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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Lupus Nephritis Susceptibility Loci in Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Lupus nephritis is a manifestation of SLE resulting from glomerular immune complex deposition and inflammation. Lupus nephritis demonstrates familial aggregation and accounts for significant morbidity and mortality. We completed a meta-analysis of three genome-wide association studies of SLE to identify lupus nephritis-predisposing loci. Through genotyping and imputation, >1.6 million markers were assessed in 2000 unrelated women of European descent with SLE (588 patients with lupus nephritis and 1412 patients with lupus without nephritis). Tests of association were computed using logistic regression adjusting for population substructure. The strongest evidence for association was observed outside the MHC and included markers localized to 4q11-q13 (PDGFRA, GSX2; P=4.5×10(-7)), 16p12 (SLC5A11; P=5.1×10(-7)), 6p22 (ID4; P=7.4×10(-7)), and 8q24.12 (HAS2, SNTB1; P=1.1×10(-6)). Both HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3, two well established lupus susceptibility loci, showed evidence of association with lupus nephritis (P=0.06 and P=3.7×10(-5), respectively). Within the class I region, rs9263871 (C6orf15-HCG22) had the strongest evidence of association with lupus nephritis independent of HLA-DR2 and HLA-DR3 (P=8.5×10(-6)). Consistent with a functional role in lupus nephritis, intra-renal mRNA levels of PDGFRA and associated pathway members showed significant enrichment in patients with lupus nephritis (n=32) compared with controls (n=15). Results from this large-scale genome-wide investigation of lupus nephritis provide evidence of multiple biologically relevant lupus nephritis susceptibility loci.
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Using gene expression to improve the power of genome-wide association analysis.
Hum. Hered.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have reported susceptible regions in the human genome for many common diseases and traits; however, these loci only explain a minority of trait heritability. To boost the power of a GWA study, substantial research endeavors have been focused on integrating other available genomic information in the analysis. Advances in high through-put technologies have generated a wealth of genomic data and made combining SNP and gene expression data become feasible.
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Missense variant in TREML2 protects against Alzheimer's disease.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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TREM and TREM-like receptors are a structurally similar protein family encoded by genes clustered on chromosome 6p21.11. Recent studies have identified a rare coding variant (p.R47H) in TREM2 that confers a high risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition, common single nucleotide polymorphisms in this genomic region are associated with cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for AD and a common intergenic variant found near the TREML2 gene has been identified to be protective for AD. However, little is known about the functional variant underlying the latter association or its relationship with the p.R47H. Here, we report comprehensive analyses using whole-exome sequencing data, cerebrospinal fluid biomarker analyses, meta-analyses (16,254 cases and 20,052 controls) and cell-based functional studies to support the role of the TREML2 coding missense variant p.S144G (rs3747742) as a potential driver of the meta-analysis AD-associated genome-wide association studies signal. Additionally, we demonstrate that the protective role of TREML2 in AD is independent of the role of TREM2 gene as a risk factor for AD.
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Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.
Yukinori Okada, Di Wu, Gosia Trynka, Towfique Raj, Chikashi Terao, Katsunori Ikari, Yuta Kochi, Koichiro Ohmura, Akari Suzuki, Shinji Yoshida, Robert R Graham, Arun Manoharan, Ward Ortmann, Tushar Bhangale, Joshua C Denny, Robert J Carroll, Anne E Eyler, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Joel M Kremer, Dimitrios A Pappas, Lei Jiang, Jian Yin, Lingying Ye, Ding-Feng Su, Jian Yang, Gang Xie, Ed Keystone, Harm-Jan Westra, Tonu Esko, Andres Metspalu, Xuezhong Zhou, Namrata Gupta, Daniel Mirel, Eli A Stahl, Dorothée Diogo, Jing Cui, Katherine Liao, Michael H Guo, Keiko Myouzen, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Marieke J H Coenen, Piet L C M van Riel, Mart A F J van de Laar, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Tom W J Huizinga, Philippe Dieudé, Xavier Mariette, S Louis Bridges, Alexandra Zhernakova, René E M Toes, Paul P Tak, Corinne Miceli-Richard, So-Young Bang, Hye-Soon Lee, Javier Martín, Miguel A González-Gay, Luis Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Lisbeth Arlestig, Hyon K Choi, Yoichiro Kamatani, Pilar Galán, Mark Lathrop, , Steve Eyre, John Bowes, Anne Barton, Niek de Vries, Larry W Moreland, Lindsey A Criswell, Elizabeth W Karlson, Atsuo Taniguchi, Ryo Yamada, Michiaki Kubo, Jun S Liu, Sang-Cheol Bae, Jane Worthington, Leonid Padyukov, Lars Klareskog, Peter K Gregersen, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Barbara E Stranger, Philip L De Jager, Lude Franke, Peter M Visscher, Matthew A Brown, Hisashi Yamanaka, Tsuneyo Mimori, Atsushi Takahashi, Huji Xu, Timothy W Behrens, Katherine A Siminovitch, Shigeki Momohara, Fumihiko Matsuda, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Robert M Plenge.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ?10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.
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Common variants near FRK/COL10A1 and VEGFA are associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Despite significant progress in the identification of genetic loci for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), not all of the heritability has been explained. To identify variants which contribute to the remaining genetic susceptibility, we performed the largest meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to date for advanced AMD. We imputed 6 036 699 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with the 1000 Genomes Project reference genotypes on 2594 cases and 4134 controls with follow-up replication of top signals in 5640 cases and 52 174 controls. We identified two new common susceptibility alleles, rs1999930 on 6q21-q22.3 near FRK/COL10A1 [odds ratio (OR) 0.87; P = 1.1 × 10(-8)] and rs4711751 on 6p12 near VEGFA (OR 1.15; P = 8.7 × 10(-9)). In addition to the two novel loci, 10 previously reported loci in ARMS2/HTRA1 (rs10490924), CFH (rs1061170, and rs1410996), CFB (rs641153), C3 (rs2230199), C2 (rs9332739), CFI (rs10033900), LIPC (rs10468017), TIMP3 (rs9621532) and CETP (rs3764261) were confirmed with genome-wide significant signals in this large study. Loci in the recently reported genes ABCA1 and COL8A1 were also detected with suggestive evidence of association with advanced AMD. The novel variants identified in this study suggest that angiogenesis (VEGFA) and extracellular collagen matrix (FRK/COL10A1) pathways contribute to the development of advanced AMD.
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Association of NCF2, IKZF1, IRF8, IFIH1, and TYK2 with systemic lupus erythematosus.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex trait characterised by the production of a range of auto-antibodies and a diverse set of clinical phenotypes. Currently, ~8% of the genetic contribution to SLE in Europeans is known, following publication of several moderate-sized genome-wide (GW) association studies, which identified loci with a strong effect (OR>1.3). In order to identify additional genes contributing to SLE susceptibility, we conducted a replication study in a UK dataset (870 cases, 5,551 controls) of 23 variants that showed moderate-risk for lupus in previous studies. Association analysis in the UK dataset and subsequent meta-analysis with the published data identified five SLE susceptibility genes reaching genome-wide levels of significance (P(comb)<5×10(-8)): NCF2 (P(comb) = 2.87×10(-11)), IKZF1 (P(comb) = 2.33×10(-9)), IRF8 (P(comb) = 1.24×10(-8)), IFIH1 (P(comb) = 1.63×10(-8)), and TYK2 (P(comb) = 3.88×10(-8)). Each of the five new loci identified here can be mapped into interferon signalling pathways, which are known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of SLE. These results increase the number of established susceptibility genes for lupus to ~30 and validate the importance of using large datasets to confirm associations of loci which moderately increase the risk for disease.
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Meta-analysis of Dense Genecentric Association Studies Reveals Common and Uncommon Variants Associated with Height.
Matthew B Lanktree, Yiran Guo, Muhammed Murtaza, Joseph T Glessner, Swneke D Bailey, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Guillaume Lettre, Halit Ongen, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Toby Johnson, Haiqing Shen, Christopher P Nelson, Norman Klopp, Jens Baumert, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Nathan Pankratz, James S Pankow, Sonia Shah, Kira Taylor, John Barnard, Bas J Peters, Cliona M Maloney, Maximilian T Lobmeyer, Alice Stanton, M Hadi Zafarmand, Simon P R Romaine, Amar Mehta, Erik P A van Iperen, Yan Gong, Tom S Price, Erin N Smith, Cecilia E Kim, Yun R Li, Folkert W Asselbergs, Larry D Atwood, Kristian M Bailey, Deepak Bhatt, Florianne Bauer, Elijah R Behr, Tushar Bhangale, Jolanda M A Boer, Bernhard O Boehm, Jonathan P Bradfield, Morris Brown, Peter S Braund, Paul R Burton, Cara Carty, Hareesh R Chandrupatla, Wei Chen, John Connell, Chrysoula Dalgeorgou, Anthonius de Boer, Fotios Drenos, Clara C Elbers, James C Fang, Caroline S Fox, Edward C Frackelton, Barry Fuchs, Clement E Furlong, Quince Gibson, Christian Gieger, Anuj Goel, Diederik E Grobbee, Claire Hastie, Philip J Howard, Guan-Hua Huang, W Craig Johnson, Qing Li, Marcus E Kleber, Barbara E K Klein, Ronald Klein, Charles Kooperberg, Bonnie Ky, Andrea LaCroix, Paul Lanken, Mark Lathrop, Mingyao Li, Vanessa Marshall, Olle Melander, Frank D Mentch, Nuala J Meyer, Keri L Monda, Alexandre Montpetit, Gurunathan Murugesan, Karen Nakayama, Dave Nondahl, Abiodun Onipinla, Suzanne Rafelt, Stephen J Newhouse, F George Otieno, Sanjey R Patel, Mary E Putt, Santiago Rodriguez, Radwan N Safa, Douglas B Sawyer, Pamela J Schreiner, Claire Simpson, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Christine Suver, Gary Swergold, Nancy K Sweitzer, Kelly A Thomas, Barbara Thorand, Nicholas J Timpson, Sam Tischfield, Martin Tobin, Maciej Tomaszewski, Maciej Tomaszweski, W M Monique Verschuren, Chris Wallace, Bernhard Winkelmann, Haitao Zhang, Dongling Zheng, Li Zhang, Joseph M Zmuda, Robert Clarke, Anthony J Balmforth, John Danesh, Ian N Day, Nicholas J Schork, Paul I W de Bakker, Christian Delles, David Duggan, Aroon D Hingorani, Joel N Hirschhorn, Marten H Hofker, Steve E Humphries, Mika Kivimäki, Debbie A Lawlor, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Jessica L Mega, Braxton D Mitchell, David A Morrow, Jutta Palmen, Susan Redline, Denis C Shields, Alan R Shuldiner, Patrick M Sleiman, George Davey Smith, Martin Farrall, Yalda Jamshidi, David C Christiani, Juan P Casas, Alistair S Hall, Pieter A Doevendans, Jason D Christie, Gerald S Berenson, Sarah S Murray, Thomas Illig, Gerald W Dorn, Thomas P Cappola, Eric Boerwinkle, Peter Sever, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Mark Caulfield, Philippa J Talmud, Eric Topol, James C Engert, Kai Wang, Anna Dominiczak, Anders Hamsten, Sean P Curtis, Roy L Silverstein, Leslie A Lange, Marc S Sabatine, Mieke Trip, Danish Saleheen, John F Peden, Karen J Cruickshanks, Winfried März, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Olaf H Klungel, Cisca Wijmenga, Anke Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Eric E Schadt, Julie A Johnson, Gail P Jarvik, George J Papanicolaou, , Struan F A Grant, Patricia B Munroe, Kari E North, Nilesh J Samani, Wolfgang Koenig, Tom R Gaunt, Sonia S Anand, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Nicole Soranzo, Garret A FitzGerald, Alex Reiner, Robert A Hegele, Hakon Hakonarson, Brendan J Keating.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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Height is a classic complex trait with common variants in a growing list of genes known to contribute to the phenotype. Using a genecentric genotyping array targeted toward cardiovascular-related loci, comprising 49,320 SNPs across approximately 2000 loci, we evaluated the association of common and uncommon SNPs with adult height in 114,223 individuals from 47 studies and six ethnicities. A total of 64 loci contained a SNP associated with height at array-wide significance (p < 2.4 × 10(-6)), with 42 loci surpassing the conventional genome-wide significance threshold (p < 5 × 10(-8)). Common variants with minor allele frequencies greater than 5% were observed to be associated with height in 37 previously reported loci. In individuals of European ancestry, uncommon SNPs in IL11 and SMAD3, which would not be genotyped with the use of standard genome-wide genotyping arrays, were strongly associated with height (p < 3 × 10(-11)). Conditional analysis within associated regions revealed five additional variants associated with height independent of lead SNPs within the locus, suggesting allelic heterogeneity. Although underpowered to replicate findings from individuals of European ancestry, the direction of effect of associated variants was largely consistent in African American, South Asian, and Hispanic populations. Overall, we show that dense coverage of genes for uncommon SNPs, coupled with large-scale meta-analysis, can successfully identify additional variants associated with a common complex trait.
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Quality control and quality assurance in genotypic data for genome-wide association studies.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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Genome-wide scans of nucleotide variation in human subjects are providing an increasing number of replicated associations with complex disease traits. Most of the variants detected have small effects and, collectively, they account for a small fraction of the total genetic variance. Very large sample sizes are required to identify and validate findings. In this situation, even small sources of systematic or random error can cause spurious results or obscure real effects. The need for careful attention to data quality has been appreciated for some time in this field, and a number of strategies for quality control and quality assurance (QC/QA) have been developed. Here we extend these methods and describe a system of QC/QA for genotypic data in genome-wide association studies (GWAS). This system includes some new approaches that (1) combine analysis of allelic probe intensities and called genotypes to distinguish gender misidentification from sex chromosome aberrations, (2) detect autosomal chromosome aberrations that may affect genotype calling accuracy, (3) infer DNA sample quality from relatedness and allelic intensities, (4) use duplicate concordance to infer SNP quality, (5) detect genotyping artifacts from dependence of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium test P-values on allelic frequency, and (6) demonstrate sensitivity of principal components analysis to SNP selection. The methods are illustrated with examples from the "Gene Environment Association Studies" (GENEVA) program. The results suggest several recommendations for QC/QA in the design and execution of GWAS.
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Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
Hana Lango Allen, Karol Estrada, Guillaume Lettre, Sonja I Berndt, Michael N Weedon, Fernando Rivadeneira, Cristen J Willer, Anne U Jackson, Sailaja Vedantam, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Teresa Ferreira, Andrew R Wood, Robert J Weyant, Ayellet V Segrè, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicole Soranzo, Ju-Hyun Park, Jian Yang, Daniel Gudbjartsson, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Joshua C Randall, Lu Qi, Albert Vernon Smith, Reedik Mägi, Tomi Pastinen, Liming Liang, Iris M Heid, Jian'an Luan, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Thomas W Winkler, Michael E Goddard, Ken Sin Lo, Cameron Palmer, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Yurii S Aulchenko, Asa Johansson, M Carola Zillikens, Mary F Feitosa, Tonu Esko, Toby Johnson, Shamika Ketkar, Peter Kraft, Massimo Mangino, Inga Prokopenko, Devin Absher, Eva Albrecht, Florian Ernst, Nicole L Glazer, Caroline Hayward, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Kevin B Jacobs, Joshua W Knowles, Zoltan Kutalik, Keri L Monda, Ozren Polašek, Michael Preuss, Nigel W Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Jonathan P Tyrer, Benjamin F Voight, Fredrik Wiklund, Jianfeng Xu, Jing Hua Zhao, Dale R Nyholt, Niina Pellikka, Markus Perola, John R B Perry, Ida Surakka, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Elizabeth L Altmaier, Najaf Amin, Thor Aspelund, Tushar Bhangale, Gabrielle Boucher, Daniel I Chasman, Constance Chen, Lachlan Coin, Matthew N Cooper, Anna L Dixon, Quince Gibson, Elin Grundberg, Ke Hao, M Juhani Junttila, Lee M Kaplan, Johannes Kettunen, Inke R König, Tony Kwan, Robert W Lawrence, Douglas F Levinson, Mattias Lorentzon, Barbara McKnight, Andrew P Morris, Martina Müller, Julius Suh Ngwa, Shaun Purcell, Suzanne Rafelt, Rany M Salem, Erika Salvi, Serena Sanna, Jianxin Shi, Ulla Sovio, John R Thompson, Michael C Turchin, Liesbeth Vandenput, Dominique J Verlaan, Veronique Vitart, Charles C White, Andreas Ziegler, Peter Almgren, Anthony J Balmforth, Harry Campbell, Lorena Citterio, Alessandro De Grandi, Anna Dominiczak, Jubao Duan, Paul Elliott, Roberto Elosua, Johan G Eriksson, Nelson B Freimer, Eco J C Geus, Nicola Glorioso, Shen Haiqing, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Aki S Havulinna, Andrew A Hicks, Jennie Hui, Wilmar Igl, Thomas Illig, Antti Jula, Eero Kajantie, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Markku Koiranen, Ivana Kolčić, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Jaana Laitinen, Jianjun Liu, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Ana Marušić, Andrea Maschio, Thomas Meitinger, Antonella Mulas, Guillaume Paré, Alex N Parker, John F Peden, Astrid Petersmann, Irene Pichler, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Anneli Pouta, Martin Ridderstråle, Jerome I Rotter, Jennifer G Sambrook, Alan R Sanders, Carsten Oliver Schmidt, Juha Sinisalo, Jan H Smit, Heather M Stringham, G Bragi Walters, Elisabeth Widén, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Laura Zagato, Lina Zgaga, Paavo Zitting, Helene Alavere, Martin Farrall, Wendy L McArdle, Mari Nelis, Marjolein J Peters, Samuli Ripatti, Joyce B J van Meurs, Katja K Aben, Kristin G Ardlie, Jacques S Beckmann, John P Beilby, Richard N Bergman, Sven Bergmann, Francis S Collins, Daniele Cusi, Martin den Heijer, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Pablo V Gejman, Alistair S Hall, Anders Hamsten, Heikki V Huikuri, Carlos Iribarren, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Sekar Kathiresan, Lambertus Kiemeney, Thomas Kocher, Lenore J Launer, Terho Lehtimäki, Olle Melander, Tom H Mosley, Arthur W Musk, Markku S Nieminen, Christopher J O'Donnell, Claes Ohlsson, Ben Oostra, Lyle J Palmer, Olli Raitakari, Paul M Ridker, John D Rioux, Aila Rissanen, Carlo Rivolta, Heribert Schunkert, Alan R Shuldiner, David S Siscovick, Michael Stumvoll, Anke Tönjes, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Gert-Jan van Ommen, Jorma Viikari, Andrew C Heath, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Michael A Province, Manfred Kayser, Alice M Arnold, Larry D Atwood, Eric Boerwinkle, Stephen J Chanock, Panos Deloukas, Christian Gieger, Henrik Grönberg, Per Hall, Andrew T Hattersley, Christian Hengstenberg, Wolfgang Hoffman, G Mark Lathrop, Veikko Salomaa, Stefan Schreiber, Manuela Uda, Dawn Waterworth, Alan F Wright, Themistocles L Assimes, Inês Barroso, Albert Hofman, Karen L Mohlke, Dorret I Boomsma, Mark J Caulfield, L Adrienne Cupples, Jeanette Erdmann, Caroline S Fox, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Tamara B Harris, Richard B Hayes, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Vincent Mooser, Patricia B Munroe, Willem H Ouwehand, Brenda W Penninx, Peter P Pramstaller, Thomas Quertermous, Igor Rudan, Nilesh J Samani, Timothy D Spector, Henry Völzke, Hugh Watkins, James F Wilson, Leif C Groop, Talin Haritunians, Frank B Hu, Robert C Kaplan, Andres Metspalu, Kari E North, David Schlessinger, Nicholas J Wareham, David J Hunter, Jeffrey R O'Connell, David P Strachan, H-Erich Wichmann, Ingrid B Borecki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Eric E Schadt, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Leena Peltonen, André G Uitterlinden, Peter M Visscher, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Ruth J F Loos, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Erik Ingelsson, Cecilia M Lindgren, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Kari Stefansson, Timothy M Frayling, Joel N Hirschhorn.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits, but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait. The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P = 0.016) and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P?
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Large-scale gene-centric meta-analysis across 32 studies identifies multiple lipid loci.
Folkert W Asselbergs, Yiran Guo, Erik P A van Iperen, Suthesh Sivapalaratnam, Vinicius Tragante, Matthew B Lanktree, Leslie A Lange, Berta Almoguera, Yolande E Appelman, John Barnard, Jens Baumert, Amber L Beitelshees, Tushar R Bhangale, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Tom R Gaunt, Yan Gong, Jemma C Hopewell, Toby Johnson, Marcus E Kleber, Taimour Y Langaee, Mingyao Li, Yun R Li, Kiang Liu, Caitrin W McDonough, Matthijs F L Meijs, Rita P S Middelberg, Kiran Musunuru, Christopher P Nelson, Jeffery R O'Connell, Sandosh Padmanabhan, James S Pankow, Nathan Pankratz, Suzanne Rafelt, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Simon P R Romaine, Nicholas J Schork, Jonathan Shaffer, Haiqing Shen, Erin N Smith, Sam E Tischfield, Peter J van der Most, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Niek Verweij, Kelly A Volcik, Li Zhang, Kent R Bailey, Kristian M Bailey, Florianne Bauer, Jolanda M A Boer, Peter S Braund, Amber Burt, Paul R Burton, Sarah G Buxbaum, Wei Chen, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, L Adrienne Cupples, Jonas S deJong, Christian Delles, David Duggan, Myriam Fornage, Clement E Furlong, Nicole Glazer, John G Gums, Claire Hastie, Michael V Holmes, Thomas Illig, Susan A Kirkland, Mika Kivimäki, Ronald Klein, Barbara E Klein, Charles Kooperberg, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Meena Kumari, Andrea Z LaCroix, Laya Mallela, Gurunathan Murugesan, Jose Ordovas, Willem H Ouwehand, Wendy S Post, Richa Saxena, Hubert Scharnagl, Pamela J Schreiner, Tina Shah, Denis C Shields, Daichi Shimbo, Sathanur R Srinivasan, Ronald P Stolk, Daniel I Swerdlow, Herman A Taylor, Eric J Topol, Elina Toskala, Joost L van Pelt, Jessica van Setten, Salim Yusuf, John C Whittaker, A H Zwinderman, , Sonia S Anand, Anthony J Balmforth, Gerald S Berenson, Connie R Bezzina, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Juan P Casas, Mark J Caulfield, Robert Clarke, John M Connell, Karen J Cruickshanks, Karina W Davidson, Ian N M Day, Paul I W de Bakker, Pieter A Doevendans, Anna F Dominiczak, Alistair S Hall, Catharina A Hartman, Christian Hengstenberg, Hans L Hillege, Marten H Hofker, Steve E Humphries, Gail P Jarvik, Julie A Johnson, Bernhard M Kaess, Sekar Kathiresan, Wolfgang Koenig, Debbie A Lawlor, Winfried März, Olle Melander, Braxton D Mitchell, Grant W Montgomery, Patricia B Munroe, Sarah S Murray, Stephen J Newhouse, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Neil Poulter, Bruce Psaty, Susan Redline, Stephen S Rich, Jerome I Rotter, Heribert Schunkert, Peter Sever, Alan R Shuldiner, Roy L Silverstein, Alice Stanton, Barbara Thorand, Mieke D Trip, Michael Y Tsai, Pim van der Harst, Ellen van der Schoot, Yvonne T van der Schouw, W M Monique Verschuren, Hugh Watkins, Arthur A M Wilde, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, John B Whitfield, G Kees Hovingh, Christie M Ballantyne, Cisca Wijmenga, Muredach P Reilly, Nicholas G Martin, James G Wilson, Daniel J Rader, Nilesh J Samani, Alex P Reiner, Robert A Hegele, John J P Kastelein, Aroon D Hingorani, Philippa J Talmud, Hakon Hakonarson, Clara C Elbers, Brendan J Keating, Fotios Drenos.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified many SNPs underlying variations in plasma-lipid levels. We explore whether additional loci associated with plasma-lipid phenotypes, such as high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), and triglycerides (TGs), can be identified by a dense gene-centric approach. Our meta-analysis of 32 studies in 66,240 individuals of European ancestry was based on the custom ?50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) covering ?2,000 candidate genes. SNP-lipid associations were replicated either in a cohort comprising an additional 24,736 samples or within the Global Lipid Genetic Consortium. We identified four, six, ten, and four unreported SNPs in established lipid genes for HDL-C, LDL-C, TC, and TGs, respectively. We also identified several lipid-related SNPs in previously unreported genes: DGAT2, HCAR2, GPIHBP1, PPARG, and FTO for HDL-C; SOCS3, APOH, SPTY2D1, BRCA2, and VLDLR for LDL-C; SOCS3, UGT1A1, BRCA2, UBE3B, FCGR2A, CHUK, and INSIG2 for TC; and SERPINF2, C4B, GCK, GATA4, INSR, and LPAL2 for TGs. The proportion of explained phenotypic variance in the subset of studies providing individual-level data was 9.9% for HDL-C, 9.5% for LDL-C, 10.3% for TC, and 8.0% for TGs. This large meta-analysis of lipid phenotypes with the use of a dense gene-centric approach identified multiple SNPs not previously described in established lipid genes and several previously unknown loci. The explained phenotypic variance from this approach was comparable to that from a meta-analysis of GWAS data, suggesting that a focused genotyping approach can further increase the understanding of heritability of plasma lipids.
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GWASTools: an R/Bioconductor package for quality control and analysis of genome-wide association studies.
Bioinformatics
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GWASTools is an R/Bioconductor package for quality control and analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). GWASTools brings the interactive capability and extensive statistical libraries of R to GWAS. Data are stored in NetCDF format to accommodate extremely large datasets that cannot fit within Rs memory limits. The documentation includes instructions for converting data from multiple formats, including variants called from sequencing. GWASTools provides a convenient interface for linking genotypes and intensity data with sample and single nucleotide polymorphism annotation.
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A mutation in APP protects against Alzheimers disease and age-related cognitive decline.
Nature
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The prevalence of dementia in the Western world in people over the age of 60 has been estimated to be greater than 5%, about two-thirds of which are due to Alzheimers disease. The age-specific prevalence of Alzheimers disease nearly doubles every 5 years after age 65, leading to a prevalence of greater than 25% in those over the age of 90 (ref. 3). Here, to search for low-frequency variants in the amyloid-? precursor protein (APP) gene with a significant effect on the risk of Alzheimers disease, we studied coding variants in APP in a set of whole-genome sequence data from 1,795 Icelanders. We found a coding mutation (A673T) in the APP gene that protects against Alzheimers disease and cognitive decline in the elderly without Alzheimers disease. This substitution is adjacent to the aspartyl protease ?-site in APP, and results in an approximately 40% reduction in the formation of amyloidogenic peptides in vitro. The strong protective effect of the A673T substitution against Alzheimers disease provides proof of principle for the hypothesis that reducing the ?-cleavage of APP may protect against the disease. Furthermore, as the A673T allele also protects against cognitive decline in the elderly without Alzheimers disease, the two may be mediated through the same or similar mechanisms.
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Large-scale gene-centric meta-analysis across 39 studies identifies type 2 diabetes loci.
Richa Saxena, Clara C Elbers, Yiran Guo, Inga Peter, Tom R Gaunt, Jessica L Mega, Matthew B Lanktree, Archana Tare, Berta Almoguera Castillo, Yun R Li, Toby Johnson, Marcel Bruinenberg, Diane Gilbert-Diamond, Ramakrishnan Rajagopalan, Benjamin F Voight, Ashok Balasubramanyam, John Barnard, Florianne Bauer, Jens Baumert, Tushar Bhangale, Bernhard O Böhm, Peter S Braund, Paul R Burton, Hareesh R Chandrupatla, Robert Clarke, Rhonda M Cooper-DeHoff, Errol D Crook, George Davey-Smith, Ian N Day, Anthonius de Boer, Mark C H de Groot, Fotios Drenos, Jane Ferguson, Caroline S Fox, Clement E Furlong, Quince Gibson, Christian Gieger, Lisa A Gilhuijs-Pederson, Joseph T Glessner, Anuj Goel, Yan Gong, Struan F A Grant, Diederick E Grobbee, Claire Hastie, Steve E Humphries, Cecilia E Kim, Mika Kivimäki, Marcus Kleber, Christa Meisinger, Meena Kumari, Taimour Y Langaee, Debbie A Lawlor, Mingyao Li, Maximilian T Lobmeyer, Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee, Matthijs F L Meijs, Cliona M Molony, David A Morrow, Gurunathan Murugesan, Solomon K Musani, Christopher P Nelson, Stephen J Newhouse, Jeffery R O'Connell, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Jutta Palmen, Sanjey R Patel, Carl J Pepine, Mary Pettinger, Thomas S Price, Suzanne Rafelt, Jane Ranchalis, Asif Rasheed, Elisabeth Rosenthal, Ingo Ruczinski, Sonia Shah, Haiqing Shen, Günther Silbernagel, Erin N Smith, Annemieke W M Spijkerman, Alice Stanton, Michael W Steffes, Barbara Thorand, Mieke Trip, Pim van der Harst, Daphne L van der A, Erik P A van Iperen, Jessica van Setten, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Niek Verweij, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Taylor Young, M Hadi Zafarmand, Joseph M Zmuda, , Michael Boehnke, David Altshuler, Mark McCarthy, W H Linda Kao, James S Pankow, Thomas P Cappola, Peter Sever, Neil Poulter, Mark Caulfield, Anna Dominiczak, Denis C Shields, Deepak L Bhatt, Deepak Bhatt, Li Zhang, Sean P Curtis, John Danesh, Juan P Casas, Yvonne T van der Schouw, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Pieter A Doevendans, Gerald W Dorn, Martin Farrall, Garret A FitzGerald, Anders Hamsten, Robert Hegele, Aroon D Hingorani, Marten H Hofker, Gordon S Huggins, Thomas Illig, Gail P Jarvik, Julie A Johnson, Olaf H Klungel, William C Knowler, Wolfgang Koenig, Winfried März, James B Meigs, Olle Melander, Patricia B Munroe, Braxton D Mitchell, Susan J Bielinski, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Stephen S Rich, Jerome I Rotter, Danish Saleheen, Nilesh J Samani, Eric E Schadt, Alan R Shuldiner, Roy Silverstein, Kandice Kottke-Marchant, Philippa J Talmud, Hugh Watkins, Folkert W Asselbergs, Folkert Asselbergs, Paul I W de Bakker, Jeanne McCaffery, Cisca Wijmenga, Marc S Sabatine, James G Wilson, Alex Reiner, Donald W Bowden, Hakon Hakonarson, David S Siscovick, Brendan J Keating.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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To identify genetic factors contributing to type 2 diabetes (T2D), we performed large-scale meta-analyses by using a custom ?50,000 SNP genotyping array (the ITMAT-Broad-CARe array) with ?2000 candidate genes in 39 multiethnic population-based studies, case-control studies, and clinical trials totaling 17,418 cases and 70,298 controls. First, meta-analysis of 25 studies comprising 14,073 cases and 57,489 controls of European descent confirmed eight established T2D loci at genome-wide significance. In silico follow-up analysis of putative association signals found in independent genome-wide association studies (including 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls) performed by the DIAGRAM consortium identified a T2D locus at genome-wide significance (GATAD2A/CILP2/PBX4; p = 5.7 × 10(-9)) and two loci exceeding study-wide significance (SREBF1, and TH/INS; p < 2.4 × 10(-6)). Second, meta-analyses of 1,986 cases and 7,695 controls from eight African-American studies identified study-wide-significant (p = 2.4 × 10(-7)) variants in HMGA2 and replicated variants in TCF7L2 (p = 5.1 × 10(-15)). Third, conditional analysis revealed multiple known and novel independent signals within five T2D-associated genes in samples of European ancestry and within HMGA2 in African-American samples. Fourth, a multiethnic meta-analysis of all 39 studies identified T2D-associated variants in BCL2 (p = 2.1 × 10(-8)). Finally, a composite genetic score of SNPs from new and established T2D signals was significantly associated with increased risk of diabetes in African-American, Hispanic, and Asian populations. In summary, large-scale meta-analysis involving a dense gene-centric approach has uncovered additional loci and variants that contribute to T2D risk and suggests substantial overlap of T2D association signals across multiple ethnic groups.
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