JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Paraneoplastic granulocyte colony-stimulating factor secretion in soft tissue sarcoma mimicking myeloproliferative neoplasia: a case report.
BMC Res Notes
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While paraneoplastic leukocytosis is a common phenomenon in solid tumors, extreme elevations of white blood counts (WBC) in the range of more than 100,000/?l are uncommon in patients with non-hematologic malignancies. Leukocytosis with mature neutrophils due to a granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) producing tumor is only seen on rare occasions.
Related JoVE Video
Implications of differential age distribution of disease-associated meningococcal lineages for vaccine development.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
New vaccines targeting meningococci expressing serogroup B polysaccharide have been developed, with some being licensed in Europe. Coverage depends on the distribution of disease-associated genotypes, which may vary by age. It is well established that a small number of hyperinvasive lineages account for most disease, and these lineages are associated with particular antigens, including vaccine candidates. A collection of 4,048 representative meningococcal disease isolates from 18 European countries, collected over a 3-year period, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Age data were available for 3,147 isolates. The proportions of hyperinvasive lineages, identified as particular clonal complexes (ccs) by MLST, differed among age groups. Subjects <1 year of age experienced lower risk of sequence type 11 (ST-11) cc, ST-32 cc, and ST-269 cc disease and higher risk of disease due to unassigned STs, 1- to 4-year-olds experienced lower risk of ST-11 cc and ST-32 cc disease, 5- to 14-year-olds were less likely to experience ST-11 cc and ST-269 cc disease, and ?25-year-olds were more likely to experience disease due to less common ccs and unassigned STs. Younger and older subjects were vulnerable to a more diverse set of genotypes, indicating the more clonal nature of genotypes affecting adolescents and young adults. Knowledge of temporal and spatial diversity and the dynamics of meningococcal populations is essential for disease control by vaccines, as coverage is lineage specific. The nonrandom age distribution of hyperinvasive lineages has consequences for the design and implementation of vaccines, as different variants, or perhaps targets, may be required for different age groups.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of Escherichia coli isolates from hospital inpatients or outpatients with urinary tract infection.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the most common cause of community- and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs). Isolates from uncomplicated community-acquired UTIs express a variety of virulence traits that promote the efficient colonization of the urinary tract. In contrast, nosocomial UTIs can be caused by E. coli strains that differ in their virulence traits from the community-acquired UTI isolates. UPEC virulence markers are used to distinguish these facultative extraintestinal pathogens, which belong to the intestinal flora of many healthy individuals, from intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC). IPEC is a diarrheagenic pathogen with a characteristic virulence gene set that is absent in UPEC. Here, we characterized 265 isolates from patients with UTIs during inpatient or outpatient treatment at a hospital regarding their phylogenies and IPEC or UPEC virulence traits. Interestingly, 28 of these isolates (10.6%) carried typical IPEC virulence genes that are characteristic of enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), and atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC), although IPEC is not considered a uropathogen. Twenty-three isolates harbored the astA gene coding for the EAEC heat-stable enterotoxin 1 (EAST1), and most of them carried virulence genes that are characteristic of UPEC and/or EAEC. Our results indicate that UPEC isolates from hospital patients differ from archetypal community-acquired isolates from uncomplicated UTIs by their spectrum of virulence traits. They represent a diverse group, including EAEC, as well as other IPEC pathotypes, which in addition contain typical UPEC virulence genes. The combination of typical extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) and IPEC virulence determinants in some isolates demonstrates the marked genome plasticity of E. coli and calls for a reevaluation of the strict pathotype classification of EAEC.
Related JoVE Video
Community-acquired skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus: What is the role of the Panton-Valentine leukocidin toxin?
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The data concerning frequency and relevance of the toxin Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) in skin infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus is controversial. The objective of the study was the identification of the role of the toxin in community-acquired skin infections caused by S. aureus.
Related JoVE Video
Functional expression of the capsule polymerase of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup X: A new perspective for vaccine development.
Glycobiology
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis. A key feature in pathogenicity is the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) that prevents complement activation and thus supports bacterial survival in the host. Twelve serogroups characterized by immunologically and structurally different CPS have been identified. Meningococcal CPS elicit bactericidal antibodies and consequently are used for the development of vaccines. Vaccination against the epidemiologically most relevant serogroups was initially carried out with purified CPS and later followed by conjugate vaccines which consist of CPS covalently linked to a carrier protein. Of increasing importance in the African meningitis belt is NmX for which no vaccine is currently available. Here we describe the molecular cloning, recombinant expression, and purification of the capsule polymerase of NmX called CsxA. The protein expressed with N- and/or C-terminal epitope tags was soluble and could be purified to near homogeneity. With short oligosaccharide primers derived from the NmX capsular polysaccharide, recombinant CsxA produced long polymer chains in vitro that in immunoblots were detected with NmX specific antibodies. Moreover, the chemical identity of in vitro produced NmX polysaccharides was confirmed by NMR. Besides the demonstration that the previously identified gene csxA encodes the NmX capsule polymerase CsxA, the data presented in this study pave the way for the use of the recombinant capsule polymerase as a safe and economic way to generate the NmX capsular polysaccharide in vaccine developmental programs.
Related JoVE Video
BI-RADS(R) 3 lesions at contrast-enhanced breast MRI: is an initial short-interval follow-up necessary?
Acta Radiol
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) BI-RADS® 3 lesions should have a very high probability of being benign. To prove benignity most institutions do follow-up MRI.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative proteome analysis of spontaneous outer membrane vesicles and purified outer membranes of Neisseria meningitidis.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) of Gram-negative bacteria receive increasing attention because of various biological functions and their use as vaccines. However, the mechanisms of OMV release and selective sorting of proteins into OMVs remain unclear. Comprehensive quantitative proteome comparisons between spontaneous OMVs (SOMVs) and the outer membrane (OM) have not been conducted so far. Here, we established a protocol for metabolic labeling of neisserial proteins with (15)N. SOMV and OM proteins labeled with (15)N were used as an internal standard for proteomic comparison of the SOMVs and OMs of two different strains. This labeling approach, coupled with high-sensitivity mass spectrometry, allowed us to comprehensively unravel the proteome of the SOMVs and OMs. We quantified the relative distribution of 155 proteins between SOMVs and the OM. Complement regulatory proteins, autotransporters, proteins involved in iron and zinc acquisition, and a two-partner secretion system were enriched in SOMVs. The highly abundant porins PorA and PorB and proteins connecting the OM with peptidoglycan or the inner membrane, such as RmpM, MtrE, and PilQ, were depleted in SOMVs. Furthermore, the three lytic transglycosylases MltA, MltB, and Slt were less abundant in SOMVs. In conclusion, SOMVs are likely to be released from surface areas with a low local abundance of membrane-anchoring proteins and lytic transglycosylases. The enrichment of complement regulatory proteins, autotransporters, and trace metal binding and transport proteins needs to be explored in the context of the pathogenesis of meningococcal disease.
Related JoVE Video
In vitro resistance mechanisms of Neisseria meningitidis against neutrophil extracellular traps.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading cause of septicemia in childhood. Nm septicemia is unique with respect to very quick disease progression, high in vivo bacterial replication rate and its considerable mortality. Nm circumvents major mechanisms of innate immunity such as complement system and phagocytosis. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are formed from neutrophils during systemic infection and are suggested to contain invading microorganisms. Here, we investigated the interaction of Nm with NETs. Both, meningococci and spontaneously released outer membrane vesicles (SOMVs) were potent NET inducers. NETs were unable to kill NET bound meningococci, but slowed down their proliferation rate. Using Nm as model organism we identified three novel mechanisms how bacteria can evade NET-mediated killing: (i) modification of lipid A of meningococcal LPS with phosphoethanolamine protected Nm from NET-bound cathepsin G; (ii) expression of the high-affinity zinc uptake receptor ZnuD allowed Nm to escape NET-mediated nutritional immunity; (iii) binding of SOMVs to NETs saved Nm from NET binding and the consequent bacteriostatic effect. Escape from NETs may contribute to the most rapid progression of meningococcal disease. The induction of NET formation by Nm in vivo might aggravate thrombosis in vessels ultimately directing to disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC).
Related JoVE Video
A multi-country evaluation of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B factor H-binding proteins and implications for vaccine coverage in different age groups.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recombinant vaccines containing factor H-binding protein (fHBP) have been developed for the purpose of protection from invasive meningococcal serogroup B disease. Neisseria meningitidis fHBP sequences can be divided into 2 genetically and immunologically distinct subfamilies (A and B); thus, cross protection is conferred within but not between subfamilies. A comprehensive understanding of fHBP epidemiology is required to accurately assess the potential vaccine impact when considering different vaccination implementation strategies.
Related JoVE Video
Description and nomenclature of Neisseria meningitidis capsule locus.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pathogenic Neisseria meningitidis isolates contain a polysaccharide capsule that is the main virulence determinant for this bacterium. Thirteen capsular polysaccharides have been described, and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy has enabled determination of the structure of capsular polysaccharides responsible for serogroup specificity. Molecular mechanisms involved in N. meningitidis capsule biosynthesis have also been identified, and genes involved in this process and in cell surface translocation are clustered at a single chromosomal locus termed cps. The use of multiple names for some of the genes involved in capsule synthesis, combined with the need for rapid diagnosis of serogroups commonly associated with invasive meningococcal disease, prompted a requirement for a consistent approach to the nomenclature of capsule genes. In this report, a comprehensive description of all N. meningitidis serogroups is provided, along with a proposed nomenclature, which was presented at the 2012 XVIIIth International Pathogenic Neisseria Conference.
Related JoVE Video
ZnuD, a potential candidate for a simple and universal Neisseria meningitidis vaccine.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B (MenB) is a major cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis, with the highest disease burden in young children. Available vaccines are based on outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) obtained from wild-type strains. However, particularly in toddlers and infants, they confer protection mostly against strains expressing the homologous protein PorA, a major and variable outer membrane protein. In the quest for alternative vaccine antigens able to provide broad MenB strain coverage in younger populations, but potentially also across all age groups, ZnuD, a protein expressed under zinc-limiting conditions, may be considered a promising candidate. Here, we have investigated the potential value of ZnuD and show that it is a conserved antigen expressed by all MenB strains tested except for some strains of clonal complex ST-8. In mice and guinea pigs immunized with ZnuD-expressing OMVs, antibodies were elicited that were able to trigger complement-mediated killing of all the MenB strains and serogroup A, C, and Y strains tested when grown under conditions of zinc limitation. ZnuD is also expressed during infection, since anti-ZnuD antibodies were detected in sera from patients. In conclusion, we confirm the potential of ZnuD-bearing OMVs as a component of an effective MenB vaccine.
Related JoVE Video
Biochemical and biophysical characterization of the sialyl-/hexosyltransferase synthesizing the meningococcal serogroup W135 heteropolysaccharide capsule.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis (Nm) is a leading cause of bacterial meningitis and sepsis. Crucial virulence determinants of pathogenic Nm strains are the polysaccharide capsules that support invasion by hindering complement attack. In NmW-135 and NmY the capsules are built from the repeating units (? 6)-?-D-Gal-(1 ? 4)-?-Neu5Ac-(2 ?)n and (? 6)-?-D-Glc-(1 ? 4)-?-Neu5Ac-(2 ?)n, respectively. These unusual heteropolymers represent unique examples of a conjugation between sialic acid and hexosyl-sugars in a polymer chain. Moreover, despite the various catalytic strategies needed for sialic acid and hexose transfer, single enzymes (SiaDW-135/Y) have been identified to form these heteropolymers. Here we used SiaDW-135 as a model system to delineate structure-function relationships. In size exclusion chromatography active SiaDW-135 migrated as a monomer. Fold recognition programs suggested two separate glycosyltransferase domains, both containing a GT-B-fold. Based on conserved motifs predicted folds could be classified as a hexosyl- and sialyltransferase. To analyze enzyme properties and interplay of the two identified glycosyltransferase domains, saturation transfer difference NMR and mutational studies were carried out. Simultaneous and independent binding of UDP-Gal and CMP-Sia was seen in the absence of an acceptor as well as when the catalytic cycle was allowed to proceed. Enzyme variants with only one functionality were generated by site-directed mutagenesis and shown to complement each other in trans when combined in an in vitro test system. Together the data strongly suggests that SiaDW-135 has evolved by fusion of two independent ancestral genes encoding sialyl- and galactosyltransferase activity.
Related JoVE Video
Persistence of antibodies in laboratory staff immunized with quadrivalent meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine.
J Occup Med Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Occupational exposure to live meningococci can potentially cause invasive meningococcal disease in laboratory staff. While, until recently, immunization with quadrivalent polysaccharide vaccine represented one cornerstone of protection, data on long-term persistence of antibodies in adults remain scarce.
Related JoVE Video
Breast MRI of pure ductal carcinoma in situ: sensitivity of diagnosis and influence of lesion characteristics.
Eur J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the sensitivity of breast MRI in the detection of pure DCIS and to analyze the influence of lesion type and nuclear grade.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence dependent calibration of a predictive model for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Published models predicting nasal colonization with Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among hospital admissions predominantly focus on separation of carriers from non-carriers and are frequently evaluated using measures of discrimination. In contrast, accurate estimation of carriage probability, which may inform decisions regarding treatment and infection control, is rarely assessed. Furthermore, no published models adjust for MRSA prevalence.
Related JoVE Video
Predicted strain coverage of a meningococcal multicomponent vaccine (4CMenB) in Europe: a qualitative and quantitative assessment.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel multicomponent vaccine against meningococcal capsular group B (MenB) disease contains four major components: factor-H-binding protein, neisserial heparin binding antigen, neisserial adhesin A, and outer-membrane vesicles derived from the strain NZ98/254. Because the public health effect of the vaccine, 4CMenB (Novartis Vaccines and Diagnostics, Siena, Italy), is unclear, we assessed the predicted strain coverage in Europe.
Related JoVE Video
Clinicopathological and Molecular Spectrum of Ewing Sarcomas/PNETs, Including Validation of EWSR1 Rearrangement by Conventional and Array FISH Technique in Certain Cases.
Pathol. Oncol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Over the years, a wide clinicopathological spectrum has been identified within Ewing family of tumors (EFTs). As these tumors are chemosensitive, their correct and timely identification is necessary. The aims of this study were (1) to present the diverse clinicopathological and molecular profile of EFTs in our settings, (2) to identify a pragmatic approach for diagnosing EFTs, especially for application of ancillary techniques, namely RT-PCR for specific transcripts (EWS-FLI1, EWS-ERG) and FISH for EWSR1 gene rearrangement, in certain cases and (3) to show the utility of tissue microarray in establishing a new FISH test. Fifty-eight EFTs were identified in 38 males and 20 females within an age-range of 1-65 years (median, 16), mostly in lower extremities (14) (24.1 %). Therapeutically, most patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy with subsequent surgery. Histopathologically, diagnosis of EFTs was initially offered in 41/58 (70.6 %) tumors. On review, 59 % tumors showed diffuse pattern, while 41 % displayed rosettes. Immunohistochemically, tumor cells were mostly diffusely positive for CD99 (48/52) (92.3 %); FLI-1 (17/18) (94.4 %); variably for BCL2 (16/18) (88.8 %), synaptophysin (6/20) (35 %), S100-P (2/7) (28.5 %), CD56 (2/5) (40 %), NSE (2/5) (40 %), calponin (3/4) (75 %), EMA (5/24) (20.8 %) and CK (3/24) (12.5 %), the latter two mostly focally. Fifty five tumors were EWS-FLI1 positive, while a single tumor was EWS-ERG positive. Sensitivity for PCR was 61 %. EWSR1 rearrangement was detected by FISH in 12/13 Ewing sarcomas/PNETs. Sensitivity for EWSR1 test was 92.3 % and specificity was 100 %. Thirty-eight tumors, including 14 molecular confirmed EFTs and 21 other tumors were tested for EWSR1 rearrangement. Among 21 unrelated tumors, EWSR1 rearrangement was detected in few myoepithelial tumors, occasional desmoplastic small round cell tumor and an extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma. Further, a tissue microarray with a separate set of 8 EFTs, confirmed at another laboratory was analysed for validation of EWSR1 rearrangement test. 23/28 (82.1 %) tissue cores of the tissue microarray, stained by FISH were interpretable, including EWSR1 rearrangement, detected in 20/28 tissue cores; not detected in 3 liver cores and uninterpretable in 5 (17.8 %) cores. Classical EFTs can be diagnosed with diffuse, membranous CD99 positivity, intranuclear FLI1 positivity and LCA negativity in malignant round cells. In unconventional cases, it is indispensable to reveal the concomitant fusion m-RNA by RT-PCR. In case of negative molecular results, it is necessary to prove EWSR1 rearrangement by FISH. These tests should be interpreted with clinicopathological correlation. Tissue microarrays for FISH are useful during validation of a new test, especially when sarcomas like EFTs show less genetic heterogeneity within tumor cells.
Related JoVE Video
Differential Akt signalling in non-seminomatous testicular germ cell tumors.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the protein kinase B (Akt) signalling proteins phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), phosphorylated-Akt (p-Akt) and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B (p27(Kip1)) in non-seminomatous germ cell tumors (NST) with a view to future investigative approaches.
Related JoVE Video
European efforts to harmonize typing of meningococci.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis causes life-threatening disease in infants, toddlers, and adolescents. Besides representative case notification, public health management of the disease requires bacterial typing information. European reference laboratories and state epidemiologists in collaboration with European institutions have driven forward the harmonization of typing by rigorously adopting DNA sequence typing and using common reference databases. External quality assessment has been provided by supranational networks, i.e. EU-IBIS and IBD-Labnet. The recent development of novel protein-based vaccines targeting serogroup B strains highlights the necessity to complement standard typing schemes by specific vaccine antigen typing including antigen expression analysis. Although not yet feasible for routine application on hundreds of strains, novel database structures have been developed to accommodate deep sequencing data.
Related JoVE Video
Immunogenicity of meningococcus C vaccination in a patient with atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) on eculizumab therapy.
Pediatr Transplant
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report successful kidney transplantation in a 10-yr-old boy with aHUS and heterozygous factor H mutation using the terminal complement inhibitor eculizumab to avoid recurrence of aHUS in the renal graft. Vaccination against meningococcus C (Men C) is essential in patients with dysfunction of the complement system, as induced by eculizumab. In our patient, we report waning SBA titers but maintenance of protective SBA titers (?1:8) after kidney transplantation under immunosuppressive therapy with mycophenolate mofetil, tacrolimus, steroids, and eculizumab over a 27-month observational period. Our case illustrates that a humoral immune response to conjugate Men C vaccination may be mounted and maintained despite chronic renal disease, kidney transplantation, immunosuppressive drugs, and immunomodulatory therapy with eculizumab. However, it remains unclear whether serologically defined protective SBA titers mediate true protection from invasive meningococcal disease in an immunocompromised patient, particularly under treatment with a complement inhibitor. Thus, close monitoring of SBA titers seems mandatory in this patient.
Related JoVE Video
Exposed proliferation antigen 210 (XPA-210) in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) and oncocytoma: clinical utility and biological implications.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
•? To determine the clinical role of the exposed proliferation antigen 210 (XPA-210) of the proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) in a large cohort of different renal cell carcinoma (RCC) types, oncocytomas and normal renal tissues samples, as TK1 is reported to be of clinical significance in several cancer entities and is suggested as a prognostic serum biomarker for RCC.
Related JoVE Video
Capsule null locus meningococci: typing of antigens used in an investigational multicomponent meningococcus serogroup B vaccine.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The investigational multicomponent meningococcus serogroup B vaccine (4CMenB) targets the antigenetically variable population of serogroup B meningococci. Forty-one strains of capsule null locus (cnl) meningococci, which are frequent among healthy carriers, were selected from nine sequence types (ST), which belong to four clonal complexes (cc), and three countries. They were antigen sequence typed and analyzed for antigen expression to predict whether these strains harbor the genes and express the four vaccine antigens of 4CMenB as measured by the meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS). The PorA variant used in the vaccine was not found. The nadA gene was absent in all but one strain, which did not express the antigen in vitro. Only strains of clonal complex ST-198 harbored a factor H binding protein (FHBP) allele of the cross-reactive variant 1 family which is included in the vaccine. All these strains expressed the antigen. Five variants of the Neisserial heparin binding antigen (NHBA) gene were identified. Expression of NHBA was observed in all strains with highest levels in ST-198 cc and ST-845. The data suggest a potential impact of 4CMenB immunization at least on cnl meningococci of the ST-198 cc and ST-845.
Related JoVE Video
XPA-210: a new proliferation marker determines locally advanced prostate cancer and is a predictor of biochemical recurrence.
World J Urol
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
XPA-210 is a proliferation marker derived from Thymidine kinase-1. It is of clinical significance in kidney, breast, and bladder cancer. There are no data available for XPA-210 in prostate cancer (PC). Herein, we aim to determine the clinical usefulness of XPA-210 in PC.
Related JoVE Video
New diagnostic PCR for Haemophilus influenzae serotype e based on the cap locus of strain ATCC 8142.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A new PCR protocol for molecular typing of Haemophilus influenzae serotype e (Hie) was developed. To this end, the sequence of the cap region II of Hie strain ATCC8142 was identified, which was >99% identical to the recently published sequence of Hie isolate 274. The PCR using primer pair TTL63/TTL64 amplifies an internal 592-bp fragment of ecs4, an e-specific capsule synthesis gene, in 40 of 40 Hie strains. Of all non-Hie strains, there were no false positives. False-negative results of the PCR proposed by Falla et al. (1994) are explained by single nucleotide insertions in the primer sequences.
Related JoVE Video
Immunogenicity of conjugate meningococcus C vaccine in pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study was aimed to evaluate the immunogenicity of a single dose of conjugate Meningococcus C (Men C) vaccine by analyzing the serum bactericidal antibody (SBA) titers in 10 pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) patients. Four patients showed a delayed immune response after 1 month, but all patients demonstrated an increase of SBA titers after vaccination. A significant decrease of SBA titers was seen after 6 months. However, all patients maintained protective SBA titers (?1:8) despite rapidly waning titers. For patients with significantly decreasing titers, a booster dose may be discussed with close monitoring of SBA titers over time.
Related JoVE Video
Sequence analysis of serotype-specific synthesis regions II of Haemophilus influenzae serotypes c and d: evidence for common ancestry of capsule synthesis in Pasteurellaceae and Neisseria meningitidis.
Res. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sequencing of yet unknown Haemophilus influenzae serotype c (Hic) and d (Hid) capsule synthesis regions II revealed four (ccs1-4) and five (dcs1-5) open reading frames, respectively. The inferred gene functions were in line with capsular polysaccharide structures. One or more proteins encoded by the Hic capsule synthesis region II showed similarity to Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae serotype 1 and Actinobacillus suis K1 enzymes. Orthologues to the complete operon were observed in Actinobacillus minor strain 202, where even the gene order was conserved. Furthermore, Ccs4 was related to the capsule O-acetyltransferase of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W-135. For the Hid locus, similarities to Hie, Mannheimia haemolytica A1 and N. meningitidis serogroup A were identified and the succession of genes was similar in the different species. The resemblance of genes and gene organization found for Hic and Hid with other species suggested horizontal gene transfer during capsule evolution across the bacterial classes.
Related JoVE Video
Virulence evolution of the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis by recombination in the core and accessory genome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis is a naturally transformable, facultative pathogen colonizing the human nasopharynx. Here, we analyze on a genome-wide level the impact of recombination on gene-complement diversity and virulence evolution in N. meningitidis. We combined comparative genome hybridization using microarrays (mCGH) and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 29 meningococcal isolates with computational comparison of a subset of seven meningococcal genome sequences.
Related JoVE Video
Vaccine development against Neisseria meningitidis.
Microb Biotechnol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Meningococcal disease is communicable by close contact or droplet aerosols. Striking features are high case fatality rates and peak incidences of invasive disease in infants, toddlers and adolescents. Vaccine development is hampered by bacterial immune evasion strategies including molecular mimicry.As for Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae, no vaccine has therefore been developed that targets all serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis. Polysaccharide vaccines available both in protein conjugated and non-conjugated form, have been introduced against capsular serogroups A, C,W-135 and Y, but are ineffective against serogroup B meningococci, which cause a significant burden of disease in many parts of the world. Detoxified outer membrane vesicles are used since decades to elicit protection against epidemic serogroup B disease. Genome mining and biochemical approaches have provided astounding progress recently in the identification of immunogenic, yet reasonably conserved outer membrane proteins. As subcapsular proteins nevertheless are unlikely to immunize against all serogroup B variants, thorough investigation by surrogate assays and molecular epidemiology approaches are needed prior to introduction and post-licensure of protein vaccines. Research currently addresses the analysis of life vaccines, meningococcus B polysaccharide modifications and mimotopes, as well as the use of N. lactamica outer membrane vesicles.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative proteomic analysis of biofilm and planktonic cells of Neisseria meningitidis.
Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal of the human nasopharynx occasionally causing invasive disease. In vitro biofilms have been employed to model meningococcal carriage. A proteomic analysis of meningococcal biofilms was conducted and metabolic changes related to oxygen and nutrient limitation and upregulation of proteins involved in ROS defense were observed. The upregulated MntC which protects against ROS was shown to be required for meningococcal biofilm formation, but not for planktonic growth. ROS-induced proteomic changes might train the biofilm to cope with immune effectors.
Related JoVE Video
Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive Staphylococcus aureus infections in returning travelers.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Skin and soft tissue infections caused by Panton-Valentine leukocidin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus are emerging among travelers returning from the tropics. Here, we here present data on 15 affected individuals. Intrafamiliar spread was documented in one case, and occupational transmission was assumed in another. Spa typing of the strains revealed a broad spectrum of variants, but some were clonally related. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) was found in three cases.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of ERalpha, PR and ERbeta isoforms in neoadjuvant treated breast cancer.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The actual predictive value of oestrogen receptor (ER) beta for treatment decisions in breast cancer is still unclear. Retrospective studies using preoperative systemic therapy (PST) revealed that chemotherapy but also endocrine therapy can lead to alterations in expression levels of ERalpha and progesterone receptor (PR). The main purpose of this study was to compare ERbeta expression levels before and after neoadjuvant chemotherapy or endocrine therapy and to explore a possible predictive value of ERbeta. Matching baseline biopsies and post-therapy surgical specimens of 69 breast cancer patients treated with neoadjuvant anthracycline- or taxane-based chemotherapy or with aromatase inhibitors were analyzed for expression levels of ERalpha, PR, total ERbeta (ERbetat), ERbeta1, ERbeta2 and the proliferation-related antigen Ki-67 using immunohistochemistry. A marked expression of ERbetat significantly correlates with low proliferation rates after PST (p=0.0013) and with response to it. Further most tumours decreased ERbeta1 expression with PST. A marked ERbeta2 expression was observed predominantly in responders and significantly decreased during chemotherapy (p=0.047). Results on ERalpha and PR corroborate findings of previous studies. Our data demonstrate that changes of ERbeta expression occur during PST and that total ERbeta expression and ERbeta2 may have a predictive value for PST.
Related JoVE Video
Multicenter study for defining the breakpoint for rifampin resistance in Neisseria meningitidis by rpoB sequencing.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Identification of clinical isolates of Neisseria meningitidis that are resistant to rifampin is important to avoid prophylaxis failure in contacts of patients, but it is hindered by the absence of a breakpoint for resistance, despite many efforts toward standardization. We examined a large number (n = 392) of clinical meningococcal isolates, spanning 25 years (1984 to 2009), that were collected in 11 European countries, Argentina, and the Central African Republic. The collection comprises all clinical isolates with MICs of > or = 0.25 mg/liter (n = 161) received by the national reference laboratories for meningococci in the participating countries. Representative isolates displaying rifampin MICs of < 0.25 mg/liter were also examined (n = 231). Typing of isolates was performed, and a 660-bp DNA fragment of the rpoB gene was sequenced. Sequences differing by at least one nucleotide were defined as unique rpoB alleles. The geometric mean of the MICs was calculated for isolates displaying the same allele. The clinical isolates displaying rifampin MICs of > 1 mg/liter possessed rpoB alleles with nonsynonymous mutations at four critical amino acid residues, D542, H552, S548, and S557, that were absent in the alleles found in all isolates with MICs of < or = 1 mg/liter. Rifampin-susceptible isolates could be defined as those with MICs of < or = 1 mg/liter. The rpoB allele sequence and isolate data have been incorporated into the PubMLST Neisseria database (http://pubmlst.org/neisseria/). The rifampin-resistant isolates belonged to diverse genetic lineages and were associated with lower levels of bacteremia and inflammatory cytokines in mice. This biological cost may explain the lack of clonal expansion of these isolates.
Related JoVE Video
Application of a novel and low cost technique to construct paraffin tissue microarrays out of paraffinised needle biopsy specimens from patients with breast cancer.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paraffin tissue microarrays (TMAs) are a well accepted tool in pathology for high throughput molecular profiling, quality control and clinicopathological trials. No reports on TMAs constructed from paraffinised needle biopsy specimens (PNBSs) derived from patients with breast cancer can be found in the literature. PNBSs are sometimes the only source for tumour characterisation important for treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Confirmation of a low HER2 positivity rate of breast carcinomas - limitations of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.
Diagn Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Accurate assessment of the human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) of invasive breast cancer is essential to treatment decisions since the advent of targeted therapy with the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab and the dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor lapatinib. In the literature, the percentage of HER2-overexpressed/amplified breast carcinomas range from 3% to 30%. The routinely assigned low rate of 9% of HER2-overexpressed breast carcinomas alarmed one of our gynecologists who requested to confirm our HER2 test results.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular epidemiology of meningococci: application of DNA sequence typing.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis is an invasive pathogen contributing significantly to childhood mortality worldwide. The organism is adapted to the human host and transmitted by close contact or droplet aerosols. In comparison to healthy carriage, invasive disease is a rare event. Nevertheless, due to a high case-fatality rate and the fact that meningococcal infection is a communicable disease, molecular typing of meningococci has been driven forward considerably in the past decades. Multilocus and antigen sequence typing data are assembled in large databases accessible via the internet. For epidemiological purposes, representative case ascertainment strategies are necessary if data are to be exploited for trend analysis, geographic visualization, detection of abnormalities such as outbreaks, and prediction of vaccine coverage. In Europe, a consensus for molecular typing has been achieved.
Related JoVE Video
Biofilm formation by the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis.
Med. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The past decade has seen an increasing interest in biofilm formation by Neisseria meningitidis, a human facultative pathogen causing life-threatening childhood disease commencing from asymptomatic nasopharyngeal colonization. Studying the biology of in vitro biofilm formation improves the understanding of inter-bacterial processes in asymptomatic carriage, of bacterial aggregate formation on host cells, and of meningococcal population biology. This paper reviews publications referring to meningococcal biofilm formation with an emphasis on the role of motility and of extracellular DNA. The theory of sub-dividing the meningococcal population in settler and spreader lineages is discussed, which provides a mechanistic framework for the assumed balance of colonization efficacy and transmission frequency.
Related JoVE Video
Vaccine preventability of meningococcal clone, Greater Aachen Region, Germany.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emergence of serogroup B meningococci of clonal complex sequence type (ST) 41/44 can cause high levels of disease, as exemplified by a recent epidemic in New Zealand. Multiplication of annual incidence rates (3.1 cases/100,000 population) of meningococcal disease in a defined German region, the city of Aachen and 3 neighboring countries (Greater Aachen) prompted us to investigate and determine the source and nature of this outbreak. Using molecular typing and geographic mapping, we analyzed 1,143 strains belonging to ST41/44 complex, isolated from persons with invasive meningococcal disease over 6 years (2001-2006) from 2 German federal states (total population 26 million) and the Netherlands. A spatially slowly moving clone with multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis type 19, ST42, and antigenic profile B:P1.7-2,4:F1-5 was responsible for the outbreak. Bactericidal activity in serum samples from the New Zealand MeNZB vaccination campaign confirmed vaccine preventability. Because this globally distributed epidemic strain spreads slowly, vaccination efforts could possibly eliminate meningococcal disease in this area.
Related JoVE Video
A dual role of extracellular DNA during biofilm formation of Neisseria meningitidis.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Major pathogenic clonal complexes (cc) of Neisseria meningitidis differ substantially in their point prevalence among healthy carriers. We show that frequently carried pathogenic cc (e.g. sequence type ST-41/44 cc and ST-32 cc) depend on extracellular DNA (eDNA) to initiate in vitro biofilm formation, whereas biofilm formation of cc with low point prevalence (ST-8 cc and ST-11 cc) was eDNA-independent. For initial biofilm formation, a ST-32 cc type strain, but not a ST-11 type strain, utilized eDNA. The release of eDNA was mediated by lytic transglycosylase and cytoplasmic N-acetylmuramyl-L-alanine amidase genes. In late biofilms, outer membrane phospholipase A-dependent autolysis, which was observed in most cc, but not in ST-8 and ST-11 strains, was required for shear force resistance of microcolonies. Taken together, N. meningitidis evolved two different biofilm formation strategies, an eDNA-dependent one yielding shear force resistant microcolonies, and an eDNA-independent one. Based on the experimental findings and previous epidemiological observations, we hypothesize that most meningococcal cc display a settler phenotype, which is eDNA-dependent and results in a stable interaction with the host. On the contrary, spreaders (ST-11 and ST-8 cc) are unable to use eDNA for biofilm formation and might compensate for poor colonization properties by high transmission rates.
Related JoVE Video
The meningococcal vaccine candidate neisserial surface protein A (NspA) binds to factor H and enhances meningococcal resistance to complement.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Complement forms an important arm of innate immunity against invasive meningococcal infections. Binding of the alternative complement pathway inhibitor factor H (fH) to fH-binding protein (fHbp) is one mechanism meningococci employ to limit complement activation on the bacterial surface. fHbp is a leading vaccine candidate against group B Neisseria meningitidis. Novel mechanisms that meningococci employ to bind fH could undermine the efficacy of fHbp-based vaccines. We observed that fHbp deletion mutants of some meningococcal strains showed residual fH binding suggesting the presence of a second receptor for fH. Ligand overlay immunoblotting using membrane fractions from one such strain showed that fH bound to a approximately 17 kD protein, identified by MALDI-TOF analysis as Neisserial surface protein A (NspA), a meningococcal vaccine candidate whose function has not been defined. Deleting nspA, in the background of fHbp deletion mutants, abrogated fH binding and mAbs against NspA blocked fH binding, confirming NspA as a fH binding molecule on intact bacteria. NspA expression levels vary among strains and expression correlated with the level of fH binding; over-expressing NspA enhanced fH binding to bacteria. Progressive truncation of the heptose (Hep) I chain of lipooligosaccharide (LOS), or sialylation of lacto-N-neotetraose LOS both increased fH binding to NspA-expressing meningococci, while expression of capsule reduced fH binding to the strains tested. Similar to fHbp, binding of NspA to fH was human-specific and occurred through fH domains 6-7. Consistent with its ability to bind fH, deleting NspA increased C3 deposition and resulted in increased complement-dependent killing. Collectively, these data identify a key complement evasion mechanism with important implications for ongoing efforts to develop meningococcal vaccines that employ fHbp as one of its components.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Topographical sensitivity and specificity of endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging for prostate cancer detection.
Urol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Endorectal coil magnetic resonance imaging (EC-MRI) is useful to evaluate prostate cancer localization. Herein, we evaluate sensitivity and specificity of EC-MRI in different regions of the prostate by comparing the acquired images to whole-mount sections of the prostate after radical prostatectomy.
Related JoVE Video
Paraffin tissue microarrays constructed with a cutting board and cutting board arrayer.
Appl. Immunohistochem. Mol. Morphol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Paraffin tissue microarrays (PTMAs) are blocks of paraffin containing up to 1300 paraffin tissue core biopsies (PTCBs). Normally, these PTCBs are punched from routine paraffin tissue blocks, which contain tissues of differing thicknesses. Therefore, the PTCBs are of different lengths. In consequence, the sections of the deeper portions of the PTMA do not contain all of the desired PTCBs. To overcome this drawback, cutting boards were constructed from panels of plastic with a thickness of 4 mm. Holes were drilled into the plastic and filled completely with at least one PTCB per hole. After being trimmed to a uniform length of 4 mm, these PTCBs were pushed from the cutting board into corresponding holes in a recipient block by means of a plate with steel pins. Up to 1000 sections per PTMA were cut without any significant loss of PTCBs, thereby increasing the efficacy of the PTMA technique.
Related JoVE Video
Cell nucleus directed 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid conjugates.
Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) represents the core structure of most clinically used contrast agents for computed tomography and other X-ray procedures. To construct an intracellular radiopaque contrast agent, TIBA was coupled to various different positively and negatively charged fluorescein iothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled peptides. TIBA coupled to the SV40 T Antigen nuclear localization sequence (NLS) stained 80% of human glioma cells and caused cell death. This occurred with C- or N-terminal binding of TIBA and with the correct or mutant NLS. No cell death and only small numbers of stained cells (below 3 %) were observed after incubation with NLS conjugates lacking TIBA or after incubation with TIBA-conjugates containing a negatively charged polyglutamic acid stretch. TIBA-conjugates containing the Antennapedia-derived cell-penetrating peptide penetratin were only nuclearly taken up when TIBA and FITC were coupled to lysines outside the 16-amino acid peptide sequence. The study shows that intracellular TIBA may have potential as a chemotherapeutic agent rather than a contrast agent.
Related JoVE Video
O-acetyltransferase gene neuO is segregated according to phylogenetic background and contributes to environmental desiccation resistance in Escherichia coli K1.
Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Escherichia coli K1 causes disease in humans and birds. Its polysialic acid capsule can be O-acetylated via phase-variable expression of the acetyltransferase NeuO encoded by prophage CUS-3. The role of capsule O-acetylation in ecological adaptation or pathogenic invasion of E. coli K1 is largely unclear. A population genetics approach was performed to study the distribution of neuO among E. coli K1 isolates from human and avian sources. Multilocus sequence typing revealed 39 different sequence types (STs) among 183 E. coli K1 strains. The proportion of the ST95 complex (STC95) was 44%. NeuO was found in 98% of the STC95 strains, but only in 24% of other STs. Grouping of STs and prophage genotypes revealed a segregation of prophage types according to STs, suggesting coevolution of CUS-3 and the E. coli K1 host. Within the STC95, which is known to harbour both human and avian pathogenic isolates, CUS-3 genotypes were shared irrespective of the host species. Functional analysis of a variety of strain pairs revealed that NeuO-mediated K1 capsule O-acetylation enhanced desiccation resistance. In contrast, NeuO expression led to a reduced biofilm formation in biofilm positive E. coli K1 isolates. These findings suggest a delicate ecological balance of neuOon/off switching.
Related JoVE Video
Cardiovascular safety of tiotropium in patients with COPD.
Chest
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The clinical trial safety database for tiotropium has been augmented with a 4-year trial in patients with COPD, which provides an opportunity to better evaluate the cardiovascular (CV) profile of tiotropium.
Related JoVE Video
Streptococcus merionis sp. nov., isolated from Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus).
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gram-positive, catalase-negative, chain-forming, coccus-shaped organisms were isolated both from intraperitoneally grown vesicles of the fox tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis and the oropharynges of laboratory-kept Mongolian jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). The strains displayed no haemolytic activity on Columbia sheep blood agar, pyrrolidonyl arylamidase activity was negative and the organisms reacted weakly with Lancefield group D antiserum. On the basis of phenotypic characteristics, the strains were tentatively identified as members of the genus Streptococcus. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed their assignment to the genus Streptococcus and revealed that Streptococcus hyointestinalis DSM 20770(T) was their closest phylogenetic neighbour (96.5 % sequence similarity). The levels of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the isolates and representatives of species of the genus Streptococcus were only 95.7-96.2 %. On the basis of the phenotypic and molecular data presented, the isolates from Mongolian jirds represent a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus merionis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is WUE3771(T) (=DSM 19192(T)=CCUG 54871(T)).
Related JoVE Video
Diagnostic value of MR elastography in addition to contrast-enhanced MR imaging of the breast-initial clinical results.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of the study was to assess the additional value of magnetic resonance (MR) elastography (MRE) to contrast-enhanced (ce) MR imaging (MRI) for breast lesion characterisation.
Related JoVE Video
The polysialic acid-specific O-acetyltransferase OatC from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C evolved apart from other bacterial sialate O-acetyltransferases.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis serogroup C is a major cause of bacterial meningitis and septicaemia. This human pathogen is protected by a capsule composed of alpha2,9-linked polysialic acid that represents an important virulence factor. In the majority of strains, the capsular polysaccharide is modified by O-acetylation at C-7 or C-8 of the sialic acid residues. The gene encoding the capsule modifying O-acetyltransferase is part of the capsule gene complex and shares no sequence similarities with other proteins. Here, we describe the purification and biochemical characterization of recombinant OatC. The enzyme was found as a homodimer, with the first 34 amino acids forming an efficient oligomerization domain that worked even in a different protein context. Using acetyl-CoA as donor substrate, OatC transferred acetyl groups exclusively onto polysialic acid joined by alpha2,9-linkages and did not act on free or CMP-activated sialic acid. Motif scanning revealed a nucleophile elbow motif (GXS286XGG), which is a hallmark of alpha/beta-hydrolase fold enzymes. In a comprehensive site-directed mutagenesis study, we identified a catalytic triad composed of Ser-286, Asp-376, and His-399. Consistent with a double-displacement mechanism common to alpha/beta-hydrolase fold enzymes, a covalent acetylenzyme intermediate was found. Together with secondary structure prediction highlighting an alpha/beta-hydrolase fold topology, our data provide strong evidence that OatC belongs to the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold family. This clearly distinguishes OatC from all other bacterial sialate O-acetyltransferases known so far because these are members of the hexapeptide repeat family, a class of acyltransferases that adopt a left-handed beta-helix fold and assemble into catalytic trimers.
Related JoVE Video
Microbial changes in periodontitis successfully treated by mechanical plaque removal and systemic amoxicillin and metronidazole.
Int. J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Scaling and root planing in conjunction with systemic administration of antibiotics is used for treatment of aggressive periodontitis. The study investigated the changes of the subgingival microbiota in a homogeneous cohort of 12 female Caucasian patients. Plaque samples were obtained from 4 defined deep lesions per patient at baseline and 2, 6, and 12 months after therapy (mechanical plaque removal, oral administration of amoxicillin and metronidazole). Amplification of the 16S rRNA gene, cloning, and sequencing were applied to identify microbial species. Porphyromonas gingivalis strains were typed by multilocus sequence typing. Despite of a favorable clinical outcome, 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed only minor changes of the microbiota with a temporal reduction of P. gingivalis and of Treponema denticola-like phylotypes. In contrast to T. denticola, T. sokranskii-like phylotypes were not affected. In 4 patients with recurrent colonization by P. gingivalis, the bacterial clones were identical before and after therapy as evidenced by multilocus sequence typing suggesting clonal persistence or reinfection during the course of the study. In summary, despite a favorable clinical outcome, a transient effect on only few bacterial species was observed.
Related JoVE Video
Amino acid 310 determines the donor substrate specificity of serogroup W-135 and Y capsule polymerases of Neisseria meningitidis.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The capsular polysaccharides of serogroup W-135 and Y meningococci are sialic acid-containing heteropolymers, with either galactose or glucose as the second sugar residue. As shown previously, sequences of the predicted enzymes that catalyse capsule polymerization, i.e. SiaD(W-135) and SiaD(Y), differ in only a few amino acids. By in vitro assays with purified recombinant proteins, SiaD(W-135) and SiaD(Y) were now confirmed to be the capsule polymerases harbouring both hexosyltransferase and sialyltransferase activity. In order to identify amino acids crucial for substrate specificity of the capsule polymerases, polymorphic sites were narrowed down by DNA sequence comparisons and subsequent site-directed mutagenesis. Serogroup-specific amino acids were restricted to the N-terminal part of the proteins. Exclusively amino acid 310, located within the nucleotide recognition domain of the enzymes predicted hexosyltransferase moiety, accounted for substrate specificity as shown by immunochemistry and in vitro activity assay. Pro-310 determined galactosyltransferase activity that resulted in a serogroup W-135 capsule and Gly-310 determined glucosyltransferase activity that resulted in a serogroup Y capsule. In silico analysis revealed a similar amino acid-based association in other members of the same glycosyltransferase family irrespective of the bacterial species.
Related JoVE Video
Metabolomics approach for predicting response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.
Mol Oncol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer is a clinically heterogeneous disease, which necessitates a variety of treatments and leads to different outcomes. As an example, only some women will benefit from chemotherapy. Identifying patients who will respond to chemotherapy and thereby improve their long-term survival has important implications to treatment protocols and outcomes, while identifying non responders may enable these patients to avail themselves of other investigational approaches or other potentially effective treatments. In this study, serum metabolite profiling was performed to identify potential biomarker candidates that can predict response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Metabolic profiles of serum from patients with complete (n = 8), partial (n = 14) and no response (n = 6) to chemotherapy were studied using a combination of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and statistical analysis methods. The concentrations of four metabolites, three (threonine, isoleucine, glutamine) from NMR and one (linolenic acid) from LC-MS were significantly different when comparing response to chemotherapy. A prediction model developed by combining NMR and MS derived metabolites correctly identified 80% of the patients whose tumors did not show complete response to chemotherapy. These results show promise for larger studies that could result in more personalized treatment protocols for breast cancer patients.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the KIT/stem cell factor axis in renal tumours.
Anticancer Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the expression of the KIT/stem cell factor (SCF) axis in different renal cell carcinoma subtypes with regard to targeted therapies.
Related JoVE Video
Epidemiology of invasive meningococcal disease in Germany, 2002-2010, and impact of vaccination with meningococcal C conjugate vaccine.
J. Infect.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyse serogroup (Sg)- and finetype-specific invasive meningococcal disease burden (IMD) in Germany, 2002-2010, with emphasis on effects of vaccination with conjugate SgC vaccines targeting one-year old children since 2006, including individual-based catch-up to 17 years of age.
Related JoVE Video
The zinc-responsive regulon of Neisseria meningitidis comprises 17 genes under control of a Zur element.
J. Bacteriol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Zinc is a bivalent cation essential for bacterial growth and metabolism. The human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis expresses a homologue of the Zinc uptake regulator Zur, which has been postulated to repress the putative zinc uptake protein ZnuD. In this study, we elucidated the transcriptome of meningococci in response to zinc by microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). We identified 15 genes that were repressed and two genes that were activated upon zinc addition. All transcription units (genes and operons) harbored a putative Zur binding motif in their promoter regions. A meningococcal Zur binding consensus motif (Zur box) was deduced in silico, which harbors a conserved central palindrome consisting of hexameric inverted repeats separated by three nucleotides (TGTTATDNHATAACA). In vitro binding of recombinant meningococcal Zur to this Zur box was shown for the first time using electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Zur binding to DNA depended specifically on the presence of zinc and was sensitive to mutations in the palindromic sequence. The Zur regulon among genes of unknown function comprised genes involved in zinc uptake, tRNA modification, and ribosomal assembly. In summary, this is the first study of the transcriptional response to zinc in meningococci.
Related JoVE Video
Opc expression, LPS immunotype switch and pilin conversion contribute to serum resistance of unencapsulated meningococci.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis employs polysaccharides and outer membrane proteins to cope with human serum complement attack. To screen for factors influencing serum resistance, an assay was developed based on a colorimetric serum bactericidal assay. The screening used a genetically modified sequence type (ST)-41/44 clonal complex (cc) strain lacking LPS sialylation, polysaccharide capsule, the factor H binding protein (fHbp) and MutS, a protein of the DNA repair mechanism. After killing of >99.9% of the bacterial cells by serum treatment, the colorimetric assay was used to screen 1000 colonies, of which 35 showed enhanced serum resistance. Three mutant classes were identified. In the first class of mutants, enhanced expression of Opc was identified. Opc expression was associated with vitronectin binding and reduced membrane attack complex deposition confirming recent observations. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) immunotype switch from immunotype L3 to L8/L1 by lgtA and lgtC phase variation represented the second class. Isogenic mutant analysis demonstrated that in ST-41/44 cc strains the L8/L1 immunotype was more serum resistant than the L3 immunotype. Consecutive analysis revealed that the immunotypes L8 and L1 were frequently observed in ST-41/44 cc isolates from both carriage and disease. Immunotype switch to L8/L1 is therefore suggested to contribute to the adaptive capacity of this meningococcal lineage. The third mutant class displayed a pilE allelic exchange associated with enhanced autoaggregation. The mutation of the C terminal hypervariable region D of PilE included a residue previously associated with increased pilus bundle formation. We suggest that autoaggregation reduced the surface area accessible to serum complement and protected from killing. The study highlights the ability of meningococci to adapt to environmental stress by phase variation and intrachromosomal recombination affecting subcapsular antigens.
Related JoVE Video
Predominance of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus -ST88 and new ST1797 causing wound infection and abscesses.
J Infect Dev Ctries
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although there has been a worldwide emergence and spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), little is known about the molecular epidemiology of MRSA in Tanzania.
Related JoVE Video
Galectin-3 expression in prostate cancer and benign prostate tissues: correlation with biochemical recurrence.
World J Urol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Galactin-3 is a cell adhesion molecule involved in tumor progression. Our aim was to examine Gal-3 expression in tumor, benign tissue adjacent to the tumor (adjacent-benign) and benign prostate specimens and correlated it with biochemical recurrence.
Related JoVE Video
Interlaboratory standardization of the sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay designed for MATS, a rapid, reproducible method for estimating the strain coverage of investigational vaccines.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The meningococcal antigen typing system (MATS) sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was designed to measure the immunologic cross-reactivity and quantity of antigens in target strains of a pathogen. It was first used to measure the factor H-binding protein (fHbp), neisserial adhesin A (NadA), and neisserial heparin-binding antigen (NHBA) content of serogroup B meningococcal (MenB) isolates relative to a reference strain, or "relative potency" (RP). With the PorA genotype, the RPs were then used to assess strain coverage by 4CMenB, a multicomponent MenB vaccine. In preliminary studies, MATS accurately predicted killing in the serum bactericidal assay using human complement, an accepted correlate of protection for meningococcal vaccines. A study across seven laboratories assessed the reproducibility of RPs for fHbp, NadA, and NHBA and established qualification parameters for new laboratories. RPs were determined in replicate for 17 MenB reference strains at laboratories A to G. The reproducibility of RPs among laboratories and against consensus values across laboratories was evaluated using a mixed-model analysis of variance. Interlaboratory agreement was very good; the Pearson correlation coefficients, coefficients of accuracy, and concordance correlation coefficients exceeded 99%. The summary measures of reproducibility, expressed as between-laboratory coefficients of variation, were 7.85% (fHbp), 16.51% (NadA), and 12.60% (NHBA). The overall within-laboratory measures of variation adjusted for strain and laboratory were 19.8% (fHbp), 28.8% (NHBA), and 38.3% (NadA). The MATS ELISA was successfully transferred to six laboratories, and a further laboratory was successfully qualified.
Related JoVE Video
The use of vaccine antigen characterization, for example by MATS, to guide the introduction of meningococcus B vaccines.
Vaccine
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current concepts of vaccines against serogroup B meningococci (MenB) are mainly based on genetically variable protein antigens. Vaccine efficacy studies for meningococcal disease in developed countries are hampered by the low incidence. Licensure must therefore exclusively rely on clinical trials and laboratory investigation of meningococcal strains. In contrast to capsule polysaccharide vaccines, serum bactericidal assays for technical reasons are limited in their practicability as the surrogate of protection provided by MenB vaccines. Therefore, assays are required for reliable laboratory based assessment of expression of those specific antigen variants that are predicted to be targeted by bactericidal antibodies elicited by the vaccine. The MATS ELISA (MATS, meningococcal antigen typing system) reported recently is an example for such an assay. The paper discusses the pre- and post-licensure application of MATS, the role of reference laboratories, concepts of sustained provision of the assay, external quality assessment, and laboratory twinning.
Related JoVE Video
Ion torrent personal genome machine sequencing for genomic typing of Neisseria meningitidis for rapid determination of multiple layers of typing information.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neisseria meningitidis causes invasive meningococcal disease in infants, toddlers, and adolescents worldwide. DNA sequence-based typing, including multilocus sequence typing, analysis of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance, and sequence typing of vaccine antigens, has become the standard for molecular epidemiology of the organism. However, PCR of multiple targets and consecutive Sanger sequencing provide logistic constraints to reference laboratories. Taking advantage of the recent development of benchtop next-generation sequencers (NGSs) and of BIGSdb, a database accommodating and analyzing genome sequence data, we therefore explored the feasibility and accuracy of Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) sequencing for genomic typing of meningococci. Three strains from a previous meningococcus serogroup B community outbreak were selected to compare conventional typing results with data generated by semiconductor chip-based sequencing. In addition, sequencing of the meningococcal type strain MC58 provided information about the general performance of the technology. The PGM technology generated sequence information for all target genes addressed. The results were 100% concordant with conventional typing results, with no further editing being necessary. In addition, the amount of typing information, i.e., nucleotides and target genes analyzed, could be substantially increased by the combined use of genome sequencing and BIGSdb compared to conventional methods. In the near future, affordable and fast benchtop NGS machines like the PGM might enable reference laboratories to switch to genomic typing on a routine basis. This will reduce workloads and rapidly provide information for laboratory surveillance, outbreak investigation, assessment of vaccine preventability, and antibiotic resistance gene monitoring.
Related JoVE Video
Altered expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase in prostate cancer: evidence for a role of the mevalonate pathway in disease progression?
World J Urol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Preclinical studies demonstrated effects of drugs inhibiting the mevalonate pathway including nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BPs) and statins on tumor growth and progression. The exact role of this pathway in prostate cancer (PC) has not been identified yet. Herein, we evaluate the expression of farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS), the key enzyme of the mevalonate pathway, in PC.
Related JoVE Video
Polar invasion and translocation of Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus suis in a novel human model of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute bacterial meningitis is a life-threatening disease in humans. Discussed as entry sites for pathogens into the brain are the blood-brain and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB). Although human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC) constitute a well established human in vitro model for the blood-brain barrier, until now no reliable human system presenting the BCSFB has been developed. Here, we describe for the first time a functional human BCSFB model based on human choroid plexus papilloma cells (HIBCPP), which display typical hallmarks of a BCSFB as the expression of junctional proteins and formation of tight junctions, a high electrical resistance and minimal levels of macromolecular flux when grown on transwell filters. Importantly, when challenged with the zoonotic pathogen Streptococcus suis or the human pathogenic bacterium Neisseria meningitidis the HIBCPP show polar bacterial invasion only from the physiologically relevant basolateral side. Meningococcal invasion is attenuated by the presence of a capsule and translocated N. meningitidis form microcolonies on the apical side of HIBCPP opposite of sites of entry. As a functionally relevant human model of the BCSFB the HIBCPP offer a wide range of options for analysis of disease-related mechanisms at the choroid plexus epithelium, especially involving human pathogens.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.