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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inappropriate Continued Use of Empirical Vancomycin in a Hospital with a High Prevalence of MRSA.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Vancomycin is frequently inappropriately prescribed, especially as empirical treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate (1) the amount of inappropriate continued use of empirical vancomycin as a proportion of total vancomycin use, and (2) the risk factors associated with inappropriate continued use of empirical vancomycin.
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Left ventricular diastolic dyssynchrony in patients with treatment-naive hypertension and the effects of antihypertensive therapy.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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The presence of left ventricular diastolic dyssynchrony is well known to be a frequent and important manifestation in heart failure. We investigated diastolic dyssynchrony in patients with treatment-naive hypertension, compared with normal controls; the determinants of the presence of diastolic dyssynchrony by performing comprehensive studies including laboratory, arterial stiffness, central blood pressure (BP), ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) evaluations; the effects of 6-month antihypertensive therapy on diastolic dyssynchrony; and the predictors associated with the change of diastolic dyssynchrony after medical therapy.
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Coronectomy of a lower third molar in combination with vital pulp therapy.
Eur J Dent
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Coronectomy is a procedure that intentionally spares the vital root after removal of the crown of the lower third molar to avoid damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. Vital pulp therapy is one option for managing exposed pulp tissue to reduce the risk of pulpal inflammation or necrosis. Among various dental materials, mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) has been successfully used for vital pulp therapy. Thus, this case report discusses a coronectomy procedure in combination with vital pulp therapy using MTA. This case also attempts to highlight the formation of tertiary dentin, evidence of successful vital pulp therapy.
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A Randomized Comparison Study Assessing the Impact of Cilostazol on the Heart Rate and Arrhythmias by 24-Hour Ambulatory Holter Electrocardiographic Monitoring after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation for Coronary Artery Disease.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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Aims: Cilostazol may have a positive chronotropic or pro-arrhythmic effect. However, there have been no randomized trials to confirm these effects. Methods: This randomized prospective trial compared dual (DAT, aspirin and clopidogrel, n=114) versus triple antiplatelet therapy (TAT, DAT plus cilostazol, n=113) at baseline and after six months in patients receiving intracoronary drug-eluting stents (DES). The primary endpoint was the 24-hour heart rate (24h-HR) at six months determined using 24h-Holter ECG monitoring. The secondary endpoints were the 24h-HR ?70 bpm, 24h-HR increase ?5 bpm and the counts or presence of arrhythmias. Results: At six months after DES implantation, the 24h-HR (73 [68-83] vs. 68 [62-75] bpm, p?0.001), presence of a 24h-HR ?70 bpm (71.4 vs. 47.1%, p?0.001) and presence of a 24h-HR increase ?5 bpm (44.8 vs. 24.5%, p=0.002) were significantly higher for the TAT group than for the DAT group. A multivariate analysis showed that the use of cilostazol (OR: 3.10, p=0.035) and a baseline 24h-HR ?70 bpm (OR: 4.60, p?0.001) were strong predictors of a 24h-HR increase ?5 bpm. However, there were no significant intergroup differences in arrhythmias. Conclusions: Cilostazol appears to result in an increase in the 24h-HR after DES implantation. Therefore, some caution should be exercised regarding the use of cilostazol in patients with tachycardia, when planning DES implantation.
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Utility of corrected QT interval in orthostatic intolerance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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We performed this study to determine whether electrocardiographic corrected QT (QTc) interval predicts alterations in sympathovagal balance during orthostatic intolerance (OI). We reviewed 1,368 patients presenting with symptoms suggestive of OI who underwent electrocardiography and composite autonomic function tests (AFTs). Patients with a positive response to the head-up tilt test were classified into orthostatic hypotension (OH), neurocardiogenic syncope (NCS), or postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) groups. A total of 275 patients (159 OH, 54 NCS, and 62 POTS) were included in the final analysis. Between-group comparisons of OI symptom grade, QTc interval, QTc dispersion, and each AFT measure were performed. QTc interval and dispersion were correlated with AFT measures. OH Patients had the most severe OI symptom grade and NCS patients the mildest. Patients with OH showed the longest QTc interval (448.8±33.6 msec), QTc dispersion (59.5±30.3 msec) and the lowest values in heart rate response to deep breathing (HRDB) (10.3±6.0 beats/min) and Valsalva ratio (1.3±0.2). Patients with POTS showed the shortest QTc interval (421.7±28.6 msec), the highest HRDB values (24.5±9.2 beats/min), Valsalva ratio (1.8±0.3), and proximal and distal leg sweat volumes in the quantitative sudomotor axon reflex test. QTc interval correlated negatively with HRDB (r?=?-0.443, p<0.001) and Valsalva ratio (r?=?-0.425, p<0.001). We found negative correlations between QTc interval and AFT values representing cardiovagal function in patients with OI. Our findings suggest that prolonged QTc interval may be considered to be a biomarker for detecting alterations in sympathovagal balance, especially cardiovagal dysfunction in OH.
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Overproduction of AcrR increases organic solvent tolerance mediated by modulation of SoxS regulon in Escherichia coli.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Acriflavine resistance regulator (AcrR), a local transcription factor, regulates the expression of the acrRAB genes associated with the AcrAB-TolC multidrug efflux pump. Screening of organic solvent tolerance (OST) with the overexpression of 13 genes in Escherichia coli revealed that the overexpression of acrR improved OST. Overexpression of AcrR in a background strain of wild-type E. coli and in the OST strain LMB015 (?fadR ?marR; acrR (+) and ?fadR ?marR acrR (+) strain, respectively) significantly increased cell growth in the presence of n-hexane/cyclohexane, which attenuated the membrane reduction capacity of the wild-type strain below 50 % of the control level. This was recovered to control levels in the acrR (+) strain. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of RNA from the wild-type, ?acrR, and acrR (+) strains showed that AcrR represses the transcription of marRAB and soxRS, and its own gene cluster, acrRAB. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay demonstrated that AcrR binds directly to the promoter region of acrRAB, marAB, and soxRS, indicating that AcrR acts on global regulators to affect mar-sox-rob regulon. In the acrR (+) strain, soxS expression was significantly upregulated compared with the wild-type. The OST of the acrR (+) strain was completely lost in the ?soxS acrR (+) strain, indicating that SoxS mediated OST improvement in the acrR (+) strain. The observation that all genes associated with marRAB and soxRS are upregulated in the ?acrR strain, and that there is only moderate induction of soxS (and marB) in the acrR (+) strain, provides insight into how acrR overexpression confers bacterial OST and the mar-sox-rob regulon control network.
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Precision Marangoni-driven patterning.
Soft Matter
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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A Marangoni flow is shown to occur when a polymer film possessing a spatially-defined surface energy pattern is heated above its glass transition to the liquid state. This can be harnessed to rapidly manufacture polymer films possessing prescribed height profiles. To quantify and verify this phenomenon, a model is described here which accurately predicts the formation, growth, and eventual dissipation of topographical features. The model predictions, based on numerical solutions of equations governing thin film dynamics with a Marangoni stress, are quantitatively compared to experimental measurements of thin polystyrene films containing photochemically patterned surface energy gradients. Good agreement between the model and the data is achieved at temperatures between 120 and 140 °C for a comprehensive range of heating times using reasonable physical properties as parameter inputs. For example, thickness variations that measure 102% of the starting film thickness are achieved in only 12 minutes of heating at 140 °C, values that are predicted by the model are within 6% and 3 min, respectively. The photochemical pattern that directed this flow possessed only a 0.2 dyne cm(-1) variation in surface tension between exposed and unexposed regions. The physical insights from the validated model suggest promising strategies to maximize the aspect ratio of the topographical features and minimize the processing time necessary to develop them.
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Molecular cloning, characterization, and expression of pannexin genes in chicken.
Poult. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Pannexins (Panx) are a family of proteins that share sequences with the invertebrate gap junction proteins, innexins, and have a similar structure to that of the vertebrate gap junction proteins, connexins. To date, the Panx family consists of 3 members, but their genetic sequences have only been completely determined in a few vertebrate species. Moreover, expression of the Panx family has been reported in several rodent tissues: Panx1 is ubiquitously expressed in mammals, whereas Panx2 and Panx3 expressions are more restricted. Although members of the Panx family have been detected in mammals, their genetic sequences in avian species have not yet been fully elucidated. Here, we obtained the full-length mRNA sequences of chicken PANX genes and evaluated the homology of the amino acids from these sequences with those of other species. Furthermore, PANX gene expression in several chicken tissues was investigated based on mRNA levels. PANX1 was detected in the brain, cochlea, chondrocytes, eye, lung, skin, and intestine, and PANX2 was expressed in the brain, eye, and intestine. PANX3 was observed in the cochlea, chondrocytes, and bone. In addition, expression of PANX3 was higher than PANX1 in the cochlea. Immunofluorescent staining revealed PANX1 in hair cells, as well as the supporting cells, ganglion neurons, and the tegmentum vasculosum in chickens, whereas PANX3 was only detected in the bone surrounding the cochlea. Overall, the results of this study provide the first identification and characterization of the sequence and expression of the PANX family in an avian species, and fundamental data for confirmation of Panx function.
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Environmental changes, microbiota, and allergic diseases.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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During the last few decades, the prevalence of allergic disease has increased dramatically. The development of allergic diseases has been attributed to complex interactions between environmental factors and genetic factors. Of the many possible environmental factors, most research has focused on the most commonly encountered environmental factors, such as air pollution and environmental microbiota in combination with climate change. There is increasing evidence that such environmental factors play a critical role in the regulation of the immune response that is associated with allergic diseases, especially in genetically susceptible individuals. This review deals with not only these environmental factors and genetic factors but also their interactions in the development of allergic diseases. It will also emphasize the need for early interventions that can prevent the development of allergic diseases in susceptible populations and how these interventions can be identified.
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Keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 protein promotes melanin synthesis via regulation of tyrosine uptake.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Melanocytes, which produce the pigment melanin, are known to be closely regulated by neighboring keratinocytes. However, how keratinocytes regulate melanin production is unclear. Here we report that melanin production in melanoma cells (B16F10 and MNT-1) was increased markedly on a keratinocyte-derived extracellular matrix compared with a melanoma cell-derived extracellular matrix. siRNA-mediated reduction of keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 expression decreased melanin synthesis in melanoma cells, and laminin-332, but not fibronectin, enhanced melanin content and ?-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-regulated melanin production in melanoma cells. Similar effects were observed in human melanocytes. Interestingly, however, laminin-332 did not affect the expression or activity of tyrosinase. Instead, laminin-332 promoted the uptake of extracellular tyrosine and, subsequently, increased intracellular levels of tyrosine in both melanocytes and melanoma cells. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that keratinocyte-derived laminin-332 contributes to melanin production by regulating tyrosine uptake.
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Sleep Quality, Posttraumatic Stress, Depression, and Human Errors in Train Drivers: A Population-Based Nationwide Study in South Korea.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Human error is defined as an unintended error that is attributable to humans rather than machines, and that is important to avoid to prevent accidents. We aimed to investigate the association between sleep quality and human errors among train drivers.
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Oral Antimicrobial Therapy: Efficacy and Safety for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Infections and Its Impact on the Length of Hospital Stay.
Infect Chemother
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Carefully switching from intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy has shown to reduce treatment costs and lengths of hospital stay as well as increase safety and comfort in patients with infections. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical efficacy and safety between the patients treated with glycopeptides (case group), and the patients given oral antibiotics, as the initial or step-down therapy (control group), in the treatment of patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection.
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JNK signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells is associated with the side population upon treatment with anticancer drugs.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Liver cancer is one of the most drug-resistant cancer types, and cancer stem cells are related to drug resistance. c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling is involved in drug resistance, and the side population of cells (SP cells) can be used as a model to study liver cancer stem cells. We sought to evaluate the relationship between SP cells and JNK signaling in hepatocarcinoma cells. For this purpose, we examined cell proliferation and the SP cell ratio following treatment of Huh7 cells with the anticancer drugs 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and paclitaxel. The expression of phospho-stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK)/JNK in the treated cells was evaluated using immunoblotting. 5-FU and paclitaxel treatment increased the number of SP cells and JNK phosphorylation, and decreased cell survival. Huh7 and HepG2 cells were also treated with SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, to study the relationship between SP cells and JNK signaling. The increase in the number of SP cells and the SAPK/JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation was reverted by SP600125 treatment in these cells. We also used immunohistochemistry and showed that SAPK/JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation are increased in hepatocarcinoma tissues. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the number of SP cells and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation are increased upon treatment with anticancer drugs, and that this increase is blocked by inhibition of JNK signaling. These findings suggest that drug resistance in liver cancer may involve an increase in the number of SP cells following JNK activation.
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Clinical Significance of Chronic Kidney Disease and Atrial Fibrillation on Morbidity and Mortality in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Am. J. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Background/Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexists with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a major risk for AMI. However, the combined impact of CKD and AF on the mortality and morbidity in AMI population has not been determined. Methods: Between January 2004 and December 2009, a total of 4,738 AMI patients were enrolled prospectively. Patients were divided into four groups according to the combined status of CKD and AF. The primary endpoint was a combination of 5-year major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCE). Results: The prevalence of AF was significantly higher in CKD patients than in non-CKD patients (6.76 vs. 3.31%, p < 0.001). The highest cumulative event rate of MACCE and death was observed in patients with both CKD and AF (68.5 and 64.0%), respectively. In multivariable analyses, compared with patients with neither AF nor CKD, hazard ratios (HR) for composite of MACCE were 1.66 (95% CI, 1.14-2.41), 1.24 (95% CI, 1.06-1.46), and 2.10 (95% CI, 1.42-3.13) for patients with AF only, those with CKD only, and those with both CKD and AF, respectively (p for interaction = 0.935). Patients with both CKD and AF had a greatest risk for all-cause mortality (HR 2.54; 95% CI, 1.60-4.53), and the significant synergistic interaction was observed between CKD and AF (p for interaction = 0.015). Conclusion: The combined effect of AF and CKD on the risk of MACCE after an AMI is stronger than any separate condition, and it confers a synergistic effect on the all-cause mortality risk. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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The effect of perinatal anxiety on bronchiolitis is influenced by polymorphisms in ROS-related genes.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Exposure to perinatal anxiety affects disease susceptibility in offspring but studies on the association between perinatal anxiety and gene polymorphisms are lacking. This study aimed to elucidate the interaction between perinatal anxiety and polymorphisms in antioxidant defense and innate immunity genes on the development of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) during early infancy.
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A Na+-coupled C4-dicarboxylate transporter (Asuc_0304) and aerobic growth of Actinobacillus succinogenes on C4-dicarboxylates.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Actinobacillus succinogenes, which is known to produce large amounts of succinate during fermentation of hexoses, was able to grow on C4-dicarboxylates such as fumarate under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Anaerobic growth on fumarate was stimulated by glycerol and the major product was succinate, indicating the involvement of fumarate respiration similar to succinate production from glucose. The aerobic growth on C4-dicarboxylates and the transport proteins involved were studied. Fumarate was oxidized to acetate. The genome of A. succinogenes encodes six proteins with similarity to secondary C4-dicarboxylate transporters, including transporters of the Dcu (C4-dicarboxylate uptake), DcuC (C4-dicarboxylate uptake C), DASS (divalent anion?:?sodium symporter) and TDT (tellurite resistance dicarboxylate transporter) family. From the cloned genes, Asuc_0304 of the DASS family protein was able to restore aerobic growth on C4-dicarboxylates in a C4-dicarboxylate-transport-negative Escherichia coli strain. The strain regained succinate or fumarate uptake, which was dependent on the electrochemical proton potential and the presence of Na(+). The transport had an optimum pH ~7, indicating transport of the dianionic C4-dicarboxylates. Transport competition experiments suggested substrate specificity for fumarate and succinate. The transport characteristics for C4-dicarboxylate uptake by cells of aerobically grown A. succinogenes were similar to those of Asuc_0304 expressed in E. coli, suggesting that Asuc_0304 has an important role in aerobic fumarate uptake in A. succinogenes. Asuc_0304 has sequence similarity to bacterial Na(+)-dicarboxylate cotransporters and contains the carboxylate-binding signature. Asuc_0304 was named SdcA (sodium-coupled C4-dicarboxylate transporter from A. succinogenes).
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Thickening of the somatosensory cortex in migraine without aura.
Cephalalgia
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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We aimed to explore cortical thickness abnormalities in a homogeneous group of patients with migraine without aura and to delineate possible relationships between cortical thickness changes and clinical variables.
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Effect of antibiotic use and mold exposure in infancy on allergic rhinitis in susceptible adolescents.
Ann. Allergy Asthma Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Antibiotic use in infancy induces alteration in intestinal microbiota and is associated with the development of allergic diseases. Mold exposure is also associated with allergic diseases. Genetic susceptibility may interact with specific environmental factors in allergic disease development.
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Diagnostic value of direct fluorescence antibody staining for detecting Pneumocystis jirovecii in expectorated sputum from patients with HIV infection.
Med. Mycol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining of induced sputum is frequently used to diagnose Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, although induction can provoke nausea and bronchospasm. Since the diagnostic value of expectorated sputum examined with DFA stain has not been well evaluated, we reviewed the medical records of HIV-infected patients who were clinically diagnosed as having PCP between 1999 and 2011. Over this 13-year period, we found 76 patients whose records included the results of DFA staining of expectorated sputum and noted that 42 (55.3%) were positive. Polymerase chain reaction to detect Pneumocystis in the sputum of 65 of the patients resulted in the finding of 43 (66.2%) who were positive. Our findings suggest that DFA staining of expectorated sputum could be a useful initial diagnostic method in HIV-infected patients with PCP.
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The impact of no-reflow phenomena after primary percutaneous coronary intervention: a time-dependent analysis of mortality.
Coron. Artery Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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The no-reflow phenomenon is a potential complication of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Predictors of the no-reflow phenomenon and the impact on long-term mortality remain unclear.
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Association between recent acetaminophen use and asthma: modification by polymorphism at TLR4.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The risk of asthma has been increasing in parallel with use of acetaminophen, which is a potential source of oxidative stress. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) plays a critical role not only in innate immunity, but also in mediating reactive oxygen species induced inflammation. Therefore, we investigated associations between acetaminophen usage and TLR4 polymorphism on asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). The number of 2,428 elementary school children in Seoul and Jeongeup cities was recruited. Subjects who used acetaminophen with a family history of asthma had an increased risk of both asthma diagnosis ever and current asthma. Individuals with CT+TT genotypes at the TLR4 polymorphism, in combination with acetaminophen usage, also demonstrated an increased risk of asthma diagnosis ever (aOR, 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-3.92). Family history of asthma and acetaminophen usage were risk factors for BHR. Although TLR4 was not an independent risk factor for BHR, individuals with CT+TT genotypes at the TLR4 polymorphism had an increased risk of BHR when combined with acetaminophen usage (aOR, 1.74; 95% CI, 1.03-2.94). In conclusion, acetaminophen usage may be associated with asthma and BHR in genetically susceptible subjects. This effect may be modified by polymorphism at TLR4.
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Possible role of GABAergic depolarization in neocortical neurons in generating hyperexcitatory behaviors during emergence from sevoflurane anesthesia in the rat.
ASN Neuro
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Hyperexcitatory behaviors occurring after sevoflurane anesthesia are of serious clinical concern, but the underlying mechanism is unknown. These behaviors may result from the potentiation by sevoflurane of GABAergic depolarization/excitation in neocortical neurons, cells implicated in the genesis of consciousness and arousal. The current study sought to provide evidence for this hypothesis with rats, the neocortical neurons of which are known to respond to GABA (?-aminobutyric acid) with depolarization/excitation at early stages of development (i.e., until the second postnatal week) and with hyperpolarization/inhibition during adulthood. Employing behavioral tests and electrophysiological recordings in neocortical slice preparations, we found: (1) sevoflurane produced PAHBs (post-anesthetic hyperexcitatory behaviors) in postnatal day (P)1-15 rats, whereas it failed to elicit PAHBs in P16 or older rats; (2) GABAergic PSPs (postsynaptic potentials) were depolarizing/excitatory in the neocortical neurons of P5 and P10 rats, whereas mostly hyperpolarizing/inhibitory in the cells of adult rats; (3) at P14-15, <50% of rats had PAHBs and, in general, the cells of the animals with PAHBs exhibited strongly depolarizing GABAergic PSPs, whereas those without PAHBs showed hyperpolarizing or weakly depolarizing GABAergic PSPs; (4) bumetanide [inhibitor of the Cl- importer NKCC (Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter)] treatment at P5 suppressed PAHBs and depolarizing GABAergic responses; and (5) sevoflurane at 1% (i.e., concentration<1 minimum alveolar concentration) potentiated depolarizing GABAergic PSPs in the neurons of P5 and P10 rats and of P14-15 animals with PAHBs, evoking action potentials in ?50% of these cells. On the basis of these results, we conclude that sevoflurane may produce PAHBs by potentiating GABAergic depolarization/excitation in neocortical neurons.
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Single-nucleotide polymorphism PCR for the detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and determination of macrolide resistance in respiratory samples.
J. Microbiol. Methods
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The aim of this study was to develop a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR assay to be performed directly on respiratory samples for the simultaneous detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae and its 23S rRNA gene mutations, which are responsible for macrolide resistance. For multiplex SNP PCR, two outer primers for amplification of the 23S rRNA gene and two mutant-specific primers for the discrimination of single base changes were designed. A total of 73M. pneumoniae-positive samples and 100M. pneumoniae-negative samples were analyzed using this assay. By SNP PCR, we detected two mutations conferring high-level macrolide resistance in 22 samples (A2063G from 20 and A2064G from 2 samples); these results are identical to those produced by the 23S rRNA gene sequencing of M. pneumoniae-positive samples. Thus, this assay can be used as a practical method for the simultaneous detection of M. pneumoniae and mutations associated with macrolide resistance directly from respiratory samples.
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Low compliance with national guidelines for preventing transmission of group 1 nationally notifiable infectious diseases in Korea.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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This study was performed to evaluate the compliance with, and adequacy of, the Korean national guidelines which had been recommended until 2011 for isolation of patients with group 1 nationally notifiable infectious diseases (NNIDs), namely cholera, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, shigellosis, and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection.
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Prognostic factors of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia in patients without HIV infection.
J. Infect.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The incidence of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PCP) in patients without HIV infection (non-HIV PCP) has been increasing along with the increased use of chemotherapeutic agents and immunosuppressants, but the prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP remain unclear. This study aimed to identify the prognostic factors of non-HIV PCP.
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Immunostimulatory effect of fermented red ginseng in the mouse model.
Prev Nutr Food Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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In this study, Woongjin fermented red ginseng extract (WFRG) was evaluated for its potential ability to act as an adjuvant for the immune response of mice. For the in vitro study, macrophages were treated with serial concentrations (1 ?g/mL, 10 ?g/mL, and 100 ?g/mL) of WFRG. For in vivo studies, mice were administered different concentrations (10 mg/kg/day, 100 mg/kg/day, and 200 mg/kg/day) of WFRG orally for 21 days. In vitro, the production of nitric oxide and TNF-? by RAW 264.7 cells increased in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, WFRG enhanced the proliferation of splenocytes induced by two mitogens (i.e., concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) and increased LPS-induced production of TNF-? and IL-6, but not IL-1?. In conclusion, WFRG has the potential to modulate immune function and should be further investigated as an immunostimulatory agent.
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Altered thalamocortical functional connectivity in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Aberrant thalamocortical network has been hypothesized to play a crucial role in the fundamental pathogenesis underlying idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). We aimed to investigate alterations of thalamocortical functional network in patients with IGE using thalamic seed-based functional connectivity (FC) analysis, and their relationships with frontal cognitive functions and clinical characteristics.
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Reference values and determinants of fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide in healthy children.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Measurement of the fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) is a quantitative, noninvasive, simple, safe method of assessing airway inflammation. While FeNO measurement has been standardized, reference values for elementary school children are scarce. The aim of this study was to establish reference values for FeNO in children.
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Diagnostic utility of worry and rumination: a comparison between generalized anxiety disorder and major depressive disorder.
Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Although previous reports have addressed worry and rumination as prominent cognitive processes in generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) and their distinct correlation with anxious and depressive symptoms, the differential association of worry and rumination with the diagnosis of GAD and MDD remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the distinct features of worry and rumination in factor structure and their predictive validity for the diagnosis of GAD and MDD.
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Benefit of ?-blocker treatment for patients with acute myocardial infarction and preserved systolic function after percutaneous coronary intervention.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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?-blockers are the standard treatment for myocardial infarction (MI) based on evidence from the pre-thrombolytic era. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of ?-blocker treatment in patients with acute MI and preserved systolic function in the era of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Additive effect between IL-13 polymorphism and cesarean section delivery/prenatal antibiotics use on atopic dermatitis: a birth cohort study (COCOA).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although cesarean delivery and prenatal exposure to antibiotics are likely to affect the gut microbiome in infancy, their effect on the development of atopic dermatitis (AD) in infancy is unclear. The influence of individual genotypes on these relationships is also unclear. To evaluate with a prospective birth cohort study whether cesarean section, prenatal exposure to antibiotics, and susceptible genotypes act additively to promote the development of AD in infancy.
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High prevalence of low bone mass and associated factors in Korean HIV-positive male patients undergoing antiretroviral therapy.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Low bone mass is prevalent in HIV-positive patients. However, compared to Western countries, less is known about HIV-associated osteopenia in Asian populations.
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[A case of intestinal tuberculosis with perianal fistula diagnosed after 30 years].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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Tuberculosis can occur anywhere in the gastrointestinal tract. However, anorectal tuberculosis has rarely been reported. A 46-years-old male presented with abdominal pain and perianal discharge of 30 years duration. The patient had received operations for anal fistula and inflammation three times. Although he had been taking mesalazine for the past three years after being diagnosed with Crohns disease, his symptoms persisted. Colonoscopy performed at our hospital revealed cicatricial change of ileocecal valve and diffuse ulcer scar with mild luminal narrowing of the ascending, transverse, and descending colon without active lesions. Multiple large irregular active ulcers were observed in the distal sigmoid and proximal rectum. An anal fistula opening with much yellowish discharge and background ulcer scar was observed in the anal canal. However, cobble-stone appearance and pseudopolyposis were not present. Therefore, we clinically diagnosed him as having intestinal tuberculosis with anal fistula and prescribed antituberculosis medications. Follow-up colonoscopy performed 3 months later showed much improved multiple large irregular ulcers in the distal sigmoid colon and proximal rectum along with completely resolved anal fistula without evidence of pus discharge. (Korean J Gastroenterol 2013;62:370-374).
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The relationship between asthma and bronchiolitis is modified by TLR4, CD14, and IL-13 polymorphisms.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Asthma is a complex genetic disorder that is associated with both genetic and environmental factors. The aim of study was to investigate the combined effect of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14), and interleukin-13 (IL-13) polymorphisms and bronchiolitis in the development of childhood asthma.
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GABAergic excitation of vasopressin neurons: possible mechanism underlying sodium-dependent hypertension.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Increased arginine-vasopressin (AVP) secretion is a key physiological response to hyperosmotic stress and may be part of the mechanism by which high-salt diets induce or exacerbate hypertension.
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A rare case of free bowel perforation associated with infliximab treatment for stricturing Crohns disease.
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Crohns disease is characterized by chronic transmural inflammation of the bowel and is associated with serious complications, such as bowel strictures, abscesses, fistula formation, and perforation. As neither medical nor surgical therapy provides a cure for Crohns disease, the primary goals of therapy are to induce and maintain remission and prevent complications. As a biologic agent, infliximab, a monoclonal antibody to tumor necrosis factor, is indicated for refractory luminal and fistulizing Crohns disease that does not respond to other medical therapies or surgery. Infliximab has proven to be very effective for inducing and maintaining remission in Crohns disease; however, infliximab treatment has several potential complications. Here, we report a case of free perforation following a therapeutic response after an initial dose of infliximab for Crohns disease. This is the first case report describing a free perforation in a Crohns disease patient after an initial dose of infliximab.
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Exendin-4 inhibits iNOS expression at the protein level in LPS-stimulated Raw264.7 macrophage by the activation of cAMP/PKA pathway.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and its potent agonists have been widely studied in pancreatic islet ?-cells. However, GLP-1 receptors are present in many extrapancreatic tissues including macrophages, and thus GLP-1 may have diverse actions in these tissues and cells. Therefore, we examined the mechanism by which exendin-4 (EX-4), a potent GLP-1 receptor agonist, inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced iNOS expression in Raw264.7 macrophage cells. EX-4 significantly inhibited LPS-induced iNOS protein expression and nitrite production. However, Northern blot and promoter analyses demonstrated that EX-4 did not inhibit LPS-induced iNOS mRNA expression and iNOS promoter activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) showed that EX-4 did not alter the binding activity of NF-?B to the iNOS promoter. Consistent with the result of EMSA, LPS-induced I?B? phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of p65 were not inhibited by EX-4. Also, actinomycin D chase study and the promoter assay using the construct containing 3-untranslated region of iNOS showed that EX-4 did not affect iNOS mRNA stability. Meanwhile, cycloheximide chase study demonstrated that EX-4 significantly accelerated iNOS protein degradation. The EX-4 inhibition of LPS-induced iNOS protein was significantly reversed by adenylate cyclase inhibitors (MDL-12330A and SQ 22536), a PKA inhibitor (H-89) and PKA? gene silencing. These findings suggest that EX-4 inhibited LPS-induced iNOS expression at protein level, but not at transcriptional mechanism of iNOS gene and this inhibitory effect of EX-4 was mainly dependent on cAMP/PKA system.
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Characteristics of invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections in three regions of Korea, 2009-2011: a multi-center cohort study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Despite the importance of invasive Staphylococcus aureus (ISA) infection, its overall burden in non-selected populations has only been defined in a small number of studies in Europe and North America. To define the characteristics of ISA infections in Korea, we conducted a multi-center cohort study to estimate population-based incidence rates.
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[How should azathioprine be dosed in Crohns disease? a novel strategy of maximum dose-titration based on the lower limit of leukocyte count and tolerability].
Korean J Gastroenterol
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2013
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Although general guidelines have suggested weight-based dosing of azathioprine (AZA, 2.5 mg/kg/day) for Crohns disease (CD), a substantial number of patients develop bone marrow suppression. The aim of this study was to evaluate the maximum dose of AZA not based on weight but titrated according to the lower limit of leukocyte count for maintaining remission in patients with CD.
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GuideLiner mother-and-child guide catheter extension: a simple adjunctive tool in PCI for balloon uncrossable chronic total occlusions.
J Interv Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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To investigate the use of the GuideLiner "mother-and-child" guide catheter extension system as a simple solution to facilitate initial device delivery in balloon uncrossable chronic total occlusions (CTOs) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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Impact of the Stent Length on Long-Term Clinical Outcomes Following Newer-Generation Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Stent length has been considered an important predictor of adverse events after percutaneous coronary intervention, even with the first-generation drug-eluting stents (DESs). The introduction of newer-generation DES has further reduced the rates of adverse clinical events such as restenosis, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis. The aim of this study was to compare the impact of stent length on the long-term clinical outcomes between first- and newer-generation DESs. The effects of stent length (?32 vs <32 mm) on the clinical outcomes were evaluated in 8,445 patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention using either a first-generation DES (sirolimus- and paclitaxel-eluting stents, n = 6,334) or a newer-generation DES (everolimus- and zotarolimus-eluting stents, n = 2,111) from January 2004 to December 2009. The 3-year adverse outcomes (composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, target vessel revascularization, and stent thrombosis) were compared using the inverse probability of treatment-weighted method according to the stent length. After adjustment for differences in the baseline risk factors, a stent length of ?32 mm was significantly associated with higher cumulative rates of target vessel revascularization and stent thrombosis in the patients treated with a first-generation DES (adjusted hazard ratio 1.875, 95% confidence interval 1.531 to 2.297, p <0.001; adjusted hazard ratio 2.964, 95% confidence interval 1.270 to 6.917, p = 0.012), but it was not associated with the clinical outcomes in patients treated with a newer-generation DES. In conclusion, stent length might not be associated with long-term clinical outcomes in newer-generation DES era, whereas stent length might be associated with long-term clinical outcomes in the first-generation DESs.
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Autonomic dysfunction according to disease progression in Parkinsons disease.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2013
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Although autonomic dysfunction is common in patients with Parkinsons disease (PD), few data are available regarding its pattern and quantitative severity with increasing Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) stage. We conducted autonomic function tests to quantify autonomic dysfunction in PD patients and to elucidate its possible relationship with disease progression.
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Impact of the CYP2C19*17 polymorphism on the clinical outcome of clopidogrel therapy in Asian patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.
Pharmacogenet. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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The impact of the CYP2C19*17 polymorphism on the clinical outcome in Asians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is unknown. We sought to assess the long-term impact of CYP2C19*17 on the risk for adverse clinical events in 2188 Korean patients taking clopidogrel after PCI. The prevalence of the CYP2C19*17 allele [*wt/*17: 2.4% (n = 53), *17/*17: 0%] was very low. The 2-year cumulative event rates for bleeding [*wt/*17 vs. *wt/*wt: 2 vs. 2.3%; adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 1.23; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.16-9.45], stent thrombosis (2 vs. 1.1%; HR, 3.98; 95% CI, 0.49-31.6) or composite of any death, and myocardial infarction or stroke (5.4 vs. 7.1%; HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 0.32-5.73) did not differ on the basis of the presence of CYP2C19*17. In conclusion, in our study population of Asian patients, the CYP2C19*17 polymorphism was not associated with adverse clinical outcomes after PCI because of its low prevalence, the rarity of homozygotes, and the relatively low rate of adverse clinical events.
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Growth inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma Huh7 cells by Lactobacillus casei extract.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) is known to exert anti-proliferation effects on many types of cancer cells. However, the effect of L. casei on liver cancer has not been reported. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to determine the anti-cancer effect of L. casei extract on Huh7 cells.
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Allergic diseases in preschoolers are associated with psychological and behavioural problems.
Allergy Asthma Immunol Res
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between three major allergic diseases, asthma, allergic rhinitis (AR), and atopic dermatitis (AD), and psychological and behavioural problems in preschoolers based on a community survey.
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Area under the concentration-time curve to minimum inhibitory concentration ratio as a predictor of vancomycin treatment outcome in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
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There have been few clinical studies on the association between the 24-h area under the concentration-time curve (AUC24) to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratio and vancomycin treatment outcomes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections. Patients with MRSA bacteraemia between July 2009 and January 2012 were analysed retrospectively. All adult patients treated with vancomycin for ?72h without dialysis were included. The MIC was determined by Etest and broth microdilution (BMD). Initial steady-state AUC24 was estimated using a Bayesian model, and the AUC24/MIC cut-off value for differentiating treatment success and failure was calculated by classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. In total, 76 patients were enrolled; vancomycin treatment failure occurred in 20 patients (26.3%). Catheter-related infection was the most frequent (35.5%), followed by surgical site infection (26.3%), whilst 25 (32.9%) had complicated infections. In univariate analysis, decreased MRSA vancomycin susceptibility (MIC?1.5mg/L) and vancomycin trough levels (15-20mg/L) were not associated with treatment outcomes. In the CART analysis, low initial vancomycin AUC24/MIC (<430 by Etest; <398.5 by BMD) was associated with a higher treatment failure rate (50.0% vs. 25.0%, P=0.039 by Etest; 45.0% vs. 23.2%; P=0.065 by BMD). In multivariate analysis, low initial vancomycin AUC24/MIC was a significant risk factor for treatment failure [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=4.39, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.26-15.35 by Etest; aOR=3.73, 95% CI 1.10-12.61 by BMD]. In MRSA bacteraemia, a low initial vancomycin AUC24/MIC is an independent risk factor for vancomycin treatment failure.
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Interleukin-8 is related to poor chemotherapeutic response and tumourigenicity in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Eur. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Interleukin-8 (IL-8) has been suggested as a prognostic biomarker for human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its roles in HCC progression and drug resistance have not been studied. This study investigates the role and underlying mechanism of IL-8 in the chemoresistance and progressive growth of HCC.
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Combination effect of paclitaxel and hyaluronic acid on cancer stem-like side population cells.
J Biomed Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Cancer recurrence is the main cause of chemotherapeutic treatment failure. The mechanisms driving cancer recurrence may be due to very rare subpopulation cells, cancer stem-like cells (CSCs). Therefore, the early detection and better treatment of cancer stem-like cells are of great interest. In this study, we investigated how to eliminate the side population cells (SP), which have the characteristics of cancer stem-like cells, and also show chemotherapy resistance. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) were used to sort SP and non-SP cells from human liver cancers, Huh-7 Hyaluronic acid (HA), which is an abundant component in the extracellular matrix, is known to involve in proliferation of normal and cancer cells. Herein, we investigated the effect of HA component on chemotherapy against SP cells. Cell growth inhibitory effects of the paclitaxel (PTX) chemotherapy combined with the HA component on SP cells of Huh-7 was determined using the trypan blue dye exclusion test. PTX combined with HA was found to show more increased inhibition of cell growth in both SP and non-SP cells, compared to free PTX treatment. In conclusion, SP cells of Huh-7 shows chemotherapeutic drug resistance due to the over-expressed efflux pumps. HA proposed one of possibilities to overcome the limitation of chemotherapy against cancer stem-like cells.
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Association between cord blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations and respiratory tract infections in the first 6 months of age in a Korean population: a birth cohort study (COCOA).
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Previous studies suggest that the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in cord blood may show an inverse association with respiratory tract infections (RTI) during childhood. The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of 25(OH)D concentrations in cord blood on infant RTI in a Korean birth cohort.
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Independent determinants for presence and degree of left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony in treatment-naive patients with hypertension.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Prevalence of left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony (LVSD) is over 40% in treatment-naive patients with hypertension and it improves after chronic antihypertensive treatment. These findings might support the hypothesis that blood pressure (BP), BP-derived parameters, central BP, or arterial stiffness would contribute to LVSD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate possible factors associated with LVSD in treatment-naive patients with hypertension.
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C-type lectin receptors mRNA expression in patients with otitis media with effusion.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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The role of C-type lectin receptor, a type of pattern recognition receptor, in otitis media with effusion (OME) is unclear. We assayed the levels of expression of C-type lectin receptor mRNA in children with OME and evaluated its relationship to the presence of bacteria, accompanying diseases, and characteristics of exudates.
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Can a routine follow-up blood culture be justified in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia? A retrospective case-control study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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The need for mandatory confirmation of negative conversion in Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia (KpB) has not been adequately addressed. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of adult patients with KpB over a 5-year period in two tertiary-care hospitals to determine the risk factors for persistent bacteremia and to reevaluate the necessity of follow-up blood culture in KpB.
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Prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes and ciprofloxacin resistance in pediatric bloodstream isolates of Enterobacteriaceae over a 9-year period.
Jpn. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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A total of 279 isolates of Escherichia coli (n = 128) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 151) were obtained from blood samples from children at the Seoul National University Childrens Hospital, Seoul, Korea from 1999 to 2007. Five plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes, qnrA, qnrB, qnrS, qepA, and aac(6)-Ib-cr, and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values for ciprofloxacin were tested for all the strains. Mutations in both gyrA and parC were analyzed in 57 representative strains. Twenty-seven strains (9.7%) had at least 1 of the 5 PMQR genes: qnrB in 20 isolates, qnrS in 1, aac(6)-Ib-cr in 5, and both qnrB and aac(6)-Ib-cr in 1 isolate. The overall PMQR prevalence rates tended to increase over time (P = 0.001). The non-susceptibility rate to ciprofloxacin was 11.0% (31/279). PMQR-harboring isolates tended to have increased ciprofloxacin MIC values among both quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) mutation-present (P = 0.016) and QRDR mutation-absent isolates (P < 0.001). The increasing prevalence of PMQR genes was associated with increase in quinolone use over time (P < 0.001) and increasing frequency of non-susceptibility to ciprofloxacin (P < 0.001).
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Induction mechanism of lipocalin-2 expression by co-stimulation with interleukin-1? and interferon-? in RINm5F beta-cells.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Lipocalin-2 (LCN-2) was known to play a role in obesity and insulin resistance, however, little is known about the expression of LCN-2 in pancreatic islet ?-cells. We examined the molecular mechanisms by which proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1? (IL-1?) and interferon-? (IFN-?) induce LCN-2 expression in RINm5F ?-cells. IL-1? significantly induced LCN-2 expression while IFN-? alone did not induce it. IFN-? significantly potentiated IL-1?-induced LCN-2 protein and mRNA expression. However, promoter study and EMSA showed that IFN-? failed to potentiate IL-1?-induced LCN-2 promoter activity and binding activity of transcription factors on LCN-2 promoter. Furthermore, LCN-2 mRNA stability and transcription factors NF-?B and STAT-1 were not involved in the stimulatory effect of IFN-? on IL-1?-induced LCN-2 expression. Meanwhile, Western Blot and promoter analyses showed that NF-?B was a key factor in IL-1?-induced LCN-2 expression. Collectively, IL-1? induces LCN-2 expression via NF-?B activation in RINm5F ?-cells. IFN-? potentiates IL-1?-induced LCN-2 expression at mRNA and protein levels, but not at promoter level and the stimulatory effect of IFN-? is independent of NF-?B and STAT-1 activation. These data suggest that LCN-2 may play a role in ?-cell function under an inflammatory condition.
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia in patients with liver cirrhosis: a comparison with bacteremia caused by Enterobacteriaceae.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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This study was performed to detect risk factors for Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteremia in patients with liver cirrhosis.
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Identification of a novel anti-apoptotic E3 ubiquitin ligase that ubiquitinates antagonists of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins SMAC, HtrA2, and ARTS.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Identification of new anti-apoptotic genes is important for understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis and tumorigenesis. The present study identified a novel anti-apoptotic gene named AREL1, which encodes a HECT (homologous to E6-AP carboxyl terminus) family E3 ubiquitin ligase. AREL1 interacted with and ubiquitinated IAP antagonists such as SMAC, HtrA2, and ARTS. However, AREL1 was cytosolic and did not localize to nuclei or mitochondria. The interactions between AREL1 and the IAP antagonists were specific for apoptosis-stimulated cells, in which the IAP antagonists were released into the cytosol from mitochondria. Furthermore, the ubiquitination and degradation of SMAC, HtrA2, and ARTS were significantly enhanced in AREL1-expressing cells following apoptotic stimulation, indicating that AREL1 binds to and ubiquitinates cytosolic but not mitochondria-associated forms of IAP antagonists. Furthermore, the anti-apoptotic role of AREL1-mediated degradation of SMAC, HtrA2, and ARTS was shown by simultaneous knockdown of three IAP antagonists, which caused the inhibition of caspase-3 cleavage, XIAP degradation, and induction of apoptosis. Therefore, the present study suggests that AREL1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of cytosolic forms of three IAP antagonists plays an important role in the regulation of apoptosis.
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A comparative reliability and performance study of different stent designs in terms of mechanical properties: foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility.
Artif Organs
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2013
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This study seeks to improve the mechanical performance of stents by conducting reliability performance testing and finite element method (FEM)-based simulations for coronary stents. Three commercially available stent designs and our own new design were tested to measure the factors affecting performance, specifically foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility. The stents used in the present experiments were 3?mm in working diameter and 18?mm of working length. The results of the experiments indicate that the foreshortening of stents A, B, C, and our new design, D, was equivalent to 2.25, 0.67, 0.46, and 0.41%, respectively. The recoil of stents A, B, C, and D was 6.00, 4.35, 3.50, and 4.36%, respectively. Parallel plate radial force measurements were A, 3.72?±?0.28?N; B, 3.81?±?0.32?N; C, 4.35?±?0.18?N; and D, 4.02?±?0.24?N. Radial forces determined by applying uniform pressure in the circumferential direction were A, 28.749?±?0.81?N; B, 32.231?±?1.80?N; C, 34.522?±?3.06?N; and D, 42.183?±?2.84?N. The maximum force of crimped stent at 2.2-mm deflection was 1.01?±?0.08?N, 0.82?±?0.08?N, 0.92?±?0.12?N, and 0.68?±?0.07?N for each of stents A, B, C and D. The results of this study enabled us to identify several factors to enhance the performance of stents. In comparing these stents, we found that our design, stent D, which was designed by a collaborative team from seven universities, performed better than the commercial stents across all parameter of foreshortening, recoil, radial force, and flexibility.
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Risk factors of surgical site infections after supratentorial elective surgery: a focus on the efficacy of the wound-drain-tip culture.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Surgical site infection (SSI) is one of the most dangerous complications after neurological surgery and is related to additional postoperative hospital days and an increased risk of death. One method for the early detection of SSI, the wound-drain-tip culture (WDC), has been widely used. However, no investigations on the relation between SSIs and wound drains after neurological surgery have been conducted. We performed this study to identify the risk factors for SSIs and to assess the relationship between SSIs and the results of WDC after elective supratentorial craniotomy.
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Side population in LX2 cells decreased by transforming growth factor-?
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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AIM: Side population (SP) cells are known to be enriched in stem/progenitor-like cells. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-? signaling is associated with extracellular matrix (ECM) production in hepatic stellate cells. We hypothesized that the SP fraction in LX2 cells is associated with ECM deposition, which is regulated through TGF-? signaling. METHODS: We investigated the relationship between SP cells and TGF-? signaling in the hepatic stellate cell line LX2. The effects of TGF-? and SB431542 on the SP fraction and expression of collagen type I and phospho-Smad2 was determined. RESULTS: We identified 0.8-3% SP cells in LX2 cells. The growth rate of sorted SP and non-SP cells was similar to that of the original LX2 population, but population of the G0/G1 phase was increased in SP cells. Treatment of LX2 cells with TGF-? decreased the SP fraction in a dose-dependent manner and increased the production of collagen type I. Treatment of LX2 cells with SB431542 blocked the effect of TGF-? on the SP fraction and the expression of collagen type I. We cultured LX2 cells on collagen-coated dishes to observe the effect of ECM deposition on the SP fraction. The growth rate and cell cycle distribution was similar to that observed on normal tissue culture dishes, but the SP fraction was decreased when LX2 cells were cultured on collagen-coated plates. CONCLUSION: These results show that LX2 cells contain an SP fraction and that TGF-? signaling is involved in the induction of ECM deposition as well as the number of SP cells.
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Association between maternal characteristics and neonatal birth weight in a Korean population living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea: a birth cohort study (COCOA).
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Previous studies suggest that maternal characteristics may be associated with neonatal outcomes. However, the influence of maternal characteristics on birth weight (BW) has not been adequately determined in Korean populations. We investigated associations between maternal characteristics and BW in a sample of 813 Korean women living in the Seoul metropolitan area, Korea recruited using data from the prospective hospital-based COhort for Childhood Origin of Asthma and allergic diseases (COCOA) between 2007 and 2011. The mean maternal age at delivery was 32.3 ± 3.5 yr and prepregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI) was 20.7 ± 2.5 kg/m(2). The mean BW of infant was 3,196 ± 406 g. The overall prevalence of a maternal history of allergic disease was 32.9% and the overall prevalence of allergic symptoms was 65.1%. In multivariate regression models, prepregnancy maternal BMI and gestational age at delivery were positively and a maternal history of allergic disease and nulliparity were negatively associated with BW (all P < 0.05). Presence of allergic symptoms in the mother was not associated with BW. In conclusion, prepregnancy maternal BMI, gestational age at delivery, a maternal history of allergic disease, and nulliparity may be associated with BW, respectively.
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Metastasis of renal cell carcinoma to the bladder.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Renal cell carcinoma is an uncommon source of bladder metastases. Here we report a case of renal cell carcinoma that metastasized to the bladder. A 73-year-old woman complained of gross hematuria. Abdominopelvic computerized tomography showed a bladder mass and a heterogenous enhancing mass in the lower pole of the left kidney with left vein thrombosis. The pathological analysis of the resected bladder specimen revealed metastatic renal cell carcinoma of the clear cell type.
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Improvement of arterial stiffness in the transition from acute decompensated heart failure to chronic compensated heart failure.
Clin Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2013
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Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a well-established marker for aortic stiffness and may be a prognostic factor in heart failure (HF). This study investigates whether PWV changes as patients transition from acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) to chronic compensated heart failure (CCHF).
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Entrapped doxorubicin nanoparticles for the treatment of metastatic anoikis-resistant cancer cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Metastasized and chemoresistant secondary breast cancer treatment commonly shows very low efficacy. A new efficient treatment method is required to overcome the limitation against the secondary breast cancer. In this study, anoikis-resistant breast cancer cells, MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 were developed as models of chemoresistant and metastatic breast cancer. Doxorubicin encapsulating human serum albumin nanoparticles (HSA+DOX NPs) were fabricated to confirm the benefits of nanoparticles at the treatment of anoikis-resistant breast cancer cells. The side population (SP) fraction in the anoikis-resistant cancer cells was higher than the parental cells. HSA+DOX NPs were more cytotoxic to anoikis-resistant cancer cells than free doxorubicin. The confocal microscope images demonstrated HSA+DOX NPs to deliver more doxorubicin into cells compared to the free doxorubicin by bypassing the drug efflux pump systems of anoikis-resistant cancer cells. In this study, a nanomedicine-based drug delivery carrier shows a potential in treating a metastasized and chemoresistant breast cancer.
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Volumetric and shape analysis of thalamus in idiopathic generalized epilepsy.
J. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Previous studies using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) provided emerging evidence of structural changes of the thalamus in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). However, the location of atrophy within the thalamus in IGE has been somewhat inconsistent across the studies. We, therefore, examined the location of thalamic atrophy and its relationship with clinical factors in IGE, using multiple analytic methods. Fifty IGE patients and 50 controls were scanned on a 3T MRI. Structural evaluation consisted of automated thalamic volumetry, VBM, and thalamic shape analysis. Group comparison between patients and controls was made to assess thalamic atrophy. Within-group correlations between thalamic atrophy and clinical variables were further performed in patients. Both thalamic volumes were reduced in IGE patients, and were negatively correlated with disease duration. The VBM showed a significant regional grey matter volume reduction in bilateral anterior-medial thalami in patients compared to controls. Voxel values extracted from the anterior-medial thalamic cluster were negatively correlated with disease duration. Vertex-based shape analysis revealed regional atrophy on the anterior-medial and posterior-dorsal aspects of thalamus bilaterally in patients compared to controls. Correlation analysis showed that anterior-medial and posterior-dorsal aspects of bilateral thalami were negatively correlated with disease duration. Combining multiple analyses, we demonstrated regional atrophy of anterior-medial and posterior-dorsal thalamus in patients with IGE. Given the anatomical connection of these thalamic regions with the frontal lobe, our finding of greater thalamic atrophy in relation to increasing disease duration further supports the pathophysiological concept of thalamo-frontal network abnormality underlying IGE, and may implicate frontal cognitive dysfunctions and disease progression.
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Psychosomatic symptom profiles in patients with restless legs syndrome.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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It has been reported that restless legs syndrome (RLS) might be associated with multiple psychosomatic symptoms. We aimed to identify which psychosomatic symptom is the most related in RLS patients compared to healthy controls. We also attempted to determine the relation between psychosomatic comorbidity and RLS severity regardless of sleep-related symptoms.
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Metabolically obese status with normal weight is associated with both the prevalence and severity of angiographic coronary artery disease.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We evaluated prevalence and severity of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) according to groups by metabolically obese (MO) and/or weight status.
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Role of secondary transporters and phosphotransferase systems in glucose transport by Oenococcus oeni.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Glucose uptake by the heterofermentative lactic acid bacterium Oenococcus oeni B1 was studied at the physiological and gene expression levels. Glucose- or fructose-grown bacteria catalyzed uptake of [(14)C]glucose over a pH range from pH 4 to 9, with maxima at pHs 5.5 and 7. Uptake occurred in two-step kinetics in a high- and low-affinity reaction. The high-affinity uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and required energization. It accumulated the radioactivity of glucose by a factor of 55 within the bacteria. A large portion (about 80%) of the uptake of glucose was inhibited by protonophores and ionophores. Uptake of the glucose at neutral pH was not sensitive to degradation of the proton potential, ?p. Expression of the genes OEOE_0819 and OEOE_1574 (here referred to as 0819 and 1574), coding for secondary transporters, was induced by glucose as identified by quantitative real-time (RT)-PCR. The genes 1574 and 0819 were able to complement growth of a Bacillus subtilis hexose transport-deficient mutant on glucose but not on fructose. The genes 1574 and 0819 therefore encode secondary transporters for glucose, and the transports are presumably ?p dependent. O. oeni codes, in addition, for a phosphotransferase transport system (PTS) (gene OEOE_0464 [0464] for the permease) with similarity to the fructose- and mannose-specific PTS of lactic acid bacteria. Quantitative RT-PCR showed induction of the gene 0464 by glucose and by fructose. The data suggest that the PTS is responsible for ?p-independent hexose transport at neutral pH and for the residual ?p-independent transport of hexoses at acidic pH.
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Systolic synchrony is impaired in nonleft ventricular hypertrophy of never-treated hypertensive patients.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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The objective of the current study was to confirm the degrees of dyssynchrony in patients with nonleft ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and never-treated hypertension compared with normal controls or patients with LVH and never-treated hypertension.
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