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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Harmonization of Neuroticism and Extraversion phenotypes across inventories and cohorts in the Genetics of Personality Consortium: an application of Item Response Theory.
Behav. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Mega- or meta-analytic studies (e.g. genome-wide association studies) are increasingly used in behavior genetics. An issue in such studies is that phenotypes are often measured by different instruments across study cohorts, requiring harmonization of measures so that more powerful fixed effect meta-analyses can be employed. Within the Genetics of Personality Consortium, we demonstrate for two clinically relevant personality traits, Neuroticism and Extraversion, how Item-Response Theory (IRT) can be applied to map item data from different inventories to the same underlying constructs. Personality item data were analyzed in >160,000 individuals from 23 cohorts across Europe, USA and Australia in which Neuroticism and Extraversion were assessed by nine different personality inventories. Results showed that harmonization was very successful for most personality inventories and moderately successful for some. Neuroticism and Extraversion inventories were largely measurement invariant across cohorts, in particular when comparing cohorts from countries where the same language is spoken. The IRT-based scores for Neuroticism and Extraversion were heritable (48 and 49 %, respectively, based on a meta-analysis of six twin cohorts, total N = 29,496 and 29,501 twin pairs, respectively) with a significant part of the heritability due to non-additive genetic factors. For Extraversion, these genetic factors qualitatively differ across sexes. We showed that our IRT method can lead to a large increase in sample size and therefore statistical power. The IRT approach may be applied to any mega- or meta-analytic study in which item-based behavioral measures need to be harmonized.
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Smoking, nicotine dependence and nicotine intake by socio-economic status and marital status.
Addict Behav
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Low socio-economic status (SES) is strongly related to smoking, but studies examining the association of SES with nicotine dependence (ND) are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of SES and marital status with smoking, multiple measures of ND, and cotinine as a nicotine intake biomarker.
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Role of nicotine dependence in the association between the dopamine receptor gene DRD3 and major depressive disorder.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aims of this study were to analyze associations of dopamine receptor genes (DRD1-5) with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and nicotine dependence (ND), and to investigate whether ND moderates genetic influences on MDD.
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Long-term consistency of diurnal-type preferences among men.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2013
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Diurnal type (chronotype) differentiates individuals on an axis between the extremes of evening type to morning type. These diurnal-type preferences are thought to be relatively stable, but follow-up studies are sparse. The study aims were (1) to compare cross-sectional studies of diurnal type preferences between two decades and (2) to analyze the consistency of diurnal-type preferences using a longitudinal dataset. We analyzed a total of 18?087 adult males from four datasets with information on diurnal type and age. Of these, 2144 were available for survival analysis and 567 for analysis of longitudinal diurnal consistency. Diurnal type was assessed by asking the individual to what extent they would rate themselves a morning or an evening person, categorized into four groups. Statistical tests for stability of diurnal type were based on transition matrices and p values obtained using likelihood ratios. Cox regression was used to calculate the relative risk of all-cause mortality in each of the four diurnal type groups. After direct age standardization, 9.5% (95% CI: 9.0-10.1%) of participants in the four datasets were evening types. The cross-sectional data yielded that morning types were less common in the 2000s than two decades earlier. The longitudinal dataset revealed a significant shift from evening type to another type from 1985 to 2008 (p?=?0.002). The relative risk of all-cause mortality was 1.3-fold (95% CI: 1.0-1.6; p?=?0.05) higher for evening types compared to morning types. At the population level, eveningness appears to have become more prevalent over recent decades. However, on the individual level, the more morningness the chronotype, the more persistent it remains with aging.
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Distinct loci in the CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 gene cluster are associated with onset of regular smoking.
Sarah H Stephens, Sarah M Hartz, Nicole R Hoft, Nancy L Saccone, Robin C Corley, John K Hewitt, Christian J Hopfer, Naomi Breslau, Hilary Coon, Xiangning Chen, Francesca Ducci, Nicole Dueker, Nora Franceschini, Josef Frank, Younghun Han, Nadia N Hansel, Chenhui Jiang, Tellervo Korhonen, Penelope A Lind, Jason Liu, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Martha Michel, John R Shaffer, Susan E Short, Juzhong Sun, Alexander Teumer, John R Thompson, Nicole Vogelzangs, Jacqueline M Vink, Angela Wenzlaff, William Wheeler, Bao-Zhu Yang, Steven H Aggen, Anthony J Balmforth, Sebastian E Baumeister, Terri H Beaty, Daniel J Benjamin, Andrew W Bergen, Ulla Broms, David Cesarini, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Jingchun Chen, Yu-Ching Cheng, Sven Cichon, David Couper, Francesco Cucca, Danielle Dick, Tatiana Foroud, Helena Furberg, Ina Giegling, Nathan A Gillespie, Fangyi Gu, Alistair S Hall, Jenni Hällfors, Shizhong Han, Annette M Hartmann, Kauko Heikkilä, Ian B Hickie, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Pekka Jousilahti, Marika Kaakinen, Mika Kähönen, Philipp D Koellinger, Stephen Kittner, Bettina Konte, Maria-Teresa Landi, Tiina Laatikainen, Mark Leppert, Steven M Levy, Rasika A Mathias, Daniel W McNeil, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Tanda Murray, Matthias Nauck, Kari E North, Peter D Pare, Michele Pergadia, Ingo Ruczinski, Veikko Salomaa, Jorma Viikari, Gonneke Willemsen, Kathleen C Barnes, Eric Boerwinkle, Dorret I Boomsma, Neil Caporaso, Howard J Edenberg, Clyde Francks, Joel Gelernter, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Hyman Hops, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Magnus Johannesson, Kenneth S Kendler, Terho Lehtimäki, Patrik K E Magnusson, Mary L Marazita, Jonathan Marchini, Braxton D Mitchell, Markus M Nöthen, Brenda W Penninx, Olli Raitakari, Marcella Rietschel, Dan Rujescu, Nilesh J Samani, Ann G Schwartz, Sanjay Shete, Margaret Spitz, Gary E Swan, Henry Völzke, Juha Veijola, Qingyi Wei, Chris Amos, Dale S Cannon, Richard Grucza, Dorothy Hatsukami, Andrew Heath, Eric O Johnson, Jaakko Kaprio, Pamela Madden, Nicholas G Martin, Victoria L Stevens, Robert B Weiss, Peter Kraft, Laura J Bierut, Marissa A Ehringer.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) genes (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) have been reproducibly associated with nicotine dependence, smoking behaviors, and lung cancer risk. Of the few reports that have focused on early smoking behaviors, association results have been mixed. This meta-analysis examines early smoking phenotypes and SNPs in the gene cluster to determine: (1) whether the most robust association signal in this region (rs16969968) for other smoking behaviors is also associated with early behaviors, and/or (2) if additional statistically independent signals are important in early smoking. We focused on two phenotypes: age of tobacco initiation (AOI) and age of first regular tobacco use (AOS). This study included 56,034 subjects (41 groups) spanning nine countries and evaluated five SNPs including rs1948, rs16969968, rs578776, rs588765, and rs684513. Each dataset was analyzed using a centrally generated script. Meta-analyses were conducted from summary statistics. AOS yielded significant associations with SNPs rs578776 (beta = 0.02, P = 0.004), rs1948 (beta = 0.023, P = 0.018), and rs684513 (beta = 0.032, P = 0.017), indicating protective effects. There were no significant associations for the AOI phenotype. Importantly, rs16969968, the most replicated signal in this region for nicotine dependence, cigarettes per day, and cotinine levels, was not associated with AOI (P = 0.59) or AOS (P = 0.92). These results provide important insight into the complexity of smoking behavior phenotypes, and suggest that association signals in the CHRNA5/A3/B4 gene cluster affecting early smoking behaviors may be different from those affecting the mature nicotine dependence phenotype.
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Scrutiny of the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 smoking behavior locus reveals a novel association with alcohol use in a Finnish population based study.
Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster on chromosome 15q25.1 encoding the cholinergic nicotinic receptor subunits is robustly associated with smoking behavior and nicotine dependence. Only a few studies to date have examined the locus with alcohol related traits and found evidence of association with alcohol abuse and dependence. Our main goal was to examine the role of three intensively studied single nucleotide polymorphisms, rs16969968, rs578776 and rs588765, tagging three distinct loci, in alcohol use. Our sample was drawn from two independent Finnish population-based surveys, the National FINRISK Study and the Health 2000 (Health Examination) Survey. The combined sample included a total of 32,592 adult Finns (54% women) of whom 8,356 were assessed for cigarettes per day (CPD). Data on alcohol use were available for 31,812 individuals. We detected a novel association between rs588765 and alcohol use defined as abstainers and low-frequency drinkers versus drinkers (OR=1.15, p=0.00007). Additionally, we provide precise estimates of strength of the association between the three loci and smoking quantity in a very large population based sample. As a conclusion, our results provide further evidence for the nicotine-specific role of rs16969968 (locus 1). Further, our data suggest that the effect of rs588765 (locus 3) may be specific to alcohol use as the effect is seen also in never smokers.
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Chromosome 20 shows linkage with DSM-IV nicotine dependence in Finnish adult smokers.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2011
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Chromosome 20 has previously been associated with nicotine dependence (ND) and smoking cessation. Our aim was to replicate and extend these findings.
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Heritability of lung function: a twin study among never-smoking elderly women.
Twin Res Hum Genet
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Most studies on lung function heritability have been conducted in smokers and non-smokers using cross-sectional study design. Smoking patterns may, however, confound the contribution of genetic factors. We investigated heritability of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), and FEV1/FVC ratio longitudinally, excluding the effects of smoking. A sample of never smoking female twins (n = 374), aged 63-76 at baseline, answered health questionnaires and attended spirometry in years 2000 and 2003. Bivariate structural equation modeling, restricted to adequate spirometry performances (baseline n = 339, follow-up n = 252), was used to estimate genetic and environmental influences on consecutive measurements of FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC. The best-fitting models included additive genetic and non-shared environmental effects. Heritability estimates of 32% and 36% for FEV1, 41% and 37% for FVC, while 46% and 16% for FEV1/FVC were found at baseline and at follow-up. Genetic correlation between FEV1 and FEV1/FVC heritability estimates approached unity, whereas correlation between FVC estimates was 0.80. Environmental correlations were 0.69 for FEV1, 0.62 for FVC, and 0.07 for FEV1/FVC. In never smokers, additive genetic and non-shared environmental effects explain the inter-individual variations in FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC. One third of the variation in FEV1 and FVC is explained by genetic and two thirds by environmental effects. Between 2000 and 2003, environmental effects on FEV1/FVC changed, and the proportion of variance explained by environmental effects increased remarkably. Genetic effects on FEV1 and FEV1/FVC are common to consecutive measurements, whereas at follow-up, new genetic factors explained 14% of the observed variance in FVC.
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Nicotine, alcohol, and drug findings in young adults in a population-based postmortem database.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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To obtain reliable information on nicotine and drug use through a population-based study, the prevalence of nicotine use in deceased young adults was studied in the Finnish postmortem toxicology database for a 3-year period. The nicotine user and non-nicotine user groups were compared by alcohol, drug, and drug-of-abuse findings and by the manner of death.
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Associations of nicotine intake measures with CHRN genes in Finnish smokers.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Genetic effects contribute to individual differences in smoking behavior. Persistence to smoke despite known harmful health effects is mostly driven by nicotine addiction. As the physiological effects of nicotine are mediated by nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), we aimed at examining whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) residing in nAChR subunit (CHRN) genes, other than CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4 gene cluster previously showing association in our sample, are associated with smoking quantity or serum cotinine levels.
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Cigarette smoking and dimensions of depressive symptoms: longitudinal analysis among Finnish male and female twins.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
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The association of smoking and depression is established, but it remains unclear which depression dimensions are linked to smoking patterns.
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[Evaluation of tobacco addiction among adolescents and its treatment within the health care].
Duodecim
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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Evaluation and treatment of tobacco addiction among adolescents require partly different means than those for adults. Some adolescents are hooked already from the first cigarettes. Indicators of dependence designed for adults and based on regular smoking are suitable for daily smoking adolescents. Indicators providing a more sensitive detection of the appearance of the first signs of dependence are suitable for the less smoking. Regular meetings enabling an open discussion within personal or group councelling constitute the main components in the treatment of tobacco addiction in adolescents. Preliminary evidence exists also on the efficacy of supplementary nicotine patches and bupropion.
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Smoking affects diagnostic salivary periodontal disease biomarker levels in adolescents.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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The effects of smoking on periodontal biomarkers in adolescents are unknown. This study investigates matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and polymorphonuclear leukocyte elastase levels in saliva together with periodontal health indices accounting for body mass index and smoking in a birth cohort from Finland.
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Food neophobia in young adults: genetic architecture and relation to personality, pleasantness and use frequency of foods, and body mass index--a twin study.
Behav. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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Food neophobia has been studied extensively in children, but its causal origins and relationship to eating behavior in adults are not well understood. We studied genetic and environmental effects on variation in food neophobia, measured using the Food Neophobia Scale, and explored associations between food neophobia and personality, pleasantness and use frequency of food groups, and body mass index in young adult twins (N = 1175, aged 20-25 years, 54.7% women). In women, additive genetic effects (heritability) accounted for 61% of variation in food neophobia, whereas in men, shared environmental effects explained 45% of the variation. Food neophobia negatively correlated with the personality trait Openness, corrected for the structural overlap (r = -0.23), and in women, these two traits had a genetic correlation (r (g) = -0.39). In addition, food neophobia negatively correlated with pleasantness and use frequency of fruits and vegetables and of fish and with mean pleasantness of foods. Once evolutionarily important, food neophobia should at present be considered in nutrition counseling as a possible barrier to a balanced diet.
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Key factors in smoking cessation intervention among 15-16-year-olds.
Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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The authors aimed to investigate factors associated with smoking cessation among adolescents after tobacco intervention. They examined smokers (n = 127) from one birth cohort (n = 545) in the city of Kotka in Finland. These smokers were randomized in 3 intervention groups the dentist (n = 44) and the school nurse (n = 42 groups), and a control group (n = 39). After 2 months, the authors sent a follow-up questionnaire to the initial smokers to find out who had quit.The authors found that those whose best friend was a nonsmoker were more likely to stop smoking (relative risk RR 7.0 95% Cl 4.6-10.7). Moreover, the nicotine-dependent participants (measured according to the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence(36)) were less likely to stop (RR 0.1 95% Cl 0.08-0.11) compared to non-nicotine dependent participants. Last, of the diurnal types, the morning types found it easier to quit smoking than the evening types (RR 2.2 95% Cl 1.4-3.6). Thus, the authors concluded that the best friends influence, nicotine dependence, and diurnal type could be taken more into account in individual counseling on smoking cessation.
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Long-term smoking behavior patterns predicting self-reported chronic bronchitis.
COPD
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2009
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We examined the effects of long-term smoking patterns on self-reported symptoms of chronic bronchitis within the Finnish adult twin cohort including 21, 609 individuals responding to questionnaires in 1975 and 1981, of which 11,015 respondents participated also in 1990. We also explored the association between smoking and bronchitis among discordant twin pairs. Among those without chronic bronchitis at baseline we examined incidence of chronic bronchitis in 1981 both by 1975 smoking status, but also based on subgroups formed according to change in smoking behaviors between 1975 and 1981. We conducted similar analyses in the longitudinal data including three consecutive measurements of smoking status. Logistic regressions demonstrated that among current smokers, the risk of chronic bronchitis increased about 1.5-fold by each amount category of daily cigarettes. When analyzing change of smoking status between 1975 and 1981, daily moderate and heavy smokers, smoking increasers and decreasers, as well as re-current smokers demonstrated elevated risks. In the analysis among discordant twin pairs the smoking co-twins had a 14-fold likelihood for chronic bronchitis compared to their never-smoking co-twins. Panel analyses showed that, not only moderate and heavy, but also former and light smokers, had significant risks for chronic bronchitis. Those with late smoking initiation, leisure time physical activity or over 10 years of smoking cessation were less likely to have chronic bronchitis. We conclude that in long term evaluation no safe level of smoking exists. Abstinence from tobacco seems to be the public health message justified by these results in prevention of chronic bronchitis.
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Association of serum cotinine level with a cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes (CHRNA3/CHRNA5/CHRNB4) on chromosome 15.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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A cluster of three nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes on chromosome 15 (CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4) has been shown to be associated with nicotine dependence and smoking quantity. The aim of this study was to clarify whether the variation at this locus regulates nicotine intake among smokers by using the level of a metabolite of nicotine, cotinine, as an outcome. The number of cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) and immune-reactive serum cotinine level were determined in 516 daily smokers (age 30-75 years, 303 males) from the population-based Health2000 study. Association of 21 SNPs from a 100 kb region of chromosome 15 with cotinine and CPD was examined. SNP rs1051730 showed the strongest association to both measures. However, this SNP accounted for nearly a five-fold larger proportion of variance in cotinine levels than in CPD (R(2) 4.3% versus 0.9%). The effect size of the SNP was 0.30 for cotinine level, whereas it was 0.13 for CPD. Variation at CHRNA5/CHRNA3/CHRNB4 cluster influences nicotine level, measured as cotinine, more strongly than smoking quantity, measured by CPD, and appears thus to be involved in regulation of nicotine levels among smokers.
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Characteristics and consistency of light smoking: long-term follow-up among Finnish adults.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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The main body of smoking behavior research has targeted primarily moderate and heavy smoking. This study aimed to define characteristics of daily light smoking and to examine the consistency of this smoking pattern.
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Characteristics and health consequences of intermittent smoking: long-term follow-up among Finnish adult twins.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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The definition of a smoker as someone who smokes daily has been challenged. No consensus exists regarding whether intermittent smoking represents transition toward daily smoking or cessation or whether intermittent smokers consistently maintain their low tobacco use frequency. Although abundant evidence supports the adverse health consequences of daily smoking, less evidence is available on intermittent smoking.
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Genetic linkage findings for DSM-IV nicotine withdrawal in two populations.
Am. J. Med. Genet. B Neuropsychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2009
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Nicotine withdrawal (NW) is both an important contributor to difficulty quitting cigarettes and because of mood-related withdrawal symptoms a problem of particular relevance to psychiatry. Twin-studies suggest that genetic factors influence NW (heritability = 45%). Only one previous linkage study has published findings on NW [Swan et al. (2006); Am J Med Genet Part B 141B:354-360; LOD = 2.7; Chr. 6 at 159 cM]. As part of an international consortium, genome-wide scans (using over 360 autosomal microsatellite markers) and telephone diagnostic interviews were conducted on 289 Australian (AUS) and 161 Finnish (FIN, combined (COMB) N = 450 families) families ascertained from twin registries through index-cases with a lifetime history of cigarette smoking. The statistical approach used an affected-sib-pair design (at least two adult full siblings reported a history of DSM-IV NW) and conducted the linkage analyses using MERLIN. Linkage signals with LOD scores >1.5 were found on two chromosomes: 6 (FIN: LOD = 1.93 at 75 cM) and 11 at two different locations (FIN: LOD = 3.55 at 17 cM, and AUS: LOD = 1.68 with a COMB: LOD = 2.30 at 123 cM). The multipoint LOD score of 3.55 on chromosome 11p15 in FIN met genomewide significance (P = 0.013 with 1,000 simulations). At least four strong candidate genes lie within or near this peak on chromosome 11: DRD4, TPH, TH, and CHRNA10. Other studies have reported that chromosome 11 may harbor genes associated with various aspects of smoking behavior. This study adds to that literature by highlighting evidence for NW.
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Diurnal Evening Type is Associated with Current Smoking, Nicotine Dependence and Nicotine Intake in the Population Based National FINRISK 2007 Study.
J Addict Res Ther
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AIMS: To examine whether smoking habits, nicotine dependence (ND) and plasma cotinine levels differ by diurnal type. DESIGN: Data originated from the national FINRISK 2007 survey. Regression analyses were calculated to examine the association between diurnal type and smoking status, ND, and nicotine intake. PARTICIPANTS: 7091 FINRISK participants with smoking and diurnal type information and a subset of 1746 ever smokers with detailed smoking, and ND assessments. MEASUREMENTS: Diurnal type assessed with a six-item sum scale was categorized as morning, intermediate and evening type. Smoking status was determined as current (daily or occasional), former, and never smokers. ND was measured with the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND), the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC), and the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). For current smokers, plasma cotinine was analyzed as biochemical measurement of nicotine intake. FINDINGS: Evening type was associated with current smoking (OR=1.66, 95% CI 1.40, 1.97). A significant association with diurnal type was seen for FTND among men (beta= -0.46, 95% CI -0.72, -0.21), sexes combined for HONC (beta= -0.31, 95% CI -0.52, -0.11) and NDSS (beta= -0.86, 95% CI -1.43, -0.29) and for cotinine among men (beta= -0.73, 95% CI -1.16, -0.29). Adjustment for depressive symptoms attenuated the association of diurnal type with NDSS to be non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Diurnal type was associated with multiple ND measures and nicotine intake, interestingly more so among men. Evening type persons are at higher risk of dependence, but depressive symptoms attenuates this association clearly.
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Increased genetic vulnerability to smoking at CHRNA5 in early-onset smokers.
Sarah M Hartz, Susan E Short, Nancy L Saccone, Robert Culverhouse, LiShiun Chen, Tae-Hwi Schwantes-An, Hilary Coon, Younghun Han, Sarah H Stephens, Juzhong Sun, Xiangning Chen, Francesca Ducci, Nicole Dueker, Nora Franceschini, Josef Frank, Frank Geller, Daniel Gubjartsson, Nadia N Hansel, Chenhui Jiang, Kaisu Keskitalo-Vuokko, Zhen Liu, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Martha Michel, Rajesh Rawal, Albert Rosenberger, Paul Scheet, John R Shaffer, Alexander Teumer, John R Thompson, Jacqueline M Vink, Nicole Vogelzangs, Angela S Wenzlaff, William Wheeler, Xiangjun Xiao, Bao-Zhu Yang, Steven H Aggen, Anthony J Balmforth, Sebastian E Baumeister, Terri Beaty, Siiri Bennett, Andrew W Bergen, Heather A Boyd, Ulla Broms, Harry Campbell, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Jingchun Chen, Yu-Ching Cheng, Sven Cichon, David Couper, Francesco Cucca, Danielle M Dick, Tatiana Foroud, Helena Furberg, Ina Giegling, Fangyi Gu, Alistair S Hall, Jenni Hällfors, Shizhong Han, Annette M Hartmann, Caroline Hayward, Kauko Heikkilä, John K Hewitt, Jouke Jan Hottenga, Majken K Jensen, Pekka Jousilahti, Marika Kaakinen, Steven J Kittner, Bettina Konte, Tellervo Korhonen, Maria-Teresa Landi, Tiina Laatikainen, Mark Leppert, Steven M Levy, Rasika A Mathias, Daniel W McNeil, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Thomas Muley, Tanda Murray, Matthias Nauck, Kari North, Michele Pergadia, Ozren Polašek, Erin M Ramos, Samuli Ripatti, Angela Risch, Ingo Ruczinski, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, David Schlessinger, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Antonio Terracciano, Manuela Uda, Gonneke Willemsen, Xifeng Wu, Goncalo Abecasis, Kathleen Barnes, Heike Bickeböller, Eric Boerwinkle, Dorret I Boomsma, Neil Caporaso, Jubao Duan, Howard J Edenberg, Clyde Francks, Pablo V Gejman, Joel Gelernter, Hans Jörgen Grabe, Hyman Hops, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Jorma Viikari, Mika Kähönen, Kenneth S Kendler, Terho Lehtimäki, Douglas F Levinson, Mary L Marazita, Jonathan Marchini, Mads Melbye, Braxton D Mitchell, Jeffrey C Murray, Markus M Nöthen, Brenda W Penninx, Olli Raitakari, Marcella Rietschel, Dan Rujescu, Nilesh J Samani, Alan R Sanders, Ann G Schwartz, Sanjay Shete, Jianxin Shi, Margaret Spitz, Kari Stefansson, Gary E Swan, Thorgeir Thorgeirsson, Henry Völzke, Qingyi Wei, H-Erich Wichmann, Christopher I Amos, Naomi Breslau, Dale S Cannon, Marissa Ehringer, Richard Grucza, Dorothy Hatsukami, Andrew Heath, Eric O Johnson, Jaakko Kaprio, Pamela Madden, Nicholas G Martin, Victoria L Stevens, Jerry A Stitzel, Robert B Weiss, Peter Kraft, Laura J Bierut.
Arch. Gen. Psychiatry
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Recent studies have shown an association between cigarettes per day (CPD) and a nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism in CHRNA5, rs16969968.
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Tendency toward eveningness is associated with unhealthy dietary habits.
Chronobiol. Int.
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Subjects with higher preference for evening hours in daily activities (eveningness) have been repeatedly shown to practice adverse health behaviors as compared to those preferring morning hours (morningness). However, associations between chronotype and dietary intake have not been explored intensively. The authors explored whether the human chronotype is associated with food and nutrient intakes in a random sample of the population aged 25 to 74 yrs. The cross-sectional study included 4493 subjects from the National FINRISK 2007 Study. Chronotype was assessed using a shortened version of Horne and Östbergs Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire. Diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Associations between morningness-eveningness (ME) score and dietary intakes were analyzed by linear regression and difference between lowest (eveningness) and highest (morningness) ME score quintiles by Tukeys test. In the multivariable model, intakes of whole grain, rye, potatoes, and vegetables and roots decreased, whereas those of wine and chocolate increased with lower ME scores. Participants in the lowest ME score quintile consumed less fish (p
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Analysis of detailed phenotype profiles reveals CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 gene cluster association with several nicotine dependence traits.
Nicotine Tob. Res.
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The role of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor gene cluster on chromosome 15q24-25 in the etiology of nicotine dependence (ND) is still being defined. In this study, we included all 15 tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 cluster and tested associations with 30 smoking-related phenotypes.
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