcomes of a Prospective Study.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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To investigate the 2-year outcomes of the natural history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in Taiwan.
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"Swan Neck Deformity" of the Second Toe Corrected by Flexor Digitorum Longus to Flexor Digitorum Brevis Tenodesis.
Foot Ankle Spec
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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"Swan neck deformity" of the second toe is a rare deformity. It is a hyperextension of the proximal interphalangeal joint. The patient may complain of painful callosity underneath the proximal interphalangeal joint. Surgical correction should be considered if conservative treatment fails to relieve the pressure point. The optimal surgical option for this deformity has not yet been defined. We report a case of swan neck deformity of the second toe that was successfully corrected by flexor digitorum longus to brevis tenodesis.
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Percutaneous dorsal closing wedge osteotomy of the metatarsal neck in management of metatarsalgia.
Foot (Edinb)
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Metatarsalgia can be caused by plantarflexion of a central metatarsal or discrepancies in the metatarsals' length. Nonsurgical management is usually sufficient to achieve satisfactory results. For those recalcitrant cases, metatarsal osteotomy is needed to relieve the pain. We describe a technique of percutaneous dorsal closing wedge osteotomy of the metatarsal to manage the recalcitrant metatarsalgia. A case series was reviewed retrospectively.
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A Minimally Invasive "Overwrapping" Technique for Repairing Neglected Ruptures of the Achilles Tendon.
J Foot Ankle Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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About 10% to 25% of acute ruptures of the Achilles tendon go undiagnosed for some time beyond what would be optimal for repair and a return to optimal function. Managing these chronic or neglected ruptures is a surgical challenge, because the tendon ends retract and atrophy and could develop a short, fibrous distal stump. In the present report, a patient with a ruptured right Achilles tendon, neglected for approximately 10 years, is described. The chronically injured tendon was successfully treated by overwrapping the interposed scar at the rupture site. This minimally invasive technique restored tension to the tendon, a prerequisite for which was the presence of functional triceps surae, confirmed by identification of gross contraction of the muscle during tiptoeing. The procedure is contraindicated when the scar tissue is not intact and does not have sufficient laxity to allow adequate dorsiflexion of the ankle after overwrapping the tendon or when the triceps surae are nonfunctional.
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Expansion method in secondary total ear reconstruction for undesirable reconstructed ear.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Ear reconstruction by autologous costal cartilage grafting is the most widely applied technique with fewer complications. However, undesirable ear reconstruction brings more problems to plastic surgeons. Some authors resort to free flap or osseointegration technique with prosthetic ear. In this article, we introduce a secondary total ear reconstruction with expanded skin flap method.
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Acute Compartment Syndrome After Medial Gastrocnemius Tear.
Foot Ankle Spec
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Acute compartment syndrome after medial gastrocnemius tear is very rare. It can involve the superficial posterior compartment alone or progress to involve all the 4 compartments of the lower legs. Those patients with high pain tolerance and minor trauma can lead to delayed presentation. Immediate fasciotomy is the treatment of choice.
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Formulation, Physicochemical Characterization, and In Vitro Study of Chitosan/HPMC Blends-Based Herbal Blended Patches.
AAPS PharmSciTech
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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The current work prepared chitosan/hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) blends and studied the possibility of chitosan/HPMC blended patches for Zingiber cassumunar Roxb. The blended patches without/with crude Z. cassumunar oil were prepared by homogeneously mixing the 3.5% w/v of chitosan solution and 20% w/v of HPMC solution, and glycerine was used as plasticizer. Then, they were poured into Petri dish and produced the blended patches in hot air oven at 70?±?2°C. The blended patches were tested and evaluated by the physicochemical properties: moisture uptake, swelling ratio, erosion, porosity, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and X-ray diffraction, and photographed the surface and cross-section morphology under SEM technique. Herbal blended patches were studied by the in vitro release and skin permeation of active compound D. The blended patches could absorb the moisture and became hydrated patches that occurred during the swelling of blended patches. They were eroded and increased by the number of porous channels to pass through out for active compound D. In addition, the blended patches indicated the compatibility of the blended ingredients and homogeneous smooth and compact. The blended patches made from chitosan/HPMC blends provide a controlled release and skin permeation behavior of compound D. Thus, the blended patches could be suitably used for herbal medicine application.
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First report of the stapled mesh stoma reinforcement technique in a urologic context.
Case Rep Urol
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Parastomal hernia is a common complication of ileal conduit formation. Mesh repair of parastomal hernia has lower rate of recurrence than nonmesh techniques but can be time-consuming to perform. The stapled mesh stoma reinforcement technique (SMART) is a novel method of rapidly constructing a reinforced stapled stoma. We report the first case utilising this technique in a urologic context. The procedure was performed on a middle-aged female with recurrent parastomal hernia of her ileal conduit. There were no perioperative complications. The resited stoma remained healthy and functioned normally. Longer term data is clearly desirable though this technique deserves consideration in the treatment of urologic parastomal hernias. This case demonstrates that SMART is an easy and convenient procedure for parastomal hernia repair.
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Factors associated with acceptability of HIV self-testing among health care workers in Kenya.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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Health care workers (HCWs) in sub-Saharan Africa are at a high risk of HIV infection from both sexual and occupational exposures. However, many do not seek HIV testing. This paper examines the acceptability of an unsupervised facility-based HIV self-testing (HIVST) intervention among HCWs and their partners and factors associated with uptake of HIVST among HCWs. HCWs in seven large Kenyan hospitals were invited to participate in pre-HIVST information sessions during which they were offered HIVST kits to take home for self-testing. A post-intervention survey was conducted among 765 HCWs. Forty-one percent attended the information session; of those, 89% took the HIVST kits and of those, 85% self-tested. Thirty-four percent of surveyed HCWs used the HIVST to test themselves. Of those who took the HIVST kit and had partners, 73% gave the kit to their partner and 86% of them indicated their partner self-tested. Factors positively associated with use of the HIVST on self were being female, being single, and being a HCW from Homa Bay Hospital (located in a high HIV prevalence area). HIVST is acceptable to HCWs and their partners. However, strategies are needed to increase HCWs attendance at pre-implementation information sessions.
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The chorioretinal damage caused by different half parameters of photodynamic therapy in rabbits.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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To compare the chorioretinal tissue response after different half-strength parameters of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in rabbits.
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Macular hole repair by vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling in highly myopic eyes.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To evaluate the surgical outcomes of macular hole (MH) repair by vitrectomy and internal limiting membrane peeling in highly myopic eyes.
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Reestablishing brain networks in patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy after liver transplantation.
J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Cirrhotic patients without overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have associated with widespread neuro-psychological impairment. Liver transplantation can restore metabolic abnormalities but the mechanisms are unclear. We investigate brain functional networks after transplantation using resting-state funtional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Twenty-six cirrhotic patients without overt HE completed neuro-psychological assessment before and 6 to 12 months after transplantation, and compared with 35 healthy controls. Five major functional brain networks, default mode (DMN), dorsal attention (DAN), executive control (ECN), salience (SN), and primary networks (PN), were assessed. Nodal efficiency and strength in different functional networks were weighed and their interaction metrics displayed. Granger causal analysis between pretransplantation and posttransplantation was performed. Before transplantation, the intrafunctional connectivity was decreased in DMN, DAN, ECN, and SN. After transplantation, cognitive functions improved with increased functional connectivity. The interaction metrics among large-scale networks in patients became similar to healthy controls. The increase in PN affected the decrease in SN, while the increase in DAN forced a decrease in DMN. There was a bidirectional balance between DMN and SN. Dynamic disruptions and reconstruction in intrinsic large-scale networks are associated with parallel patterns of cognitive information processing deficits and recovery. Remapping of SN, DMN, and DAN is essential for restoring cognition after transplantation.Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow & Metabolism advance online publication, 17 September 2014; doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2014.143.
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Spatial distribution, work patterns, and perception towards malaria interventions among temporary mobile/migrant workers in artemisinin resistance containment zone.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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Mobile populations are at a high risk of malaria infection and suspected to carry and spread resistant parasites. The Myanmar National Malaria Control Programme focuses on preventive interventions and vector control measures for the temporary mobile/migrant workers in Myanmar Artemisinin Resistance Containment Zones.
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Effects of metal ions and hydrogen peroxide on the phenotype of yeast hom6? mutant.
Lett. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
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HOM6 is a major gene in the aspartate pathway which leads to biosynthesis of threonine, and methionine. The phenotypes of the gene deletion mutant (hom6?) in a variety of cultural conditions have previously provided meaningful insights into the biological roles of HOM6 and its upstream intermediate metabolites. Here, we conducted a survey on a spectrum of metal ions for their effect on the aspartate pathway and broader sulphur metabolism. We show that manganese (Mn(2+) ) promoted the growth of hom6? under both anaerobic and aerobic conditions. Unexpectedly, 4 mmol l(-1) hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), a dose normally causing temporary cell growth arrest, enhanced the growth of hom6? under the anaerobic condition only, while it had no effect on the wild type strain BY4743. We propose that Mn(2+) and H2 O2 promote the growth of hom6? by reducing the accumulation of the toxic intermediate metabolite - aspartate ?-semialdehyde, via directing the aspartate pathway to the central sugar metabolism-tricarboxylic acid cycle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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ARGONAUTE PIWI domain and microRNA duplex structure regulate small RNA sorting in Arabidopsis.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2014
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Small RNAs (sRNAs) are loaded into ARGONAUTE (AGO) proteins to induce gene silencing. In plants, the 5'-terminal nucleotide is important for sRNA sorting into different AGOs. Here we show that microRNA (miRNA) duplex structure also contributes to miRNA sorting. Base pairing at the 15th nucleotide of a miRNA duplex is important for miRNA sorting in both Arabidopsis AGO1 and AGO2. AGO2 favours miRNA duplexes with no middle mismatches, whereas AGO1 tolerates, or prefers, duplexes with central mismatches. AGO structure modelling and mutational analyses reveal that the QF-V motif within the conserved PIWI domain contributes to recognition of base pairing at the 15th nucleotide of a duplex, while the DDDE catalytic core of AtAGO2 is important for recognition of the central nucleotides. Finally, we rescued the adaxialized phenotype of ago1-12, which is largely due to miR165 loss-of-function, by changing miR165 duplex structure which we predict redirects it to AGO2.
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Sectoral variations of iridocorneal angle width and iris volume in Chinese Singaporeans: a swept-source optical coherence tomography study.
Graefes Arch. Clin. Exp. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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To assess variations in the iridocorneal angle width and iris volume in Chinese subjects using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT).
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Fast tuning of double Fano resonance using a phase-change metamaterial under low power intensity.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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In this work, we numerically demonstrate an all-optical tunable Fano resonance in a fishnet metamaterial(MM) based on a metal/phase-change material(PCM)/metal multilayer. We show that the displacement of the elliptical nanoholes from their centers can split the single Fano resonance (FR) into a double FR, exhibiting higher quality factors. The tri-layer fishnet MMs with broken symmetry accomplishes a wide tuning range in the mid-infrared(M-IR) regime by switching between the amorphous and crystalline states of the PCM (Ge2Sb2Te5). A photothermal model is used to study the temporal variation of the temperature of the Ge2Sb2Te5 film to show the potential for switching the phase of Ge2Sb2Te5 by optical heating. Generation of the tunable double FR in this asymmetric structure presents clear advantages as it possesses a fast tuning time of 0.36?ns, a low pump light intensity of 9.6??W/?m(2), and a large tunable wavelength range between 2124?nm and 3028?nm. The optically fast tuning of double FRs using phase change metamaterials(PCMMs) may have potential applications in active multiple-wavelength nanodevices in the M-IR region.
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High HIV incidence in a cohort of male injection drug users in Delhi, India.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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India has an estimated 177,000 injection drug users (IDU) with a national HIV prevalence of 7.14%. Reliable estimates of HIV incidence are not available for this population.
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Treatment of postburn ear defect with expanded upper arm flap and consequent expansion without skin grafting.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Total ear reconstruction in the postburn auricle is one of the most challenging procedures for plastic surgeons. Adverse factors associated with these procedures include reduced or damaged blood supply, poor elasticity of scar tissue, increased risk of infection, and the possible destruction of skin, temporoparietal fascia, or retroauricular fascia. In cases where patients are severely burned, free flaps, such as radial forearm flaps, contralateral temporoparietal fascial flaps, or omental flaps, can be used as framework envelopes. In this work, we introduced a novel method of expanded upper arm flap transfer, followed by an expansion method of total ear reconstruction without skin grafting.
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Incidence of ambulatory care visits after needlestick and sharps injuries among healthcare workers in Taiwan: a nationwide population-based study.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Healthcare professionals have a high risk of needlestick and sharps injuries (NSIs), which have a high potential for disease transmission. Ambulatory care follow up is essential, but is usually overlooked. This study aimed to investigate the annual and cumulative (age-, sex-, and subtype-specific) incidences of ambulatory care visits after NSIs. This study was also designed to evaluate the incidences of blood-borne diseases associated with NSIs among Taiwanese health professionals in Taiwan between 2004 and 2010. Data were obtained from the National Health Insurance Research Database, which contains anonymized records representing approximately 99% of the Taiwan population. A total of 4443 nurse healthcare workers (NHCWs) and 3138 non-nurse healthcare workers (NNHCWs), including physicians, medical technologists, and other health professionals were included in this longitudinal study. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. The Mantel-Haenszel method was used to adjust for sex, age, and type of affiliation. Results showed that the annual incidence of ambulatory care visits of NHCWs increased from 0.7% in 2004 to 1.9% in 2010; this incidence was significantly higher than that of NNHCWs (from 0.3% in 2004 to 0.5% in 2010) in any yearly comparison (p < 0.05). The sex-adjusted 7-year cumulative incidence rate was 3.23 (95% CI = 1.23-8.45) in males and 3.92 (95% CI = 2.70-5.69) in females (p < 0.05). The age-adjusted 7-year cumulative incidence rate was 2.74 (95% CI = 1.99-3.77) and 2.14 (95% CI = 1.49-3.07) in subjects ? 30 and ?31 years old, respectively (p < 0.0005). The affiliation-adjusted 7-year cumulative incidence rate was 1.89 (95% CI = 1.21-2.94) in medical centers and 3.33 (95% CI = 2.51-4.41) in nonmedical centers (p < 0.01). In conclusion, NSIs increased steadily from 2004 to 2010 in Taiwan with NHCWs having higher NSIs incidences than NNHCWs. A routine ambulatory care visit after NSIs can prevent blood-borne transmission, especially for NHCWs. Educational programs may be helpful for reducing the incidence of NSIs and increasing ambulatory care visit ratios after NSIs.
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Medial acoustic neuromas: clinical and surgical implications.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Medial acoustic neuroma is a rare entity that confers a distinct clinical syndrome. It is scarcely discussed in the literature and is associated with adverse features. This study evaluates the clinical and imaging features, pertinent surgical challenges, and treatment outcome in a large series of this variant. The authors postulate that the particular pathological anatomy with its arachnoidal rearrangement has a profound implication on the surgical technique and outcome.
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Broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber using a phase-change metamaterial at visible frequencies.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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We report a broadband polarization-independent perfect absorber with wide-angle near unity absorbance in the visible regime. Our structure is composed of an array of thin Au squares separated from a continuous Au film by a phase change material (Ge2Sb2Te5) layer. It shows that the near perfect absorbance is flat and broad over a wide-angle incidence up to 80° for either transverse electric or magnetic polarization due to a high imaginary part of the dielectric permittivity of Ge2Sb2Te5. The electric field, magnetic field and current distributions in the absorber are investigated to explain the physical origin of the absorbance. Moreover, we carried out numerical simulations to investigate the temporal variation of temperature in the Ge2Sb2Te5 layer and to show that the temperature of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 can be raised from room temperature to > 433?K (amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition temperature) in just 0.37?ns with a low light intensity of 95?nW/?m(2), owing to the enhanced broadband light absorbance through strong plasmonic resonances in the absorber. The proposed phase-change metamaterial provides a simple way to realize a broadband perfect absorber in the visible and near-infrared (NIR) regions and is important for a number of applications including thermally controlled photonic devices, solar energy conversion and optical data storage.
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Partial helix defect repair by use of postauricular advancement flap combined with ipsilateral conchal cartilage graft.
J Plast Reconstr Aesthet Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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The objective of this study is to investigate the usage and effectiveness of postauricular advancement flap and conchal cartilage for surgical treatment of partial helix defect.
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Lens Subluxation after Plasmin and SF6 Injections in Rabbit Eyes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the rate of lens subluxation following plasmin and/or SF6 injections in eyes, and whether a subsequent elevated level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vitreous tap would aggravate subluxation.
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Comparison of Serological Response to Doxycycline versus Benzathine Penicillin G in the Treatment of Early Syphilis in HIV-Infected Patients: A Multi-Center Observational Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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While doxycycline is recommended as an alternative treatment of syphilis in patients with penicillin allergy or intolerance, clinical studies to compare serological response to doxycycline versus benzathine penicillin in treatment of early syphilis among HIV-infected patients remain sparse.
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One Dose versus Three Weekly Doses of Benzathine Penicillin G for Patients Co-Infected with HIV and Early Syphilis: A Multicenter, Prospective Observational Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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One dose of benzathine penicillin G (BPG) has been recommended for HIV-infected patients with early syphilis (primary, secondary, and early latent syphilis) in the sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines, but clinical data to support such a recommendation are limited.
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Human resources for health: task shifting to promote basic health service delivery among internally displaced people in ethnic health program service areas in eastern Burma/Myanmar.
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Burma/Myanmar was controlled by a military regime for over 50 years. Many basic social and protection services have been neglected, specifically in the ethnic areas. Development in these areas was led by the ethnic non-state actors to ensure care and the availability of health services for the communities living in the border ethnic-controlled areas. Political changes in Burma/Myanmar have been ongoing since the end of 2010. Given the ethnic diversity of Burma/Myanmar, many challenges in ensuring health service coverage among all ethnic groups lie ahead.
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Retention and risk factors for attrition in a large public health ART program in Myanmar: a retrospective cohort analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The outcomes from an antiretroviral treatment (ART) program within the public sector in Myanmar have not been reported. This study documents retention and the risk factors for attrition in a large ART public health program in Myanmar.
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An unusual cause of pancytopenia: Whipple's disease.
J Community Hosp Intern Med Perspect
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Whipple's disease is a systemic infectious disease caused by the bacteria Tropheryma whipplei. The most common clinical manifestations of Whipple's disease are weight loss (92%), hypoalbuminemia and steatorrhea (91%, respectively), diarrhea (72%), arthralgia (67%), and abdominal pain (55%). Neurological signs and symptoms from dementia to oculomasticatory myorhythmia or oculofacioskeletal myorhythmia (pathognomonic of Whipple's disease), lymphadenopathy, and fatigue can also be present. Pancytopenia is a rare and less recognized clinical feature in Whipple's disease patients. We are describing a case where a middle-aged Caucasian male diagnosed with Whipple's disease was found to have pancytopenia. Etiology of pancytopenia is postulated to be due to the invasion of bone marrow by T. whipplei. It is important to recognize that bone marrow involvement by the Whipple bacillus is not uncommon. In the presence of lymphadenopathy and pancytopenia, clinicians should think of Whipple's disease as a differential diagnosis apart from lymphoma or other non-specific granulomatous reticuloendothelial disorders.
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Hepatitis C virus infection among injection drug users with and without human immunodeficiency virus co-infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this study is to explore the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among injection drug users (IDUs) with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in southern Taiwan. For 562 IDUs (265 anti-HIV negative, 297 anti-HIV positive), we analyzed liver function, anti-HIV antibody, anti-HCV antibody, HCV viral loads, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). HIV RNA viral loads and CD4 cell count for anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs and the HCV genotype for HCV RNA-seropositive IDUs were measured. The seroprevalence rates of anti-HIV, anti-HCV, and HBsAg were 52.8%, 91.3%, and 15.3%, respectively. All the anti-HIV-seropositive IDUs were positive for HIV RNA. Anti-HCV seropositivity was the most important factor associated with HIV infection (odds ratio [OR], 25.06; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 8.97-74.9), followed by male gender (OR, 6.12; 95% CI, 4.05-9.39) and HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.11-3.34). Among IDUs positive for anti-HCV, 80.7% had detectable HCV RNA. HCV viremia after HCV exposure was strongly related to HIV infection (OR, 6.262; 95% CI, 1.515-18.28), but negatively correlated to HBsAg seropositivity (OR, 0.161; 95% CI, 0.082-0.317). HCV genotype 6 was the most prevalent genotype among all IDUs (41.0%), followed by genotypes 1 (32.3%), 3 (12.8%), and 2 (5.6%). In conclusion, about half IDUs were infected with HIV and >90% with HCV infection. Male and seropositivity for HBsAg and anti-HCV were factors related to HIV infection among our IDUs. HIV was positively correlated, whereas hepatitis B co-infection was negatively correlated with HCV viremia among IDUs with HCV exposure. Different HCV molecular epidemiology was noted among IDUs.
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Comparison of audio computer assisted self-interview and face-to-face interview methods in eliciting HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men and men who inject drugs in Nigeria.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Face-to-face (FTF) interviews are the most frequently used means of obtaining information on sexual and drug injecting behaviours from men who have sex with men (MSM) and men who inject drugs (MWID). However, accurate information on these behaviours may be difficult to elicit because of sociocultural hostility towards these populations and the criminalization associated with these behaviours. Audio computer assisted self-interview (ACASI) is an interviewing technique that may mitigate social desirability bias in this context.
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Intramuscular lipoma of the abductor digiti minimi mimicking intramuscular haemangioma.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Intramuscular lipoma of the foot is rarely reported. We reported a case of intramuscular lipoma of the abductor digiti minimi mimicking intramuscular haemangioma in clinical and MR findings.
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Lipoma of the sinus tarsi.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2013
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Lipoma is rarely found in the foot. It is usually asymptomatic although sometimes can present with pain. We report a case of lipoma of the sinus tarsi presenting with functional instability.
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Topological insulator metamaterials with tunable negative refractive index in the optical region.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2013
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A blueshift tunable metamaterial (MM) exhibiting a double-negative refractive index based on a topological insulator (bismuth selenide, Bi2Se3) has been demonstrated in the near-infrared (NIR) spectral region. The potential of Bi2Se3 as a dielectric interlayer of the multilayer MM is explored. The optical response of elliptical nanohole arrays penetrating through Au/Bi2Se3/Au films is numerically investigated using the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. The blueshift tuning range of the MM is as high as 370 nm (from 2,140 to 1,770 nm) after switching the Bi2Se3 between its trigonal and orthorhombic states.
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Vitrectomy and panretinal photocoagulation reduces the occurrence of neovascular glaucoma in central retinal vein occlusion with vitreous hemorrhage.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the best-corrected visual acuity and occurrence of neovascular glaucoma with vitrectomy (VT) and panretinal photocoagulation or without VT in central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) associated with vitreous hemorrhage (VH).
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Choroidal thickness in patients with a history of retinopathy of prematurity.
JAMA Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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The cause of reduced vision in patients with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is not yet fully understood. The role of the choroid in ROP remains unknown and existing studies of choroidal thickness in patients with a history of ROP are limited. It might be helpful to understand the association of the choroid with ROP by measuring the choroidal thickness in patients with a history of ROP and correlating these findings with the visual outcome of these patients.
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Endoscopic adhesiolysis for extensive tibialis posterior tendon and Achilles tendon adhesions following compound tendon rupture.
BMJ Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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Tendon adhesion is one of the most common causes of disability following tendon surgery. A case of extensive peritendinous adhesions of the Achilles tendon and tibialis posterior tendon after compound rupture of the tendons was reported. This was managed by endoscopic adhesiolysis of both tendons. The endoscopic approach allows early postoperative mobilisation which can relieve the tendon adhesion.
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Gemifloxacin, a fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug, inhibits migration and invasion of human colon cancer cells.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Gemifloxacin (GMF) is an orally administered broad-spectrum fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agent used to treat acute bacterial exacerbation of pneumonia and bronchitis. Although fluoroquinolone antibiotics have also been found to have anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects, studies on the effect of GMF on treating colon cancer have been relatively rare. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to describe the antimetastasis activities of GMF in colon cancer and the possible mechanisms involved. Results have shown that GMF inhibits the migration and invasion of colon cancer SW620 and LoVo cells and causes epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT). In addition, GMF suppresses the activation of NF- ? B and cell migration and invasion induced by TNF- ? and inhibits the TAK1/TAB2 interaction, resulting in decreased I ? B phosphorylation and NF- ? B nuclear translocation in SW620 cells. Furthermore, Snail, a critical transcriptional factor of EMT, was downregulated after GMF treatment. Overexpression of Snail by cDNA transfection significantly decreases the inhibitory effect of GMF on EMT and cell migration and invasion. In conclusion, GMF may be a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of metastasis in colon cancer.
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Chondrolysis of the Ankle Joint following Ankle Arthroscopy and Microfracture of the Osteochondral Lesion of the Talar Dome.
Case Rep Orthop
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Chondrolysis of the ankle is a very rare condition. We report a case of chondrolysis of the ankle following ankle arthroscopy and microfracture of the osteochondral lesion of the talar dome. The patients symptoms were relieved after articulated distraction arthroplasty.
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Gemifloxacin inhibits migration and invasion and induces mesenchymal-epithelial transition in human breast adenocarcinoma cells.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Gemifloxacin (GMF) is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic that inhibits bacterial DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-metastatic activities of GMF and its possible mechanisms of action, with a special focus on the induction of mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET). The human breast adenocarcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 were used to assess the anti-metastatic activity of GMF on cell migration and invasion and in scratch wound-healing assays. The effects of GMF on the MET and its regulatory nuclear factor ?B (NF-?B)/Snail pathway were assessed. The in vivo anti-metastatic effect of GMF was also evaluated in an animal model. This study demonstrated that GMF inhibited the migration and invasion of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-453 cells and induced the MET. GMF suppressed the activation of NF-?B, as well as the cell migration and invasion induced by tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). GMF was shown to inhibit the phosphorylation of the inhibitor of ?B (I?B) and the translocation of NF-?B/Snail in both cancer cell lines. This study showed that the Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), an inhibitor of I?B kinase, is upregulated after GMF treatment. Inhibition of RKIP by small hairpin RNA transfection significantly decreased the inhibitory effect of GMF on the NF-?B/Snail pathway and also inhibited cell migration and invasion. Overexpression of Snail suppressed GMF-mediated metastasis inhibition and E-cadherin upregulation. An animal model revealed that GMF effectively inhibits lipopolysaccharide-mediated metastasis in mice. This study has demonstrated that GMF might be a novel anticancer agent for the prevention and treatment of metastasis in breast cancer.
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Enhancement of Fano resonance in metal/dielectric/metal metamaterials at optical regime.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Fano resonance (FR) within the transmission spectrum is demonstrated in the near infrared (NIR) region using elliptical nanoholes array (ENA) embedding through metal-dielectric-metal (MDM) layers. For the symmetric MDM-ENA, it has been shown that a FR can be excited by the normally incident light. This FR response is attributed to the interplay between the bright modes and dark modes, where the bright modes originate from the electric resonance (localized surface plasmon resonance) caused by the ENA and the dark modes are due to the magnetic resonance (inductive-capacitive resonance) induced by the MDM multilayers. Displacement of the elliptical nanoholes from their centers breaks the structural symmetry to excite a double FR as a result of the coherent interaction of the electric resonance with two splitting sub-magnetic resonances at different wavelengths. Moreover,the degree of the asymmetry allows for the tuning of the amplitude and bandwidth of the double FR window. The sensitivity to the slight variations of the dielectric environment has been calculated and yields a figure-of-merit of 0.8RIU(-1) for the symmetric MDM-ENA and 3.0RIU(-1) for the asymmetric MDM-ENA.
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Characteristics of female sex workers in southern India willing and unwilling to participate in a placebo gel trial.
AIDS Behav
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Respondent-driven sampling was used to recruit female sex workers (FSWs) for a community survey conducted in southern India. After survey completion, participants were given a brochure describing a clinical trial that entailed daily use of a placebo vaginal gel for four months. This study assessed predictors of screening among survey respondents, predictors of enrollment among those eligible for the trial, and predictors of visit attendance and retention among those enrolled. FSWs who reported having symptoms of sexually transmitted infections (STI), engaging in sex work in the past month, and living in a subdistrict easily accessible by public transportation with a high concentration of FSWs, were more likely to screen. FSWs who had never been tested for HIV were more likely to enroll. This analysis suggests that the primary reason FSWs participated in the trial was a desire for health care-not other factors hypothesized to be important, e.g., HIV risk perception and poverty status.
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High levels of unprotected anal intercourse and never testing for HIV among men who have sex with men in Nigeria: evidence from a cross-sectional survey for the need for innovative approaches to HIV prevention.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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To describe sexual risk behaviour, correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) and never testing for HIV and its implications for HIV prevention interventions among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria and other similar contexts.
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Highly sensitive fiber pressure sensor based on off-center diaphragm reflection.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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A fiber pressure sensor with a collimator at the off-center position of a diaphragm is demonstrated. The detection mechanism is incident-angle sensitive rather than traditional working-distance sensitive. Due to the small beam divergence of the collimator, the control on working distance is less stringent, and high sensitivity can be realized because the coupling efficiency of the collimator is very sensitive to the incident angle decided by the off-center diaphragm reflection. Sensitivity of 1.11 and 0.16 dB/KPa can be achieved with silicon diaphragm thicknesses of 100 and 150 ?m, respectively. Moreover, the detection range can be continually shifted by changing the pressure in the sealed diaphragm cavity.
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Risk of having BRCA1 mutation in high-risk women with triple-negative breast cancer: a meta-analysis.
Clin. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Testing for BRCA1 mutation has important clinical implications such as identifying risk of second primary cancers and risk of cancer in the family. This study seeks to quantify the risk of having BRCA1 mutation in female breast cancer patients with triple-negative phenotype compared with those with other phenotypes. We undertook a search of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases for relevant studies through 10 May 2013. Outcomes were calculated and reported as risk ratio and risk difference. 12 studies comprising 2533 breast cancer patients were included in the analysis. It was found that almost all eligible studies were performed on high-risk population with breast cancer. By analyzing the incidence rates of BRCA1 mutation in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and non-TNBC, our meta-analysis provides a relative risk of 5.65 [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.15-7.69] and risk difference of 0.22 (95% CI, 0.15-0.29). This implies that, in selected population with high-risk features, women with TNBC are approximately five and a half times more likely to have BRCA1 mutation compared with non-TNBC phenotype, and approximately two in nine women with TNBC harbor BRCA1 mutation. Triple-negative phenotype significantly increases the risk of having BRCA1 mutation in high-risk breast cancer patients compared with non-TNBC.
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Prevalence of hepatitis C and B virus among patients infected with HIV: a cross-sectional analysis of a large HIV care programme in Myanmar.
Trop Doct
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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Co-infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus (HBV) influences the morbidity and mortality of patients with HIV. A cross sectional analysis was of 11,032 HIV-infected patients enrolled in the Integrated HIV Care Program from May 2005 to April 2012 and Epi-info 3.5 was used to determine the serological prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C. The mean?±?standard deviation age of patients was 36?±?8.4 years (adult cohort) and 7?±?3 years (paediatric cohort). The sero prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen, hepatitis C (anti HCV antibodies) and triple infection are 8.7%, 5.3% and 0.35%, respectively. Men who have sex with men are at the highest risk of being co-infected with hepatitis B while intravenous drug users are at the highest risk of being co-infected with hepatitis C. It is important to screen for hepatitis B and C in HIV infected people in order to provide quality care for HIV patients with co-infection.
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Risk of nonpsychotic mental disorders development in antiviral-treated mentally healthy chronic hepatitis C patients: A population-based study.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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Interferon (IFN) is able to induce significant psychiatric side effects in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients, whereas the risk of nonpsychotic mental disorder (NPMD) development in antiviral-treated mentally healthy CHC patients remains obscure. We used a population-based study to assess the risk of NPMD development in patients who had undergone antiviral treatment compared with untreated chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) patients.
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Estimates of the size of key populations at risk for HIV infection: men who have sex with men, female sex workers and injecting drug users in Nairobi, Kenya.
Sex Transm Infect
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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Size estimates of populations at higher risk for HIV infection are needed to help policy makers understand the scope of the epidemic and allocate appropriate resources. Population size estimates of men who have sex with men (MSM), female sex workers(FSW) and intravenous drug users (IDU) are few or non-existent in Nairobi, Kenya.
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High levels of bisexual behavior and factors associated with bisexual behavior among men having sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria.
AIDS Care
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Nigerian men who have sex with men (MSM) have a high burden of HIV infection and are known to engage in bisexual behavior. This study presents the first data on characteristics and correlates of Nigerian men having sex with men and women (MSMW) in three Nigerian cities. Five hundred and fifty-seven MSM who engaged in anal sex with men completed a behavioral survey; 48.1% of these MSM also engaged in sex with women in the previous 2 months. MSMW displayed high levels of risky sexual behavior with female sex partners; casual (56.0%) and multiple female partners were common (69.0%) and 66.0% had unprotected vaginal sex. As much as 45.1% MSMW had anal sex with female partners of which 74.0% did not use protection in the 2 months prior. In bivariate analyses, bisexual behavior was associated (p<0.05) with being married or living with a women (OR 5.0, 95% CI = 2.6-9.4), less education (OR 2.0, 95% CI = 1.4-3.0), bisexual/straight identity (OR 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6-3.2), being an insertive partner (OR 3.0, 95% CI = 1.9-4.5), being HIV-negative (OR 1.6, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5), living in Lagos (OR 2.3, 95% CI = 1.7-2.2), being Muslim (OR 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.5), and being away from home (OR 1.5, 95% CI = 1.0-2.1). In the multivariate model, being married to or living with a woman (AOR = 5.1; 95% CI = 2.5-10.3), bisexual/straight identity (AOR = 2.2; 95% CIs = 1.5-3.3), being an insertive partner (AOR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.9-4.9), being away from home (AOR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.1-2.3) and living in Lagos (AOR = 1.7; 95% CI = 1.0-2.8) remained significant (p< 0.05). High levels of bisexual behavior exist among Nigerian MSM, and these men engage in risky sexual behaviors with both male and female sex partners. While decriminalization of same-sex behavior in Nigeria will promote access to HIV prevention programs, current MSM interventions must incorporate information on safe sex with both male and female sex partners.
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Ophiodiaporthe cyatheae gen. et sp. nov., a diaporthalean pathogen causing a devastating wilt disease of Cyathea lepifera in Taiwan.
Mycologia
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The scaly tree fern, Cyathea lepifera, in Taiwan has been devastated by an ascomycetous pathogen in recent years. This fungus resembles species of Diaporthe, but unlike anamorphs of Diaporthe that produce two types of conidia, its anamorph produces one conidium type. It is described herein as Ophiodiaporthe cyatheae gen. et sp. nov. Through pathogenicity tests, O. cyatheae was demonstrated to be the causal agent of the C. lepifera wilt disease. Of interest, sporulating structures of O. cyatheae have not been found on C. lepifera plants but in culture thus far. The mating system is homothallic. Phylogenetic analyses based on combined sequences of nSSU-rDNA, nLSU-rDNA, EF1-?-1 and RPB2 placed O. cyatheae in Diaporthaceae. Combined sequences of EF1-?-2 and TUB indicated that O. cyatheae had its origin within Diaporthe.
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Retinopathy of prematurity in neonatal patients with birth weight greater than 1500 g in Taiwan.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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To understand the characteristics, ophthalmic outcomes, and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in patients with birth weight (BW) greater than 1500 g. The applicability of the ROP screening criteria to the Taiwanese population was also examined.
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The impact of inappropriate antibiotics on bacteremia patients in a community hospital in Taiwan: an emphasis on the impact of referral information for cases from a hospital affiliated nursing home.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Evidence for the impact of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on bacteremia is mainly from studies in medical centers. We investigated the impact of inappropriate antimicrobial therapy on bacteremia in a community hospital. In particular, patients from the hospitals affiliated nursing home were sent to the hospital with adequate referral information.
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Assessment of circumferential angle-closure by the iris-trabecular contact index with swept-source optical coherence tomography.
Ophthalmology
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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To evaluate the diagnostic performance of the iris-trabecular contact (ITC) index, a measure of the degree of angle-closure, using swept-source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT, CASIA SS-1000, Tomey Corporation, Nagoya, Japan) in comparison with gonioscopy.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.