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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
MRI-guided biopsy of the prostate: correlation between the cancer detection rate and the number of previous negative TRUS biopsies.
Diagn Interv Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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We aimed to investigate prostate cancer detection rate of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided biopsy and to elucidate possible relations to the number of prior negative transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsies.
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Immunohistochemical characterization of endometriosis-associated smooth muscle cells in human peritoneal endometriotic lesions.
Hum. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
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Smooth muscle cells (SMC) are common components of endometriotic lesions. SMC have been characterized previously in peritoneal, ovarian and deep infiltrating endometriotic lesions and adenomyosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the extent of differentiation in endometriosis-associated SMC (EMaSMC) in peritoneal endometriotic lesions.
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Expression of the stem cell markers nestin and CD133 on circulating melanoma cells.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Different molecular markers have been identified for melanoma-initiating cells including CD133 and nestin. Assuming that metastasis requires a dissemination of tumor-initiating cells, presence of circulating tumor-initiating cells should be associated with worse patient outcome. In this study, 20 ml blood was collected from 32 consecutive patients affected by metastatic melanoma and blood was enriched for circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) by CD45 depletion of the non-melanoma cell fraction. Multiparameter cytometry was carried out to co-stain with combinations of CD133 and nestin (NES). Six tissue samples from metastatic lesions of six different patients were stained with the same antibodies by immunohistochemistry. Percentage of NES-positive CMCs correlated with tumor burden and number of metastatic sites. Cox regression analysis revealed levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; hazard ratio: 12.8 (1.35-121.5); P=0.02), number of metastatic sites (hazard ratio 3.87 (1.66-9.03); P=0.02), tumor burden (hazard ratio 5.72 (1.57-20.9); P=0.01), and percentage of NES-expressing CMCs ? 35% (hazard ratio 5.73 (1.66-19.7); P=0.006) to be factors related to shorter overall survival. CD133- and NES-expression profiles on CMCs were similar to matched metastatic tissue. These findings show that CMCs expressed stem cell-associated markers NES and CD133. Higher expression of NES on CMCs might represent an index of poor prognosis.
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Angiogenesis index CD105 (endoglin)/CD31 (PECAM-1) as a predictive factor for invasion and proliferation in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas.
Histol. Histopathol.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Intraductal papillary-mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) of the pancreas is an increasingly diagnosed entity since its definition by the World Health Organization in 1996. It has a broad clinical spectrum ranging from benign to malignant tumors. Optimum treatment is controversial and a better understanding of the development of IPMN of the pancreas and identification of potential prognostic factors will help to address this. Angiogenesis plays an elementary role in the development of malignant tumors and may well also be important in the development of IPMN of the pancreas. Therefore we investigated endothelial cell marker CD31 (PECAM-1) and angiogenesis associated marker CD105 (endoglin) by immunohistochemistry.
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Effective therapeutic targeting of the overexpressed HER-2 receptor in a highly metastatic orthotopic model of esophageal carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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This study aimed to determine the targeted efficacy of trastuzumab (Herceptin) on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2)-overexpressing metastatic esophageal cancer in an orthotopic mouse model. HER-2 overexpression and amplification of human esophageal primary and metastatic tumors were shown with HER-2-fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis and HER-2 immunostaining. Following orthotopic implantation with the HER-2-overexpressing OE19 human esophageal cancer cell line, mice were treated with trastuzumab. Sequential magnetic resonance imaging was used to monitor primary tumor and metastasis during treatment. After six weeks, a significant inhibition of primary tumor development was imaged in trastuzumab-treated animals in comparison with the control group. Trastuzumab treatment also led to a reduction of lymphatic metastasis. Thus, HER-2 targeted therapy with trastuzumab resulted in a significant primary tumor growth reduction as well as a decrease of lymph node metastases in the orthotopic model of metastatic esophageal carcinoma. The results of the present study suggest the clinical use of trastuzumab for HER-2-overexpressing esophageal cancer, which is a significant fraction of the patient population. Treatment of this highly treatment-resistant disease with trastuzumab in the adjuvant setting to prevent lymph node metastasis after primary tumor resection is suggested by the data in this report.
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L1 is highly expressed in tumors of the nervous system: a study of over 8000 human tissues.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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L1 cell adhesion molecule (CD171) has been detected in different malignant tumors and is associated with unfavorable outcome. It thus represents a target for tumor diagnosis and therapy. In this study, we assessed L1 expression in more than 8000 normal human tissues and different types of tumors, both malignant and non-malignant, and neural and non-neural.
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Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor as a novel prognostic marker and its implication as a cotarget in the treatment of human adenocarcinoma of the esophagus.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) receptor expression has been found to be a key regulator of tumorigenesis. The purpose of our study was to establish the prognostic significance of IGF-1R in esophageal cancer and to determine the effect of IGF-1R and HER2 targeting with alpha-IR3 and Herceptin antibodies on the proliferation of esophageal cancer cells in vitro. IGF-1R expression and clinicopathological correlations were analyzed with a tissue microarray containing 234 esophageal cancer specimens (133 adenocarcinomas and 101 squamous cell carcinomas). Proliferation changes associated with Herceptin and alpha-IR3 blockage were evaluated with the unique human esophageal cancer cell lines Pt1590 and LN1590. IGF-1R and HER2 expression levels, activation and phosphorylation status of downstream signaling proteins involved in the activation pathways were analyzed by Western blotting. IGF-1R overexpression was detected in 121 (52%) of the 234 esophageal tumors examined. In the subgroup of 87 HER2-positive tumors, 93.1% showed concordant overexpression for IGF-1R. IGF-1R was identified as a variable associated with reduced overall survival for adenocarcinoma (p = 0.05), but not for squamous cell carcinoma. The combination of Herceptin and alpha-IR3 was more effective in inhibiting in vitro proliferation than treatment with either agent alone (p < 0.01). This was associated with a decrease in HER2 and IGF-1R protein levels and suppression of Akt- and MAP kinase phosphorylation. IGF-1R expression can be used as a novel prognostic marker for adenocarcinomas of the esophagus. Cotreatment with IGF-1R and HER2 antibodies might become a valuable and effective treatment option in esophageal adenocarcinoma.
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Clinical value of loss of heterozygosity in serum microsatellite DNA of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
J. Clin. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2009
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To study the role of loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in serum microsatellite DNA of patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST).
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Subset of esophageal adenocarcinoma expresses adhesion molecule l1 in contrast to squamous cell carcinoma.
Anticancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Esophageal adenocarcinoma is currently the most rapidly increasing cancer in Western populations. L1 (CD171), a neural cell adhesion molecule, has an essential function in tumor progression and has been shown to be expressed in the proliferating cells of the intestinal crypts in mice. The aim of the current study was to determine L1 expression in esophageal cancer and to evaluate whether L1 could serve as a potential marker and therapeutic target for this tumor type.
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Repeated surgery improves survival in recurrent gastrointestinal stromal tumors: a retrospective analysis of 144 patients.
Dig Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2009
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Recurrence of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) may require multimodal therapy and the role of repeated surgery in this concept is unclear.
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Combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis to identify dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Identification of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease represents a major challenge for both clinicians and pathologists. Clear diagnosis of dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease is sometimes not possible with biopsies remaining "indefinite for dysplasia." Recent studies have identified molecular alterations in colitis-associated cancers, including increased protein levels of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, p53, p16 and bcl-2. In order to analyze the potential diagnostic use of these parameters in biopsies from inflammatory bowel disease, a tissue microarray was manufactured from colons of 54 patients with inflammatory bowel disease composed of 622 samples with normal mucosa, 78 samples with inflammatory activity, 6 samples with low-grade dysplasia, 12 samples with high-grade dysplasia, and 66 samples with carcinoma. In addition, 69 colonoscopic biopsies from 36 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (28 low-grade dysplasia, 8 high-grade dysplasia, and 33 indefinite for dysplasia) were included in this study. Immunohistochemistry for alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, p53, p16 and bcl-2 was performed on both tissue microarray and biopsies. p53 and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase showed the most discriminating results, being positive in most cancers (77.3% and 80.3%) and dysplasias (94.4% and 94.4%) but only rarely in nonneoplastic epithelium (1.6% and 9.4%; P < .001). Through combining the best discriminators, p53 and alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase, a stronger distinction between neoplastic tissues was possible. Of all neoplastic lesions, 75.8% showed a coexpression of alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase and p53, whereas this was found in only 4 of 700 nonneoplastic samples (0.6%). alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 coexpression was also found in 10 of 33 indefinite for dysplasia biopsies (30.3 %), suggesting a possible neoplastic transformation in these cases. Progression to dysplasia or carcinoma was observed in 3 of 10 p53/alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase-positive, indefinite-for-dysplasia cases, including 1 of 7 cases without and 2 of 3 cases with p53 mutation. It is concluded that combined alpha-methylacyl coenzyme A racemase/p53 analysis may represent a helpful tool to confirm dysplasia in inflammatory bowel disease.
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Signet ring cell adenocarcinoma of the oropharynx: presentation of a rare case and review of the literature.
Auris Nasus Larynx
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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Intracellular mucin-producing adenocarcinomas, so called signet ring cell adenocarcinomas (SRCAs), are most commonly found in the stomach or lower GI-tract. They occur far less frequently at other locations such as prostate, pancreas, mammarian gland or within the oropharyngeal cavity. We present the case of a patient who suffered from indolent cervical nodular tumour. Biopsy and histopathological workup showed parts of a poorly differentiated SRCA with p53 overexpression and mutations. Immunostaining gave no further hints for the origin of the malignancy. Thorough staging revealed an extended tumour of the oropharynx as primary origin. The definitive surgical therapy consisted of a transoral tumour resection with CO(2)-laser and bilateral neck dissection. Final classification was pN2c cM0 G3 R0 L1 V0. Adjuvant fractioned radiotherapy with 66 Gy was applied because of bilateral lymph node metastases and extracapsular spread. So far only few cases of oropharyngeal SRCAs have been published. These tumours turned out to be either metastases from gastric or lower gastrointestinal primaries, or had the small salivary glands as origin. In all published cases, as well as in our case, radical surgical resection was the first step of a curative therapy trial. Adjuvant targeted therapy with drugs like, e.g. herceptin or imatinib was not possible because of genetic and immunhistochemical findings. Because of the small numbers of published cases, an evaluation long-term outcomes and significance of different adjuvant therapy regimes is barely possible at this time.
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Effective inhibition of metastases and primary tumor growth with CTCE-9908 in esophageal cancer.
J. Surg. Res.
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In spite of multimodular treatment, the therapeutic options for esophageal carcinoma are limited, and metastases remain the leading cause of tumor-related mortality. Expression of the chemokine receptor CXCR4 significantly correlates with poor survival rates in patients with esophageal carcinoma and is associated with lymph node and bone marrow metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the CXCR4 antagonist CTCE-9908 on metastatic homing and primary tumor growth in vitro and in vivo in an orthotopic xenograft model of esophageal cancer.
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Involvement of CXCR4 chemokine receptor in metastastic HER2-positive esophageal cancer.
PLoS ONE
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A functional linkage of the structurally unrelated receptors HER2 and CXCR4 has been suggested for breast cancer but has not been evaluated for esophageal carcinoma. The inhibition of HER2 leads to a reduction of primary tumor growth and metastases in an orthotopic model of esophageal carcinoma. The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in metastatic dissemination of various tumors and correlates with poor survival in esophageal carcinoma. The aim of this study was to investigate a correlation between the expression levels of HER2 and CXCR4 and to evaluate the involvement of CXCR4-expression in HER2-positive esophageal carcinoma. The effects of HER2-inhibition with trastuzumab and of CXCR4-inhibition with AMD3100 on primary tumor growth, metastatic homing, and receptor expression were evaluated in vitro and in an orthotopic model of metastatic esophageal carcinoma using MRI for imaging. The clinical relevance of HER2- and CXCR4-expression was examined in esophageal carcinoma patients. A significant correlation of HER2- and CXCR4-expression in primary tumor and metastases exists in the orthotopic model. Trastuzumab and AMD3100 treatment led to a significant reduction of primary tumor growth, metastases and micrometastases. HER2-expression was significantly elevated under AMD3100 treatment in the primary tumor and particularly in the metastases. The positive correlation between HER2- and CXCR4-expression was validated in esophageal cancer patients. The correlation of CXCR4- and HER2-expression and the elevation of HER2-expression and reduction of metastases through CXCR4-inhibition suggest a possible functional linkage and a role in tumor dissemination in HER2-positive esophageal carcinoma.
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Expression parameters of the metabolic pathway genes pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) and DJ-1/PARK7 in renal cell carcinoma (RCC).
World J Urol
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Metabolic adaptations, such as increases in glucose and energy metabolism, play a pivotal role in the biology of RCC. PDK-1 and DJ-1/PARK7 are thought to control metabolic pathways in cancer. We investigated the expression of PDK-1 and DJ-1/PARK7 in RCC and their prognostic relevance.
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High lymph vessel density and expression of lymphatic growth factors in peritoneal endometriosis.
Reprod Sci
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To investigate the occurrence of lymph vessels and lymphangiogenic growth factors in peritoneal lesions, we performed immunohistochemical staining of peritoneal lesions of 37 patients with antibodies against podoplanin (D2-40), lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor 1 (LYVE-1), prospero homeobox protein 1 (Prox-1), vascular epithelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF-D. Overall, 10 lesions were double stained against D2-40 and von Willebrand factor. The lymph vessel density in peritoneal lesion was significantly higher in comparison with healthy peritoneum. All lymph vessel makers could be detected, whereby the lymph vessel density of LYVE-1- and Prox-1-positive lymph vessels was significantly higher than the lymph vessel density of D2-40-positive lymph vessels. Endometriotic epithelial cells and stromal cells (SCs) showed a moderate-to-strong VEGF-C/VEGF-D expression. The VEGF-C-/VEGF-D-positive macrophages in endometriotic SCs could be observed. The lymphatic vasculature seems to form a further component of peritoneal lesions and could be involved in the inflammatory process. These data demonstrated a further step in the clarification of the pathogenesis of endometriosis.
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VEGFR-1 expression levels predict occurrence of disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow of patients with esophageal carcinoma.
Clin. Exp. Metastasis
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Blocking angiogenesis by inhibiting VEGF represents an established therapeutic strategy in many cancers. The role of placental growth factor (PlGF) and of its receptor VEGFR-1 in tumor biology remain more elusive. Currently, humanized monoclonal antibodies against PlGF are studied in early phase clinical trials because PlGF inhibition blocked murine tumor growth and angiogenesis. In contrast to mice exclusively expressing one PlGF isoform (PlGF-2), humans can produce four PlGF isoforms (PlGF1-4). Surprisingly nothing is yet known about expression of all four PlGF isoforms in human cancer, because until now mostly total PlGF levels or PlGF-1/2 were analyzed without discriminating further. In this study we determined mRNA expression levels of PlGF1-4 and of VEGFR-1 by QRT-PCR in human esophageal tumor tissue and investigated whether gene expression levels correlate with clinical data. PlGF-1 and -2 were expressed in virtually all analyzable tumors, whereas PlGF-3 and -4 were present in tumors of 59 and 74 % of patients, respectively. MRNA Expression levels of all four splice variants correlated with each other. In contrast, PlGF-1 and -2 mRNA expression was lower in esophageal control tissue and PlGF-3 and -4 mRNA were undetectable. VEGFR-1 was expressed by more than 80 % of patients. Interestingly, VEGFR-1 expression levels significantly correlate with presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow. Patients with DTCs exhibit lower VEGFR-1 mRNA expression than patients without DTCs. Pending validation in other types of cancer, expression levels of VEGFR-1 might be useful as surrogate marker for DTCs.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.