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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Color tunable organic light-emitting devices with external quantum efficiency over 20% based on strongly luminescent gold(III) complexes having long-lived emissive excited states.
Adv. Mater. Weinheim
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Gold(III) complexes supported by C-deprotonated fluorene-C^N^C ligands having high emission quantum yield up to 0.61 and long-lived emissive excited states are used as yellow emitters in color tunable PLEDs and OLEDs. High EQEs of 13.16% and 22.02% are achieved in the best PLED and OLED, respectively.
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The human microbiota: a new direction in the investigation of thoracic diseases.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Advancements in next generation sequencing technology have provided means for the comprehensive profiling of the microbial community in the respiratory tract in both physiological and pathological conditions. Recent studies have analyzed the bacterial composition in the respiratory tract of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), influenza and tuberculosis patients, and have identified novel targets that may potentially lead to secondary infections. Certain bacteria have also been found to regulate the lung immune system and have unexpected connections with respiratory diseases. Further studies in these areas are necessary to dissect the exact relationship between the dynamics of the microbiota and the health of the respiratory system.
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An ethnographical study on the academic experiences of Chinese male nursing students.
Nurse Educ Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Because there have been very few recent studies focusing on the nursing studies of Chinese male learners in Hong Kong, this paper reports some findings on the educational experiences of such students from a local university, giving them a chance to voice out their concerns and express their feelings. In this qualitative ethnographical study, 18 second- to fourth-year male nursing students were recruited by purposive snowball sampling and invited to participate in individual semi-structured interviews for the collecting of data. The taped recordings were transcribed and translated. Following this, five themes were identified for content analysis. The findings of this study suggest that people would be more likely to accept male nurses; and male nursing students would be more able see their role as nurses with the acceptance of some feminine subjects in the nursing curriculum. This study provided male nursing students the chance to express their thoughts and experiences on nursing education, which will suggest further modifications to the curriculum design and implementation.
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High performance graphene oxide based rubber composites.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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In this paper, graphene oxide/styrene-butadiene rubber (GO/SBR) composites with complete exfoliation of GO sheets were prepared by aqueous-phase mixing of GO colloid with SBR latex and a small loading of butadiene-styrene-vinyl-pyridine rubber (VPR) latex, followed by their co-coagulation. During co-coagulation, VPR not only plays a key role in the prevention of aggregation of GO sheets but also acts as an interface-bridge between GO and SBR. The results demonstrated that the mechanical properties of the GO/SBR composite with 2.0 vol.% GO is comparable with those of the SBR composite reinforced with 13.1 vol.% of carbon black (CB), with a low mass density and a good gas barrier ability to boot. The present work also showed that GO-silica/SBR composite exhibited outstanding wear resistance and low-rolling resistance which make GO-silica/SBR very competitive for the green tire application, opening up enormous opportunities to prepare high performance rubber composites for future engineering applications.
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Gender differences in the academic and clinical performances of undergraduate nursing students: A systematic review.
Nurse Educ Today
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Nursing is often regarded as a female-dominated profession. Many nursing curricula are received by mainly female students. It is uncertain how male students behave in this environment of nursing education in hospitals and universities. This article aimed to review gender differences in the academic and clinical performances of undergraduate nursing students.
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Coordinated regulation of cardiac Na(+)/Ca (2+) exchanger and Na (+)-K (+)-ATPase by phospholemman (FXYD1).
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Phospholemman (PLM) is the founding member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport. PLM is a 72-amino acid protein consisting of the signature PFXYD motif in the extracellular N terminus, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic tail containing three phosphorylation sites. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. The TM domain of PLM interacts with TM9 of the ?-subunit of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, while its cytoplasmic tail interacts with two small regions (spanning residues 248-252 and 300-304) of the proximal intracellular loop of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Under stress, catecholamine stimulation phosphorylates PLM at serine(68), resulting in relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase by decreasing K(m) for Na(+) and increasing V(max), and simultaneous inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Enhanced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity lowers intracellular Na(+), thereby minimizing Ca(2+) overload and risks of arrhythmias. Inhibition of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger reduces Ca(2+) efflux, thereby preserving contractility. Thus, the coordinated actions of PLM during stress serve to minimize arrhythmogenesis and maintain inotropy. In acute cardiac ischemia and chronic heart failure, either expression or phosphorylation of PLM or both are altered. PLM regulates important ion transporters in the heart and offers a tempting target for development of drugs to treat heart failure.
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A truncated fragment of Src protein kinase generated by calpain-mediated cleavage is a mediator of neuronal death in excitotoxicity.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Excitotoxicity resulting from overstimulation of glutamate receptors is a major cause of neuronal death in cerebral ischemic stroke. The overstimulated ionotropic glutamate receptors exert their neurotoxic effects in part by overactivation of calpains, which induce neuronal death by catalyzing limited proteolysis of specific cellular proteins. Here, we report that in cultured cortical neurons and in vivo in a rat model of focal ischemic stroke, the tyrosine kinase Src is cleaved by calpains at a site in the N-terminal unique domain. This generates a truncated Src fragment of ~52 kDa, which we localized predominantly to the cytosol. A cell membrane-permeable fusion peptide derived from the unique domain of Src prevents calpain from cleaving Src in neurons and protects against excitotoxic neuronal death. To explore the role of the truncated Src fragment in neuronal death, we expressed a recombinant truncated Src fragment in cultured neurons and examined how it affects neuronal survival. Expression of this fragment, which lacks the myristoylation motif and unique domain, was sufficient to induce neuronal death. Furthermore, inactivation of the prosurvival kinase Akt is a key step in its neurotoxic signaling pathway. Because Src maintains neuronal survival, our results implicate calpain cleavage as a molecular switch converting Src from a promoter of cell survival to a mediator of neuronal death in excitotoxicity. Besides unveiling a new pathological action of Src, our discovery of the neurotoxic action of the truncated Src fragment suggests new therapeutic strategies with the potential to minimize brain damage in ischemic stroke.
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Mechanism-based facilitated maturation of human pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes.
Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can be efficiently and reproducibly directed into cardiomyocytes (CMs) using stage-specific induction protocols. However, their functional properties and suitability for clinical and other applications have not been evaluated.
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Induced pluripotent stem cells used to reveal drug actions in a long QT syndrome family with complex genetics.
J. Gen. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Understanding the basis for differential responses to drug therapies remains a challenge despite advances in genetics and genomics. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the pharmacology of disease processes in therapeutically and genetically relevant primary cell types in vitro and to interweave clinical and basic molecular data. We report here the derivation of iPSCs from a long QT syndrome patient with complex genetics. The proband was found to have a de novo SCN5A LQT-3 mutation (F1473C) and a polymorphism (K897T) in KCNH2, the gene for LQT-2. Analysis of the biophysics and molecular pharmacology of ion channels expressed in cardiomyocytes (CMs) differentiated from these iPSCs (iPSC-CMs) demonstrates a primary LQT-3 (Na(+) channel) defect responsible for the arrhythmias not influenced by the KCNH2 polymorphism. The F1473C mutation occurs in the channel inactivation gate and enhances late Na(+) channel current (I(NaL)) that is carried by channels that fail to inactivate completely and conduct increased inward current during prolonged depolarization, resulting in delayed repolarization, a prolonged QT interval, and increased risk of fatal arrhythmia. We find a very pronounced rate dependence of I(NaL) such that increasing the pacing rate markedly reduces I(NaL) and, in addition, increases its inhibition by the Na(+) channel blocker mexiletine. These rate-dependent properties and drug interactions, unique to the probands iPSC-CMs, correlate with improved management of arrhythmias in the patient and provide support for this approach in developing patient-specific clinical regimens.
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Induced overexpression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger does not aggravate myocardial dysfunction induced by transverse aortic constriction.
J. Card. Fail.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Alterations in expression and activity of cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of heart failure.
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Constitutive overexpression of phosphomimetic phospholemman S68E mutant results in arrhythmias, early mortality, and heart failure: potential involvement of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Expression and activity of cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) are altered in many disease states. We engineered mice in which the phosphomimetic phospholemman S68E mutant (inhibits NCX1 but not Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase) was constitutively overexpressed in a cardiac-specific manner (conS68E). At 4-6 wk, conS68E mice exhibited severe bradycardia, ventricular arrhythmias, increased left ventricular (LV) mass, decreased cardiac output (CO), and ?50% mortality compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. Protein levels of NCX1, calsequestrin, ryanodine receptor, and ?(1)- and ?(2)-subunits of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase were similar, but sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase was lower, whereas L-type Ca(2+) channels were higher in conS68E hearts. Resting membrane potential and action potential amplitude were similar, but action potential duration was dramatically prolonged in conS68E myocytes. Diastolic intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) was higher, [Ca(2+)](i) transient and maximal contraction amplitudes were lower, and half-time of [Ca(2+)](i) transient decline was longer in conS68E myocytes. Intracellular Na(+) reached maximum within 3 min after isoproterenol addition, followed by decline in WT but not in conS68E myocytes. Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange, L-type Ca(2+), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, and depolarization-activated K(+) currents were decreased in conS68E myocytes. At 22 wk, bradycardia and increased LV mass persisted in conS68E survivors. Despite comparable baseline CO, conS68E survivors at 22 wk exhibited decreased chronotropic, inotropic, and lusitropic responses to isoproterenol. We conclude that constitutive overexpression of S68E mutant was detrimental, both in terms of depressed cardiac function and increased arrhythmogenesis.
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Resistance of Akt kinases to dephosphorylation through ATP-dependent conformational plasticity.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2011
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Phosphorylation of a threonine residue (T308 in Akt1) in the activation loop of Akt kinases is a prerequisite for deregulated Akt activity frequently observed in neoplasia. Akt phosphorylation in vivo is balanced by the opposite activities of kinases and phosphatases. Here we describe that targeting Akt kinase to the cell membrane markedly reduced sensitivity of phosphorylated Akt to dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 2A. This effect was amplified by occupancy of the ATP binding pocket by either ATP or ATP-competitive inhibitors. Mutational analysis revealed that R273 in Akt1 and the corresponding R274 in Akt2 are essential for shielding T308 in the activation loop against dephosphorylation. Thus, occupancy of the nucleotide binding pocket of Akt kinases enables intramolecular interactions that restrict phosphatase access and sustain Akt phosphorylation. This mechanism provides an explanation for the "paradoxical" Akt hyperphosphorylation induced by ATP-competitive inhibitor, A-443654. The lack of phosphatase resistance further contributes insight into the mechanism by which the human Akt2 R274H missense mutation may cause autosomal-dominant diabetes mellitus.
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Myocardial injury after ischemia-reperfusion in mice deficient in Akt2 is associated with increased cardiac macrophage density.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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Akt2 protein kinase has been shown to promote cell migration and actin polymerization in several cell types, including macrophages. Because migrating macrophages constitute an important inflammatory response after myocardial ischemia, we determined cardiac macrophage expression after ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury and cryo-injury in mice lacking Akt2 (Akt2-KO). At 7 days post-I/R, Akt2-KO cardiac tissues showed an increase in immunohistochemical staining for macrophage markers (Galectin 3 and F4/80) compared with wild-type (WT) mice, indicating macrophage density was increased in the injured Akt2-KO myocardium. This change was time dependent because macrophage density was similar between WT and Akt2-KO myocardium at 3 days post-I/R, but by 7 and 14 days post-I/R, macrophage density was significantly increased in Akt2-KO myocardium. Concomitantly, infarct size was larger and cardiac function was reduced in Akt2-KO mice subjected to I/R. However, when cryo-infarction produced similar infarct sizes in the anterior wall in both WT and Akt2-KO mice, macrophage density remained higher in Akt2-KO mouse myocardium, suggesting Akt2 regulates myocardial macrophage density independent of infarct size. Consistently, bone marrow from Akt2-KO mice enhanced myocardial macrophage density in both C57/B6 WT and Akt2-KO recipient mice. Finally, reciprocal ex-vivo coculturing of macrophages and cardiac myocytes showed that activated Akt2-KO peritoneal macrophages had reduced mobility and adhesion when compared with WT littermate controls. Thus, although Akt-2 KO mice did not affect the initial inflammation response after injury and Akt2 deficiency has been shown to impair cell migration or motility in macrophages, our data suggested a novel mechanism in which increasing retention of Akt2-KO macrophages resulted in increasing cardiac Akt2-KO macrophage density in the myocardial space.
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Controlled and cardiac-restricted overexpression of the arginine vasopressin V1A receptor causes reversible left ventricular dysfunction through G?q-mediated cell signaling.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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[Arg8]-vasopressin (AVP) activates 3 G-protein-coupled receptors: V1A, V2, and V1B. The AVP-V1A receptor is the primary AVP receptor in the heart; however, its role in cardiac homeostasis is controversial. To better understand AVP-mediated signaling in the heart, we created a transgenic mouse with controlled overexpression of the V1A receptor.
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Residues 248-252 and 300-304 of the cardiac Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are involved in its regulation by phospholemman.
Am. J. Physiol., Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Using split cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX1), we previously demonstrated that phospholemman (PLM) regulates NCX1 by interacting with the proximal linker domain (residues 218-358) of the intracellular loop of NCX1. With the use of overlapping loop deletion mutants, interaction sites are localized to two regions spanning residues 238-270 and residues 300-328 of NCX1. In this study, we used alanine (Ala) linker scanning to pinpoint the residues in the proximal linker domain involved in regulation of NCX1 by PLM. Transfection of human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells with wild-type (WT) NCX1 or its Ala mutants but not empty vector resulted in NCX1 current (I(NaCa)). Coexpression of PLM with WT NCX1 inhibited I(NaCa). Mutating residues 248-252 (PASKT) or 300-304 (QKHPD) in WT NCX1 to Ala resulted in loss of inhibition of I(NaCa) by PLM. By contrast, inhibition of I(NaCa) by PLM was preserved when residues 238-242, 243-247, 253-257, 258-262, 263-267, 305-309, 310-314, 315-319, 320-324, or 325-329 were mutated to Ala. While mutating residue 301 to alanine completely abolished PLM inhibition, mutation of any single residue 250-252, 300, or 302-304 resulted in partial reduction in inhibition. Mutating residues 248-252 to Ala resulted in significantly weaker association with PLM. The NCX1-G503P mutant that lacks Ca(2+)-dependent activation retained its sensitivity to PLM. We conclude that residues 248-252 and 300-304 in the proximal linker domain of NCX1 were involved in its inhibition by PLM.
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The interplay between NF-kappaB and E2F1 coordinately regulates inflammation and metabolism in human cardiac cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) inhibition by nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) is related to a shift towards increased glycolysis during cardiac pathological processes such as cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. The transcription factors estrogen-related receptor-? (ERR?) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) regulate PDK4 expression through the potent transcriptional coactivator PPAR? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?). NF-?B activation in AC16 cardiac cells inhibit ERR? and PPAR?/? transcriptional activity, resulting in reduced PGC-1? and PDK4 expression, and an enhanced glucose oxidation rate. However, addition of the NF-?B inhibitor parthenolide to these cells prevents the downregulation of PDK4 expression but not ERR? and PPAR?/? DNA binding activity, thus suggesting that additional transcription factors are regulating PDK4. Interestingly, a recent study has demonstrated that the transcription factor E2F1, which is crucial for cell cycle control, may regulate PDK4 expression. Given that NF-?B may antagonize the transcriptional activity of E2F1 in cardiac myocytes, we sought to study whether inflammatory processes driven by NF-?B can downregulate PDK4 expression in human cardiac AC16 cells through E2F1 inhibition. Protein coimmunoprecipitation indicated that PDK4 downregulation entailed enhanced physical interaction between the p65 subunit of NF-?B and E2F1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that p65 translocation into the nucleus prevented the recruitment of E2F1 to the PDK4 promoter and its subsequent E2F1-dependent gene transcription. Interestingly, the NF-?B inhibitor parthenolide prevented the inhibition of E2F1, while E2F1 overexpression reduced interleukin expression in stimulated cardiac cells. Based on these findings, we propose that NF-?B acts as a molecular switch that regulates E2F1-dependent PDK4 gene transcription.
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Prospective validation of the Chinese University Prognostic Index and comparison with other staging systems for hepatocellular carcinoma in an Asian population.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection is the predominant etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Asia. Our group previously reported a staging system known as the Chinese University Prognostic Index (CUPI) for HCC populations of which HBV infection is the predominant etiology. This study aims to validate CUPI and compare with other published staging systems.
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Regulation of in vivo cardiac contractility by phospholemman: role of Na+/Ca2+ exchange.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2010
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Phospholemman (PLM), when phosphorylated at serine 68, relieves its inhibition on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase but inhibits Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger 1 (NCX1) in cardiac myocytes. Under stress when catecholamine levels are high, enhanced Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity by phosphorylated PLM attenuates intracellular Na(+) concentration ([Na(+)](i)) overload. To evaluate the effects of PLM on NCX1 on in vivo cardiac contractility, we injected recombinant adeno-associated virus (serotype 9) expressing either the phosphomimetic PLM S68E mutant or green fluorescent protein (GFP) directly into left ventricles (LVs) of PLM-knockout (KO) mice. Five weeks after virus injection, ?40% of isolated LV myocytes exhibited GFP fluorescence. Expression of S68E mutant was confirmed with PLM antibody. There were no differences in protein levels of ?(1)- and ?(2)-subunits of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, NCX1, and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase between KO-GFP and KO-S68E LV homogenates. Compared with KO-GFP myocytes, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange current was suppressed, but resting [Na(+)](i), Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase current, and action potential amplitudes were similar in KO-S68E myocytes. Resting membrane potential was slightly lower and action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD(90)) was shortened in KO-S68E myocytes. Isoproterenol (Iso; 1 ?M) increased APD(90) in both groups of myocytes. After Iso, [Na(+)](i) increased monotonically in paced (2 Hz) KO-GFP but reached a plateau in KO-S68E myocytes. Both systolic and diastolic [Ca(2+)](i) were higher in Iso-stimulated KO-S68E myocytes paced at 2 Hz. Echocardiography demonstrated similar resting heart rate, ejection fraction, and LV mass between KO-GFP and KO-S68E mice. In vivo closed-chest catheterization demonstrated enhanced contractility in KO-S68E compared with KO-GFP hearts stimulated with Iso. We conclude that under catecholamine stress when [Na(+)](i) is high, PLM minimizes [Na(+)](i) overload by relieving its inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase and preserves inotropy by simultaneously inhibiting Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger.
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Phospholemman: a novel cardiac stress protein.
Clin Transl Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Phospholemman (PLM), a member of the FXYD family of regulators of ion transport, is a major sarcolemmal substrate for protein kinases A and C in cardiac and skeletal muscle. In the heart, PLM co-localizes and co-immunoprecipitates with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and L-type Ca(2+) channel. Functionally, when phosphorylated at serine(68), PLM stimulates Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase but inhibits Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in cardiac myocytes. In heterologous expression systems, PLM modulates the gating of cardiac L-type Ca(2+) channel. Therefore, PLM occupies a key modulatory role in intracellular Na(+) and Ca(2+) homeostasis and is intimately involved in regulation of excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Genetic ablation of PLM results in a slight increase in baseline cardiac contractility and prolongation of action potential duration. When hearts are subjected to catecholamine stress, PLM minimizes the risks of arrhythmogenesis by reducing Na(+) overload and simultaneously preserves inotropy by inhibiting Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. In heart failure, both expression and phosphorylation state of PLM are altered and may partly account for abnormalities in EC coupling. The unique role of PLM in regulation of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, and potentially L-type Ca(2+) channel in the heart, together with the changes in its expression and phosphorylation in heart failure, make PLM a rational and novel target for development of drugs in our armamentarium against heart failure. Clin Trans Sci 2010; Volume 3: 189-196.
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Removal and leakage of environmental tobacco smoke from a model smoking room.
J Occup Environ Hyg
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
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Experimental studies on the removal of accumulated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and the effectiveness of ETS leakage control were carried out in a model smoking room using carbon monoxide, nicotine, 3-ethenylpyridine, respirable suspended particulates, and ultrafine particles (UFP) as the ETS tracers. The study investigated the effectiveness of the designated smoking room, equipped with a displacement ventilation system under different ventilation rates (10-58 L/sec per person,) in removing the ETS tracers. The extent of ETS leakage through different door operating scenarios under various ventilation rates was intensively studied. In particular, a manikin installed on a motorized rail was used to study the effect of human movement on the leakage of the ETS tracers. A double-door anteroom design was incorporated into the smoking room to study its effectiveness in ETS leakage prevention. It shows that at least 5 Pa of negative pressure, a fresh air supply rate 3-5 times higher than a typical office, direct air exhaust without air recirculation, and keeping the door closed are important for reducing ETS leakage. However, with the smokers moving in and out and the opening of the door, noticeable leakage of ETS can occur. The double-door anteroom design can improve leakage prevention. Among the five tracers, nicotine required the longest purging time to remove, after the smoking activity was stopped in the smoking room, due to its highly sorptive property. At least 4.4-6 hr of purging is needed for minimizing ETS exposure by non-smokers entering the smoking room. The peak size of particulate matter inside the smoking room is about 80-100 nm, suggesting the importance of including UFP as an indicator for monitoring the exposure and leakage of ETS. The impact of manikin movement on contaminant transport was studied, providing useful information on the effects of human activities on indoor air quality multicompartmental modeling.
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Left ventricular dysfunction in murine models of heart failure and in failing human heart is associated with a selective decrease in the expression of caveolin-3.
J. Card. Fail.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Caveolins are scaffolding proteins that are integral components of caveolae, flask-shaped invaginations in the membranes of all mammalian cells. Caveolin-1 and -2 are expressed ubiquitously, whereas caveolin-3 is found only in muscle. The role of caveolin-3 in heart muscle disease is controversial.
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Effects of cardiac-restricted overexpression of the A(2A) adenosine receptor on adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2010
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Activation of the A(2A) adenosine receptor (A(2A)R) has been shown to be cardioprotective. We hypothesized that A(2A)R overexpression could protect the heart from adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy. Transgenic (TG) mice overexpressing the A(2A)R and wild-type mice (WT) were injected with adriamycin (5 mg.kg(-1).wk(-1) ip, 4 wk). All WT mice survived adriamycin treatment while A(2A)R TG mice suffered 100% mortality at 4 wk. Telemetry showed progressive prolongation of the QT interval, bradyarrhythmias, heart block, and sudden death in adriamycin-treated A(2A)R TG but not WT mice. Both WT and A(2A)R TG demonstrated similar decreases in heart function at 3 wk after treatment. Adriamycin significantly increased end-diastolic intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in A(2A)R TG but not in WT myocytes (P < 0.05). Compared with WT myocytes, action potential duration increased dramatically in A(2A)R TG myocytes (P < 0.05) after adriamycin treatment. Expression of connexin 43 was decreased in adriamycin treated A(2A)R TG but not WT mice. In sharp contrast, A(2A)R overexpression induced after the completion of adriamycin treatment resulted in no deaths and enhanced cardiac performance compared with WT adriamycin-treated mice. Our results indicate that the timing of A(2A)R activation is critical in terms of exacerbating or protecting adriamycin-induced cardiotoxicity. Our data have direct relevance on the clinical use of adenosine agonists or antagonists in the treatment of patients undergoing adriamycin therapy.
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The p65 subunit of NF-kappaB binds to PGC-1alpha, linking inflammation and metabolic disturbances in cardiac cells.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2010
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Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a transcription factor induced by a wide range of stimuli, including hyperglycaemia and pro-inflammatory cytokines. It is associated with cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. It was previously reported that the NF-kappaB-mediated inhibition of proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) might explain the shift in glucose metabolism during cardiac pathological processes induced by pro-inflammatory stimuli, although the specific mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We addressed the specific mechanisms by which exposure to tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) results in PGC-1alpha down-regulation in cardiac cells and, as a consequence, in the metabolic dysregulation that underlies heart dysfunction and failure.
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Clinical scoring system to predict hepatocellular carcinoma in chronic hepatitis B carriers.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is an important etiology for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We aim to develop a simple clinical score in predicting the risk of HCC among HBV carriers.
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Phospholemman and beta-adrenergic stimulation in the heart.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2009
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Phosphorylation at serine 68 of phospholemman (PLM) in response to beta-adrenergic stimulation results in simultaneous inhibition of cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger NCX1 and relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. The role of PLM in mediating beta-adrenergic effects on in vivo cardiac function was investigated with congenic PLM-knockout (KO) mice. Echocardiography showed similar ejection fraction between wild-type (WT) and PLM-KO hearts. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated higher baseline contractility (+dP/dt) but similar relaxation (-dP/dt) in PLM-KO mice. In response to isoproterenol (Iso), maximal +dP/dt was similar but maximal -dP/dt was reduced in PLM-KO mice. Dose-response curves to Iso (0.5-25 ng) for WT and PLM-KO hearts were superimposable. Maximal +dP/dt was reached 1-2 min after Iso addition and declined with time in WT but not PLM-KO hearts. In isolated myocytes paced at 2 Hz. contraction and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transient amplitudes and [Na(+)](i) reached maximum 2-4 min after Iso addition, followed by decline in WT but not PLM-KO myocytes. Reducing pacing frequency to 0.5 Hz resulted in much smaller increases in [Na(+)](i) and no decline in contraction and [Ca(2+)](i) transient amplitudes with time in Iso-stimulated WT and PLM-KO myocytes. Although baseline Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase current was 41% higher in PLM-KO myocytes because of increased alpha(1)- but not alpha(2)-subunit activity, resting [Na(+)](i) was similar between quiescent WT and PLM-KO myocytes. Iso increased alpha(1)-subunit current (I(alpha1)) by 73% in WT but had no effect in PLM-KO myocytes. Iso did not affect alpha(2)-subunit current (I(alpha2)) in WT and PLM-KO myocytes. In both WT and NCX1-KO hearts, PLM coimmunoprecipitated with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-subunits, indicating that association of PLM with Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase did not require NCX1. We conclude that under stressful conditions in which [Na(+)](i) was high, beta-adrenergic agonist-mediated phosphorylation of PLM resulted in time-dependent reduction in inotropy due to relief of inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase.
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Prediction of simultaneous esophageal lesions in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma: a multivariate analysis.
Arch. Otolaryngol. Head Neck Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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To evaluate the frequency of concomitant esophageal lesions detected by esophagoscopy in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the head and neck (HNSCC) and to identify the risk factors.
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Induced overexpression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger transgene: altered myocyte contractility, [Ca2+]i transients, SR Ca2+ contents, and action potential duration.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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We have produced mice in which expression of the rat cardiac Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX1) transgene was switched on when doxycycline was removed from the feed at 5 wk. At 8 to 10 wk, NCX1 expression in induced (Ind) mouse hearts was 2.5-fold higher but protein levels of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase, alpha(1)- and alpha(2)-subunits of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, phospholamban, ryanodine receptor, calsequestrin, and unphosphorylated and phosphorylated phospholemman were unchanged compared with wild-type (WT) or noninduced (non-Ind) hearts. There was no cellular hypertrophy since WT, non-Ind, and Ind myocytes had similar whole cell membrane capacitance. In Ind myocytes, NCX1 current amplitude was approximately 42% higher, L-type Ca(2+) current amplitude was unchanged, and action potential duration was prolonged compared with WT or non-Ind myocytes. Contraction and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) transient amplitudes in Ind myocytes were lower at 0.6, not different at 1.8, and higher at 5.0 mM extracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](o)) compared with WT or non-Ind myocytes. Despite similar Ca(2+) current amplitude and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) uptake, SR Ca(2+) content at 5.0 mM [Ca(2+)](o) was significantly higher in Ind compared with non-Ind myocytes, indicating that NCX1 directly contributed to SR Ca(2+) loading. Echocardiography demonstrated that heart rate, left ventricular mass, ejection fraction, stroke volume, and cardiac output were similar among the three groups of animals. In vivo close-chest catheterization demonstrated similar contractility and relaxation among the three groups of mice, both at baseline and after stimulation with isoproterenol. We conclude that induced expression of NCX1 transgene resulted in altered [Ca(2+)](i) homeostasis, myocyte contractility, and action potential morphology. In addition, heart failure did not occur 3 to 5 wk after NCX1 transgene was induced to be expressed at levels found in diseased hearts.
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TNF-alpha reduces PGC-1alpha expression through NF-kappaB and p38 MAPK leading to increased glucose oxidation in a human cardiac cell model.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2009
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Inflammatory responses in the heart that are driven by sustained increases in cytokines have been associated with several pathological processes, including cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Emerging data suggest a link between cardiomyopathy and myocardial metabolism dysregulation. To further elucidate the relationship between a pro-inflammatory profile and cardiac metabolism dysregulation, a human cell line of cardiac origin, AC16, was treated with tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha).
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Mathematical estimation and in vivo dose measurement for cone-beam computed tomography on prostate cancer patients.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2009
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Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) increases the doses on normal tissues. Our study sought to develop a mathematical model that would provide an estimate of and verify in vivo rectal dose from CBCT in prostate cancer patients.
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Hepatitis B virus reactivation in lymphoma patients with prior resolved hepatitis B undergoing anticancer therapy with or without rituximab.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a well-recognized complication in cancer patients with chronic HBV (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] positive) undergoing cytotoxic chemotherapy. In patients who have resolved HBV (HBsAg negative and antibody to hepatitis B core antigen [anti-HBc] +/- antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen [anti-HBs] positive), such incidence has been much less common until recent use of rituximab. In this study on HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive lymphoma patients, the objectives were to determine the HBV reactivation rate in patients treated with rituximab-containing chemotherapy and to compare it with the rate in patients treated without rituximab.
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Cardioprotection of controlled and cardiac-specific over-expression of A(2A)-adenosine receptor in the pressure overload.
PLoS ONE
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Adenosine binds to three G protein-coupled receptors (R) located on the cardiomyocyte (A(1)-R, A(2A)-R and A(3)-R) and provides cardiac protection during both ischemic and load-induced stress. While the role of adenosine receptor-subtypes has been well defined in the setting of ischemia-reperfusion, far less is known regarding their roles in protecting the heart during other forms of cardiac stress. Because of its ability to increase cardiac contractility and heart rate, we hypothesized that enhanced signaling through A(2A)-R would protect the heart during the stress of transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Using a cardiac-specific and inducible promoter, we selectively over-expressed A(2A)-R in FVB mice. Echocardiograms were obtained at baseline, 2, 4, 8, 12, 14 weeks and hearts were harvested at 14 weeks, when WT mice developed a significant decrease in cardiac function, an increase in end systolic and diastolic dimensions, a higher heart weight to body weight ratio (HW/BW), and marked fibrosis when compared with sham-operated WT. More importantly, these changes were significantly attenuated by over expression of the A(2A)-R. Furthermore, WT mice also demonstrated marked increases in the hypertrophic genes ?-myosin heavy chain (?-MHC), and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)--changes that are mediated by activation of the transcription factor GATA-4. Levels of the mRNAs encoding ?-MHC, ANP, and GATA-4 were significantly lower in myocardium from A(2A)-R TG mice after TAC when compared with WT and sham-operated controls. In addition, three inflammatory factors genes encoding cysteine dioxygenase, complement component 3, and serine peptidase inhibitor, member 3N, were enhanced in WT TAC mice, but their expression was suppressed in A(2A)-R TG mice. A(2A)-R over-expression is protective against pressure-induced heart failure secondary to TAC. These cardioprotective effects are associated with attenuation of GATA-4 expression and inflammatory factors. The A(2A)-R may provide a novel new target for pharmacologic therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease.
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Autoregulation of kinase dephosphorylation by ATP binding in AGC protein kinases.
Cell Cycle
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AGC kinases, including the three Akt (protein kinase B) isoforms, protein kinase A (PKA) and all protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms, require activation loop phosphorylation (threonine 308 in Akt1) as well as phosphorylation of a C-terminal residue (serine 473 in Akt1) for catalytic activity and phosphorylation of downstream targets. Conversely, phosphatases reverse these phosphorylations. Virtually all cellular processes are affected by AGC kinases, a circumstance that has led to intense scrutiny of the molecular mechanisms that regulate phosphorylation of these kinases. Here, we review a new layer of control of phosphorylation in Akt, PKA and PKC pointing to ATP binding pocket occupancy as a means to decelerate dephosphorylation of these and, potentially, other kinases. This additional level of kinase regulation opens the door to search for new functional motifs for the rational design of non- ATP-competitive kinase inhibitors that discriminate within and between protein kinase families.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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